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Welcome to the 2013 Rhythm Changes Conference, ‘Rethinking Jazz Cultures’. This four-day event marks the final year of the HERAfunded Rhythm Changes: Jazz Cultures and European Identities project and celebrates the cross-disciplinary strength of jazz research from around the world today. Rhythm Changes is a transnational research project which investigates jazz scenes and practices in different European settings. Funded as part of the HERA Joint Research Programme theme ‘Cultural Dynamics: Inheritance and Identity’, the project has used jazz as a platform to explore concepts of national identity, canonicity, and social ambience in different European contexts and has also examined the ways in which jazz works as a form of transnational cultural practice. The project team has worked with a range of partners across Europe to engage in innovative research and crossdisciplinary modes of enquiry. Over the past three years, the team has published books, articles and reports on core project themes and worked with networking organisations, musicians and festivals to engage different audiences in thinking about jazz and its place within Europe today. Rhythm Changes has drawn on the expertise of 13 researchers who work across 7 institutions in 5 European countries but the growing network of partners, musicians and scholars – including those participating in the 2011 ‘Jazz and National Identities Conference’ in Amsterdam and ‘Rethinking Jazz Cultures’ in Salford – means that the scope and impact of Rhythm Changes is ever widening. Our packed Conference programme offers stimulating keynote presentations and panels, plenary sessions, papers, performances, poster presentations and exhibitions, all of which should generate high quality debate and discussion. Rhythm Changes has sought to encourage people to rethink the way jazz has been articulated, represented and understood, and this conference will be a powerful reflection of this core aim. Whether we think about jazz as existing simultaneously as a national and transnational practice, as a cultural

form that challenges traditional binary distinctions (America/Europe, Art/Popular) or as a vehicle for exploring broader themes of cultural and social change in Europe and beyond, the ‘Rethinking Jazz Cultures’ Conference offers us a chance to create new insights and ways of thinking, and move jazz research beyond the current state of the art. Whilst Rhythm Changes ends formally in September 2013, the work of the team and the underlying themes of the project will live on and, as Project Leader, I am sure that the impact from activities over the last three years will be felt in decades to come. Indeed, the legacy of Rhythm Changes is already taking shape through the work of this interdisciplinary community, and a new jazz monograph series will be launched over the next 12 months which reflects the crossdisciplinary methods and transnational interests of Rhythm Changes. Equally, new partnerships and research questions have developed over the last three years which will inevitably find their way into future projects and publications. With this in mind, I’m sure I speak on behalf of the entire project team when I say that we would like to hear from you if you have ideas and suggestions for future research projects, publications and collaborations. Finally, let me welcome you to the University of Salford and thank you for playing an active part in the ongoing work of Rhythm Changes! Here's to a challenging, stimulating, productive and memorable Conference. Tony Whyton
Project Leader, Rhythm Changes: Jazz Cultures and European Identities Director, Salford Music Research Centre



Thursday 11 April
17.00 Registration and reception, The Cube Gallery, Great Portland Street, Manchester Rhythm Changes photography exhibition (running from 5 – 14 April 2013)

Rhythm Changes photography commission Paul Floyd Blake, Rethinking Jazz
In 2012, Rhythm Changes commissioned Paul Floyd Blake to produce a photography exhibition based on his experiences and impressions of three leading European jazz festivals. As the 2009 Taylor-Wessing National Portrait Photography Prizewinner, Floyd Blake has gained critical acclaim for his unique studies of identity and place, and his work often seeks to challenge existing photographic practice. The brief from the Rhythm Changes team was simple: Floyd Blake was to present an impression of music and its relationship to place in three international festival settings – North Sea Jazz Festival in Rotterdam, Copenhagen Jazz Festival and the London Jazz Festival – and to capture aspects of festival life that were either unique, counterintuitive or which captured a sense of social ambience. Rather than capturing shots of musicians on stage, we invited Floyd Blake to explore jazz from different perspectives, from the views of audiences to examinations of festival settings. The resulting collection of c.30 images on display at CUBE encourages the viewer to rethink their relationship to jazz and consider the role music plays in very different festival, and social, contexts. --The exhibition will also include examples from William Ellis’s One LP project (see page 78)


If you wanted Jazz you only needed to wander the streets listening out for a guitar or saxophone and you would eventually come across it. compared to Copenhagen. I had real fun with the modern industrial nature of the place juxtaposed against my preconceptions of jazz as an anarchic wilful art form. 5 . but rather to explore how jazz has manifested itself in different places and in the world today. William Claxton to name but a few. so when Tony asked me to take on this commission I think I had a pretty narrow idea of what it looked like visually. who have all been photographed so many times before. shops and iconography that hint at Jazz’s permanent residence and there is even a plot reserved for jazz artists in the local cemetery. William Gottlieb. with gigs as far apart as Croydon and Enfield I did wonder how I was going to create photographs that could identify this as a festival and not just a series of performances around the city. Being born and brought up in London I was only too aware of how vast the city is. The Copenhagen Jazz Festival in contrast spilled out across the whole city. Of course jazz is infinitely varied and. and although I knew the event was taking place under one roof was still taken aback by the giant conference centre that housed it. Lee Friedlander. So whilst the London Jazz Festival also takes place all over. Aware I could never cover everything I decided to create a rather quiet reflective set of photographs of members of the public enjoying jazz in their own individual way. Larry Fink. However the setting was a godsend photographically. There are traces everywhere. As I set sail for Rotterdam watching the sun go down over the industrial landscape of Hull I was expecting the North Sea Jazz Festival to be an intimate affair. Probably my biggest challenge whilst in Copenhagen was not to get swept away with it all and concentrate on taking photos. Jazz really did take over the city but it felt like it would be also be present even after the Festival closed. But it was so far removed from what I expected. has also become big business now. along with a quiet Triptych of the Queen Elizabeth Hall waiting for jazz to animate it. But my brief wasn’t to capture the musicians. influenced by the stunning images of Ed Van der Elsken. due to its commercial success.RETHINKING JAZZ by Paul Floyd Blake I consider myself a bit of a novice when it comes to jazz. What I hope to convey in these pictures is the way in which jazz is entwined with the fabric of the city and its people.

His themes are the new cultures and identities born out of an era in which we no longer are defined purely by our race or class. using a mixture of portraiture and landscape that blend classical compositions with contemporary issues. Impressions Gallery Bradford. Paul’s work has been shown in solo exhibitions at Manche ster Arts Gallery. In addition he has exhibited widely as part of group exhibitions including The Human Game at Foundazione Pitti Florence. Aftershock. 6 . Folly Gallery Lancaster. Commonwealth Games Manchester.Photographing this project completely opened my eyes to the variety in modern jazz and its different manifestations in different locations. ACE Centre Nelson. Paul Floyd Blake is a mixed race. following many years working in the service industries. His artistic practise focuses on the intricacies of ordinary life. Jamaican-English photographer. who started his professional career in photography 10 years ago. Ways of Looking with the Bradford Grid Project. Gallery Oldham Piece Hall Gallery Halifax. Sports Lab at Museums Sheffield and the Victoria and Albert Museum of Childhood and The World in London Project at the Photographers Gallery in London. but have multiple identities that change according to environment and context.

Friday 12 April 8.15-10. 1969-1973 Nikko Higgins (Columbia University).30 Keynote Presentation Welcome: Keynote: Registration Keynote Presentation Time: 9. Shifting boundaries or "Man.29 Walter van de Leur Aaron Johnson (Columbia University).00 3.30-11.15 9.00-13. Chet Atkins. and George Benson *The Digital Performance Lab (DPL) is situated on the ground floor of the Media City UK building 7 . Trondheim).00 11. Suburban Jazz Meets Cosmopolitan Country: Earl Klugh.00 Coffee Break Parallel Sessions 1 Parallel session: 1a Time: Room: Chair: Jazz Crossings 11. Reno) After Wynton: Rethinking Jazz Cultures in the Post NeoTraditional Era Alan Stanbridge (University of Toronto) 10.15-10.00-13.30 Room: DPL* Chair: Tony Whyton Respondent: Tony Whyton (University of Salford) David Ake (University of Nevada.30-9. “Hot Buttered Soul” and Billboard Jazz: The Curious Case of Isaac Hayes and the Intersections of Jazz and Soul. Fusion in South India and Directions in “World Jazz” Kevin Fellezs (Columbia University). _____'s a total sellout": The Battle for Jazz on 1970s Radio John Howland (Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

Tuning to a Different Channel Sebastian Scotney (Editor. Jazz Fans and “Existentialist Cellar Clubs” in Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris). artifacts. Jazz in the Big Society: participatory cultures and local jazz scenes in Britain Simon Barber (BCU). Jazz and the Angel of History Per Zanussi (University of Stavanger). Giving the musician a voice online .00 3. LondonJazz).00-13. Developing a local scene by self organized concert series: relations between performing venue and the development of (Jazz) music Katherine Williams (Leeds College of Music).00 2.a practitioner perspective Tom Sykes (University of Salford). Jazz Musicians.00-13.36 Jonty Stockdale (University of West London). Edition Records: reimagining jazz culture in the digital age Session: 1c Time: Room: Chair: Venues and Festivals 11. Rethinking Jazz Performance as a Research Method Lawrence Woof (freelance musician).00 2. Composition for improvising musicians with particular focus on Asian compositional techniques as structures for improvisation 8 .02 George McKay Éric Dussault (Historian). and the seductive menace of jazz recordings revisited Darren Mueller (Duke University). Dublin Institute of Technology/Graduate School of Creative Arts and Media). Newport Up! Liveness.19 Petter Frost Fadnes Jeri Brown (Concordia University). Vocal Ecosystems: How Do We Really Improvise in Vocal Jazz? Damian Evans (Conservatory of Music and Drama.00Room: Chair: Improvisation 13.Parallel session: 1b Time: Room: Chair: Andrew Dubber Digital Media 11. Duke Ellington: Live (but Mediated) at Newport 1956 Session: 1d Time: 11. 1945-1960 Ove Volquartz (freelance musician).

00 –15.30 Lunch and Poster Presentations Parallel Sessions 2 Session: 2a Time: Room: Chair: Critics and Discourse 14.00-14. Nordic Jazz Curricula and Personal Voices Gerry Godley (12 Points!).30 2. University of London) “We must expand jazz so that we never have to leave it”: André Hodeir’s contested territories Ken Prouty (Michigan State University).02 Marc Duby Jonathan Eato (University of York). You Ain’t Gonna Hear Me ‘Cause You Think You Hear Me: South African jazz’s struggle against European cliché Jostine Loubser (University of Salford).36 Walter van de Leur Liz Haddon (University of York). “YOU ARE NOW IN FAIRYLAND”: Jazz from District Six 9 .30 3. The development of the individual voice within the institutional community Ari Poutiainen (University of Helsinki and Sibelius Academy).00 14. Sydney).29 Nicholas Gebhardt Tom Perchard (Goldsmiths.00 – 15.00-15. Against the Flow: The Necks vs John Litweiler Session: 2b Time: Room: Chair: Jazz Education 14.13. Teach me Tonight: a perspective on the impact of jazz education Session: 2c Time: Room: Chair: South African Dialogues 14.30 3.00 – 15. Neo-Classic? Neo-Conservative? NeoColonialist? Jazz’s Shifting Geo -Political Discourse in the Early 21st Century Tony Mitchell (University of Technology.

00-17.30 Room: Foyer Haftor Medbøe (Napier University) and Alan Williams (University of Salford) 18.Session 2d Time: Room: Chair: Language and Musical Practice 14.30 2. BBC World Service) Session 3b Time: Room: Chair: Thinking with Jazz Panel 16. drummer Steve Davis and bassist Dave Kane played a completely improvised set at the Belfast Jazz Festival which became legendary.30 3. and critical musical practice 15.00-15.00-17.30 Coffee Break Parallel Sessions 3 Session 3a Time: Room: Chair: Jazz and the Media Panel 16.19 Alan Williams Haftor Medbøe (Napier University). They followed this auspicious performance with a commission from the Bath Jazz Festival .00-17.30.21. jazz.30 – 18.30 Performance Performance Time: 17. Groovin’ high and low: exploring the jazz vernacular (performance-led paper) Anne Dvinge (University of Copenhagen).00 16.Whatever Happened to Jack Jones and the Early Recordings of Johnny Mathis .30 3. Kathy Dyson (freelance musician) 17.30 – 18.30-16.29 Tim Wall Tim Wall (BCU.00 21. Adam Fairhall (Manchester Metropolitan University). Cosmopolitan vernaculars – language.00 Room: DPL Bourne – Davis – Kane Meeting for the first time in 2002. Alexander Kan (Europe Hub.and have played regularly on the European festival/gig circuit. pianist Bourne. Sebastian Scotney (LondonJazz) Ian Patterson (All About Jazz). 10 . Christophe de Bezenac (University of Salford). Chair) Frank Griffith (Brunel University). Chair) Alyn Shipton (BBC).00 Performance Free time Performance Time: 21.02 Nicholas Gebhardt Nicholas Gebhardt (University of Lancaster.

00-13. Graz). Berlin).Saturday 13 April 9.30 DPL George McKay George McKay (University of Salford) E Taylor Atkins (Northern Illinois University) Let's Call This: A Paradoxical Platform for Transnational Jazz Studies Catherine Tackley (Open University) Keynote Presentation Welcome: Keynote: Respondent: 10.00 Coffee Break Parallel Sessions 4 Sarallel session: 4a Time: Room: Chair: National/Transnational Discourses 11.15-10.30-11. Out of nowhere: The role of jazz institutions in Graz in the formation of jazz identity Loes Rusch (University of Amsterdam).“An Ambassador for What?”: Pro Helvetia’s Jazz and Swiss Cultural Diplomacy Michael Kahr (University of Music and Performing the Netherlands changed jazz 11 .15-10.00 11.29 Anne Dvinge Johanna Rohlf (Center for Metropolitan Studies.15 9.00-13.00 3. Jazz on a Journey: The African-American music and its influence on Germany in the 1920s William Bares (UNC Asheville).30 Registration Keynote Presentation Time: Room: Chair: 9. How jazz changed the Netherlands .00-9.

00 3. Narrative 11.00 2.36 George McKay Pedro Cravinho (University of Aveiro).19 Tom Sykes Barbara Bleij (Conservatory of Amsterdam). Last Notes: Narratives of Jazz and Death Dave Laing (University of Liverpool). It Don’t Mean A Thing: Race and Considerations of ‘Hot’ and ‘Cool’ in the Music of Lennie Tristano Robin Thomas (University of Huddersfield).00 2.02 Catherine Tackley Bob Lawson-Peebles (University of Exeter). Jazzetry UK: jazz and poetry in England in the early 1960s Session: 4d Time: Room: Chair: Musicians and Repertoire 11. The Stellar Composer: The intersection of musical cultures in Wayne Shorter’s music Marian Jago (York University. Broadcasting Jazz into the Eastern Bloc – Cold War Weapon or Cultural Exchange? The Example of Willis Conover Session: 4c Time: Room: Chair: Poetry. Heli Reiman (University of Helsinki). The Evolution of the Jazz Vocal Song: What comes after the Great American Song Book? Jasmin Taylor (Goldsmiths. Voices in dialogue: conceptualizing jazz from the Soviet perspective Martin Lücke (MHMK Munich). Fiction.00-13. Jazz and television in Portugal: TV JAZZ and the presence of Jazz on the Portuguese Television of the 1960s and 70s.00-13.Session: 4b Time: Room: Chair: Jazz in Violent Spaces 11. University of London) Billie Holiday and Gendered Networks of Collaboration 12 . Toronto).00-13. Jazz Criticism as "Paracritical Hinge": The Anti-Canonical Project of Nathaniel Mackey's Bedouin Hornbook Walter van de Leur (University of Amsterdam). “The Grave Disease”: Jazz and Interwar British Fiction Christopher Robinson (University of Kansas). "Charlie and His Orchestra": Rise and Fall of Jazz in Nazi Germany Rüdiger Ritter (University of Bremen).

Reconsidered Session: 5b Time: Room: Chair: Historiography and Anthropology 14.00-15. Jazz networking in Europe: building common identity. and the Politics of German Jazz Historiography Session: 5c Time: Room: Chair: Shifting European Identities 14. Soviet Jazz – Collapse of an Identity José Dias (Universidade Nova de Lisboa).Ru).00 14. Krazy Kats and Rhapsodies: Symphonic Jazz. Negotiating commercialism: reappraising Andy Kirk’s Clouds of Joy Alan Stanbridge (University of Toronto).00-15.30 Lunch and Poster Presentations Parallel Sessions 5 Session: 5a Time: Room: Chair: Swing and Symphonic Jazz 14.30 3.13.36 Nicholas Gebhardt Tim Wall (BCU).30-16.02 Loes Rusch Alexander Kan (Europe Hub. Marshall W. Rethinking ‘European jazz’ through the work of Steven Feld Christopher Coady (Sydney Conservatorium of Music). Rethinking Jazz and Rhapsody in Blue George Burrows (University of Portsmouth). Tradition or “High Treason”? 15.00-14. Joachim-Ernst Berendt.30 2. BBC World Service).00 Coffee Break 13 . Contemporary Russian Jazz: Adoption.00 –15.30 3. Inspiration and the historical record: Exploring the impact of lived experience on the presentation of data in jazz historiography Mario Dunkel (Technische Universität Dortmund). Stearns.29 Walter van de Leur Catherine Tackley (Open University). and struggling economic crisis through music Diana Kondrashin (Jazz.00 –15.

