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WELCOME

Welcome to the 2013 Rhythm Changes Conference, Rethinking Jazz Cultures. This four-day event marks the final year of the HERAfunded Rhythm Changes: Jazz Cultures and European Identities project and celebrates the cross-disciplinary strength of jazz research from around the world today. Rhythm Changes is a transnational research project which investigates jazz scenes and practices in different European settings. Funded as part of the HERA Joint Research Programme theme Cultural Dynamics: Inheritance and Identity, the project has used jazz as a platform to explore concepts of national identity, canonicity, and social ambience in different European contexts and has also examined the ways in which jazz works as a form of transnational cultural practice. The project team has worked with a range of partners across Europe to engage in innovative research and crossdisciplinary modes of enquiry. Over the past three years, the team has published books, articles and reports on core project themes and worked with networking organisations, musicians and festivals to engage different audiences in thinking about jazz and its place within Europe today. Rhythm Changes has drawn on the expertise of 13 researchers who work across 7 institutions in 5 European countries but the growing network of partners, musicians and scholars including those participating in the 2011 Jazz and National Identities Conference in Amsterdam and Rethinking Jazz Cultures in Salford means that the scope and impact of Rhythm Changes is ever widening. Our packed Conference programme offers stimulating keynote presentations and panels, plenary sessions, papers, performances, poster presentations and exhibitions, all of which should generate high quality debate and discussion. Rhythm Changes has sought to encourage people to rethink the way jazz has been articulated, represented and understood, and this conference will be a powerful reflection of this core aim. Whether we think about jazz as existing simultaneously as a national and transnational practice, as a cultural
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form that challenges traditional binary distinctions (America/Europe, Art/Popular) or as a vehicle for exploring broader themes of cultural and social change in Europe and beyond, the Rethinking Jazz Cultures Conference offers us a chance to create new insights and ways of thinking, and move jazz research beyond the current state of the art. Whilst Rhythm Changes ends formally in September 2013, the work of the team and the underlying themes of the project will live on and, as Project Leader, I am sure that the impact from activities over the last three years will be felt in decades to come. Indeed, the legacy of Rhythm Changes is already taking shape through the work of this interdisciplinary community, and a new jazz monograph series will be launched over the next 12 months which reflects the crossdisciplinary methods and transnational interests of Rhythm Changes. Equally, new partnerships and research questions have developed over the last three years which will inevitably find their way into future projects and publications. With this in mind, Im sure I speak on behalf of the entire project team when I say that we would like to hear from you if you have ideas and suggestions for future research projects, publications and collaborations. Finally, let me welcome you to the University of Salford and thank you for playing an active part in the ongoing work of Rhythm Changes! Here's to a challenging, stimulating, productive and memorable Conference. Tony Whyton
Project Leader, Rhythm Changes: Jazz Cultures and European Identities Director, Salford Music Research Centre t.whyton@salford.ac.uk

EVENT SCHEDULE

Thursday 11 April
17.00 Registration and reception, The Cube Gallery, Great Portland Street, Manchester Rhythm Changes photography exhibition (running from 5 14 April 2013)

Rhythm Changes photography commission Paul Floyd Blake, Rethinking Jazz


In 2012, Rhythm Changes commissioned Paul Floyd Blake to produce a photography exhibition based on his experiences and impressions of three leading European jazz festivals. As the 2009 Taylor-Wessing National Portrait Photography Prizewinner, Floyd Blake has gained critical acclaim for his unique studies of identity and place, and his work often seeks to challenge existing photographic practice. The brief from the Rhythm Changes team was simple: Floyd Blake was to present an impression of music and its relationship to place in three international festival settings North Sea Jazz Festival in Rotterdam, Copenhagen Jazz Festival and the London Jazz Festival and to capture aspects of festival life that were either unique, counterintuitive or which captured a sense of social ambience. Rather than capturing shots of musicians on stage, we invited Floyd Blake to explore jazz from different perspectives, from the views of audiences to examinations of festival settings. The resulting collection of c.30 images on display at CUBE encourages the viewer to rethink their relationship to jazz and consider the role music plays in very different festival, and social, contexts. --The exhibition will also include examples from William Elliss One LP project (see page 78)

RETHINKING JAZZ by Paul Floyd Blake


I consider myself a bit of a novice when it comes to jazz, so when Tony asked me to take on this commission I think I had a pretty narrow idea of what it looked like visually, influenced by the stunning images of Ed Van der Elsken, Larry Fink, Lee Friedlander, William Gottlieb, William Claxton to name but a few. But my brief wasnt to capture the musicians, who have all been photographed so many times before, but rather to explore how jazz has manifested itself in different places and in the world today. As I set sail for Rotterdam watching the sun go down over the industrial landscape of Hull I was expecting the North Sea Jazz Festival to be an intimate affair, and although I knew the event was taking place under one roof was still taken aback by the giant conference centre that housed it. Of course jazz is infinitely varied and, due to its commercial success, has also become big business now. But it was so far removed from what I expected. However the setting was a godsend photographically. I had real fun with the modern industrial nature of the place juxtaposed against my preconceptions of jazz as an anarchic wilful art form. The Copenhagen Jazz Festival in contrast spilled out across the whole city. If you wanted Jazz you only needed to wander the streets listening out for a guitar or saxophone and you would eventually come across it. Jazz really did take over the city but it felt like it would be also be present even after the Festival closed. There are traces everywhere, shops and iconography that hint at Jazzs permanent residence and there is even a plot reserved for jazz artists in the local cemetery. Probably my biggest challenge whilst in Copenhagen was not to get swept away with it all and concentrate on taking photos. What I hope to convey in these pictures is the way in which jazz is entwined with the fabric of the city and its people. Being born and brought up in London I was only too aware of how vast the city is, compared to Copenhagen. So whilst the London Jazz Festival also takes place all over, with gigs as far apart as Croydon and Enfield I did wonder how I was going to create photographs that could identify this as a festival and not just a series of performances around the city. Aware I could never cover everything I decided to create a rather quiet reflective set of photographs of members of the public enjoying jazz in their own individual way, along with a quiet Triptych of the Queen Elizabeth Hall waiting for jazz to animate it.
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Photographing this project completely opened my eyes to the variety in modern jazz and its different manifestations in different locations.

Paul Floyd Blake is a mixed race, Jamaican-English photographer, who


started his professional career in photography 10 years ago, following many years working in the service industries. His artistic practise focuses on the intricacies of ordinary life, using a mixture of portraiture and landscape that blend classical compositions with contemporary issues. His themes are the new cultures and identities born out of an era in which we no longer are defined purely by our race or class, but have multiple identities that change according to environment and context. Pauls work has been shown in solo exhibitions at Manche ster Arts Gallery, Gallery Oldham Piece Hall Gallery Halifax, Impressions Gallery Bradford, Folly Gallery Lancaster, ACE Centre Nelson. In addition he has exhibited widely as part of group exhibitions including The Human Game at Foundazione Pitti Florence; Aftershock, Commonwealth Games Manchester, Ways of Looking with the Bradford Grid Project, Sports Lab at Museums Sheffield and the Victoria and Albert Museum of Childhood and The World in London Project at the Photographers Gallery in London.