Women in contemporary Austrian jazz Peter Freeman (University of Queensland).00-17. Questions of National Identity in the British Traditional Jazz Revival Session 6b Scenes and narratives Time: Room: Chair: 16.00 – 2.16.30 Marc Duby (University of South Africa). Strings with Jazz Andrew Dubber (BCU).30 Christa Bruckner Haring (University of Music and Performing Arts Graz).30 Parallel sessions 6 Session: 6a Time: Room: Chair: New Orleans.30 3. Jazz in Italian Conservatoires: how to become “classic” James Dickenson (Freelance musician).02 Anne Dvinge 17. “New ways of being South African”: Canon-formation in South African jazz education and elsewhere Jacopo Conti (Università degli Studi di Torino). Shift Left 95: From Cultural Cringe to the New Aesthetic in Aotearoa New Zealand Session: 6c Canons & Educational Settings Time: Room: Chair: 16.00 – 17.19 Tom Sykes 17.29 George McKay Mikko Karjalainen (Independent researcher). THE LINDEMAN LIST – the evolution of a Norwegian jazz fraternity 14 . Identity and Revivalism 16. Performing sonic cultural identities: New Orleans brass band music as sonic practice Richard Ekins (University of Ulster) Authenticity as Authenticating in New Orleans Jazz Revivalism: Adapting Authenticity and the Case of Dan Pawson’s Artesian Hall Stompers (1960-2002) Alyn Shipton (Royal Academy of Music/BBC).003.

Media City)* *Pre-registration needed and meal payable separately. Please visit the registration pages or contact a member of the conference team. 15 .30 Room: Chair: DPL Christophe de Bezenac Nick Katuszonek (University of Salford) – The Ah-A Project Presentation and quartet performance followed by discussion 17.00-17.Session: 6d Time: The Ah-A Project (performance) 16.00 19.30-19.00 Free time Conference meal (Damson.

00 2.30-11. South Africa).30-11. Blacks and the Blues: Left Filmmakers and the Representation of Jazz in Cold War America Marcel Swiboda (University of Leeds). Listening and Memory 9.Music as Social Criticism Session: 7b Time: Room: Chair: Film & Media 9.30-11.00 3. Reds.00 2. Film and Art Music Nick Heffernan (University of Nottingham). The ”Tribute Concert” as a Site of Memory 16 . The Gershwin Projects of André Previn in Jazz.29 Nicholas Gebhardt Scott Currie (University of Minnesota). 'Long Distance Call': Hearing Muddy Waters in Britain Brett Pyper (NYU & Klein Karoo National Arts Festival.19 Tom Sykes Lawrence Davies (Kings College London). The Uses and Abuses of Jazz and Improvisation in an Age of Hyper.Sunday 14 April 2012 9. Jazz as Material Culture: Mediating Objects in the Performance Practice of the Instant Composers Pool Orchestra Fumi Okiji (Royal Holloway).00 Parallel Session 7 Session: 7a Time: Room: Chair: Collectives and Cultural Politics 9. Improvising Truth to Power: The Collective Poetics and Cultural Politics of 'Avant-Jazz for Peace' Floris Schuiling (University of Cambridge). listening and sociality among South African jazz appreciation societies Mikkel Vad (Rhythmic Music Conservatory.Medial Reproduction Session: 7c Time: Room: Chair: Identity. On Jazz. Denmark). About the Identity of Jazz. Jazz Insists! .36 Andrew Dubber Frédéric Döhl (Free University Berlin).30-11.

Understanding Distracted Engagement at Wally’s Jazz Club: Nightlife and the Jazz Club Imaginary Adam Fairhall (MMU).02 Nick Katuszonek Alex Stein (Brown University).00 Conference close 17 .30-11.30-13.3013. The performative aspects of contemporary space: Negotiating new rooms in improvised music 11.Session: 7d Time: Room: Chair: Jazz.00 3. Imaginary Pasts: Representing Early Jazz in Contemporary Jazz Practice Petter Frost Fadnes (University of Stavanger).00 Room: DPL Chair: Dave Laing Val Wilmer in conversation with Dave Laing 13. Place and Performance 9.00 Plenary Session Val Wilmer Coffee Break Closing plenary Time: 11.30 11.00-11.

this paper focuses on matters of ontology.or ire -. and valued in recent decades. historiography. 2012). ongoing internationalization of jazz studies is a long overdue and welcome departure from historical.from the world's jazz participants that he once did. Northern Illinois University Let's Call This: A Paradoxical Platform for Transnational Jazz Studies The gradual. and culture when examining the music in diverse contexts. 18 . taught. His publications include Jazz Cultures (2002). Ake has performed and recorded alongside many of today’s outstanding improvisers. place. and ethnic and national identity as they pertain to jazz.Keynote Presentations and Speaker Biographies David Ake. I hope to inspire reflection on the methods and mindsets with which we examine jazz outside of the nation of its birth. too. and Time since Bebop (2010) and the essay collection Jazz/Not Jazz: The Music and Its Boundaries (co-edited with Charles Hiroshi Garrett and Daniel Goldmark. University of Nevada. counterproductive reification of what the jazz critic Yui Shōichi called jazz nationalisms. it is worth reassessing the role Marsalis and other so-called neo-traditionalists played in shaping how jazz has been defined. Jazz Matters: Sound. In my address. all for the University of California Press. a “both-and” rather than an “either-or” formulation. with a paradoxical episteme. Toward that end. An active pianist and composer. Reno After Wynton: Rethinking Jazz Cultures in the Post Neo-Traditional Era Now that Wynton Marsalis no longer draws the attention -. David Ake is Director of the School of the Arts at the University of Nevada. and cultural context. created. Scholars must always be attuned to place. but this. can lead to (what consider to be) a retrogressive. By highlighting the neo-traditionalists' take on these key areas we can gain a better perspective on which of their formerly dominant jazz narratives are most likely to persist and which will likely change or vanish as we head further into the current post-neo-traditional era. Reno (USA). I would like to suggest that jazz scholarship be mindful of the simultaneous relevance and irrelevance of time. cultural hierarchy. E Taylor Atkins. time. Place. and ethnographic biases that have presumed that the only jams of consequence happen in the United States. musicological. gender. accentuating (and exaggerating) the degree to which “culture” determines the sounds produced by jazz musicians around the world.

She has contributed to several other dictionaries and reference sources. newspapers. Sweden and the USA. From Sister Rosetta Tharpe and Harry Carney to Eric Dolphy and the Art Ensemble of Chicago. a major ‘free jazz’ resource. Mama Said There’d Be Days Like These (1989). 2003). William Tsutsui. and exhibited at galleries and museums. and Japanese Studies. most notably the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. In addition to the “Popular Culture” chapter in A Companion to Japanese History (ed. He is the author of Primitive Selves: Koreana in the Japanese Colonial Gaze. leader of the first established Black British band. Taylor Atkins is Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies in the Department of History at Northern Illinois University. and is working on a number of books including a biography of the Guyanese dancer. and As Serious As Your Life (1977). album and CD covers throughout the world. Blackwell. 2001. and editor of Jazz Planet (University Press of Mississippi. France. Her photographs have been published in books. winner of the 2003 John Whitney Hall Prize). journals. he has published articles in Journal of Asian Studies. 1910-1945 (University of California Press. For the past 25 years she has been working on the history of Black British musicians. an autobiography. 19 . American Music. positions. The Face of Black Music (1976). She has conducted more than 35 oral history interviews for the National Sound Archive of the British Library. including obituaries for the Guardian newspaper. a collection of interviews with 14 American musicians. Ken ‘Snakehips’ Johnson. and contributing to radio and television documentaries. she has demonstrated the way that the music and its community sustain each other. she was responsible for hundreds of additions and corrections to the first edition. As a member of the advisory board for the 2nd edition of the Grove Dictionary of Jazz. she has specialised in recording oral history as well as photographing musicians. They are held in major public collections in Britain. Val Wilmer is a British-born writer and photographer who has been documenting music and musicians for more years than she cares to remember. and wrote more than 60 of the entries. for which she has written over 35 articles. USA.E. 2010) and Blue Nippon: Authenticating Jazz in Japan (Duke University Press. 2007). This comprises dozens of articles on individuals. a photo-documentary. Her book publications include Jazz People (1970). Listening to the voices of African-American musicians as well as the notes.

my paper 20 . Given their attention to product design and photography. in the case of Edition. Founded in 2008 by pianist/composer Dave Stapleton and photographer Tim Dickeson. Birmingham City University Edition Records: reimagining jazz culture in the digital age This paper presents the findings of a three-month study of British jazz label Edition Records as they grapple to engage with their customers using marketing strategies centered around new social media platforms. but also raise important questions about the role of visual identities and fan participation for jazz studies. the purpose of the research was to explore the significance of label branding within a jazz context through online dissemination of the Edition brand. as an economic enterprise and as a consumption culture. Edition Records is often compared with classic labels like Blue Note and ECM. This study goes beyond the basics of record cover iconography. Edition Records has developed a reputation as one of the leading jazz labels in the UK. William Bares. Drawing upon years of ethnographic fieldwork with European jazz communities. UNC Asheville “An Ambassador for What?”: Pro Helvetia’s Jazz and Swiss Cultural Diplomacy If America avidly exported jazz as a “sonic secret weapon” to win the “hearts and minds” of Europeans during the Cold War. to examine how labels make sense of their consumers as jazz fans and. The study is based upon a combination of action-research and ethnography. and builds upon a knowledge exchange project in which academics from Birmingham City University worked with the label’s staff to imagine new ways to retail jazz in the digital age.Abstracts Simon Barber. what motives drive Pro Helvetia––Switzerland’s cultural funding agency––to export Swiss jazz in postCold War Europe? The question reflects the geopolitical transformation that has seen Europeans indigenizing jazz and assuming the role of guardians of freedoms supposedly forsaken by an America fallen from grace. especially in terms of design and image. The results will inform the developing approaches to jazz and new media within the commercial world of jazz marketing. The results reveal interesting characteristics about jazz as a semiotic activity. use new technologies to build communities. though. The study reveals interesting information about the way that labels are increasingly using new media and experimental/prototype technologies to reimagine how they operate within the jazz market.

Invariably these compositions are seen as firmly rooted in the hard bop practice of the time. Conservatory of Amsterdam The Stellar Composer: The intersection of musical cultures in Wayne Shorter’s music Many of Wayne Shorter’s mid-60s compositions have become part of the core jazz repertoire. and the use of jazz as cultural export. European cultural funding. Taking a cue from recent studies which have shown that the history of American jazz diplomacy in Europe has been riddled with contradictions and denials. Shorter has consistently alluded to this kind of musical influence: ’I used to listen to a program every Saturday afternoon. In this way. in line with overly familiar jazz narratives. the Swiss musicians who are excluded from Pro Helvetia’s vision use jazz’s Americanness to further a different set of agendas. which he subsequently transforms in a ‘highly original way’. New Ideas in Music. Over time. the world’s foremost model of direct democracy. I will demonstrate that Pro Helvetia’s strategies for Swiss jazz cultural diplomacy belie a host of distinctively Swiss contradictions. are often attributed to Shorter’s ‘genius’. And indeed. the cultural environment of New York City – the modernist capital of the world at the time – and Shorter’s college music education provided easy access to contemporary music ideas. on the other hand. however. Elements that are not in conformity with this practice. about the evolution of classical music into contemporary and onward. In Switzerland. Shorter is cast as a true ‘jazz classic’: the heir to a tradition.’ Moreover. unquestionably the hard bop idiom is part of Shorter’s language.presents two case studies demonstrating divergent uses of jazz in contemporary Swiss cultural diplomacy. I will argue. that Shorter not only drew on jazz traditions but also on musical modernism. Barbara Bleij. Pro Helvetia’s use of jazz to construct and export an “authentic” Swissness involves casting American jazz as t he constitutive other. atypical form schemes and ‘non functional’ progressions. like asymmetrical phrases. Yet none of this has had any real impact on Shorter’s public image. I will argue that this ties in with the continuous debate about the ‘ownership’ of jazz – as the vehement disputes 21 . jazz musicians often complain that Pro Helvetia’s emphasis upon novelty and innovation stands in the way of building soul-satisfying jazz communitas in local scenes. I will be arguing that Pro Helvetia’s Swiss -oriented cultural policies harbor important lessons about the relationships between American and European musical nationalism.

In this way. Invoking the help of music analysis I will discuss examples from three iconic pieces from this period. approaches and activities. within the jazz vocal improvisational ecosystem there are various roles. In this presentation I will treat the jazz improviser as part of an ecosystem that includes both the audience and the other musicians. on sources that fed jazz as a whole in a period that shaped so much of jazz to come. Christa Bruckner Haring. led by internationally successful musicians like Hans Koller or Joe Zawinul. Montreal. Miles Davis and others. by extension. Jeri Brown. Shorter is notorious for not making any concrete statements about the technical aspects of his music. Canada Vocal Ecosystems: How Do We Really Improvise in Vocal Jazz? Jazz vocal improvisation appears on the surface to involve few rules. In recent decades. 22 .over the alleged ‘classical influences’ on Gil Evans. Concordia University.’. a country deeply steeped in musical history and famous for its classical composers. Jazz was quick to earn a place in Austria.S. I propose that jazz vocal improvising is actually a form of communication between artist and listener. Part of the project is the investigation of individual aspects of the current jazz scene in Austria in order to obtain an overview of the situation and importance of jazz within the larger music culture. where the artist adheres to a set of rules or principles. male jazz musicians have dominated the Austrian jazz scene. An ecosystem. University of Music and Performing Arts Graz Women in contemporary Austrian jazz The three-year interdisciplinary research project Rhythm Changes: Jazz Cultures and European Identities examines inherited traditions and practices of European jazz cultures. Instead. and. I will provide examples from jazz vocal artists and musicians and discuss how this viewpoint may also aid the improvising jazz vocalist in his or her artistic expression. Despite his many utterances. This paper traces aspects of modernist thinking in Shorter’s music. attest. I will describe these and show how the analogy with biological ecosystems can be applied to a ‘vocal ecology’.P. I will show that these pieces share a specific type of design that accounts for many of the seemingly ‘original’ parts of his compositions. Especially after World War II jazz scenes rapidly evolved in Vienna and Graz. my paper offers a more balanced view on the cultural heritage that Shorter saw as his own. ’Virgo’ and ’Infant Eyes’. comprises a set of interacting organisms and environments in a particular place. Similarly. ’E. a concept in the biological sciences. when present.

through swing charts for dancing. and student information from Austrian arts universities. pioneering negotiators of music’s increasing commerciality. The embracing of such popular forms has been read in terms of the black band’s helplessness in the face of overwhelming commercial pressures exerted by white record company executives. University of Portsmouth Negotiating commercialism: reappraising Andy Kirk’s Clouds of Joy Andy Kirk’s Clouds of Joy were one of the most important all-black “territory” bands of the swing era and yet their recordings offer a complex picture of the commoditization of jazz during the 1930s that has posed a challenge to jazz criticism. In particular. perhaps. most often in arrangements by their gifted young pianist Mary Lou Williams. exposing different viewpoints on this multifaceted topic. George Burrows. the first big vocal hit for the Clouds of Joy. MICA. Later critics like Albert McCarthy and Gunther Schuller tend to share Adorno’s aesthetic perspective but are generally more sympathetic or. The more numerous vocals enabled the band to achieve widespread fame and the first number one hit in the R ’n’ B chart but these songs are usually dismissed or ignored by critics because of their “sweet” commerciality and lack of discernable jazz. The results will contribute to the overall description of the current jazz scene in Austria. Qualitative interviews conducted with experts from different areas of the jazz scene will complement this data. to voguish vocals.This paper will examine the current position of women in the Austrian jazz scene based on the collation and analysis of comprehensive data concerning gender distribution provided by the national music center. will be considered alongside more jazz-filled tracks such as “Christopher Columbus”. as well as providing a basis for transnational comparisons. “Until the Real Thing Comes Along”. Their recorded music. patronizing towards the socio-political position of the black band. Something of this notion of helplessness can be found in Theodor Adorno’s famous and contemporaneous criticism of jazz’s commercialization. This paper suggests that useful new insights might be gained by reconsidering the recorded output of the Clouds of Joy as an interrelated body of work. ranged from “hot” jazz numbers. 23 . The resulting dialogue between the types of music the band recorded illuminates the tensions Adorno detected in 1930s recording culture but might also suggest a dialectic in which the musicians were not always helpless puppets of the Culture Industry but clever.

events or artists – and choose to tell particular stories about these subjects. Such an investigation helps show that all jazz historiography is informed in one-way or another by lived experience but that temporal proximity or distance to events can at times impact the quality – although not the value – of the data presented. I then pose a series of questions about the type of knowledge generated when someone without first-hand “lived” knowledge about a jazz event endeavours to put forth an historical critique. Sydney Conservatorium of Music Inspiration and the historical record: Exploring the impact of lived experience on the presentation of data in jazz historiography One defining stylistic element of post-structuralist ethnographic studies of jazz practice is the acknowledgement that a researcher’s inherent subjectivity impacts the collection and interpretation of data. authors point to experiences of paradox or epiphany within their own lived experience as the inspiration for such investigations. Approaches in this realm range from the honing of a personal/subjective lens through which vernacular data is interpreted – as Ingrid Monson does in the opening pages of Saying Something (1996) – to the utilization of the “self as subject” during the data generation phase of a project. Such awareness often leads to an inquiry at least tangentially linked to the researcher’s lived experience. Yet it is possible to see a more subtle form of subjectivity embedded in the very core of a supposedly more objective branch of jazz studies: jazz historiography. as Paul Berliner does in Thinking in Jazz (1994). I chart the ways in which first-hand familiarity with various developments in jazz seems to have influenced the way in which several jazz historians have told stories about the music they study. Drawing parallels to what Guthrie Ramsey refers to as “professional” and “confessional” blackness.Christopher Coady. Occasionally. In this paper. 24 . This critical bent is evident in the simple fact that jazz historians select particular subjects – typically movements. Often. such first-hand familiarity will then colour the presentation of evidence in support of a particular argument.

giving importance to some particular moments (mainly cool jazz. hard bop. during the colonial / independence war at the former Portuguese colonies in Africa a new musical television program became responsible for the mass broadcasting of jazz in Portugal. “new thing”. The Government hopes that the leaders of the new public service will know how to use this instrument as a medium of moral and cultural elevation of the Portuguese people´ (Teves. but totally contraries to the values defended by the colonial "fascist" regime of Estado Novo. early modal jazz and electronic “nu” jazz) while others have been put aside (traditional New Orleans jazz. festivals and clubs have re-shaped jazz history. Italian Conservatoires did not incorporate jazz courses until the beginning of the XXI Century. when the Portuguese Television ´Radiotelevisão Portuguesa´was institutionally created. University of Aveiro Jazz and television in Portugal: TV JAZZ and the presence of Jazz on the Portuguese Television of the 1960s and 70s. Nevertheless. In 1963. 25 . and today jazz clubs. In 1955. the minister of Information at the time. Private music schools led the way. the public channel of the television was used in ´a direct or in indirect way´ as the regime´s propaganda. jam sessions and jazz courses in Conservatoires are very popular in Italy: but at what cost? Aim of this paper is to analyze how jazz didactics in Italy have been assimilated by “classical” didactics – especially in Conservatoires (courses programs from all Italian Conservatoires will be considered). according to the criteria that is applied in its utilization. 30’s swing. Università degli Studi di Torino Jazz in Italian Conservatoires: how to become “classic” Italy was one of the very first countries to take in jazz. in 1919 an Orchestra in Milan recorded At the Jazz Band Ball [Zenni 2012. the TV JAZZ series. 73]. benefic or malefic.Jacopo Conti. ragtime. fusion). Jazz was associated to the American way of life representative of the ideals of freedom and equality belonging to American culture. Marcello Caetano stated that: ´Television is an instrument of action. where jazz obtained its “legitimation” – and how Italian most recent jazz courses. In this context. post-bop. which started in 1933 and ended in 1975 after the April Revolution. jazz rock. free jazz. Pedro Cravinho. The Jazz was obviously associated to the African-American identity and culture. At the time. And following Caetano´s idea. broadcasting a Jazz series represented an apparent contradiction for television controlled by the State. p. and despite the great success gained by Italian jazz musicians all over the world. 1998). The government in charge was a dictatorship.

t-shirts. which is part of an ongoing work towards a doctoral degree in Ethnomusicology.” In the face of de facto mass -media selfcensorship that effectively silenced dissenting voices. 26 . and the role of TV JAZZ series.” in order to call attention to semiotic processes manifest in the (sub)cultural dynamics of festive self-representations that attempt to define this downtown New York City jazz scene.With this paper. Scott Currie. University of Minnesota Improvising Truth to Power: The Collective Poetics and Cultural Politics of 'Avant-Jazz for Peace' “The revolution never ended!” This audacious avant-garde cri de coeur led off the manifesto that sought to shape artist and audience constructions of meaning around a week of improvisational performances staged in the early months of the war in Iraq. I interrogate the performativity of this shared ethos of engaged socio-aesthetic activism. Ultimately. In this paper. I intend to contribute to a better understanding of the presence of Jazz music on the Portuguese public television. during the "fascist" regime of Estado Novo. enacted through the play of meanings staged within the festival’s ritually overdetermining frame. I explore members’ conceptions of “the artist’s role in waging peace. in hopes of reclaiming and revitalizing long dormant socio-political connotations of vanguardist jazz. Based on over a decade and a half of ethnographic engagement with the artist collective that organizes the festival. through a synaesthetic call to arms disseminated via programs. My main concern here will be to cast light upon the utopian dramaturgical dimensions of the artists’ extemporaneous musical interactions. on the spread of jazz culture in Portugal. the artist-organizers of the 2003 Vision Festival made this leap of faith into the performative. shortly after the tragically premature declaration of an end to “major combat operations. this endeavor should foreground the unique and critical perspectives this collective’s improvisational activism offers upon the potential of avant-garde jazz paradigms to create and mobilize cohesive communities of aesthetically empowered agents. and stage announcements. as a case study. particularly as it arose from grass-roots appeals to counter-cultural memory aimed at reactivating residual articulations to collaborative improvisational practices.

Universidade Nova de Lisboa Jazz networking in Europe: building common identity. and the UK's Chris Barber band. including Jazz Journal and Jazz Monthly. Viewing British jazz culture on the cusp of this paradigm shift raises questions regarding the treatment of the blues in subsequent histories of jazz. as well as in several nascent jazz periodicals. Yet the critical coverage of the tour. Waters's live and recorded performances received substantial coverage in the mainstream British musical press. while commercially successful. avoided charges of commercialism by virtue of its folkloric roots. and struggling economic crisis through music The present economic downturn has led the European Union to question itself as a viable political. Peripheral countries struggle with the lack of governmental funding. Influential in both the 'trad' jazz and skiffle movements. is undercut to favour other priorities.Lawrence Davies. like other art forms. They understood him to be part of a 'living' blues tradition that. Kings College London 'Long Distance Call': Hearing Muddy Waters in Britain Chicago blues musician Muddy Waters's 1958 British tour was one of the earliest opportunities for British enthusiasts to hear the blues live. More broadly. some jazz musicians are networking and generating new transnational ensembles in order to optimize 27 . and of British reissues of earlier Waters recordings between 1956-57. Accompanied by fellow American Otis Spann on piano. the musical activities of Barber's band both before and during Waters's tour challenge ideals of racially coded authenticity in the blues proposed by the revivalist movement at large. Music. this was the first of Waters's many visits to Britain. have yet to be systematically studied. This paper also investigates Chris Barber's involvement in Waters's tour. I will explore how this perspective influenced the way critics and scholars attempted to reconcile Waters's musical heritage – a born and bred delta bluesman – with the urbane sophistication they heard in his performances. economic and cultural entity. pre-1960s critical coverage of Waters and other blues musicians was primarily from the perspective of the 'trad' jazz revivalist movement. a distinction commonplace in modern scholarship. In the midst of this crisis. José Dias. While later histories tend to position Waters's music as the rebellious root of British rock music. it is interesting that pre-1960s coverage of Waters and other musicians did not construct boundaries between the blues as part of jazz and 'the blues' as its own genre.

as a social practices network (Berliner 1994. created by a group of Portuguese jazz musicians.resources: broader audiences. Appadurai 2001). and praxis and discourse in Europe (Leitner 2004)? James Dickenson. Also.D The impact of Norwegian folk music on Norwegian jazz. and jazz – a non-European music tradition – as a pan-European musical genre. space and non-space (Augé 1995). The Foundation was aware of the research I had carried out in Norway and Sweden which led to my 2003 Salford Ph. several EU official organizations and independent producers are endorsing jazz venues as a way to promote a common multicultural European identity. The first is an Ireland-based production that works as an annual itinerant showcase for 12 ensembles. At the same time. In a jazz context this meant examining the major contribution Lindeman had made to the collection and documentation of Norwegian folk music which had both influenced Edv. This research seeks an insight into contemporary Europe through music. The Foundation wished to include such a survey in their documentation for the 200th anniversary of Lindeman’s birth in 2012. To avoid possible misunderstandings we made it clear prior to publication that such a list could never claim to be complete or exhaustive but our intention in making it was to illustrate and document the sheer diversity of 28 . modernity. Marcus 1995.1995 and I used this as my starting point in the compilation of the list. Monson 2009). freelance musician THE LINDEMAN LIST – the evolution of a Norwegian jazz fraternity In 2011 I was approached by the Lindeman Foundation via the National Library in Oslo to see if I would compile a list of Norwegian jazz recordings which to a greater or lesser degree owed something to the work of Ludwig Mathias Lindeman. It questions how jazz. subsequently. each one from a different European country. Sassatelli 2009). may be contributing to cultural production (Bourdieu 1993. P2P music sharing and free download labels are changing the way musicians and audiences relate. musicians’ websites. globalization and culture as structure model (Giddens 1993)? What is the role of jazz music on the delicate balance between local and global (Mayrowitz 1986. Both cases aim collaboration between musicians and the dissemination of their music beyond national borders. 1945. Grieg and other composers who followed him and. This paper brings two examples: the 12 Points Jazz Festival and Sintoma Records. The second is an independent free download label. jazz performers from around 1950 and onwards. performing opportunities and EU subsidy. To what extent can jazz be part of a European development.

My paper looks at the recordings on the Lindeman list and attempts an appraisal of their contributions to the building of a jazz fraternity in Norway. In my review of the album I described it as ‘some of the most identifiably Norwegian jazz in existence’. A good example is Garbarek’s I Took Up The Runes album from 1990 where only two of the eight performers are Norwegian. helped by the sound production of Jan Erik Kongshaug. thanks to the status and influence of musical education worldwide. and one of those is a Sami. It is something of a paradox that the term ‘Nordic Jazz’ only came into wider use after Scandinavian jazz had become multi-racial. In the course of my presentation I will argue a case for an increased use of the all-embracing term ‘fraternity’ which the Collins Cobuild Dictionary defines as ‘a group of people who have the same profession or the same interests’ and offers a further definition as ‘the quality or activity of showing friendship and support to other people. Norway today is a thriving multi-cultural land and many of the listed recordings include contributions from non-Norwegian nationals. I took as my starting point that the expression ‘Norwegian jazz’ can today only mean jazz played in Norway. who you think of as your brothers’. regardless of the ethnic identity of the performers. and indeed as informed listeners. Writers such as Stuart Nicholson and Michael Tucker have exhaustively discussed the concept of the Nordic Tone and I will assume that we are now fully aware of its musical implications. We can perhaps with a clear conscience hang the term in the wardrobe along with all the other jazz “labels” we’ve collected during the last 100 years or so. I have avoided any attempt to further categorise the 58 selected recordings. 29 . There was never any doubt who was the artistic leader here and Garbarek must take the credit for the final work. All these have been reviewed in jazz journals both in Norway and elsewhere and cover a multitude of styles. My case is that we can and should listen to all music – not just to jazz – as active participants.postwar Norwegian jazz.

Free University Berlin About the Identity of Jazz. but with a different purpose: not to form music with a more concentrated. the latter part of the decade saw the beginnings of an experimentation with British acid jazz-inspired dance music that. From a scene seemingly lacking its own distinctive identity. Here. This analysis allows us to draw at least some conclusions about the identity of jazz in comparison to other fields of Western music and the steadiness of this identity from the perspective of the artists. hard bop and other (primarily American) imported forms. Using Previn’s Gershwin projects around 1960 as an example. film music or art music and that he also did so when he dealt with the same musical material and composer at the same time in different fields of Western Music.) to generate songs that can function as a basis for group improvisation and generate new dramatic effects not from the structure of the song but the development of the improvisation. spoken dialogue. In the context of film music. this paper will examine how Previn keeps Gershwin’s score intact when he is working with his music in the context o f art music. Previn created a jazz album with songs from Porgy and Bess. The Gershwin Projects of André Previn in Jazz. borrowing heavily from 80s neo-bop and with its feet (and players) firmly rooted in big band.Frédéric Döhl. etc. 30 . Andrew Dubber. winning four Academy Awards in this genre including one for his score for Otto Preminger’s 1959 movie version of Porgy and Bess) not only changes the sound but also the dramatic structure of Gershwin’s score to intensify and clarify/simplify the dramatic effect of the music for the different frame-work of the medium of film (aesthetic dominance of the changing visual perspectives. Film and Art Music This paper will examine how André Previn approached music differently when he worked in the fields of jazz. Previn (a specialist for the adaptation of Broadway shows for Hollywood in the 1950s/60s. shorter space of time. he also revised Gershwin’s song material heavily. especially the one’s dealing with Porgy and Bess. simplified dramatic effect but to form music that loses its dramatic contrasts (omitting contrasting parts from songs etc. for many reasons. Also in 1959 – at the peak of his work in West Coast Jazz –. very quickly took on a distinctive South Pacific identity. fusion.). Birmingham City University Shift Left 95: From Cultural Cringe to the New Aesthetic in Aotearoa New Zealand The 1990s saw a significant turning point in the development of jazz music in New Zealand.

and in a future. the influence of which can still be heard today — and not just in the jazz world. an embrace of models and ideas from the outside. but significantly.. emphasis added) With Jazz Epistle Vol. This paper describes this phenomenon not only as a historical shift in localised musical practices. more democratic dispensation by restoring a process and history into their music making that was distinctly South African.. As a result this ‘Urban Pacifican’ fusion arguably formed the basis of a uniquely New Zealand aesthetic in jazz music. to the multifaceted history of mutual influence between 31 . harnessed to create a language of musical freedom inside. both in the world at large. across popular music forms that can be thought of as distinctly “kiwi”. I aim to examine some aspects of the long-term connection between SA and American music. imagining new ways of being South African. “. Identifying the point of origin of this jazz education canon as simply “American” or “South African” does not do justice. a strong influence from dub reggae. 1. High Street nightlife.” Muller goes on to suggest that musical practices in early South African jazz indicated how musicians were “. University of South Africa “New ways of being South African”: Canon-formation in South African jazz education and elsewhere As Carol Muller describes events in South African history (2012. and which have topped sales charts and provided some of New Zealand’s most successful musical (and broadcasting) exports. a landmark jazz recording released in SA in 1960 as a point of departure.” (ibid. funk drummers and DJs into what had been a straight-ahead contemporary jazz quartet or quintet line-up coincided with the rise of café culture. but also as a wider cultural event as witnessed from the perspective of a jazz label owner. Marc Duby. a relationship which still plays out today in the repertoire of SA jazz education and the various ways in which contested views of the jazz canon are articulated. 293.. The intermingling of stylistic influence as well as cultural encounters within and between different groups of New Zealand society. in my view.but also a wide and popular following. latin percussionists.. broadcaster and record producer in Auckland in the late 1990s. led to a broadly hybrid musical subgenre with not only a strong and identifiable flavour . the first stage of diaspora was a kind of musical surrogacy. and a growing focus on Maori and Polynesian voices in hip hop.The inclusion of rappers. 292).

Mario Dunkel. Stearns. Technische Universität Dortmund Marshall W.” I also explore some possible characteristic examples of “South African-ness” in selected historical recordings. 98) of the canon as “the commonplace book of our shared culture. Although Berendt’s fascination for Stearns may lead one into conceiving of their connection as a teacher-student relationship. Joachim-Ernst Berendt’s das Jazzbuch (first published in 1953) appeared in its seventh revised edition. I argue that their relationship was much more significant than has been acknowledged in the excellent and pioneering work of Berendt’s biographer Andrew W. he also demonstrated how jazz could serv e as a socially emancipatory force. the young jazz enthusiast from Germany was living evidence of jazz’s aptitude as a US -American diplomatic instrument in the Cold War. This paper contextualizes Berendt’s early jazz historiography. it is important to note the reciprocity of their exchange. Based on my assessment of a previously unknown correspondence between Berendt and Stearns.South African music and the world at large. Over a period of more than fifty years. Stearns’ “usable” historiography – his sociopolitical employment of jazz historiography as an instrument in the African American struggle for civil rights – demonstrated to Berendt how jazz could function as a means of a German liberation from National Socialist ideology. Joachim-Ernst Berendt. Not only did Stearns provide the historiographical framework for Berendt’s understanding of jazz. While Stearns provided Berendt with a conceptual model for the history of jazz and a vision of jazz’s socio -political and diplomatic potential. Berendt reaffirmed Stearns’ belief that jazz was incommensurate with totalitarianism. 32 . Bearing in mind Henry Louis Gates Jr’s understanding (1991. thereby marginalising the musical contribution to jazz beyond the borders of South Africa of musicians such as Abdullah Ibrahim and Chris McGregor. To Stearns. Hurley. focusing on the relationship between Berendt and the early American jazz historian Marshall W. and the Politics of German Jazz Historiography In 2005. Stearns. it has been translated into twelve languages and has been one of the most successful books on jazz.

than Frenchmen. they were often unemployed and the competition between them to get gigs was very harsh. drugs. and critical musical practice Various critiques of a hegemonic or dominant discourse of jazz as an American art form has in the last decade led to what might be called a ‘postcolonial moment’ in jazz studies and an insistence on the value and contributions of jazz idiolects outside the American idiom. which in fact was not the case. because they were supposed to be better musicians. University of Copenhagen Cosmopolitan vernaculars – language. since Jean -Paul Sartre was supposed to be a regular in the “existentialist cellar clubs”. alcohol. In fact. Finally. However. jazz. linguistic and musical. thefts. speed. ‘postcolonial’ jazz studies in one end of the spectrum run the risk of erecting new nationalist and essentialist fences around jazz – and in the other of conflating the local and the global into a synchronizing ‘glocal’. This famous Paris’ district was also associated to existentialism. that’s why some cellar clubs had to close their doors. even death. Anne Dvinge. Le Club Saint-Germain. Furthermore. in the 1940s and 1950s. we will see that jazz music was getting less popular at the end of the period. Finally. jazzmen were not working so actively in postwar Paris. Historian Jazz Musicians. Jazz Fans and “Existentialist Cellar Clubs” in Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris). The working conditions of the musicians in these cellar clubs will also be considered. This situation was strongly condemned by the Paris Musician Union. Le Tabou.Éric Dussault. jazz music and the “existentialist youth” inspired filmmakers and TV shows producers who always associated both with open sexuality. This paper will also tell the history of the famous jazz “existentialist cellar clubs” of the district such as Le Lorientais. French jazzmen were also critical of the fact that jazz fans and cellar clubs owners were more interested to listen and hire Afro-Americans players. As Homi Bhabha argues. This paper suggests that code switching and hybridization of language and jazz offers an instance to think about the dialogical relationship between ‘standard’ and ‘vernacular’ languages. the move from a standard or dominant 33 . the jazz scene of Saint-Germain-des-Prés was inseparable of the famous Rats the cave (the French jitterbug dancers). 1945-1960 After WWII. Contrary to what have been said and written since 60 years. Le Vieux-Colombier and La Rose Rouge. Amateur musicians were often hired instead of professional musicians. Saint-Germain-des-Prés was described as the “Harlem of Paris” because of his active jazz community mixing local and foreign musicians.