Friday 12 April
8.30-9.15 9.15-10.30 Keynote Presentation Welcome: Keynote: Registration Keynote Presentation Time: 9.15-10.30 Room: DPL* Chair: Tony Whyton

Respondent:

Tony Whyton (University of Salford) David Ake (University of Nevada, Reno) After Wynton: Rethinking Jazz Cultures in the Post NeoTraditional Era Alan Stanbridge (University of Toronto)

10.30-11.00 11.00-13.00

Coffee Break Parallel Sessions 1

Parallel session: 1a Time: Room: Chair: Jazz Crossings 11.00-13.00 3.29 Walter van de Leur Aaron Johnson (Columbia University), Shifting boundaries or "Man, _____'s a total sellout": The Battle for Jazz on 1970s Radio John Howland (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim), Hot Buttered Soul and Billboard Jazz: The Curious Case of Isaac Hayes and the Intersections of Jazz and Soul, 1969-1973 Nikko Higgins (Columbia University), Fusion in South India and Directions in World Jazz Kevin Fellezs (Columbia University), Suburban Jazz Meets Cosmopolitan Country: Earl Klugh, Chet Atkins, and George Benson *The Digital Performance Lab (DPL) is situated on the ground floor of the Media City UK building

Parallel session: 1b Time: Room: Chair: Andrew Dubber Digital Media 11.00-13.00 2.36 Jonty Stockdale (University of West London), Tuning to a Different Channel Sebastian Scotney (Editor, LondonJazz), Giving the musician a voice online - a practitioner perspective Tom Sykes (University of Salford), Jazz in the Big Society: participatory cultures and local jazz scenes in Britain Simon Barber (BCU), Edition Records: reimagining jazz culture in the digital age Session: 1c Time: Room: Chair: Venues and Festivals 11.00-13.00 3.02 George McKay ric Dussault (Historian), Jazz Musicians, Jazz Fans and Existentialist Cellar Clubs in Saint-Germain-des-Prs (Paris), 1945-1960 Ove Volquartz (freelance musician), Developing a local scene by self organized concert series: relations between performing venue and the development of (Jazz) music Katherine Williams (Leeds College of Music), Newport Up! Liveness, artifacts, and the seductive menace of jazz recordings revisited Darren Mueller (Duke University), Duke Ellington: Live (but Mediated) at Newport 1956 Session: 1d Time: 11.00Room: Chair: Improvisation 13.00 2.19 Petter Frost Fadnes Jeri Brown (Concordia University), Vocal Ecosystems: How Do We Really Improvise in Vocal Jazz? Damian Evans (Conservatory of Music and Drama, Dublin Institute of Technology/Graduate School of Creative Arts and Media), Rethinking Jazz Performance as a Research Method Lawrence Woof (freelance musician), Jazz and the Angel of History Per Zanussi (University of Stavanger), Composition for improvising musicians with particular focus on Asian compositional techniques as structures for improvisation
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13.00-14.00 14.00-15.30

Lunch and Poster Presentations Parallel Sessions 2

Session: 2a Time: Room: Chair: Critics and Discourse 14.00 15.30 3.29 Nicholas Gebhardt Tom Perchard (Goldsmiths, University of London) We must expand jazz so that we never have to leave it: Andr Hodeirs contested territories Ken Prouty (Michigan State University), Neo-Classic? Neo-Conservative? NeoColonialist? Jazzs Shifting Geo -Political Discourse in the Early 21st Century Tony Mitchell (University of Technology, Sydney), Against the Flow: The Necks vs John Litweiler Session: 2b Time: Room: Chair: Jazz Education 14.00 15.30 2.36 Walter van de Leur Liz Haddon (University of York), The development of the individual voice within the institutional community Ari Poutiainen (University of Helsinki and Sibelius Academy), Nordic Jazz Curricula and Personal Voices Gerry Godley (12 Points!), Teach me Tonight: a perspective on the impact of jazz education Session: 2c Time: Room: Chair: South African Dialogues 14.00 15.30 3.02 Marc Duby Jonathan Eato (University of York), You Aint Gonna Hear Me Cause You Think You Hear Me: South African jazzs struggle against European clich Jostine Loubser (University of Salford), YOU ARE NOW IN FAIRYLAND: Jazz from District Six

Session 2d Time: Room: Chair: Language and Musical Practice 14.00-15.30 2.19 Alan Williams Haftor Medbe (Napier University), Groovin high and low: exploring the jazz vernacular (performance-led paper) Anne Dvinge (University of Copenhagen), Cosmopolitan vernaculars language, jazz, and critical musical practice 15.30-16.00 16.00-17.30 Coffee Break Parallel Sessions 3

Session 3a Time: Room: Chair: Jazz and the Media Panel 16.00-17.30 3.29 Tim Wall Tim Wall (BCU, Chair) Alyn Shipton (BBC), Sebastian Scotney (LondonJazz) Ian Patterson (All About Jazz), Alexander Kan (Europe Hub, BBC World Service) Session 3b Time: Room: Chair: Thinking with Jazz Panel 16.00-17.30 3.02 Nicholas Gebhardt Nicholas Gebhardt (University of Lancaster, Chair) Frank Griffith (Brunel University), Christophe de Bezenac (University of Salford), Adam Fairhall (Manchester Metropolitan University), Kathy Dyson (freelance musician) 17.30 18.30 Performance Performance Time: 17.30 18.30 Room: Foyer

Haftor Medbe (Napier University) and Alan Williams (University of Salford) 18.30- 21.00 21.00 Performance Free time Performance Time: 21.00

Room: DPL

Bourne Davis Kane Meeting for the first time in 2002, pianist Bourne, drummer Steve Davis and bassist Dave Kane played a completely improvised set at the Belfast Jazz Festival which became legendary. They followed this auspicious performance with a commission from the Bath Jazz Festival - Whatever Happened to Jack Jones and the Early Recordings of Johnny Mathis - and have played regularly on the European festival/gig circuit.
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Saturday 13 April
9.00-9.15 9.15-10.30 Registration Keynote Presentation Time: Room: Chair: 9.15-10.30 DPL George McKay George McKay (University of Salford) E Taylor Atkins (Northern Illinois University) Let's Call This: A Paradoxical Platform for Transnational Jazz Studies Catherine Tackley (Open University)

Keynote Presentation Welcome: Keynote:

Respondent: 10.30-11.00 11.00-13.00

Coffee Break Parallel Sessions 4

Sarallel session: 4a Time: Room: Chair: National/Transnational Discourses 11.00-13.00 3.29 Anne Dvinge Johanna Rohlf (Center for Metropolitan Studies, Berlin), Jazz on a Journey: The African-American music and its influence on Germany in the 1920s William Bares (UNC Asheville),An Ambassador for What?: Pro Helvetias Jazz and Swiss Cultural Diplomacy Michael Kahr (University of Music and Performing Arts, Graz), Out of nowhere: The role of jazz institutions in Graz in the formation of jazz identity Loes Rusch (University of Amsterdam), How jazz changed the Netherlands - how the Netherlands changed jazz

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Session: 4b Time: Room: Chair: Jazz in Violent Spaces 11.00-13.00 2.36 George McKay Pedro Cravinho (University of Aveiro), Jazz and television in Portugal: TV JAZZ and the presence of Jazz on the Portuguese Television of the 1960s and 70s. Heli Reiman (University of Helsinki), Voices in dialogue: conceptualizing jazz from the Soviet perspective Martin Lcke (MHMK Munich), "Charlie and His Orchestra": Rise and Fall of Jazz in Nazi Germany Rdiger Ritter (University of Bremen), Broadcasting Jazz into the Eastern Bloc Cold War Weapon or Cultural Exchange? The Example of Willis Conover Session: 4c Time: Room: Chair: Poetry, Fiction, Narrative 11.00-13.00 3.02 Catherine Tackley Bob Lawson-Peebles (University of Exeter), The Grave Disease: Jazz and Interwar British Fiction Christopher Robinson (University of Kansas), Jazz Criticism as "Paracritical Hinge": The Anti-Canonical Project of Nathaniel Mackey's Bedouin Hornbook Walter van de Leur (University of Amsterdam), Last Notes: Narratives of Jazz and Death Dave Laing (University of Liverpool), Jazzetry UK: jazz and poetry in England in the early 1960s Session: 4d Time: Room: Chair: Musicians and Repertoire 11.00-13.00 2.19 Tom Sykes Barbara Bleij (Conservatory of Amsterdam), The Stellar Composer: The intersection of musical cultures in Wayne Shorters music Marian Jago (York University, Toronto), It Dont Mean A Thing: Race and Considerations of Hot and Cool in the Music of Lennie Tristano Robin Thomas (University of Huddersfield), The Evolution of the Jazz Vocal Song: What comes after the Great American Song Book? Jasmin Taylor (Goldsmiths, University of London) Billie Holiday and Gendered Networks of Collaboration
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13.00-14.00 14.00-15.30

Lunch and Poster Presentations Parallel Sessions 5

Session: 5a Time: Room: Chair: Swing and Symphonic Jazz 14.00 15.30 3.29 Walter van de Leur Catherine Tackley (Open University), Rethinking Jazz and Rhapsody in Blue George Burrows (University of Portsmouth), Negotiating commercialism: reappraising Andy Kirks Clouds of Joy Alan Stanbridge (University of Toronto), Krazy Kats and Rhapsodies: Symphonic Jazz, Reconsidered Session: 5b Time: Room: Chair: Historiography and Anthropology 14.00 15.30 2.36 Nicholas Gebhardt Tim Wall (BCU), Rethinking European jazz through the work of Steven Feld Christopher Coady (Sydney Conservatorium of Music), Inspiration and the historical record: Exploring the impact of lived experience on the presentation of data in jazz historiography Mario Dunkel (Technische Universitt Dortmund), Marshall W. Stearns, Joachim-Ernst Berendt, and the Politics of German Jazz Historiography Session: 5c Time: Room: Chair: Shifting European Identities 14.00-15.30 3.02 Loes Rusch Alexander Kan (Europe Hub, BBC World Service), Soviet Jazz Collapse of an Identity Jos Dias (Universidade Nova de Lisboa), Jazz networking in Europe: building common identity, and struggling economic crisis through music Diana Kondrashin (Jazz.Ru), Contemporary Russian Jazz: Adoption, Tradition or High Treason? 15.30-16.00 Coffee Break

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16.00-17.30

Parallel sessions 6

Session: 6a Time: Room: Chair: New Orleans, Identity and Revivalism 16.00 17.30 3.29 George McKay Mikko Karjalainen (Independent researcher), Performing sonic cultural identities: New Orleans brass band music as sonic practice Richard Ekins (University of Ulster) Authenticity as Authenticating in New Orleans Jazz Revivalism: Adapting Authenticity and the Case of Dan Pawsons Artesian Hall Stompers (1960-2002) Alyn Shipton (Royal Academy of Music/BBC), Questions of National Identity in the British Traditional Jazz Revival Session 6b Scenes and narratives Time: Room: Chair: 16.003.02 Anne Dvinge 17.30 Christa Bruckner Haring (University of Music and Performing Arts Graz), Women in contemporary Austrian jazz Peter Freeman (University of Queensland), Strings with Jazz Andrew Dubber (BCU), Shift Left 95: From Cultural Cringe to the New Aesthetic in Aotearoa New Zealand Session: 6c Canons & Educational Settings Time: Room: Chair: 16.00 2.19 Tom Sykes 17.30 Marc Duby (University of South Africa), New ways of being South African: Canon-formation in South African jazz education and elsewhere Jacopo Conti (Universit degli Studi di Torino), Jazz in Italian Conservatoires: how to become classic James Dickenson (Freelance musician), THE LINDEMAN LIST the evolution of a Norwegian jazz fraternity

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Session: 6d Time: The Ah-A Project (performance) 16.00-17.30

Room: Chair: DPL Christophe de Bezenac Nick Katuszonek (University of Salford) The Ah-A Project Presentation and quartet performance followed by discussion 17.30-19.00 19.00 Free time Conference meal (Damson, Media City)*

*Pre-registration needed and meal payable separately. Please visit the registration pages or contact a member of the conference team.

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Sunday 14 April 2012


9.30-11.00 Parallel Session 7

Session: 7a Time: Room: Chair: Collectives and Cultural Politics 9.30-11.00 3.29 Nicholas Gebhardt Scott Currie (University of Minnesota), Improvising Truth to Power: The Collective Poetics and Cultural Politics of 'Avant-Jazz for Peace' Floris Schuiling (University of Cambridge), Jazz as Material Culture: Mediating Objects in the Performance Practice of the Instant Composers Pool Orchestra Fumi Okiji (Royal Holloway), Jazz Insists! - Music as Social Criticism Session: 7b Time: Room: Chair: Film & Media 9.30-11.00 2.36 Andrew Dubber Frdric Dhl (Free University Berlin), About the Identity of Jazz. The Gershwin Projects of Andr Previn in Jazz, Film and Art Music Nick Heffernan (University of Nottingham), Reds, Blacks and the Blues: Left Filmmakers and the Representation of Jazz in Cold War America Marcel Swiboda (University of Leeds), The Uses and Abuses of Jazz and Improvisation in an Age of Hyper- Medial Reproduction Session: 7c Time: Room: Chair: Identity, Listening and Memory 9.30-11.00 2.19 Tom Sykes Lawrence Davies (Kings College London), 'Long Distance Call': Hearing Muddy Waters in Britain Brett Pyper (NYU & Klein Karoo National Arts Festival, South Africa), On Jazz, listening and sociality among South African jazz appreciation societies Mikkel Vad (Rhythmic Music Conservatory, Denmark), The Tribute Concert as a Site of Memory

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Session: 7d Time: Room: Chair: Jazz, Place and Performance 9.30-11.00 3.02 Nick Katuszonek Alex Stein (Brown University), Understanding Distracted Engagement at Wallys Jazz Club: Nightlife and the Jazz Club Imaginary Adam Fairhall (MMU), Imaginary Pasts: Representing Early Jazz in Contemporary Jazz Practice Petter Frost Fadnes (University of Stavanger), The performative aspects of contemporary space: Negotiating new rooms in improvised music 11.00-11.30 11.30-13.00 Plenary Session Val Wilmer Coffee Break Closing plenary Time: 11.3013.00 Room: DPL Chair: Dave Laing

Val Wilmer in conversation with Dave Laing

13.00

Conference close

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Keynote Presentations and Speaker Biographies