These traits 34 . is a transcultural practice whilst simultaneously a situation where ‘“one’s own sound” – becomes a carrier of complex identities. the local. but with the expression of personality. as George Lewis notes. feeling and emotion. the desire to make a dialect: to vernacularize is to “dialectize” as a process’. the assertion of agency. University of York You Ain’t Gonna Hear Me ‘Cause You Think You Hear Me: South African jazz’s struggle against European cliché In the introduction to Maxine McGregor’s book Chris McGregor and the Brotherhood of Breath. it is at the same time also the vernacular that displaces and disrupts the . memory and identity’. These musicians. we run in to difficulties. A large part of it seems to depend on a perceived South African sonic cultural identity that. releasing cosmopolitanism and the vernacular from both dichotomies and synchronizations. they were moved by an incredible energy which made their disappearance backstage almost painful. infused modern jazz in Europe with South African ‘roots and fragrances’. and an encounter with history. As a musical practice it critically engages with definitions of the personal. were to exercise a major influence on the evolution of jazz in Europe.Danish or Chinese – domestic. Eighteen years on from Martin’s statement. but that could not yet be foreseen. the assumption of responsibility. “Sound” becomes identifiable. and forty -nine years after the performance he describes. not with timbre alone. I suggest that jazz as a ‘cosmopolitan vernacular’ performs a double movement: While it as an American art form is a ‘domestic’ – or a domesticized cosmopolitan – that becomes vernacularized. However in attempting to identify the musical nature of this influence. translated into say Danish or Chinese ‘dialect’. and the global. in less than a decade. Jonathan Eato. in Martin’s terms. Thus. modernity with roots and fragrance.language to a vernacular is one of action and performance: ‘the process and indeed the performance of translation. nor is the extent of that influence always realised today. Jazz improvisation. acknowledgement of the impact that the Blue Notes – as well as their subsequent groups – had on jazz in Europe continues to gain momentum. Denis-Constant Martin recalled the Blue Notes’ European debut at the 1964 Antibes festival in memorable terms: They were fire.

The paper shows how Pawson’s repeated visits to New Orleans from the 1960s through to the 1980s 35 . Reviewing the Brotherhood of Breath’s Country Cooking in a 1988 issue of The Wire magazine. 2012). it illustrates my ‘trajectories of authenticating’ conceptual framework by focusing on my empirical work with the English trumpet player and New Orleans revivalist bandleader Dan Pawson and his leadership of the Artesian Hall Stompers between 1960 and 2002. Using McGregor’s late Brotherhood of Breath work as a case study. However. ebb and flow within a number of interrelated sub-processes identified as constructing. which entailed their ‘adapting’ the music of second wave New Orleans jazz revivalism in contemporary New Orleans in a variety of British contexts. instrumentation and personnel. this pap er will question what was being heard as sonically South African in late twentiethcentury European jazz circles. instead becoming part of an overcrowded European mainstream. cross-cultural hybrid’ he so clearly admired. In particular. resuming. with particular reference to the major dimensions of each sub-process identified as style. reconstructing. adopting. 2010. repertoire. University of Ulster Authenticity as Authenticating in New Orleans Jazz Revivalism: Adapting Authenticity and the Case of Dan Pawson’s Artesian Hall Stompers (1960-2002) This paper is part of the author’s ongoing grounded theory work on the basic social process of ‘authenticating’ in the substantive area of early jazz and world-wide New Orleans jazz revivalism (Ekins.are often tagged as ‘South African’ or ‘township’ but it is not at all clear that there was a consensus regarding what was being heard as South African. including those of jazz clubs. working men’s clubs and jazz festivals. Richard Ekins. adapting. abandoning and progressing authenticity. 2011. It argues that to pay the proper respect to authenticity and authenticating in this substantive research arena entails detailed study of how authenticities emerge. with the ‘stay at home’ New Orleans jazz pioneers such as Bunk Johnson and George Lewis – the Artesian Hall Stompers focused on what became known by the mid-1960s as ‘contemporary New Orleans jazz’. Tony Herrington stated that McGregor’s late Brotherhood of Breath work had become more and more distanced from the earlier ‘radical. McGregor regarded this album as more successfully South African than his earlier work in Europe. in particular. After a brief period of ‘adopting’ the ‘reconstructed’ authenticity phase of Bill Russell’s American Music label of the mid-1940s and early 1950s – associated.

for example Berliner (1994). Pre-gig banter. Damian Evans. reflects and shapes culture. the primary ethnographic viewpoint of the last century. Monson (1997) and Jackson (2012). addressing jazz trio performance. It reports on a study that uses practice as a method within ethnographic methods. This call is still being made by scholars such as John Baily (2008). I argue that taking field notes while actively engaged in a professional culture will uncover motivation behind participant behaviour that may not be gained any other way. gesture during performance and the post gig autopsy are all locations where meaning is created yet is not accessible to the participant observer not active in the interaction. Dublin Institute of Technology/Graduate School of Creative Arts and Media Rethinking Jazz Performance as a Research Method This paper addresses the creation of methods by which to use jazz performance as an additional tool into a primarily ethnographic investigation. to further the act of performance in the study of music in order to “assure a real comprehension of theoretical studies. I make the argument that the professional jazz musician can use his or her skills in order to obtain a further understanding into jazz performance from a scholarly perspective. and that further insights can be gained by understanding the music from a performer’s perspective. It is largely accepted that insight into a culture can be gained through participant observation. In 1960. While these studies engage with the ways in which jazz practice creates.” Significant research into jazz culture has been conducted in recent years. In addition to field notes taken from regular participant observation. Conservatory of Music and Drama.led him to develop a particular sound and ideology that established him at the forefront of a particular variant of ‘authentic’ New Orleans jazz revivalism. they do so from the perspective of the participant observer. 36 . in-between tune utterances. Mantle Hood (1960) made a call for ethnomusicologists to attain a basic degree of ‘musicality’ if one was to theorize about music. in particular by ethnomusicologists.

idealism and hidden economies  Radical thinking. attached from commerciality and with opportunities for building a home for the local underground scene.and political aspects of these spaces. politics and aesthetics  Subcultural belonging and musical communities  Performance perspectives. Performing such spaces is a curious experience. These large spaces represent an attractive array of possibilities for arts-production. regeneration (gentrification) and branding (cultural capital and image building). as musicians are able to work outside the restrictions often encountered in heavily branded venues like a jazz. even such dispersed authorities as local councils. where musicians often encounter a whole new set of expectations. and see how the trio The Geordie Approach manoeuvred and negotiated the performative. For improvised music this often fuels new musical outcomes. cultural. The attraction for the experimental arts towards the hard grind production environments of derelict factories seems obvious. ranging from an old (still functional) train station (Stanica) to an abandoned tobacco factory (Tabacka). via a long closed brewery (Tou Scene).or a rock club. The decades old phenomenon of derelict and abandoned factories attracting the creative. 37 . subcultural and deviant aspects of the underground scenes within our urban environments is as vibrant as ever within European art scenes. norms and codes outside the established divisions of musical genre. University of Stavanger The performative aspects of contemporary space: Negotiating new rooms in improvised music This is a case study based on the Anglo/Norwegian trio The Geordie Approach performing improvised music within the compounds of European kulturfabrikker/kultúrny uzol (‘cultural factories’). musical codes and audience response Subsequently this paper will deal with the particular fusion between improvised music and cultural factories. Indeed.Petter Frost Fadnes. Relevant issues are:  Voluntary work. often justified within a large spectre of cultural policies ranging from arts funding (local sustainability). national funding agencies and the EU are diverting funding towards these bustling cultural centres.

Adam Fairhall. each of these musicians modifies the music in ways that highlight the constructedness of any historical representation. was commissioned by Manchester Jazz Festival in 2011 and a live recording of the premiere was released on SLAM in May 2012. 38 . The musical techniques used by these artists to modify the characteristics of early forms range from the introduction of styles from different eras to the simplification and exaggeration of stylistic trademarks. A discussion of the function of these methods in the project’s objectives will form the final part of this paper. Dutch pianist Michiel Braam and African-American pianists Dave Burrell and Jason Moran. Japanese-born. German-resident pianist Aki Takase. 1920s exotica. employs electronic sound sculpture and mixes conventional jazz instrumentation with archaic folk instruments such as the diddley bow. titled The Imaginary Delta. with an emphasis on the issues of perceived ironic distance and the artist’s ethnic background. These methods will be identified before questions surrounding interpretation and reception are discussed. The project. a self-awareness that distinguishes them from more conventional repertory projects. In addition to versions of the methods used by the artists above. In their appropriation of early forms. examples of contemporary practice will be drawn from four bandleaders with varying national backgrounds. The second part of the paper will present my own practical attempt to develop methods of representation that complicate straightforward readings of irony or parody but which acknowledge the constructed nature of such endeavours. Joplin’s ragtime and early Duke Ellington. the Imaginary Delta also uses samples from 1920s recordings. In the first part. Manchester Metropolitan University Imaginary Pasts: Representing Early Jazz in Contemporary Jazz Practice This paper will discuss the representation of early jazz in the music of contemporary jazz musicians. The early musics that form the project’s historical references include vaudeville blues.

” saying that “the combination of jazz and strings has generally resulted in fusty 39 . who mentored Klugh early in the younger guitarist’s career. yet significant. or classical. acoustic guitar. Chet Atkins. a guitarist more closely associated with country music than jazz despite recording a number of “Nashville jazz” recordings in the early 1960s (including two releases with a young vibraphonist named Gary Burton). Peter Freeman. University of Queensland Strings with Jazz The integration of strings with jazz offers immense sonic possibilities.Kevin Fellezs. Citing Chet Atkins as his primary influence and defining pop music as an inclusive rather than a benighted genre. cultural division in jazz that has provoked adverse criticisms. Columbia University Suburban Jazz Meets Cosmopolitan Country: Earl Klugh. the three guitarists’ collaborative work demonstrates that creative interactions between jazz and country musicians can often reveal the compatibilities across difference. George Benson. cites Hank Garland as a major influence. and George Benson This paper investigates the relationships among the guitarists Earl Klugh. few compelling strings-with-jazz standards have been produced to date. Earl Klugh is an anomaly in popular music as a guitarist who has built a career by performing fingerstyle guitar on a nylon string Spanish. Klugh insists that he is a pop music instrumentalist and that jazz is a limiting race-coded term. Atkins faced criticism for his part in creating the “cosmopolitan country” music that incorporated elements from jazz that would come to dominate Nashville production in the 1950s through the 1970s. This paper presents new insights into the hybridisation of musical cultures—specifically the integration of classically trained string players within a jazz ensemble. Most significantly. yet apart from some well-designed classics such as John Lewis’ “A Day in Dubrovnik” and Artie Shaw’s “Interlude in Bb”. Chet Atkins. The music the three guitarists produced individually and with one another not only contested the racialization of jazz and country but also reminds us that conventional jazz histories often ignore Western swing artists such as Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys and that country music histories often ignore early African American country music stars such as DeFord Bailey and Peg Leg Howell. and George Benson as part of a long history of black and white musical crossings across the color line that have been obscured by the particular racialization of jazz and country music. For example the critical and cultural resistance to strings in jazz is evident in the writings of Francis Davis who refers to string sections as being “regarded with suspicion in jazz. It looks beyond the more obvious racial politics inherent in jazz culture to address a more subtle.

I argue that the prize is getting jazz’s undeniable power as a pedagogical tool to work in symbiosis with the performance and audience development. which is usually at the back of the room counting heads. Rather than demonize jazz education for being a success. I propose solutions to some of the more obvious practical problems of integration. therefore. just like the impact of the web on traditional sales and copyright models. and it is hard now to think of a European country that does not afford its young people the opportunity for study at graduate. either as solo instrumentalists or in string sections. This paper. Most music education institutions providing training in jazz in Australia (and to my knowledge overseas) do not include string players. From where I stand. The key feature of this approach is choice of repertoire. in addition to extensive membership beyond Europe’s borders. but there are many aspects and challenges that stem from this choice that require careful attention and a sympahetic understanding of individual capabilities and aspirations. 12 Points! Teach me Tonight: a perspective on the impact of jazz education The onward march of jazz education over the last two decades has been unstoppable.” Julia Bullard also highlight s the historical “negative connotations previously associated with the term ‘crossover’. By my estimate. and therein lies the rub. doctorate levels and beyond through the medium of jazz and related music. it is equally valid to argue that. explores the tension within the jazz scene today where more and more people are playing the music at a time when less and less people are paying to hear it.” the combination of classical and jazz styles. However. it’s hard to escape the conclusion that this growth in educational capacity has been mirrored by a contraction in performance capacity. there are in excess of 30 conservatories/schools with a jazz prospectus in Germany and The Benelux alone.romanticism or amateurish experimentation. This holistic approach results in a more comprehensive understanding of the idiosyncracies inherent in this instrumental integration that not only provides a broader musical palette for jazz artists but also a dissolution of some of the cultural barriers that prevent the discoveries and rewards of an eclectic attitude towards music. the jazz education dynamic 40 . such as the lack of improvisational understanding and rhythmic feel amongst many string players and an occasional lack of musical literacy on behalf of jazz players. part of a wider ecology best represented by organizations like IASJ (International Association of Schools of Jazz) that includes member schools at the European periphery like Ireland and Greece. Gerry Godley.

were keen to create contexts for learning through which they might transcend these limitations. recognising that similar influences may create a similar mindset. 2005. Twelve students were interviewed. However. The concept of ‘individual voice’ Berliner. These seemed to highlight the importance of the peer community and the need for students to consider their own needs as learners and to create contexts where these could be addressed. Blacks and the Blues: Left Filmmakers and the Representation of Jazz in Cold War America In the 1950s the US State Department adopted jazz as a Cold War propaganda weapon. 2005. class and race in their struggle to develop a progressive political movement. Nicholson. In this specific institutional setting. University of York The development of the individual voice within the institutional community This paper draws on the experiences of a group of undergraduate and postgraduate students at a UK university music department in order to explore aspects of emerging identity within an institutional community of practice. tensions emerged between the various pedagogical components of learning. academic jazz teaching and one-to-one tuition. This tradition of cultural analysis 41 . jazz had been a vehicle through which American leftists analysed and explored the complex relationship between culture. This paper examines students’ views on how their learning processes developed within this setting and identifies some examples of practice through which students hoped to attain individuality and accomplishment as jazz musicians. these students. stating their thoughts on learning jazz within institutional ensembles. Beale. As many writers have observed. Louth. University of Nottingham Reds. The findings are likely to be transferable to other institutions and communities of learners. Prouty. sponsoring international tours which showcased the music as a uniquely American art and the cultural form that best defined liberal capitalist democracy. 1975. 2008). Liz Haddon. 2006. as well as detailing their experiences of informal learning within the peer community. institutional belonging may create homogeneity of sound and approach (Collier. Nick Heffernan. 1994) emerged as a particularly significant construct of musical self-identity. Yet for three decades prior to its appropriation by the becoming a disruptive influence on traditional channels for transmission and performance of the music.

echoed the attacks on segregation and American racism being mounted elsewhere by Civil Rights activists and white bohemians alike. Young Man with a Horn (1950). and funk from the 1960s and 70s. This paper looks at three important examples of movie treatments of jazz made by Communists. New Orleans (1947). Though the imposition of the anti-communist blacklist in Hollywood from 1947 onwards severely constrained the expressive range of movie radicals.” which not only draws listeners’ attention to non -Karnatic and non-Indian musical influences but also links their music to the fusion of jazz. Certain musicians in Chennai. Nikko Higgins. This paper questions the benefits and drawbacks of using the word “jazz” with transnational relevance by looking closely at a jazz-influenced musical practice in Chennai. and Indian film music. combine Karnatic music with aspects of Western rock. Moreover. But fusion in Chennai also has broad benefits for understanding music as a way of hearing the cultural changes that 42 . jazz. Is it helpful to consider fusion in Chennai as a satellite of jazz. alongside the films’ visions of posited interracial solidarity. Many call this music “fusion. curtailing the careers of many.and post-independence India. many of whom are trained in Karnatic. India. they use narratives about jazz to develop sharp critiques of bourgeois culture and of American whiteness that. or even a separate manifestation of jazz? There has been increasing interest among scholars to research jazz in India —recent historical studies offer evidence of jazz in five star hotels and the film industry-but lumped together this work risks overstating the importance and influence of jazz in pre. Columbia University Fusion in South India and Directions in “World Jazz” A recent proliferation of research on jazz around the world has led some scholars to use the term “world jazz” to describe and unify these disparate but related practices.and debate on the left informed the work of radicals within the film industry. rock. blacklistees and fellow travellers in the high Cold War epoch. and ultimately exposes the limitations of the understanding world jazz as merely the transnational circulation of jazz. or South Indian classical music. and Paris Blues (1961) stand as exceptions to the customary Hollywood representation of jazz in so far as they seriously engage with the questions of race and class that arise from any proper consideration of the music’s social origins and cultural significance. The practice of fusion in Chennai offers a unique portrait of how improvisation-based music with a high value placed on musical virtuosity could mistakenly lead to conclusions about the ease with which jazz flows transnationally. stories about jazz served as one of the few areas in which they found it possible to continue to articulate a left-wing cultural and political vision.