David Ake, University of Nevada, Reno

After Wynton: Rethinking Jazz Cultures in the Post Neo-Traditional Era


Now that Wynton Marsalis no longer draws the attention -- or ire -- from the world's jazz participants that he once did, it is worth reassessing the role Marsalis and other so-called neo-traditionalists played in shaping how jazz has been defined, created, taught, and valued in recent decades. Toward that end, this paper focuses on matters of ontology, historiography, cultural hierarchy, gender, and ethnic and national identity as they pertain to jazz. By highlighting the neo-traditionalists' take on these key areas we can gain a better perspective on which of their formerly dominant jazz narratives are most likely to persist and which will likely change or vanish as we head further into the current post-neo-traditional era. David Ake is Director of the School of the Arts at the University of Nevada, Reno (USA). His publications include Jazz Cultures (2002), Jazz Matters: Sound, Place, and Time since Bebop (2010) and the essay collection Jazz/Not Jazz: The Music and Its Boundaries (co-edited with Charles Hiroshi Garrett and Daniel Goldmark, 2012), all for the University of California Press. An active pianist and composer, Ake has performed and recorded alongside many of todays outstanding improvisers. E Taylor Atkins, Northern Illinois University

Let's Call This: A Paradoxical Platform for Transnational Jazz Studies


The gradual, ongoing internationalization of jazz studies is a long overdue and welcome departure from historical, musicological, and ethnographic biases that have presumed that the only jams of consequence happen in the United States. In my address, I hope to inspire reflection on the methods and mindsets with which we examine jazz outside of the nation of its birth, with a paradoxical episteme, a both-and rather than an either-or formulation. Scholars must always be attuned to place, time, and cultural context, but this, too, can lead to (what consider to be) a retrogressive, counterproductive reification of what the jazz critic Yui Shichi called jazz nationalisms, accentuating (and exaggerating) the degree to which culture determines the sounds produced by jazz musicians around the world. I would like to suggest that jazz scholarship be mindful of the simultaneous relevance and irrelevance of time, place, and culture when examining the music in diverse contexts.
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E. Taylor Atkins is Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies in the Department of History at Northern Illinois University, USA. He is the author of Primitive Selves: Koreana in the Japanese Colonial Gaze, 1910-1945 (University of California Press, 2010) and Blue Nippon: Authenticating Jazz in Japan (Duke University Press, 2001; winner of the 2003 John Whitney Hall Prize), and editor of Jazz Planet (University Press of Mississippi, 2003). In addition to the Popular Culture chapter in A Companion to Japanese History (ed. William Tsutsui, Blackwell, 2007), he has published articles in Journal of Asian Studies, American Music, positions, and Japanese Studies. Val Wilmer is a British-born writer and photographer who has been documenting music and musicians for more years than she cares to remember. From Sister Rosetta Tharpe and Harry Carney to Eric Dolphy and the Art Ensemble of Chicago, she has specialised in recording oral history as well as photographing musicians. Listening to the voices of African-American musicians as well as the notes, she has demonstrated the way that the music and its community sustain each other. Her book publications include Jazz People (1970), a collection of interviews with 14 American musicians; an autobiography, Mama Said Thered Be Days Like These (1989); The Face of Black Music (1976), a photo-documentary; and As Serious As Your Life (1977), a major free jazz resource. As a member of the advisory board for the 2nd edition of the Grove Dictionary of Jazz, she was responsible for hundreds of additions and corrections to the first edition, and wrote more than 60 of the entries. She has contributed to several other dictionaries and reference sources, most notably the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, for which she has written over 35 articles. Her photographs have been published in books, newspapers, journals, album and CD covers throughout the world, and exhibited at galleries and museums. They are held in major public collections in Britain, France, Sweden and the USA. For the past 25 years she has been working on the history of Black British musicians. This comprises dozens of articles on individuals, including obituaries for the Guardian newspaper, and contributing to radio and television documentaries. She has conducted more than 35 oral history interviews for the National Sound Archive of the British Library, and is working on a number of books including a biography of the Guyanese dancer, Ken Snakehips Johnson, leader of the first established Black British band.

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Abstracts
Simon Barber, Birmingham City University

Edition Records: reimagining jazz culture in the digital age


This paper presents the findings of a three-month study of British jazz label Edition Records as they grapple to engage with their customers using marketing strategies centered around new social media platforms. Edition Records is often compared with classic labels like Blue Note and ECM, especially in terms of design and image. This study goes beyond the basics of record cover iconography, though, to examine how labels make sense of their consumers as jazz fans and, in the case of Edition, use new technologies to build communities. Founded in 2008 by pianist/composer Dave Stapleton and photographer Tim Dickeson, Edition Records has developed a reputation as one of the leading jazz labels in the UK. Given their attention to product design and photography, the purpose of the research was to explore the significance of label branding within a jazz context through online dissemination of the Edition brand. The study reveals interesting information about the way that labels are increasingly using new media and experimental/prototype technologies to reimagine how they operate within the jazz market. The study is based upon a combination of action-research and ethnography, and builds upon a knowledge exchange project in which academics from Birmingham City University worked with the labels staff to imagine new ways to retail jazz in the digital age. The results reveal interesting characteristics about jazz as a semiotic activity, as an economic enterprise and as a consumption culture. The results will inform the developing approaches to jazz and new media within the commercial world of jazz marketing, but also raise important questions about the role of visual identities and fan participation for jazz studies. William Bares, UNC Asheville

An Ambassador for What?: Pro Helvetias Jazz and Swiss Cultural Diplomacy
If America avidly exported jazz as a sonic secret weapon to win the hearts and minds of Europeans during the Cold War, what motives drive Pro HelvetiaSwitzerlands cultural funding agencyto export Swiss jazz in postCold War Europe? The question reflects the geopolitical transformation that has seen Europeans indigenizing jazz and assuming the role of guardians of freedoms supposedly forsaken by an America fallen from grace. Drawing upon years of ethnographic fieldwork with European jazz communities, my paper
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presents two case studies demonstrating divergent uses of jazz in contemporary Swiss cultural diplomacy. Pro Helvetias use of jazz to construct and export an authentic Swissness involves casting American jazz as t he constitutive other; on the other hand, the Swiss musicians who are excluded from Pro Helvetias vision use jazzs Americanness to further a different set of agendas. I will be arguing that Pro Helvetias Swiss -oriented cultural policies harbor important lessons about the relationships between American and European musical nationalism, European cultural funding, and the use of jazz as cultural export. In Switzerland, the worlds foremost model of direct democracy, jazz musicians often complain that Pro Helvetias emphasis upon novelty and innovation stands in the way of building soul-satisfying jazz communitas in local scenes. Taking a cue from recent studies which have shown that the history of American jazz diplomacy in Europe has been riddled with contradictions and denials, I will demonstrate that Pro Helvetias strategies for Swiss jazz cultural diplomacy belie a host of distinctively Swiss contradictions. Barbara Bleij, Conservatory of Amsterdam

The Stellar Composer: The intersection of musical cultures in Wayne Shorters music
Many of Wayne Shorters mid-60s compositions have become part of the core jazz repertoire. Invariably these compositions are seen as firmly rooted in the hard bop practice of the time. Elements that are not in conformity with this practice, like asymmetrical phrases, atypical form schemes and non functional progressions, are often attributed to Shorters genius. In this way, Shorter is cast as a true jazz classic: the heir to a tradition, which he subsequently transforms in a highly original way, in line with overly familiar jazz narratives. And indeed, unquestionably the hard bop idiom is part of Shorters language. I will argue, however, that Shorter not only drew on jazz traditions but also on musical modernism. Over time, Shorter has consistently alluded to this kind of musical influence: I used to listen to a program every Saturday afternoon, New Ideas in Music, about the evolution of classical music into contemporary and onward. Moreover, the cultural environment of New York City the modernist capital of the world at the time and Shorters college music education provided easy access to contemporary music ideas. Yet none of this has had any real impact on Shorters public image. I will argue that this ties in with the continuous debate about the ownership of jazz as the vehement disputes
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over the alleged classical influences on Gil Evans, Miles Davis and others, attest. This paper traces aspects of modernist thinking in Shorters music. Despite his many utterances, Shorter is notorious for not making any concrete statements about the technical aspects of his music. Invoking the help of music analysis I will discuss examples from three iconic pieces from this period, E.S.P., Virgo and Infant Eyes. I will show that these pieces share a specific type of design that accounts for many of the seemingly original parts of his compositions. In this way, my paper offers a more balanced view on the cultural heritage that Shorter saw as his own, and, by extension, on sources that fed jazz as a whole in a period that shaped so much of jazz to come. Jeri Brown, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada

Vocal Ecosystems: How Do We Really Improvise in Vocal Jazz?


Jazz vocal improvisation appears on the surface to involve few rules. Instead, I propose that jazz vocal improvising is actually a form of communication between artist and listener, where the artist adheres to a set of rules or principles. In this presentation I will treat the jazz improviser as part of an ecosystem that includes both the audience and the other musicians, when present. An ecosystem, a concept in the biological sciences, comprises a set of interacting organisms and environments in a particular place. Similarly, within the jazz vocal improvisational ecosystem there are various roles, approaches and activities. I will describe these and show how the analogy with biological ecosystems can be applied to a vocal ecology. I will provide examples from jazz vocal artists and musicians and discuss how this viewpoint may also aid the improvising jazz vocalist in his or her artistic expression. Christa Bruckner Haring, University of Music and Performing Arts Graz

Women in contemporary Austrian jazz


The three-year interdisciplinary research project Rhythm Changes: Jazz Cultures and European Identities examines inherited traditions and practices of European jazz cultures. Part of the project is the investigation of individual aspects of the current jazz scene in Austria in order to obtain an overview of the situation and importance of jazz within the larger music culture. Jazz was quick to earn a place in Austria, a country deeply steeped in musical history and famous for its classical composers. Especially after World War II jazz scenes rapidly evolved in Vienna and Graz, led by internationally successful musicians like Hans Koller or Joe Zawinul. In recent decades, male jazz musicians have dominated the Austrian jazz scene.
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This paper will examine the current position of women in the Austrian jazz scene based on the collation and analysis of comprehensive data concerning gender distribution provided by the national music center, MICA, and student information from Austrian arts universities. Qualitative interviews conducted with experts from different areas of the jazz scene will complement this data, exposing different viewpoints on this multifaceted topic. The results will contribute to the overall description of the current jazz scene in Austria, as well as providing a basis for transnational comparisons. George Burrows, University of Portsmouth

Negotiating commercialism: reappraising Andy Kirks Clouds of Joy


Andy Kirks Clouds of Joy were one of the most important all-black territory bands of the swing era and yet their recordings offer a complex picture of the commoditization of jazz during the 1930s that has posed a challenge to jazz criticism. Their recorded music, most often in arrangements by their gifted young pianist Mary Lou Williams, ranged from hot jazz numbers, through swing charts for dancing, to voguish vocals. The more numerous vocals enabled the band to achieve widespread fame and the first number one hit in the R n B chart but these songs are usually dismissed or ignored by critics because of their sweet commerciality and lack of discernable jazz. The embracing of such popular forms has been read in terms of the black bands helplessness in the face of overwhelming commercial pressures exerted by white record company executives. Something of this notion of helplessness can be found in Theodor Adornos famous and contemporaneous criticism of jazzs commercialization. Later critics like Albert McCarthy and Gunther Schuller tend to share Adornos aesthetic perspective but are generally more sympathetic or, perhaps, patronizing towards the socio-political position of the black band. This paper suggests that useful new insights might be gained by reconsidering the recorded output of the Clouds of Joy as an interrelated body of work. In particular, Until the Real Thing Comes Along, the first big vocal hit for the Clouds of Joy, will be considered alongside more jazz-filled tracks such as Christopher Columbus. The resulting dialogue between the types of music the band recorded illuminates the tensions Adorno detected in 1930s recording culture but might also suggest a dialectic in which the musicians were not always helpless puppets of the Culture Industry but clever, pioneering negotiators of musics increasing commerciality.
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Christopher Coady, Sydney Conservatorium of Music

Inspiration and the historical record: Exploring the impact of lived experience on the presentation of data in jazz historiography
One defining stylistic element of post-structuralist ethnographic studies of jazz practice is the acknowledgement that a researchers inherent subjectivity impacts the collection and interpretation of data. Such awareness often leads to an inquiry at least tangentially linked to the researchers lived experience. Approaches in this realm range from the honing of a personal/subjective lens through which vernacular data is interpreted as Ingrid Monson does in the opening pages of Saying Something (1996) to the utilization of the self as subject during the data generation phase of a project, as Paul Berliner does in Thinking in Jazz (1994). Yet it is possible to see a more subtle form of subjectivity embedded in the very core of a supposedly more objective branch of jazz studies: jazz historiography. This critical bent is evident in the simple fact that jazz historians select particular subjects typically movements, events or artists and choose to tell particular stories about these subjects. Often, authors point to experiences of paradox or epiphany within their own lived experience as the inspiration for such investigations. Occasionally, such first-hand familiarity will then colour the presentation of evidence in support of a particular argument. In this paper, I chart the ways in which first-hand familiarity with various developments in jazz seems to have influenced the way in which several jazz historians have told stories about the music they study. Drawing parallels to what Guthrie Ramsey refers to as professional and confessional blackness, I then pose a series of questions about the type of knowledge generated when someone without first-hand lived knowledge about a jazz event endeavours to put forth an historical critique. Such an investigation helps show that all jazz historiography is informed in one-way or another by lived experience but that temporal proximity or distance to events can at times impact the quality although not the value of the data presented.

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Jacopo Conti, Universit degli Studi di Torino

Jazz in Italian Conservatoires: how to become classic


Italy was one of the very first countries to take in jazz; in 1919 an Orchestra in Milan recorded At the Jazz Band Ball [Zenni 2012, p. 73]. Nevertheless, and despite the great success gained by Italian jazz musicians all over the world, Italian Conservatoires did not incorporate jazz courses until the beginning of the XXI Century. Private music schools led the way, and today jazz clubs, jam sessions and jazz courses in Conservatoires are very popular in Italy: but at what cost? Aim of this paper is to analyze how jazz didactics in Italy have been assimilated by classical didactics especially in Conservatoires (courses programs from all Italian Conservatoires will be considered), where jazz obtained its legitimation and how Italian most recent jazz courses, festivals and clubs have re-shaped jazz history, giving importance to some particular moments (mainly cool jazz, 30s swing, post-bop, early modal jazz and electronic nu jazz) while others have been put aside (traditional New Orleans jazz, ragtime, hard bop, free jazz, new thing, jazz rock, fusion). Pedro Cravinho, University of Aveiro