there is considerable coverage of soul.” This latter trend of jazz -trained musicians lending their instruments and arranging to pop production is highly relevant to both Hayes-influenced symphonic soul and related blaxploitation soundtracks. Norwegian University of Science and Technology.” Indeed. in 1972. in Downbeat of the era. — which topped both Billboard’s jazz and soul charts. my research focuses on cross-genre idioms in this “family” of music. from Roland Kirk to soul artists like Donny Hathaway. Hayes even won the recording industry “Top Jazz Artist” award of 1971. and the elevated production sound of jazzrelated textures in 1970s soul. the growing roles of jazz musicians in pop production. While soul jazz is part of this cross-charts trend. 43 . the period chart sales of such jazz releases as the albums of Miles Davis.” Jazz historiography has mostly avoided examinations of such muddied cross-charts jazz/soul trends. including an extended Hayes interview and reviews of albums and performances. as simply “adult black music. In sum. 1969-1973 This paper explores genre. and outlasted. etc. Billboard argued—with support from artists—that “jazz is soul’s ‘cousin’. hybridization. The same issue includes the article “Looking for Freshness on a Pop Date? Hire a Jazz Sideman. This reflects Quincy Jones’s 1967 remark that “jazz magazines … seem to be writing about everything but jazz. Trondheim “Hot Buttered Soul” and Billboard Jazz: The Curious Case of Isaac Hayes and the Intersections of Jazz and Soul. Core attention is placed on soul albums by Isaac Hayes—Hot Buttered Soul. In a 1972 Billboard issue on jazz.” That said. where jazz-trained musicians were major contributors. and how they vied with. and has important implications for future directions in jazz studies and world jazz. Atlantic’s jazz producer described his releases. and this description read ily captures this music’s core audience. and industry questions around intersections of jazz and soul across 1969 to 1973.transnational circulation enables and blocks. By extension. the Shaft soundtrack. this cross -charts repertory was based on the adult-focused LP medium. it is striking how long Hayes’s decidedly soul-centered albums resided on the Best Selling Jazz LPs charts. John Howland.

and a lot of saxophone. expressed through musical and pedagogical practices often coded as ‘white. However in the 1970s. the debate turns on a few recurrent themes. _____'s a total sellout": The Battle for Jazz on 1970s Radio For many today. swinging syncopation. in its escape of expressive features coded as ‘black. Tristano’s artistic ethos. acoustic instruments. and way-out – mainstream jazz doesn't even need the "mainstream" any more. Jazz discourse has always hosted a contest over content. While there are somehow other styles coupled to jazz – vocals. Columbia University Shifting boundaries or "Man. Toronto It Don’t Mean A Thing: Race and Considerations of ‘Hot’ and ‘Cool’ in the Music of Lennie Tristano Though in many ways an under-researched figure. smooth. Today American jazz is sheltered in a small. Jazz is now neatly defined. while the foundations of these institutional fortifications were being poured. Aaron Johnson. a process which seeks to deny the validity of such racial essentialism.’ may be seen to have served as a means by which Tristano could seek a form of jazz expression which was. York University.’ authentic to his experience of the American cultural landscape.Marian Jago. Invariably. and this situation has favored the ever vigilant jazz purists on the discursive battlefield. which should perhaps be more broadly considered as a creative choice. jazz is jazz. pianist Lennie Tristano has frequently figured in discussions surrounding the racial dimensions of jazz in America. cozy corner of the music industry propped up by non-profit institutions backstopping its small commercial footprint. In exploring Tristano’s artistic ethos. a cool vibe. big band. becomes a flashpoint for discussions of racial essence and musical ownership due to the politically charged space occupied by the drums. an instrument long coded as ‘black’ in cultural and musical discourse. bewildering improvisation. We are then left with a novel theoretical basis for a shared cultural participation in jazz by elements of the white population (Tristano et al) for whom it both held and served to express meaning. Tied closely to this issue are considerations of identity formation in jazz. This employment. Dixieland. Of course this is not really the case today anymore than at any time in its history. both actively and passively. and the role which race plays in such discourse. chief of which is the way that Tristano employed the rhythm section. jazz was 44 . scholars hip by both Paul Gilroy and Ronald Radano will help to (re)define and (re)contextualize the ways in which modes of musical expression have historically been racially coded.

The study reflects results of the research project 45 . could have influence comparable to the purists. both on a local and on an international level. and its boundaries were very much in contention. the academic jazz activities in Graz have not only shaped the local music scene but have also projected abroad by contributing to the internationalization and professionalization of several generations of local and foreign students.fighting for relevance in the marketplace and on the radio. Usually these musicians were accused of selling-out. University of Music and Performing Arts. has built a reputation as one of the first academic jazz institutions in Europe. Some were established jazz artists merely trying to remain relevant while others had a sincere and genuine interest in soul/funk. This paper seeks to explore how the jazz institutions in the rather small city of Graz participated in the formation of jazz identity. This paper considers commercial jazz radio as one of the arenas where the music industry. this paper sketches a case study on identity formation in relation to academic jazz institutions and seeks to construct an explanatory model for similar aspects of jazz identity in other places. Graz Out of nowhere: The role of jazz institutions in Graz in the formation of jazz identity The Jazz Institute at the University of Music and Performing Arts in Graz. their role in the preservation of traditions and development of innovations. Most neglected by jazz and popular music history are jazz-leaning commercial musicians who enjoyed the greater creative freedom and stature as jazz musicians these projects allowed. which not only dominated the supply of musical content to the stations but was also a prime source of their advertising revenue. Since its subdivision into a pedagogical and scientific branch in 1971. but musicians approached this more commercial music from a number of positions. the impact of local practice collectives and the factors of globalization. many of whom have become leaders at various international. academic and nonacademic jazz institutions. In the 1970s a number of jazz musicians experimented in the directions of soulinfluenced and electric jazz and jazz radio responded with access to the airwaves. the Institute for Jazz Research in Graz emerged as a European forerunner regarding the systematic study of jazz. Michael Kahr. Based on the analyses of interviews and studies of historical sources. founded in 1965. In sum. The tension between traditions and innovative approaches as a source of conflict and striving force in the formation of identity is particularly considered. The examination refers to the structure of the jazz institutions in Graz.

and a growing antagonism between the “traditionalists” and the burgeoning avant-garde only enhanced the vitality of a cultural form. Enormous cultural and music diversity collided in shaping a vibrant. Europe Hub. and therefore much less exciting. Soviet Jazz was going through a period of unprecedented popular and artistic upheaval. which has been conducted in Graz since 2011 through a research grant of the Austrian Science Fund FWF. both at home and internationally. it had provided a support without which the feeble jazz edifice could hardly function. Ethnic and religious differences were irrelevant. Freedom to emigrate brought in an unprecedented talent drain: scores of musicians from the former USSR found themselves spread across the US and Europe. The breakup of the USSR created new national barriers. The still existing iron curtain kept it largely isolated from the rest of the jazz world. its own makeshift media and. What’s left? Which forms of jazz life survived? How did the music change? What. Reality turned out to be much harsher. Collapse of communism brought with itself collapse of the entire Soviet state system – hated as it was. most importantly. However. rich and extremely active movement complete with a multitude of festivals. is the role played by different post-Soviet states in relation to jazz? How did the newly found ethnic identity influenced creativity? Has the long dreamt of integration into the international jazz community been achieved? 46 . if any. Alexander Kan. with a rare exception of a Soviet artist allowed to travel and perform in the West and a rare Western star appearing at a concert in Moscow or Leningrad. Newly opened borders made international travel easy. at worst harshly persecuted. throughout the 1970s and 1980s when the ideological pressure shifted to politically much more subversive rock. This isolation only enhanced the need for consolidation and integration of a jazz community spread across the enormous continent from the Baltics to the Pacific and from the Arctic Ocean to Central Asia. The new openness of the 1980s brought a new optimism and a hope for a hitherto suppressed music to receive its long-earned recognition. a sense of a unity. BBC World Service Soviet Jazz – Collapse of an Identity Jazz was always a pariah art form in the Soviet Union: at best reluctantly tolerated.Jazz & the City.

agendas and agencies involved in performing sonic cultural identities. and therefore miss out on the economical benefits of their status as culturebearers. Drawing from sonic studies and spatial theory. 47 .g. social. theoretical/imagined). historical. economical and political elements. reefing). creating new sonic communities. Following contemporary understanding of identity. musicians often name improvisation – a performance practice – as the common element maintaining the music’s relation to jazz. acoustic. and to different social groups – in a space simultaneously sonic. spatial (e.g. sonic cultural identities are viewed as processual and performative. physical/real. This connection is recognised by various agents attempting to capitalise on New Orleans’ status as the ‘birth place of jazz’. socio-cultural. Independent researcher Performing sonic cultural identities: New Orleans brass band music as sonic practice This paper studies the ways in which contemporary New Orleans brass band music performs sonic cultural identities.L Austin’s criteria for performativity are used for analysing the processes. and discursive. but they also perform at other venues attracting different audiences.g. Contemporary brass bands perform in communal events similar to those their early twentieth century predecessors performed in. prospective) and discursive (e. temporal (e. historical. Various sonic cultural identities emerge out of these processes on individual. Music is here conceived of in a broad practicecentred sense taking the cue from Christopher Small’s ‘musicking’ and J. local/neighbourhood. sonic practices are viewed broadly as simultaneously sonic (e. perceptual). whether as a music genre or marketing category. national and international levels with significant social. representational. The brass band musicians are featured in festival postures and publicity acts but rarely get the prime spots.g. Identification through New Orleans brass band music is found to be performed largely by negotiating the music’s historical. Although the New Orleans brass band music has evolved to serve contemporary audiences and the relation to jazz might be hard to establish in formal terms. musical and discursive relation to jazz.Mikko Karjalainen.

music industry managers and musicologists to undertake during the nearest future. fiction and criticism about jazz. A genre that was adopted as an acute representation of the Western realities.which undoubtedly has been vital for jazz adepts during the long years of official persecution towards the “alien music” that had been a synonym to treason according to a notorious saying: “He plays jazz today and betrays his Motherland the next day”. These poets believed in the primacy of the spoken word over the written and the musicians found a new. How have Russian musicians been tending to introduce national features into jazz. we can examine how initially did Russian music influence jazz.Ru Contemporary Russian Jazz: Adoption. and in which way did jazz influence Russian music afterwards. some poets have doubled as jazz players. Tradition or “High Treason”? Last year 2012 jazz in Russia celebrated its 90th anniversary. and is there such notion as “Russian jazz” 90 years after? We will overview the concepts that still make jazz in demand in Russia and understand the reasons of its unawareness within the wider audiences. educators. younger audience from the emerging movement against nuclear weapons and fans of political satire. 48 . Looking back as the perception of jazz in Russia altered through years. semantically and inherently made a shift to correspond with the needs of self-expression for local musicians. Inspired in part by US experiments involving Kenneth Rexroth. a number of English poets began to collaborate with jazz musicians at the end of the 1950s – ‘jazzetry’ was the name coine d by theatre and film director Lindsay Anderson. what features in jazz had adapted on the regional scene. Jazz. But the most intimate association between the two arts has been in performance. as well as on 5 years of personal experience in jazz journalism and music management. The report is based on interviews with artists. . University of Liverpool Jazzetry UK: jazz and poetry in England in the early 1960s Jazz and poetry have been connected in a number of ways: poets have written verse. but also comprehension of the idea of freedom in jazz music on the other. and promoters. and jazz composers have set poems to music or been inspired by works of poetry. It is a matter of fascination with the sound and the rhythm on the one part.Diana Kondrashin. basically to find out what are the tasks for musicians. Jack Kerouac and others. Dave Laing.

Next there is the collaboration between Michael Garrick and a group of poets led by Jeremy Robson. is simply the most salient example of perceptions of Jazz that were widespread and that have proved difficult to eradicate. social. Although the Robson-Garrick project continued sporadically for several decades. especially their lengthy opus Blues for the Hitchhiking Dead with the New Departures band. Bob Lawson-Peebles.” Drummond’s warning will be used to indicate problems in defining the term “Jazz”. Arthur Hislop Drummond. the Liverpool Scene and Pete Atkin. This paper will discuss a group of interwar British novels that portray Jazz in terms of pathology. Eric Linklater. Despite their greatly differing political. to be found on the recording Red Bird Dancing on Ivory. B. The paper aims to show that “Entartete Musik. 49 . Priestley and Aelfrida Tillyard (the sister of a founder of Cambridge English). Finally.The paper will focus on three important examples. the work of Michael Horovitz and Pete Brown. the poetry and music nexus was to pass later in the 1960s to the field of rock music and the paper will reference the work of such figures as Pete Brown with Cream. University of Exeter “The Grave Disease”: the Depiction of Jazz in some Interwar British Novels. J. these writers depict Jazz as a symptom of a mass-produced. produced by George Martin and in the song album Loguerhythms featuring Annie Ross. which included Stan Tracey and Bobby Wellins. whose songs were settings of lyrics by the poet and critic (and jazz fan) Clive James. that “Jazz dancing” was “a very grave disease which was infesting the country. sex-ridden culture that is overwhelming an ageing European culture. The conclusion of the paper will briefly contrast detective novels of John Harvey and Cathi Unsworth to show that the music is still sometimes regarded as a pathogen.” the 1938 Nazi exhibition held in Düsseldorf. The first is the work of Christopher Logue and Tony Kinsey. racial and biological agendas. and to highlight attitudes to the music in novels by John Buchan. Its starting point is the notorious 1919 speech by the senior Anglican cleric. anaesthetised. fatally weakened by the First World War. Aldous Huxley.

where human activities and shared musical experiences intertwined so successfully. leaving only a Mosque and a Church to keep the cloddy soil company. It peaked in Cape Town to displace “a greater number of people than in any other city in South Africa” (Cook. Nevertheless there were a few areas in which jazz was present until the fall of Regime. Jewish and black musicians were banned from stage. 1964). In these years especially Berlin was the European Mecca of the genre. Ordinarily understood as the forced re-settlement of peoples from one geographic area to another. 50 .Jostine Loubser. on the other hand is the antithesis of this. University of Salford “YOU ARE NOW IN FAIRYLAND”: Jazz from District Six Musical spaces are often mythologized as the ‘place to be’ and ‘the place to be seen’ or ‘the place you should have been’. that it became a notable space. including the destruction of District Six. music (and dance) became the ways in which the society was drawn together and held together. a place where ‘you should have been’. In this paper I wish to show the importance of space and place. However. jazz was present everywhere in Germany. Weighed down by the difficulties of poverty and overcrowding. magnified by the segregation of the society. For example. MHMK Munich "Charlie and His Orchestra": Rise and Fall of Jazz in Nazi Germany In the 1920s. I hope to demonstrate the cultural importance of this neighbourhood that. with Charlie and His Orchestra the Nazis established in 1940 even a band that offered first-class jazz – but not for the German population. led to the creation of the musical city. functioning as the main factor that led to “the integration of the society” and the strengthening of the community (Merriam. with special reference to the musical life of District Six. ‘Forced removals’. and used as a vehicle to settle political disagreement. it touched the lives of many people in South Africa during the apartheid years. Martin Lücke. On radio this music was prohibited since 1935 and both british and american records were difficult to buy at least since 1939. Finally I wish to focus on the forced removal of people from this area. the resulting trauma of which led to the composition of an album entitled Jazz from District Six (1970) under the auspices of Cliffie Moses. but for the front. a counter clockwise motion against the creation of a community. ultimately. 1991: 26). during the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1945 jazz music has been massively suppressed by the political system. District Six in Cape Town was once such a neighbourhood.

and aesthetic tenets provide a lingua franca supported by discourses on historical narrative. It is widely accepted that jazz was initially forged in the multi-cultural crucible of its birthplace – in a fusion of the inter-continental musical practices and disciplines of its originators. Haftor Medbøe. jazz music rode the wave of the globalised marketplace to become a truly world music. by virtue of its wartime associations with both imperialism and liberation.The Swing Youth in Hamburg identified with jazz to isolate oneself of the Hitler Youth and even in concentration camps jazz music was played. and the future of jazz amongst the genre’s interconnected scenes. ‘state of the nation’. In contrast. Where Esperanto and Volapük fell by the wayside in the wake of the rise of National Socialism. It is a tragic irony that aspirations for cultural tolerance and cross-border understanding as embodied by Volapük and Esperanto so narrowly preceded the two great wars of the 20th Century – and unsurprising that. which fluctuated constantly between restriction and promotion. although equally a sum of diverse constituents. The germination period of jazz coincides with the first World Congress of Esperanto in 1905 and follows just a short time after the 1889 Paris convention of Volapük. 51 . a basis for rhythmic and tonal improvisation will be arrived at that demonstrates the significance of the musician’s ‘native tongue(s)’ in musical gesture. Napier University Groovin’ high and low: exploring the jazz vernacular Debate over origin and authenticity aside. Zamenhof (Esperanto) and Schleyer (Volapük) individually constructed their universal oral and textual languages from assorted European linguistic stems. evolved formal structures. This performance-based presentation will investigate the application of language based speech pattern to rhythmic phrasing and melodic shaping in musical improvisation. Where there is nothing to suggest that jazz was consciously constructed as a musical ‘auxiliary language’. Standard repertoire. inclusive of cultural difference and universal in message. interpretations of the cultural functions of jazz have become increasingly complex. the musical language of jazz is today spoken and understood amongst a diversity of communities the world over. In my presentation I will look at the changeful use of jazz in the Third Reich. By contrasting spoken phrases in a variety of languages and dialects. there are nonetheless parallels with developments in linguistics of that time. jazz can be observed to have emerged and developed as a democratically defined cultural medium.

and reminding him of ‘the ad hoc ensembles of conga. zombie action’. the author of a critical biography of Ornette Coleman and The Freedom Principle (1984). Arguably the Necks. as an important development’. describing them as starting from ‘a concept that might even be taken. and much other contemporary 52 . University of Technology. delivered a contemptuous. an authoritative study of US free jazz since 1958 which contains chapters on Coleman. as well as free jazz in Europe and pre-1980s US free jazz. where it has atrophied into flashy. Sydney Against the Flow: The Necks vs John Litweiler On the occasion of Sydney minimalist jazz trio the Necks’ first US tour in 2009. the Necks’ bass player. Sun Ra. Eric Dolphy. Miles Davis. meaningless. or mistaken. where far more innovative. Bongo. This encounter between Litweiler and the Necks illustrates much broader issues related to the assumed US (and usually African-American) ‘ownership’ of jazz and the treatment of outsiders such as Australians as irrelevant upstarts who lack the tradition and knowledge to play ‘proper’ jazz. Tony Mitchell. and in particular Scandinavia. blow -by-blow account of the Necks’ performance. the Sydney Improvised Music Association (SIMA) invited prominent US jazz critic John Litweiler to review the band’s concert at the Chicago Cultural Centre in February 2009. and described Litweiler as assuming the ‘prosaic role of timeline controller’ and writing a ‘bloodless account’ which was ‘extremely reductive. this paper will be presented through the use of pre-recorded speech and live electronic looping of guitar. showy displays of solo technique. But it backfired badly: Litweiler. and other hand-drum percussionists who play for hours at the 63rd Street beach house here in Chicago on every warm summer evening’. Cecil Taylor and others. Litweiler is the director of the Jazz Institute of Chicago. to Europe. folk-based music is being produced. I relate it to Stuart Nicholson’s claim (in his 2005 book Is Jazz Dead? (or has it moved to a new address) that the centre of jazz in the 21st century has shifted from the USA. John Coltrane. describing himself as a ‘lazy reviewer’. a regular writer for US jazz magazine Downbeat since 1968. melodic. Lloyd Swanton. It seemed a momentous meeting – a prestigious expert on free jazz reviewing an up-andcoming (although existing for more than 20 years) improvised jazz trio who had received glowing reviews in the UK and Europe and seemed poised to conquer America. devaluing every musical occurrence … to a hollow.Taking referential starting-points from Steve Reich’s use of sampled speech and the spoken word manipulations of pianist Henry Hey. replied with an eloquent and passionate defence of the Necks’ music.

The Newport reissue caused a minor controversy when it also revealed that the original LP was a hybrid creation: producer George Avakian overlaid audience noise and studio overdubs in the studio after the fact. The double-CD boasted 100 minutes of new music with extended liner notes detailing how producer Phil Schaap created a stereo mix by combining the original mono recording with the Voice of America broadcast tapes. this captured saxophonist Paul Gonsalves’s famous solo in full fidelity for the first time. Darren Mueller. Schaap offers the reissue as a historical corrective. Using documents found in George Avakian’s private archive and interviews with both producers. but denigrate another? By closely comparing specific moments from the 1999 CD and 1956 LP. I offer a sonically grounded analysis of records and their reissues that troubles the dichotomy between performance and its recorded other. Schaap disparages the LP as “bogus. In the CD liners. I argue that representations of liveness are at the center of the discursive debates that surrounded the Ellington at Newport reissue.” arguing that post production and “non-musical shenanigans” marred the original LP. fits more comfortably into what Nicholson calls the ‘Nordic tone’ than into outmoded. outdated US norms. how are we to understand the post production needed to artificially create a stereo recording? Why value one production technique. post production. Significantly. as demonstrated by Litweiler’s review of the Necks. and technological mediation impact the circulation and historical understanding of iconic moments on record. if the LP documents an imaginary event created through technological mediation in the studio. 53 .Australian jazz. this paper explores how the means and methods of production. as the centerpiece of their reissue series. Duke University Duke Ellington: Live (but Mediated) at Newport 1956 To celebrated Duke Ellington’s 100th birthday in 1999. since Gonsalves had mistakenly played off mike in 1956. a document of “genuine live music. Ellington at Newport (1956).” and a “hoax.” “phony.” Yet. previously unavailable. Sony-Columbia offered a re-imagining of the Maestro’s greatest-selling record.

Music as Social Criticism One of the features of what Maxwell (2011) has termed the ‘new new jazz studies’ is a reconsideration of jazz’s participation in the civil rights and black nationalist movements of the 1960s. Hodeir would again be routinely cited. The paper will put Theodor Adorno’s writing on the ‘critical character’ of radical music in conversation with African American writers. and Hodeir would emerge as a key figure in the international attempt to translate jazz practice into an extant system of bourgeois artistic values. capable of providing social commentary and alternatives. The paper attempts to. Goldsmiths. who have recognised the potential for social critique in jazz. Tom Perchard. in the wake of bebop and through the 1950s. would take on more and more of the trappings of “art” proper. Anderson. that it is a work’s critical engagement with the musical material that precedes it which allows it to comment on and challenge society. Muyumba. on the other. At the end of the 20thcentury. there is also implied a related but separate notion of the music itself being a critical form. James Baldwin and Bob Kaufman (and the associated scholarship). 2008. While jazz’s role as a mouthpiece of the political intentions of musicians is a focus. on one hand. 2002) by segregation and inequality provided the music with the necessary critical distance. when faithful to the specific demands of its tradition. The paper explores the peculiarities of vernacular expressive criticism. is capable of revealing fresh perspectives on the inadequacies of modern life. 2009). though still a popular. “commercial” music. this time in scholarly critiques 54 . suggest ways in which Adorno’s music aesthetics can be used to augment our understanding of the jazz tradition and what it says about society and. 2003. This paper explicates this idea. to challenge the narrow identification of critical potential with the music of the ‘bourgeois subject’. University of London “We must expand jazz so that we never have to leave it”: André Hodeir’s contested territories The French writer and composer André Hodeir (1921-2011) produced what is commonly acknowledged as some of the most important jazz criticism of the post-war period. Thomas. Royal Holloway University of London Jazz Insists! . contributing to an emergent body of work within jazz studies (Saul. 2007. jazz. It is argued that jazz music. arguing that the ‘quarantine of black life’ (Pavlic. and the space for it to develop with fidelity to the demands of its material. In formation and outlook Hodeir was positioned with unusual equilibrium between classical music and jazz worlds. such as Ralph Ellison.Fumi Okiji.

I discuss curriculum texts’ significance as legal documents and their influence on jazz education in general. The contemporary. There are major differences.of what had come to be seen as a disreputable. and NTNU -Trondheim’s (Norway) jazz curricula. In my presentation I update this research and extend it to altogether four Nordic countries. 13 jazz programs and the related curricula. solo instrumentalists should be recognized from their characteristic. Often jazz education is accused for making jazz sound the same everywhere. but this paper – which examines the Frenchman’s now-rarely discussed music as well as his critical writing – shows that Hodeir’s project to shift the centre of jazz creativity from American culture industry to European art music tradition was far more thoroughgoing than that. Institutions and educators do not pay enough attention to developing of an original expression and style. These critiques focused on Hodeir’s u se of musical analysis. Ari Poutiainen. It is said that contemporary jazz pedagogy is too concerned about technical and theoretical matters. According to a common jazz ideal. scholarly “rethinking” of jazz often equates to the demand that the music’s histories become more global in scope. it was overt in his composition. In 2007 I conducted a comparison between Sibelius Academy’s (Finland). This comparison (an academic article published only in Finnish) revealed interesting differences between the particular curriculum texts. Although far-reaching conclusions of present jazz education cannot be made on the basis of curriculum texts alone. individual performances. for example. This ideal might not anymore be present in contemporary jazz: It is sometimes challenging to distinguish younger soloists from each other. In addition to my analysis report. my analysis does introduce some exciting emphasizes. in the use of theoretical terminology and the ways the artistic independence is textually supported. 55 . University of Helsinki and Sibelius Academy Nordic Jazz Curricula and Personal Voices Jazz art celebrates personal voices. But the troubling cultural politics of Hodeir’s putative European transplantation of jazz creativity and its valorization should give us to reflect more critically on that project. Eurocentric approach to understanding jazz. though the agenda was hidden in his writing. Metropolia University of Applied Sciences’ (Finland).

Such ideas have long played a role in American “jazz diplomacy.” Such perspectives run counter prevailing perspectives on jazz as an exemplar of American identity. in which jazz is used to ques tion or critique aspects of American identity and culture. who pointed to the use of jazz as a way “to be free of America. Using the writings and music of Atzmon as a point of departure. Israeli-born saxophonist and critic Gilad Atzmon suggested that jazz serves as a vital critique of American hegemony and neo-conservative politics. I highlight important parallels betwee n dominant jazz institutions such as Jazz at Lincoln Center. resonate with the ideas of Yui Soichi (quoted in Atkins 2003). Atzmon’s arguments reflect an inversion of the America-centered jazz narrative. Expressions of jazz’s “American-ness” resonate with neo-conservative ideologies regarding America’s identity in global culture. The second thrust of this paper examines efforts by musicians and critics to situate jazz as resistance to perceived American neo-colonialism.Ken Prouty.” Comments such as Atzmon’s. This paper opens with an examination of the relationships between jazz neoclassicism and political neo-conservatism. such statements reflect the complicated and conflicted nature of jazz’s identity within contemporary political landscapes. “to play jazz is to fight the BBS (Bush. “For me.” he wrote.” In invoking a mainstream jazz identity to critique neo-conservative politics. Blair and Sharon) world order…[and] the new American colonialism. yet his criticisms of neo-conservative geo-politics and American-led globalization are framed within his self-identification as a “bop player. and between American cultural ideals and jazz’s critical discourses. Michigan State University Neo-Classic? Neo-Conservative? Neo-Colonialist? Jazz’s Shifting Geo-Political Discourse in the Early 21st Century In a 2004 article in The Guardian. 56 . I illuminate the development and limitations of such counter-discourses. and the ascendant political discourses of American Exceptionalism.” the parallel expressions of jazz as a metaphor for American democracy and as America’s greatest contribution to world culture are central to this discussion.

are reinscribed with a range of local meanings through various performative practices. stokvels or appreciation societies – remain a relatively under-documented aspect of township musical life. or indeed South Africa. The emerging new situation. presented as a dialogue rather than a monologue. University of Helsinki Voices in dialogue: conceptualizing jazz from the Soviet perspective British historian Peter Burke describes our time as marked by a “polyphonization” of history. The idea of ‘polyphonization’ attunes excellently with current developments in jazz studies where the monologue of American centred perspectives has been replaced by a dialogue with voices from the margin – with national jazz cultures and local jazz scenes. which draws on my doctoral ethnographic research. musical commodification and transnational circulation. and implicated in the transformations occasioned by modernisation. Copenhagen. voluntary associations of jazz lovers – known as clubs. for 57 . listening and sociality among South African jazz appreciation societies Among the contrasting post-colonial music scenes to have emerged in South Africa during the transition from apartheid. In doing so. South Africa On Jazz. my study of the social life of jazz in these contexts takes its cue from general calls for a more ethnographically grounded cultural and historical contextualisation of musical listening. no less than musical performance itself. The meanings of well-defined constructs in jazz studies like politics of race and class or tensions between popular and high culture. however. In this paper. culturally and historically contingent. I consider the ways in which listening to jazz. Yet on any given weekend. Heli Reiman. operating at some remove from the formal jazz club and festival circuits that characterise the contemporary neoliberal public sphere. are harmonised with vernacular local soundscapes and aesthetics. Chicago. The polyphonic history is polyglot rather than monoglot. and tells multiple stories rather than a single grand narrative. in a variety of locales ranging from working-class private homes to local taverns to larger community halls. challenges the established categories within jazz discourse. is socially enacted. where globally circulating jazz recordings. NYU & Klein Karoo National Arts Festival. groups of formally constituted jazz aficionados criss-cross urban and rural spaces to attend listening sessions. I examine the particular ways in which jazz is (re)appropriated and reframed in this milieu as sounds with their immediate origins in places like New York. Tokyo.Brett Pyper. and sometimes live performances.

secret police sources. between individual scholars. The comparison of sources from both sides – listener’s surveys by Western radio stations. as the myth will make us believe – really? Or did jazz fans in the socialist countries rather use the jazz broadcasts from abroad as a kind of valve to let off steam in order to cope with grey socialist reality? Did jazz broadcasts even stabilize the system? This paper discusses this question by focusing of the radio listener. Sometimes. 58 . which relies on concepts of the flexibility to travel between disciplines. including the creation of own jazz programs. There is a ‘thin coherence’ between different jazz cultures as William Sewell would say. The paper looks on the situation in Poland. In light of this.demonstrates that listeners acted as autonomous individuals using the broadcasts for their own goals.instance. Vast discourse areas remained separated. the understanding of freedom (political liberation or social niche). Rüdiger Ritter. this study discusses the issues of race. authenticity and art versus popular binary. Czechoslovakia. between historical periods and between different geographical academic communities. autonomy. but it did not work out as Cold War weapon as intended. Referring here to Mieke Bal’s notion of travelling conceptions. Jazz served as a means of cultural transfer. my paper tries to rethink some established constructs in the context of Soviet jazz culture in general and Soviet Estonian jazz culture in particular. Socialist official institutions.g. e. the parallels between Socialist propaganda measures and US cultural diplomacy are striking. can have various implications in the context of culturally dispersed jazz cultures. resistance. implementing a great variety of measures ranging from repression to intensive encouragement of jazz listening. and the Soviet Union by focusing on several case studies. Socialist officials tried to benefit from this. which led to productive misunderstandings. written memories and oral reports . University of Bremen Broadcasting Jazz into the Eastern Bloc – Cold War Weapon or Cultural Exchange? The Example of Willis Conover Willis Conover’s VOA broadcast “Music USA – Jazz hour” helped significantly to crush down the East Bloc. Hungary. the complex of coloured people and black music or the Jewish topic in jazz.

the author from a Berlin newspaper referred to the opening of the show “Sam Wooding and the Chocolate Kiddies“ in May 1925 in Berlin‘s Admiralspalace. Doing so calls into question what counts as jazz criticism. Johanna Rohlf.“ With this quote. Via the novel's narrator N. but bound by common cultural values and history. Mackey's work reaffirms the racial and cultural insularity of what could be called jazz and improvised music. further inquiry of criticism that presents fundamental challenges to the canon is needed. it immediately caused 59 ." in that its writing. Ever since jazz had arrived in Germany in the early 1920s the music and its connotations not only influenced the artistic scene. suggests that genre boundaries and distinctions between "high" and "low" are irrelevant. By accepting some forms of music dismissed by the jazz canon and challenging genre hierarchy N. who can be a jazz critic. who plays reeds in the Mystic Horn Society. It shows how Bedouin Hornbook functions as what Mackey calls a "paracritical hinge. who one could argue is a jazz musician. which transcends genre and style. is a literary representation of the musical and cultural values it espouses. Berlin Jazz on a Journey: The African-American music and its influence on Germany in the 1920s “One can weep. The need for the analysis of such criticism is amplified considering that most who write it represent marginal subject positions. Center for Metropolitan Studies. Interpreting Bedouin Hornbook as a performative form of jazz criticism has several implications for how we conceptualize jazz criticism and its cultural work. they also had a great impact on cultural life and contributed to an era that is now referred to as the “Golden Age”.. University of Kansas Jazz Criticism as "Paracritical Hinge": The Anti-Canonical Project of Nathaniel Mackey's Bedouin Hornbook While numerous scholars study the construction of the jazz canon. and as such. Mackey eschews the idea of a jazz canon in favor of a collection of music that is unbounded stylistically.Christopher Robinson. For N. During the 1920s the use of the term “jazz“ was often lacking a clear understanding of the music behind it. Mackey's inclusion of a discography of the music N. mentions throughout the book challenges the relevancy of the jazz canon and explodes the concept of genre insularity. Yet. This paper argues that Nathaniel Mackey's epistolary novel Bedouin Hornbook is a significant form of jazz criticism that questions the validity of the jazz canon and the values that shape it. one can tremble with rage or one can evenmindedly make a historic entry – New York achieved a major victory over Berlin yesterday. and the validity of genre boundaries.. jazz and improvised music is soaked with cultural meaning. and his letters to the Angel of Dust.