Jazz and television in Portugal: TV JAZZ and the presence of Jazz on the Portuguese Television of the 1960s and 70s.
In 1955, when the Portuguese Television Radioteleviso Portuguesawas institutionally created, the minister of Information at the time, Marcello Caetano stated that: Television is an instrument of action, benefic or malefic, according to the criteria that is applied in its utilization. The Government hopes that the leaders of the new public service will know how to use this instrument as a medium of moral and cultural elevation of the Portuguese people (Teves, 1998). The government in charge was a dictatorship, which started in 1933 and ended in 1975 after the April Revolution. And following Caetanos idea, the public channel of the television was used in a direct or in indirect way as the regimes propaganda. In 1963, during the colonial / independence war at the former Portuguese colonies in Africa a new musical television program became responsible for the mass broadcasting of jazz in Portugal, the TV JAZZ series. At the time, Jazz was associated to the American way of life representative of the ideals of freedom and equality belonging to American culture, but totally contraries to the values defended by the colonial "fascist" regime of Estado Novo. The Jazz was obviously associated to the African-American identity and culture. In this context, broadcasting a Jazz series represented an apparent contradiction for television controlled by the State.
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With this paper, which is part of an ongoing work towards a doctoral degree in Ethnomusicology, I intend to contribute to a better understanding of the presence of Jazz music on the Portuguese public television, and the role of TV JAZZ series, as a case study, on the spread of jazz culture in Portugal, during the "fascist" regime of Estado Novo. Scott Currie, University of Minnesota

Improvising Truth to Power: The Collective Poetics and Cultural Politics of 'Avant-Jazz for Peace'
The revolution never ended! This audacious avant-garde cri de coeur led off the manifesto that sought to shape artist and audience constructions of meaning around a week of improvisational performances staged in the early months of the war in Iraq, shortly after the tragically premature declaration of an end to major combat operations. In the face of de facto mass -media selfcensorship that effectively silenced dissenting voices, the artist-organizers of the 2003 Vision Festival made this leap of faith into the performative, in hopes of reclaiming and revitalizing long dormant socio-political connotations of vanguardist jazz, through a synaesthetic call to arms disseminated via programs, t-shirts, and stage announcements. In this paper, I interrogate the performativity of this shared ethos of engaged socio-aesthetic activism, particularly as it arose from grass-roots appeals to counter-cultural memory aimed at reactivating residual articulations to collaborative improvisational practices. Based on over a decade and a half of ethnographic engagement with the artist collective that organizes the festival, I explore members conceptions of the artists role in waging peace, in order to call attention to semiotic processes manifest in the (sub)cultural dynamics of festive self-representations that attempt to define this downtown New York City jazz scene. My main concern here will be to cast light upon the utopian dramaturgical dimensions of the artists extemporaneous musical interactions, enacted through the play of meanings staged within the festivals ritually overdetermining frame. Ultimately, this endeavor should foreground the unique and critical perspectives this collectives improvisational activism offers upon the potential of avant-garde jazz paradigms to create and mobilize cohesive communities of aesthetically empowered agents.

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Lawrence Davies, Kings College London

'Long Distance Call': Hearing Muddy Waters in Britain


Chicago blues musician Muddy Waters's 1958 British tour was one of the earliest opportunities for British enthusiasts to hear the blues live. Accompanied by fellow American Otis Spann on piano, and the UK's Chris Barber band, this was the first of Waters's many visits to Britain. Yet the critical coverage of the tour, and of British reissues of earlier Waters recordings between 1956-57, have yet to be systematically studied. Waters's live and recorded performances received substantial coverage in the mainstream British musical press, as well as in several nascent jazz periodicals, including Jazz Journal and Jazz Monthly. While later histories tend to position Waters's music as the rebellious root of British rock music, pre-1960s critical coverage of Waters and other blues musicians was primarily from the perspective of the 'trad' jazz revivalist movement. I will explore how this perspective influenced the way critics and scholars attempted to reconcile Waters's musical heritage a born and bred delta bluesman with the urbane sophistication they heard in his performances. They understood him to be part of a 'living' blues tradition that, while commercially successful, avoided charges of commercialism by virtue of its folkloric roots. This paper also investigates Chris Barber's involvement in Waters's tour. Influential in both the 'trad' jazz and skiffle movements, the musical activities of Barber's band both before and during Waters's tour challenge ideals of racially coded authenticity in the blues proposed by the revivalist movement at large. More broadly, it is interesting that pre-1960s coverage of Waters and other musicians did not construct boundaries between the blues as part of jazz and 'the blues' as its own genre, a distinction commonplace in modern scholarship. Viewing British jazz culture on the cusp of this paradigm shift raises questions regarding the treatment of the blues in subsequent histories of jazz. Jos Dias, Universidade Nova de Lisboa

Jazz networking in Europe: building common identity, and struggling economic crisis through music
The present economic downturn has led the European Union to question itself as a viable political, economic and cultural entity. Peripheral countries struggle with the lack of governmental funding. Music, like other art forms, is undercut to favour other priorities. In the midst of this crisis, some jazz musicians are networking and generating new transnational ensembles in order to optimize
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resources: broader audiences, performing opportunities and EU subsidy. Also, several EU official organizations and independent producers are endorsing jazz venues as a way to promote a common multicultural European identity, and jazz a non-European music tradition as a pan-European musical genre. At the same time, musicians websites, P2P music sharing and free download labels are changing the way musicians and audiences relate. This paper brings two examples: the 12 Points Jazz Festival and Sintoma Records. The first is an Ireland-based production that works as an annual itinerant showcase for 12 ensembles, each one from a different European country. The second is an independent free download label, created by a group of Portuguese jazz musicians. Both cases aim collaboration between musicians and the dissemination of their music beyond national borders. This research seeks an insight into contemporary Europe through music. It questions how jazz, as a social practices network (Berliner 1994; Monson 2009), may be contributing to cultural production (Bourdieu 1993; Sassatelli 2009). To what extent can jazz be part of a European development, modernity, globalization and culture as structure model (Giddens 1993)? What is the role of jazz music on the delicate balance between local and global (Mayrowitz 1986; Marcus 1995; Appadurai 2001), space and non-space (Aug 1995), and praxis and discourse in Europe (Leitner 2004)? James Dickenson, freelance musician

THE LINDEMAN LIST the evolution of a Norwegian jazz fraternity


In 2011 I was approached by the Lindeman Foundation via the National Library in Oslo to see if I would compile a list of Norwegian jazz recordings which to a greater or lesser degree owed something to the work of Ludwig Mathias Lindeman. The Foundation wished to include such a survey in their documentation for the 200th anniversary of Lindemans birth in 2012. In a jazz context this meant examining the major contribution Lindeman had made to the collection and documentation of Norwegian folk music which had both influenced Edv. Grieg and other composers who followed him and, subsequently, jazz performers from around 1950 and onwards. The Foundation was aware of the research I had carried out in Norway and Sweden which led to my 2003 Salford Ph.D The impact of Norwegian folk music on Norwegian jazz, 1945- 1995 and I used this as my starting point in the compilation of the list. To avoid possible misunderstandings we made it clear prior to publication that such a list could never claim to be complete or exhaustive but our intention in making it was to illustrate and document the sheer diversity of
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postwar Norwegian jazz. I have avoided any attempt to further categorise the 58 selected recordings. All these have been reviewed in jazz journals both in Norway and elsewhere and cover a multitude of styles. Norway today is a thriving multi-cultural land and many of the listed recordings include contributions from non-Norwegian nationals. I took as my starting point that the expression Norwegian jazz can today only mean jazz played in Norway, regardless of the ethnic identity of the performers. It is something of a paradox that the term Nordic Jazz only came into wider use after Scandinavian jazz had become multi-racial. A good example is Garbareks I Took Up The Runes album from 1990 where only two of the eight performers are Norwegian, and one of those is a Sami. In my review of the album I described it as some of the most identifiably Norwegian jazz in existence. There was never any doubt who was the artistic leader here and Garbarek must take the credit for the final work, helped by the sound production of Jan Erik Kongshaug. In the course of my presentation I will argue a case for an increased use of the all-embracing term fraternity which the Collins Cobuild Dictionary defines as a group of people who have the same profession or the same interests and offers a further definition as the quality or activity of showing friendship and support to other people, who you think of as your brothers. Writers such as Stuart Nicholson and Michael Tucker have exhaustively discussed the concept of the Nordic Tone and I will assume that we are now fully aware of its musical implications. We can perhaps with a clear conscience hang the term in the wardrobe along with all the other jazz labels weve collected during the last 100 years or so. My case is that we can and should listen to all music not just to jazz as active participants, and indeed as informed listeners, thanks to the status and influence of musical education worldwide. My paper looks at the recordings on the Lindeman list and attempts an appraisal of their contributions to the building of a jazz fraternity in Norway.

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Frdric Dhl, Free University Berlin

About the Identity of Jazz. The Gershwin Projects of Andr Previn in Jazz, Film and Art Music
This paper will examine how Andr Previn approached music differently when he worked in the fields of jazz, film music or art music and that he also did so when he dealt with the same musical material and composer at the same time in different fields of Western Music. This analysis allows us to draw at least some conclusions about the identity of jazz in comparison to other fields of Western music and the steadiness of this identity from the perspective of the artists. Using Previns Gershwin projects around 1960 as an example, especially the ones dealing with Porgy and Bess, this paper will examine how Previn keeps Gershwins score intact when he is working with his music in the context o f art music. In the context of film music, Previn (a specialist for the adaptation of Broadway shows for Hollywood in the 1950s/60s, winning four Academy Awards in this genre including one for his score for Otto Premingers 1959 movie version of Porgy and Bess) not only changes the sound but also the dramatic structure of Gershwins score to intensify and clarify/simplify the dramatic effect of the music for the different frame-work of the medium of film (aesthetic dominance of the changing visual perspectives, shorter space of time, spoken dialogue, etc.). Also in 1959 at the peak of his work in West Coast Jazz , Previn created a jazz album with songs from Porgy and Bess. Here, he also revised Gershwins song material heavily, but with a different purpose: not to form music with a more concentrated, simplified dramatic effect but to form music that loses its dramatic contrasts (omitting contrasting parts from songs etc.) to generate songs that can function as a basis for group improvisation and generate new dramatic effects not from the structure of the song but the development of the improvisation. Andrew Dubber, Birmingham City University

Shift Left 95: From Cultural Cringe to the New Aesthetic in Aotearoa New Zealand
The 1990s saw a significant turning point in the development of jazz music in New Zealand. From a scene seemingly lacking its own distinctive identity, borrowing heavily from 80s neo-bop and with its feet (and players) firmly rooted in big band, fusion, hard bop and other (primarily American) imported forms, the latter part of the decade saw the beginnings of an experimentation with British acid jazz-inspired dance music that, for many reasons, very quickly took on a distinctive South Pacific identity.
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The inclusion of rappers, latin percussionists, funk drummers and DJs into what had been a straight-ahead contemporary jazz quartet or quintet line-up coincided with the rise of caf culture, High Street nightlife, a strong influence from dub reggae, and a growing focus on Maori and Polynesian voices in hip hop. The intermingling of stylistic influence as well as cultural encounters within and between different groups of New Zealand society, led to a broadly hybrid musical subgenre with not only a strong and identifiable flavour - but also a wide and popular following. As a result this Urban Pacifican fusion arguably formed the basis of a uniquely New Zealand aesthetic in jazz music, the influence of which can still be heard today and not just in the jazz world, but significantly, across popular music forms that can be thought of as distinctly kiwi, and which have topped sales charts and provided some of New Zealands most successful musical (and broadcasting) exports. This paper describes this phenomenon not only as a historical shift in localised musical practices, but also as a wider cultural event as witnessed from the perspective of a jazz label owner, broadcaster and record producer in Auckland in the late 1990s. Marc Duby, University of South Africa

New ways of being South African: Canon-formation in South African jazz education and elsewhere
As Carol Muller describes events in South African history (2012, 292), ... the first stage of diaspora was a kind of musical surrogacy, an embrace of models and ideas from the outside, harnessed to create a language of musical freedom inside. Muller goes on to suggest that musical practices in early South African jazz indicated how musicians were ... imagining new ways of being South African, both in the world at large, and in a future, more democratic dispensation by restoring a process and history into their music making that was distinctly South African. (ibid, 293, emphasis added) With Jazz Epistle Vol. 1, a landmark jazz recording released in SA in 1960 as a point of departure, I aim to examine some aspects of the long-term connection between SA and American music, a relationship which still plays out today in the repertoire of SA jazz education and the various ways in which contested views of the jazz canon are articulated. Identifying the point of origin of this jazz education canon as simply American or South African does not do justice, in my view, to the multifaceted history of mutual influence between
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South African music and the world at large, thereby marginalising the musical contribution to jazz beyond the borders of South Africa of musicians such as Abdullah Ibrahim and Chris McGregor. Bearing in mind Henry Louis Gates Jrs understanding (1991, 98) of the canon as the commonplace book of our shared culture, I also explore some possible characteristic examples of South African-ness in selected historical recordings. Mario Dunkel, Technische Universitt Dortmund

Marshall W. Stearns, Joachim-Ernst Berendt, and the Politics of German Jazz Historiography
In 2005, Joachim-Ernst Berendts das Jazzbuch (first published in 1953) appeared in its seventh revised edition. Over a period of more than fifty years, it has been translated into twelve languages and has been one of the most successful books on jazz. This paper contextualizes Berendts early jazz historiography, focusing on the relationship between Berendt and the early American jazz historian Marshall W. Stearns. Based on my assessment of a previously unknown correspondence between Berendt and Stearns, I argue that their relationship was much more significant than has been acknowledged in the excellent and pioneering work of Berendts biographer Andrew W. Hurley. Not only did Stearns provide the historiographical framework for Berendts understanding of jazz; he also demonstrated how jazz could serv e as a socially emancipatory force. Stearns usable historiography his sociopolitical employment of jazz historiography as an instrument in the African American struggle for civil rights demonstrated to Berendt how jazz could function as a means of a German liberation from National Socialist ideology. Although Berendts fascination for Stearns may lead one into conceiving of their connection as a teacher-student relationship, it is important to note the reciprocity of their exchange. While Stearns provided Berendt with a conceptual model for the history of jazz and a vision of jazzs socio -political and diplomatic potential, Berendt reaffirmed Stearns belief that jazz was incommensurate with totalitarianism. To Stearns, the young jazz enthusiast from Germany was living evidence of jazzs aptitude as a US -American diplomatic instrument in the Cold War.