pianist Frans Elsen. The reactions not only reveal many different dimensions of the jazz reception in Germany. the battle contributed significantly to the development of Dutch jazz narratives. The event marked the beginning of the growing tensions between established modern jazz musicians (vocalist Rita Reys. against which individual musicians. in the words of Taylor Atkins. With its unconventional line-up. it will demonstrate. By examining crucial developments and debates in post-war jazz in the Netherlands and by exposing their underlying ideologies. the “transformative powers and adaptive capabilities of jazz. by studying both the musical and extramusical implications of jazz within its local socio-political context.” 60 . pianist Misha Mengelberg. the Netherlands changed jazz The year 1966 was pivotal in the development of jazz in the Netherlands. University of Amsterdam How jazz changed the Netherlands . they also provide a springboard for further questions on German jazz concerning its cultural role and the actual music behind this so passionately discussed word “jazz“. Ultimately. this paper explores the construction of local narratives in jazz and its interplay with local jazz infrastructures. among others) and the emerging group of Amsterdam-based improvising musicians (Breuker. a battle that became known as the “richtingenstrijd”. bands and performances are positioned and valued. During the years their conflicting views in terms of aesthetics and social-political issues created a dichotomy within the Dutch jazz scene that not only shaped jazz’s musico-cultural developments. Loes Rusch.a lively discussion: What is “jazz“? In how far does it offer possibilities to transform the popular music scene in Germany? To what extent would this African-American music have to be adapted by art musicians first in order to be taken seriously? Should it have any impact on German culture at all? The Sam Wooding show from May 1925 gives a vivid impression of this conflict between enthusiasm on the one hand and disapproval on the other hand. drummer Han Bennink). the performance of Willem Breuker’s experimental “Litany for the 14th of June. but also deeply impacted the further institutionalization and organization of Dutch jazz. 1966” at the finals of the Loosdrecht Jazz Competition provoked a scandal and spread discord within the jazz scene. social-political theme and the use of largely precomposed material.

but (to use the terminology of Actor-Network Theory) an effect of a mediating network of human and nonhuman actors. I will present several examples of how their instruments and scores (conceived as actors in my ethnography) mediate the interaction among the musicians as well as the broader jazz culture in which they are embedded. has given the opportunity for almost 200 musicians to reach a substantial online audience. Sebastian Scotney. the relation between improvisation and composition. and has developed a distinctive "voice. Dolphy himself is a good example: his words came to us via a recording of one of his last concerts and his artistry is remembered both because of his compositions and his experiments with bass clarinet and flute. the contours of a composition and recordings of other improvisers. Objects are not stable entities. The site which I run has had now more than 2. This implies that ‘the social’ in jazz is not one thing. University of Cambridge Jazz as Material Culture: Mediating Objects in the Performance Practice of the Instant Composers Pool Orchestra ‘When you hear music." that very often of the musician explaining. The attitude expressed by Dolphy is shared more widely in jazz studies. As their name implies. after it’s over. even the immaterial is always mediated by in 61 . in the air.a practitioner perspective LondonJazz. is an important aspect of their musical practice.’ Eric Dolphy’s famous words define music as something immaterial and intangible. between immateriality and materiality. de-mysifying. However. but active participants in behaviour – Dolphy redefined the bass clarinet just as it redefined him.2 million page views.Floris Schuiling. building a sense of community. In my paper I present some results of my fieldwork with Dutch improvising collective the Instant Composers Pool Orchestra. reaching out. Editor. This paper builds on a presentation I gave at the Birmingham Music and the Media conference in Oct 2011 (on video at http://musicandthemedia. However. an improviser’s ‘voice’ in Monson’s conversation is mediated and made possible by a creative engagement with his or her instrument. Ingrid Monson has shown how jazz musicians enact and comment on culture. LondonJazz Giving the musician a voice online . as material culture scholars have shown. You ca n never capture it again. it’s gone. but her idea of improvisation as ‘saying something’ implies an ideal of unmediated personal expression.

So was the trad boom just an excuse to use national stereotypes as a marketing device such as the "Bilk Marketing Board". George Webb and Humphrey Lyttelton looked back to New Orleans exiles in 1920s Chicago. Acker Bilk's uniform of waistcoats and bowlers and Dick Charlesworth's City Gents chimed with hits like Bilk's "Summerset". but more subtle influences quickly crept in. and Ken Colyer.discussing the development of the site. for example. Alyn Shipton. Acker Bilk and Chris Barber looked to the more recent revival of the 1940s with Bunk Johnson and George Lewis. Drawing on statistics about readership. But both groups of musicians quickly began a process of assimilating aspects of British national identity into their music. So. the British traditional jazz revival of the 1950s and 60s was a conscious attempt to re-engage with the New Orleans jazz of the past. By contrast. or was this the beginning of a deeper exploration of British multiculturalism. such as his "Merrydown Rag" ten years before Mike Garrick and Graham Collier began similar integrations of English folk and modern jazz. Chris Barber wrote locally inspired themes. for example. Lyttelton's work with the Paseo Jazz Band and Freddy Grant's Caribbean band was an early investigation of multicultural influences in London musical life. Royal Academy of Music/BBC Questions of National Identity in the British Traditional Jazz Revival In principle. with Barber working towards Caribbean fusions with with Bertie King and Joe Harriott alongside Lyttelton's Paseo experiments? 62 . With Lyttelton this was a mixture of the straightforward adoption of folk themes ("One Man Went To Mow" became his one-man overdubbed band "One Man Went To Blow") and a gradually more subtle process of reflecting different aspects of UK culture. I explores ways in which the community works and shed light on the role and value of the site. there were themes inspired by London "Red For Piccadilly" or by the rural harvest (Graeme Bell's "Apples Be Ripe"). including "Only For Men" which was about Gillette Razors and Kenny Graham's "One Day I Met an African" which explored the African immigrant community in London. the "trad" boom saw far more explicit links to British stereotypes.

With particular reference to the creation. George W. Reconsidered In contrast to the enthusiasm with which jazz elements were introduced into art music in the early decades of the 20th Century by many European composers – among them Dvorak. Milhaud. and George Antheil (Jazz Symphony. and – contrary to much of the critical discourse on the style – in this paper I argue that many early examples of jazz-influenced classical music deserve to be heard anew. not only as obvious precursors of Gunther Schuller’s Third Stream movement. of the musical style that came to be known as ‘symphonic jazz’ saw such attempts become more commonplace. 1921). and rather isolated attempts at incorporating elements of African-American music into so-called serious music. acknowledging not only their musical but also their broader cultural significance. and some pieces by figures such as Charles Ives. and Ravel – the early influence of black spirituals. Chadwick and Henry F. The advent. Stravinsky. Notwithstanding these criticisms. ragtime. somewhat tentative. context. 1924). I suggest that pieces such as these went on to have a significant influence on several important strands of jazz development. the symphonic jazz movement was the source of many fascinating attempts at musical crossover. Debussy. George Gershwin (Rhapsody in Blue. Notwithstanding popular stereotypes of cultural independence and rugged individualism.Alan Stanbridge. and jazz on American composers was considerably more muted. with Martin Williams’s dismissal of the period’s “pompous ‘symphonic jazz’ nonsense” being typical of the trend. and reception of works by John Alden Carpenter (Krazy Kat. but also in terms of their impact on many subsequent contemporary innovations. although not without continuing resistance from the classical and jazz worlds alike. in the 1920s. 1927). University of Toronto Krazy Kats and Rhapsodies: Symphonic Jazz. Gilbert represented early. 63 . and symphonic jazz was soon a much-maligned and much-neglected form. American art music composers at the turn of the century remained heavily indebted to Europe for their musical influences and compositional norms.

But is there a weary 64 .” How can we understand why audiences come to Wally’s and how they engage when they come? In this paper. Emerging digital technologies and web streaming services could provide genuine opportunities for practitioners and aficionados to cultivate and strengthen jazz. record labels. University of West London Tuning to a Different Channel This paper examines emerging trends in the digital dissemination of music. and impact? Jazz musicians and communities characterize themselves as forgotten and frequently overlooked within the contemporary music landscape. and behavioral aspects of the club.Alex Stein. Understanding the appeal of Wally’s and the predominance of distracted engagement requires attention to the ideational and associational valences that jazz and live music have historically in connection with the imagined histories of jazz clubs and speakeasies. It also requires an engagement with the physical. acoustic. and computer apps. spatial. radio stations. Brown University Understanding Distracted Engagement at Wally’s Jazz Club: Nightlife and the Jazz Club Imaginary The phenomena at Wally’s jazz club in Boston – a packed house of young people for jazz and the predominance of a distracted or divided mode of engagement – are problematic in light of jazz’s status as both niche music and “listening music. and build new audiences. Based on fieldwork conducted in March and April 2012. I use patrons’ responses to investigate how their ideas and expectations – surrounding the history of Wally’s. and in connection with the specific history of Wally’s. appeal. and ideas about jazz. but also broadens its constituency. ownership. to influence listening habits. imaginary notions of jazz clubs and speakeasies. Jonty Stockdale. and are characteristically resigned to battling from the margins for greater recognition from funding bodies. dovetails with a historically complex pattern of social behavior and ideology associated with both jazz and with the spaces in which it is taken in. community and audience are being re-negotiated. and promoters. engaged in different activities and engaged in divided activity. Notions of jazz identity. and considers specifically the impact of new ways of consuming jazz that arise from the use of online streaming services. how might jazz musicians influence new channels of communication to ensure that jazz not only maintains a voice. I argue that the presence of so many people. and improvised music – are fulfilled in their experience of the club. and in this window of opportunity and change.

the big-band swing trappings that accompanied the pop-soul singer Justin Timberlake ’s appearance at the Grammy Awards in February 2013. for example. Marcel Swiboda.and improvisation-based mobilizations of image. sound and text to be entirely superficial or arbitrary. and disturbing extant processes of canon formation.sense of the inevitable: that the dominant musical inclinations. The paper will undertake a reading of the recent take-up of jazz and improvisation in media and cultural discourse as symptomatic of the critical 65 . one might also consider the entirely negative take-up of the term ‘improvisation’ in contemporary media discussions surrounding terrorism and insurgency as another case of rhetorical remobilization of jazz-related tropes. jazz and improvisation have recently re-entered mainstream media and cultural discourse. On appearances. analysis of data from on-line content-streams will be used to provide insight to the collective listening habits of remote listeners. as just two among numerous cases in point. or the use of jazz references as narrative features of the highly successful TV series Homeland. the recent remobilization of jazz figures and tropes in popular culture – parallel to but at the same time beyond jazz’s ‘niche’ status as radio-friendly ‘smooth’ music – doubtless implies a form of shopworn postmodern nostalgia. and industry attitudes will prevail regardless? To inform this debate. Salamone as a characterisation of jazz music’s inherent criticality and – in a different yet related context – by the philosopher Bernard Stiegler in his tracking of the potential inherent in contemporary ‘analogico -digital’ technologies to engender a new ‘culture of reception’. Consider. and to consider how this on-going accumulation of individual response is already changing perceptions of jazz. this paper will consider them as symptomatic of the growing need for a renewed sense of criticality in contemporary culture and to consider what resources a more substantive return to jazz and improvisation in cultural production and reception might proffer in the way of critical culture: an expression simultaneously used by the anthropologist and sociologist Frank A. Less innocuously. Rather than assume these jazz. University of Leeds The Uses and Abuses of Jazz and Improvisation in an Age of Hyper-Medial Reproduction Against the grain of the decades-old proclamations of jazz’s ‘death’.

1995). many of them dependent on small-scale promoters and unpaid enthusiasts (Review of Jazz in England Consultative Green Paper. digital technology facilitates the creation of participatory cultures (as theorised by Henry Jenkins) by individual musicians. improvisation and technologies of mediation can be brought an affirmative critical conjuncture – in particular in the context of the epochal technological. but increasingly necessary. Since the end of the ban on visiting American musicians. and has maintained a cultural presence up to the present day. Reference will be made to specific case-based examples of the recent mobilizations of jazz and improvisation in both ‘analogue’ and ‘digital’ modalities and their contemporary imbrication. its coverage by the mass media. Tom Sykes. performances 66 . jazz has enjoyed periods of relative popularity in Britain. Arts Council of England. and is widely regarded as the foremost example in the jazzinfluenced style. and their ‘analogico -digital’ interfaces. At the same time. independent record labels and jazz fans – how is this technology affecting the local jazz scenes in the UK? Would such scenes function or even survive without email. between twentieth-century ‘analogue’ modes of mass mediality and twenty first century ‘digital’ modes of hypermediality. this paper will investigate the use of digital networks in fostering and maintaining jazz at ‘grassroots’ level. state funding and support from the larger music industry appears to be declining. at a time when a ‘do -ityourself’ approach seems not only to be desirable. epistemic and cultural shifts current taking place.impasses facing contemporary culture (academic culture included) and as providing potential material for addressing these impasses. jazz promoters. Using case studies from current local jazz scenes in northwest England. The means by which the paper proposes to redress these impasses is to consider some of the ways in which jazz. Despite a rich diversity of recorded interpretations which exposes the Rhapsody as a flexible and ever-changing entity. Catherine Tackley. However. University of Salford Jazz in the Big Society: participatory cultures and local jazz scenes in Britain Jazz has had a place in British culture since the beginning of jazz itself. video sharing sites and social networking? Local scenes have been an essential part of jazz culture in Britain for many years. Open University Rethinking Jazz and Rhapsody in Blue George Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue is one of the best-known pieces of American music.

composition and improvisation while simultaneously contributing to debates surrounding race. progressive rock. (e. Carmen McRae. within the jazz community there also existed a female network of musicians and artists and in this paper. I hope also to deepen our perspectives on the nature of the locations where jazz was created and by 67 . These performances invite reconsideration of the Rhapsody’s inherent properties and the established boundaries between interpretation. women have been circumscribed in jazz environments to the roles of audience members. Goldsmiths. Helen Oakley and Mabel Mercer) and the impact it had on the artistic material she produced. However. arrangement. I will be considering the working relationship of Holiday with some of the female members of her milieu. Historical recordings. How women have been described has in the past influenced the description of the origins of jazz and the created narratives of the genre’s origins. Holiday was often spoken of approvingly as “one of the guys” by fellow band members. In addition to Ferde Grofé’s orchestrations. genre and American cultural identity. girlfriends or sex workers. Even though historically. rather than scores. preserve certain details that have been influential on interpretative approaches. (Nat Shapiro and Nat Hentoff. but in particular the central slow theme) by jazz musicians. Irene Armstrong. These versions have both popularised and problematised the identity of the work which has resultantly attained novelty status with regard to the jazz and classical canons.g. including jazz. Holiday became part of the close-knit New York jazz community which has generally been presented as being largely male in membership. and has been subject to sustained criticism from those engaged in their formation. and easy listening. 1955). University of London Billie Holiday and Gendered Networks of Collaboration Once established as a vocalist. 1975). vocalists. and the relatively wide adoption of the Rhapsody (holistically. These encompass the improvisation in Gershwin’s own performances. ideas of jazz that are brought to bear on the work by many classical performers. and also cross freely between them. many arrangements have been recorded which adhere to the stylistic conventions of particular genres. (John Chilton. This paper illuminates the multifarious ideas of ‘jazz’ which are active in nearly a century of renditions by exploring the performance history and practices of the Rhapsody through the analysis of recordings.have not yet been subject to the same degree of critical scrutiny as manuscripts. Rhapsody in Blue has had a particularly problematic musical and critical relationship with jazz. Jasmin Taylor. including several with Gershwin himself at the piano.

close readings of material on Holiday reveal that jam sessions often took place in domestic environments and/or female only suppers could steer a song towards being taken up and recorded. uses a variety of approaches. Kurt Elling. the intention is not only to argue how jazz sounds and spaces are gendered whether women are in within them or not but also to see what we can learn when we theorise from the representations and experiences of women in this area of music. Solveig Sletahjell uses popular songs. It has been said that the “past is not dead. Robin Thomas. there are a number of trends to show that some singers are keen to develop new ideas. rhythm and improvisation. it is not even past” and in this view the tribute concert plays with the past in creating a historical liveness where the concert is a site of memory for musicians and audiences.moving and intense style. collective memory. including scat. This approach makes it possible to recover women’s culture and women as historical actors and also challenge a dominant jazz discourse where the contributions of women have often been erased or misrepresented. However. pared down approach. The paper will analyze tribute concerts as a site of cultural memory considering topics such as nostalgia. Rhythmic Music Conservatory. The paper will therefore focus on a critical examination of vocal jazz music which moves away from the American songbook. Theo Bleckman uses electronics and looping with unusual song vehicles.whom. and a simple. A similar approach is seen in the work of New York-based Kate McGarry. and reception in relation to this peculiar 68 . Like Sherrie Tucker (2002). The work of Robert Glasper is also of great interest in that he fuses various pop and rap influences with a sophisticated jazz approach. possibly the leading male jazz singer at present. Mikkel Vad. For example. but in a slow. vocalese. Norwegian singer. and recently composed material. Denmark The ”Tribute Concert” as a Site of Memory During recent years the so-called ”tribute concert” has gained a prominent position in concert programmes at jazz venues and festivals. Celebrating an album. Gretchen Parlatto has a very adventurous approach to material. University of Huddersfield The Evolution of the Jazz Vocal Song: What comes after the Great American Song Book? The American Songbook is still dominant in the jazz vocal repertoire. musician or event these types of concerts serve as a visible and audible form of history culture.

" Such is the fascination with death that there is an entire monograph dedicated to Jazz and Death (Spencer 2002). which evolve around genius. which "reveals the truth behind the deaths of jazz artists and the secrets of their often fatal lifestyles. My paper looks at these fascinating narratives of jazz and death. At the core of this musical practice are an imagined jazz tradition and the canonical jazz icon (be it a person. is used to painfully expose him as mentally disturbed. whose music is full of Devil's intervals. elsewhere in the film likened to the Pied Piper of Hameln. But such virtuosity clearly comes at a cost. On the other hand they have had success in creating a living history where musicians and audiences interact with history in the present. an album or a historical event). Jazz biographies tend to be full of such Romantic notions. but rather how it should be preserved. from the death of the lone and misunderstood Bix Beiderbecke to the the larger-than-life Duke Ellington for who death was "the only problem he couldn't solve. Her passing ominously pre-shades his own. In Ken Burns's "Jazz" for instance--the documentary we all love to hate--Charlie Parker's death is spun out to drive home what seems to be a Faustian parable. Earlier in that episode. has a special fascination for death." is blatantly absent from this morbid collection. and at 34 Parker is dead of substance abuse. The most important question. These different positions on the subject will be discussed. Walter van de Leur." neatly organized in categories such as "trauma" and "syphilis". the death of Parker's daughter Pree. University of Amsterdam Last Notes: Narratives of Jazz and Death Jazz mythology. success and failure.phenomenon. Parker is a genius. icons. and (living) legends. not so much as questions of what the jazz tradition is and consists of. 69 . represented and literally played and performed. In reception and critical discussion these concerts have been considered by some to be aesthetically suspect in their ”necrophilia” and hagiographic representation of jazz icons. "why do we even care?. full of heroes. As such the tribute concert is a case of showing or playing history rather than telling or writing it. and discusses how these mythologies represent certain ideas about jazz.

Indeed. rock and punk freaks. musicians from other cultures (Brazil. In a gallery cooperation between improvisers and artists or dancers (if there is enough space) is possible. churches. I would like to initiate an exchange of experiences with colleagues who organize concerts in a similar way and exchange views about the development in musical concepts in local communities in relationship to the kind of venues. 70 . mostly in very specific ways. Japan. Africa. and dancers. Latin America…). etc. noise and jazz/improvised music. The traditional jazz club is obviously not the right place for combinations of techno and jazz/improvisation or electronic music. its advantages and difficulties and the influence of the venue on the development of the local scene. former factories. India. similar ideas turned up in many other cities. freelance musician Developing a local scene by self-organized concert series: relations between performing venue and the development of (Jazz) music As opportunities for playing jazz and/or improvised music become less and less there is a necessity for musicians to organize concerts by themselves. The relatively small amount of musicians in the university town of Goettingen encourages cooperation of musicians from very different fields: "free Jazz". Finally. it is common for improvising musicians to play in galleries. All kinds of cooperation developed from the weekly music series and new groups were formed crossing very different styles. theatres.Ove Volquartz. this may include videoinstallations etc. Obviously the variety of venues has an influence on the music: the acoustic of a church can change the sound concept of a musician or a group. electronic wizards. The venues have changed a lot. This was/is done by the AACM in Chicago. symphony orchestra and contemporary music players. Using my experiences as an improvising (jazz) musician and organizer of a weekly improvisation series in a small gallery I would like to give an insight to the concept of the "Shopping Music" series.

Although Ellington had agreed with Columbia Records to release the live version of the performance. from the Eighteenth Century onwards. that the theorist had recently been working on. Lawrence Woof. Leeds College of Music Newport Up! Liveness. theorizing the implication of the deception of a generation of jazz followers. mic placement on the night meant that the recording was unsuitable. suggesting that a revision of jazz history may be in order.Katherine Williams. perhaps because Coleman seems more interested in presenting himself as a composer rather than an improviser?). Rasula’s ‘seductive menace’ is thrown further into question as I compare the 1956 Newport recording with remotely recorded versions of the original performance discovered and released in 1999. I translate Philip Auslander’s ideas of liveness in popular music into a jazz setting. I use the Ellington Orchestra’s 1956 performances and recordings as a springboard with which to explore the construction of a globally accepted jazz narrative. seminally imagined by Walter Benjamin as the Angel 71 . collected and studied by jazz fans. also be applied to the issue under discussion? Can the idea. In this paper. I use the Duke Ellington Orchestra’s infamous performance at the Newport Festival in 1956 as a case study with which to investigate the place of the live recording in jazz. freelance musician Jazz and the Angel of History This paper will consider the cultural politics of improvisation. and asks the question. and will begin with a brief overview of the history of the cultural discourses surrounding Western improvisation. and the way that these recordings are reified. The performance released a few days later was a hastily assembled studio re-creation of the live gig. The idea that a ‘live’ jazz recording can fix in time a seemingly spontaneous moment of improvisation is problematic in itself. artifacts. musicians and scholars imbues them with cultural heft. leading towards the post-bebop definitions that emerge from the Jacques Derrida/Ornette Coleman interview that took place in Paris in 1997. and the seductive menace of jazz recordings revisited Jed Rasula’s compelling analysis of the construction of jazz history through the ‘seductive menace’ of recordings opens up man y questions about the nature of jazz records as historical artifacts. This paper will then consider improvisation in the light of the ‘mystical turn’ that Derrida’s thought was taking during the 1990s (though it is only hinted at in the interview. could the radical politics of Derrida’s Spectres of Marx.

of History flying backwards - recouping the whole of the past in the everpresent moment - that Derrida refashions in his own remarkable rethinking of Das Kapital, also provide a model for thinking about improvisation? The paper concludes with a consideration in the light of the above of that existential balance between the past, the present and the future that is – from a performative point of view - conjured into existence at the moment of improvisation. Per Zanussi, University of Stavanger

Composition for improvising musicians - with particular focus on Asian compositional techniques as structures for improvisation
This paper’s starting point is a desire for artistic research which organizes music with a high degree of improvisation. I have chosen to focus primarily on the use of compositional techniques, from asian music mixed with techniques from western music, as effective structures for improvisation. I will start by using approaches from the Korean Sinawi genre mixed with Western compositional techniques as a basis for etudes, compositions and musical "guidelines" and systems for improvising performers. I plan to test these both solo and in large and small ensemble formats, as well as in teaching situations. I want to see if they can be used as effective structures for improvisation, as preparation for free improvisation etc. How can you keep a high level of composition while still providing improvising performers a sense of being able to express themselves "freely" in the musical context? How do you balance the composer's material and the improviser's personal material, arsenal of techniques, her understanding of form etc? I also want to see whether there are new ways of organizing (free)improvisation that do not necessarily end up as music without melodic, tonal or rhythmic foundation, but that can include these elements. The goal of the project is therefore to create music with new approaches to the organization and execution of improvisation by studying a mix of older Asian folk music and western art music. When it comes to Western techniques I am interested in using free tonal and serial techniques, conceptual composition, modal techniques, graphical composition (e.g.Cardew), "game" techniques (e.g. John Zorn's "Cobra"), instrument independent and approximated composition, conducting techniques (e.g. Sound Painting and Barry Guy). Sinawi is a scale based/heterophonic modal music with rules for appogiatura, vibrato, trills, etc. that are different for each note of the scale. There are also

certain rules for rhythmic and melodic development within each piece. At the same time, it is very open to the personal expression of the performer and has some aspects in common with improvised jazz. In ensemble situations collective improvisation within the rules is the main focus. Asian music (and especially the Korean form Sinawi) is interesting to me in this context because I think its organization and systems can be transferred to several genres without necessarily sounding like Asian music. I do not want to create "World Music" or exotica, but rather develop tools that can be used within multiple genres where composition and improvisation are combined and as preparation for "free" improvisation. The building blocks of the music and how they work is what I'm interested in, not necessarily the aesthetic expression. The basic components will be the base of my artistic research.


Poster Presentations
Poster presentations will be delivered during lunch breaks on Friday and Saturday. Please the poster boards in reception over the two days and talk to researchers about their work! Alison Eales, University of Glasgow

Glasgow Jazz Festival and its Venues
What makes a suitable venue for a jazz festival? This poster will illustrate various different attributes of music venues - architectural and aesthetic features, acoustic features, ambiance/atmosphere, and the attitudes of those who own and run them - with specific references to The Old Fruitmarket, a venue used heavily by Glasgow Jazz Festival since 1993. Drawing on primary sources such as company paperwork, press coverage and interviews, this research seeks to assess the suitability of the Old Fruitmarket, and the adjoining City Halls, as the Festival's 'home'. This is part of my AHRC-supported PhD research into the history of Glasgow Jazz Festival. Jamie Fyffe, University of Glasgow

The European influences of Bill Evans: Reassessing their impact on Kind of Blue through musical analysis
Bill Evans played for the Miles Davis Sextet for only a matter of months, yet his impact on the group was profound, culminating in the seminal recording Kind of Blue (1959). Evans brought a deep love of classical music to the group, introducing Davis to the works of many European (and Soviet) composers. Davis acknowledged his influence and European music appears to surface in the impressionistic ‘Blue in Green’ and Iberian ‘Flamenco Sketches’. Evans claims to have composed the former and co-written the latter, despite Davis being formally credited with the entire album. This paper attempts to measure the impact of his European influences on Kind of Blue (1959) by assessing the validity of his compositional claims. Using musical analysis it reaches two key conclusions: (1) Evans was involved with the composition of both pieces; (2) Davis was conceptually more advanced.

Two comparative analyses will be presented examining (1) the improvised lines of ‘Flamenco Sketches’ and (2) the melody of ‘Blue in Green’. The first compares how each musician approached the Phrygian section of ‘Flamenco Sketches’ (which provides the piece with its characteristic Iberian flavour). The second compares the distinctive use in ‘Blue in Green’ of extended notes in its melody with other recent tunes composed by Davis and Evans. The study concludes that although the impressionist piano style of Evans was integral to the success of Kind of Blue (1959) compositionally its European influences stem from Davis. Only he improvised fluently using the Phrygian mode and had composed using extended tones. This finding enriches our view of how culture moves between musical traditions, demonstrating how obvious sources of influence can oversimplify complex processes. Matthias Heyman, University of Antwerp & Royal Conservatory Antwerp

Picturing Blanton: visual sources in researching Jimmie Blanton’s bass playing
James ‘Jimmie’ Blanton (1918-1942), best known for his tenure with the Duke Ellington Orchestra between 1939 and 1941, is widely regarded as one of the key figures in the development of jazz bass playing. His technical and stylistic advancements gave him the status of a revolutionary pioneer and established him as an ‘artistic hero’ in the pantheon of jazz (bass) history. However, this jazz version of the ‘Great Man’ theory leads to sweeping generalisations and consequently does not give us an accurate, informed insight of Blanton’s bass playing. Therefore, in this project we aim to analyse and situate Blanton's artistic output in its historical context using a combination of methods such as transcription, comparative musical analysis, archival research and musical experimentation. Based on a strong theory practice nexus, the results will provide a deeper understanding of Blanton’s bass playing in the proper musical and historical context. On this poster we focus on the use of visual sources. By comparing photographs and videos of bassists in the thirties and forties we determined that the typical posture of the right hand prior to the forties was unanchored. Since the forties we saw an increased use of an anchored posture, enabling the bassist to employ a hornlike solo style. Since Blanton is usually seen as the pioneer of this solo style, we would expect him to use an anchored right hand. However, photographic evidence shows that Blanton combined the ‘traditional’ unanchored posture with the more ‘modern’ anchored posture, giving us a more nuanced view of Blanton as a revolutionary pioneer. Overall, this poster aims to demonstrate the importance of visual sources in

These realizations complicate the analysis of historical and contemporary understandings of African signifiers. recognizable in the naming of works through certain signifiers. jazz as a form owes a significant part of its aesthetic to African influences. Most important. Joseph McLaren. The rhythmic and improvisational elements of jazz can be paralleled to the polyrhythms of West African drumming ensembles and the improvisational possibilities inherent in the role of master drummers. the dates of certain works can be indicative of the artist’s interest in signifying Africa at important moments in its history. Wayne Shorter’s.” Billy Harper’s Somalia. “Randy Weston’s “Zulu. ethnic groups. South African Abdullah Ibrahim. has also signified Africa as in Cape Town Fringe or African Dawn. ethnic. such as the African Independence era of the 60s. the result of sojourns.researching musicians and their playing styles. Are these signifiers merely imagined nationalistic or ethnic connections.” Sonny Rollins’s “Airegin” (Nigeria spelled backwards). or poetic images. particularly nations. However.” Furthermore. The above works are primarily instrumental. New York Rethinking the African Link: Nationalism and Ethnicity as Jazz Signifiers It is well known that in addition to Western musical structures. “Angola. Hosftra University. and Wynton Marsalis’s Congo Square or Blood on the Fields demonstrate the use of African signifiers. to what extent have jazz musicians signaled other linkages to Africa. and argues for a truly holistic approach when revising jazz history. are numerous. Duke Ellington’s “La Plus Belle Africaine” or Togo Brava Suite.” Jimmy Heath’s Afro-American Suite of Evolution. but may have had a different intention in his use of African signifiers. and it is through the musical imagination that they paint what Duke Ellington referred to as “tone parallels. or and racial sentiments. Jackie McLean’s “Appointment in Ghana. Buddy Collette’s Tanganyika. who emerged from the African continent but is recognizably international. John Coltrane’s “Dahomey Dance” or Africa/Brass. 76 . certain titles evoke names of African nations whose legacies have been complicated by internal conflict or neocolonial predicaments. Titles that employ African signifiers. or do they show an underlying political or cultural link intended by the artist or assumed by the listener? In addition. This paper poses a rethinking of the African connection in jazz by considering the relationship between titles of compositions or recordings and nationalistic.

Sweden. performing at key international festivals in mainland Europe. 2009]). 2004/2006]). Distortion Trio and Bourne/Davis/Kane and was beginning to work in a wider context. Matthew will be performing as part of the opening reception on Thursday 11 April at the CUBE gallery with Christophe de Bezenac and on Friday 12 April at Media City UK with the Bourne-Davis-Kane trio. Canada and the USA. 2005]. 2001. USA. 2007] and Songs from a Lost Piano [Arts Council/Sound and Music. Bourne was the recipient of the IJFO (International Jazz Festivals Organisation) International Jazz Award in 2005. Scandinavia.Artist in Residence . Bourne’s unique ability to create powerful imagery through an esoteric piano language along with spoken word samples earned him the Innovation Award at the BBC Radio Jazz Awards in 2002. 2006] and Dinner Music for a Pack of Hungry Cannibals [FuseLeeds.Matthew Bourne Pianist and composer Matthew Bourne first came to national attention as one of the winners of the Perrier Jazz Awards in London. as well as classical composition (…and I didn’t fall in love. 2012) as well as several collaborative works. in the UK and Europe. 2009]). 2011]) and collaborative electronic works (Phone Book [Michael Tippett Foundation/Bath International Festival. Bourne has released two solo albums ( The Molde Concert. 2004] and Written/Unwritten [London Sinfonietta. 2007 and Montauk Variations . UK. 77 . Autumn 2004 [BBC/London Jazz Festival. Bourne had become co-leader of The Electric Dr M. 2006]. Here is Always Somewhere Else [Rene Daalder. Throughout the last decade Bourne’s particular stamp of individuality and virtuosity. attracted commissions from major festivals and organisations to write and produce large-scale projects (The Glenn Miller Project [Leeds Fuse Festival. with other international jazz musicians and with producers such as Dan Berridge (Broadway Project) – a successful partnership that has resulted in the music for two albums (In Finite [2006] and One Divided Soul [2009]) and three award-winning films (Indians [Richard Penfold. again. 2008] and Flikan (The Girl) [Fredrik Edfeldt. 2009] and music for dance (Mekwae and The Dancical [RJC Dance. Ending [Conservatoires UK. By the end of 2005. combined with an uncanny ability to communicate with his audiences.

I’ve opened it up to players in other genres of music . The location. Visit: www. His contribution to jazz culture was recognised by the American Jazz Museum in Kansas City where his work has been exhibited on two occasions. I photograph musicians on the road at venues. bars and restaurants and sometimes at home. Jazz is such a diverse idiom of course. Tommy Emmanuel and Anna Gabler . This is an ongoing project.’ The first person I approached was Stan Tracey and he very kindly agreed – Mr. It’s very moving and a great privilege to hear players talk so generously about the music that is so dear to them .william-ellis.and soon figures working in other aspects of the arts. for exhibition and presentation enquiries please contact: w@william-ellis. date and links to the artist’s site and chosen album are given in the caption so if people want to learn more about the recording and maybe get hold of it they can do. The Rhythm Changes project is delighted to include examples from Ellis’s exciting new project at the CUBE gallery in 78 . Each portrait is accompanied by a short interview that explores the album's meaning and value for the subject. Tracey doesn’t do small talk so I knew when he said yes the project had legs.people like Johnny Marr.CUBE Gallery. on the website you can see styles represented from Acker Bilk to Soweto Kinch along with American artists like Robert Glasper and Terence Blanchard.and in many instances helped set out the course of their artistic lives. 5 – 14 April 2013 William Ellis William Ellis is well known for his performance and portrait photography and has exhibited and given talks on his work all over the world. Al Jarreau was photographed and interviewed between sets. The One LP Project ‘One LP .a study of the artist portrayed with a favourite recording.

Humans only stole it .we borrowed it . Manchester. It holds the universe together. 24th March 2011 ------------------------"It's called L'Ascension by Olivier Messiaen who was a French composer I have loved for most of my life." Jack Bruce 79 . ask any skylark or ask any blackbird they'll tell you.L'Ascension by Olivier Messiaen Photographed at Band on the Wall.but it's in nature. Why I love his compositions is he shows that music has always existed.One LP: Jack Bruce . Follow us on Twitter: @rhythmchanges Conference hashtag: #salfordjazz13 80 .‘Rethinking Jazz Cultures’ Organising Committee Nicholas Gebhardt George McKay Tom Sykes Walter van de Leur Tony Whyton www.

ETF. IRCHSS. FWF. FNR.heranet. RCN. HAZU.Project Partners Rhythm Changes is financially supported by the HERA Joint Research Programme (www. DASTI. 81 . MHEST. RANNIS. under the Socio-economic Sciences and Humanities programme. VR and The European Community FP7 2007-2013. which is co-funded by AHRC. AKA.