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ric Dussault, Historian

Jazz Musicians, Jazz Fans and Existentialist Cellar Clubs in Saint-Germain-des-Prs (Paris), 1945-1960
After WWII, Saint-Germain-des-Prs was described as the Harlem of Paris because of his active jazz community mixing local and foreign musicians. This famous Paris district was also associated to existentialism, since Jean -Paul Sartre was supposed to be a regular in the existentialist cellar clubs, which in fact was not the case. Furthermore, in the 1940s and 1950s, jazz music and the existentialist youth inspired filmmakers and TV shows producers who always associated both with open sexuality, alcohol, drugs, thefts, speed, even death. Finally, the jazz scene of Saint-Germain-des-Prs was inseparable of the famous Rats the cave (the French jitterbug dancers). Contrary to what have been said and written since 60 years, jazzmen were not working so actively in postwar Paris. In fact, they were often unemployed and the competition between them to get gigs was very harsh. Amateur musicians were often hired instead of professional musicians. This situation was strongly condemned by the Paris Musician Union. French jazzmen were also critical of the fact that jazz fans and cellar clubs owners were more interested to listen and hire Afro-Americans players, because they were supposed to be better musicians, than Frenchmen. This paper will also tell the history of the famous jazz existentialist cellar clubs of the district such as Le Lorientais, Le Tabou, Le Club Saint-Germain, Le Vieux-Colombier and La Rose Rouge. The working conditions of the musicians in these cellar clubs will also be considered. Finally, we will see that jazz music was getting less popular at the end of the period, thats why some cellar clubs had to close their doors. Anne Dvinge, University of Copenhagen

Cosmopolitan vernaculars language, jazz, and critical musical practice


Various critiques of a hegemonic or dominant discourse of jazz as an American art form has in the last decade led to what might be called a postcolonial moment in jazz studies and an insistence on the value and contributions of jazz idiolects outside the American idiom. However, postcolonial jazz studies in one end of the spectrum run the risk of erecting new nationalist and essentialist fences around jazz and in the other of conflating the local and the global into a synchronizing glocal. This paper suggests that code switching and hybridization of language and jazz offers an instance to think about the dialogical relationship between standard and vernacular languages, linguistic and musical. As Homi Bhabha argues, the move from a standard or dominant
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language to a vernacular is one of action and performance: the process and indeed the performance of translation, the desire to make a dialect: to vernacularize is to dialectize as a process. Jazz improvisation, as George Lewis notes, is a transcultural practice whilst simultaneously a situation where ones own sound becomes a carrier of complex identities. Sound becomes identifiable, not with timbre alone, but with the expression of personality, the assertion of agency, the assumption of responsibility, and an encounter with history, memory and identity. As a musical practice it critically engages with definitions of the personal, the local, and the global. Thus, I suggest that jazz as a cosmopolitan vernacular performs a double movement: While it as an American art form is a domestic or a domesticized cosmopolitan that becomes vernacularized, translated into say Danish or Chinese dialect, it is at the same time also the vernacular that displaces and disrupts the - Danish or Chinese domestic, releasing cosmopolitanism and the vernacular from both dichotomies and synchronizations. Jonathan Eato, University of York

You Aint Gonna Hear Me Cause You Think You Hear Me: South African jazzs struggle against European clich
In the introduction to Maxine McGregors book Chris McGregor and the Brotherhood of Breath, Denis-Constant Martin recalled the Blue Notes European debut at the 1964 Antibes festival in memorable terms: They were fire, modernity with roots and fragrance, feeling and emotion; they were moved by an incredible energy which made their disappearance backstage almost painful. These musicians, in less than a decade, were to exercise a major influence on the evolution of jazz in Europe; but that could not yet be foreseen; nor is the extent of that influence always realised today. Eighteen years on from Martins statement, and forty -nine years after the performance he describes, acknowledgement of the impact that the Blue Notes as well as their subsequent groups had on jazz in Europe continues to gain momentum. However in attempting to identify the musical nature of this influence, we run in to difficulties. A large part of it seems to depend on a perceived South African sonic cultural identity that, in Martins terms, infused modern jazz in Europe with South African roots and fragrances. These traits
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are often tagged as South African or township but it is not at all clear that there was a consensus regarding what was being heard as South African. Reviewing the Brotherhood of Breaths Country Cooking in a 1988 issue of The Wire magazine, Tony Herrington stated that McGregors late Brotherhood of Breath work had become more and more distanced from the earlier radical, cross-cultural hybrid he so clearly admired, instead becoming part of an overcrowded European mainstream. However, McGregor regarded this album as more successfully South African than his earlier work in Europe. Using McGregors late Brotherhood of Breath work as a case study, this pap er will question what was being heard as sonically South African in late twentiethcentury European jazz circles. Richard Ekins, University of Ulster

Authenticity as Authenticating in New Orleans Jazz Revivalism: Adapting Authenticity and the Case of Dan Pawsons Artesian Hall Stompers (1960-2002)
This paper is part of the authors ongoing grounded theory work on the basic social process of authenticating in the substantive area of early jazz and world-wide New Orleans jazz revivalism (Ekins, 2010; 2011; 2012). It argues that to pay the proper respect to authenticity and authenticating in this substantive research arena entails detailed study of how authenticities emerge, ebb and flow within a number of interrelated sub-processes identified as constructing, reconstructing, resuming, adopting, adapting, abandoning and progressing authenticity, with particular reference to the major dimensions of each sub-process identified as style, repertoire, instrumentation and personnel. In particular, it illustrates my trajectories of authenticating conceptual framework by focusing on my empirical work with the English trumpet player and New Orleans revivalist bandleader Dan Pawson and his leadership of the Artesian Hall Stompers between 1960 and 2002. After a brief period of adopting the reconstructed authenticity phase of Bill Russells American Music label of the mid-1940s and early 1950s associated, in particular, with the stay at home New Orleans jazz pioneers such as Bunk Johnson and George Lewis the Artesian Hall Stompers focused on what became known by the mid-1960s as contemporary New Orleans jazz, which entailed their adapting the music of second wave New Orleans jazz revivalism in contemporary New Orleans in a variety of British contexts, including those of jazz clubs, working mens clubs and jazz festivals. The paper shows how Pawsons repeated visits to New Orleans from the 1960s through to the 1980s
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led him to develop a particular sound and ideology that established him at the forefront of a particular variant of authentic New Orleans jazz revivalism. Damian Evans, Conservatory of Music and Drama, Dublin Institute of Technology/Graduate School of Creative Arts and Media

Rethinking Jazz Performance as a Research Method


This paper addresses the creation of methods by which to use jazz performance as an additional tool into a primarily ethnographic investigation. It reports on a study that uses practice as a method within ethnographic methods, addressing jazz trio performance. In 1960, Mantle Hood (1960) made a call for ethnomusicologists to attain a basic degree of musicality if one was to theorize about music. This call is still being made by scholars such as John Baily (2008), to further the act of performance in the study of music in order to assure a real comprehension of theoretical studies. Significant research into jazz culture has been conducted in recent years, in particular by ethnomusicologists, for example Berliner (1994); Monson (1997) and Jackson (2012). While these studies engage with the ways in which jazz practice creates, reflects and shapes culture, they do so from the perspective of the participant observer, the primary ethnographic viewpoint of the last century. It is largely accepted that insight into a culture can be gained through participant observation, and that further insights can be gained by understanding the music from a performers perspective. I make the argument that the professional jazz musician can use his or her skills in order to obtain a further understanding into jazz performance from a scholarly perspective. In addition to field notes taken from regular participant observation, I argue that taking field notes while actively engaged in a professional culture will uncover motivation behind participant behaviour that may not be gained any other way. Pre-gig banter, in-between tune utterances, gesture during performance and the post gig autopsy are all locations where meaning is created yet is not accessible to the participant observer not active in the interaction.

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Petter Frost Fadnes, University of Stavanger

The performative aspects of contemporary space: Negotiating new rooms in improvised music
This is a case study based on the Anglo/Norwegian trio The Geordie Approach performing improvised music within the compounds of European kulturfabrikker/kultrny uzol (cultural factories). The decades old phenomenon of derelict and abandoned factories attracting the creative, subcultural and deviant aspects of the underground scenes within our urban environments is as vibrant as ever within European art scenes. Indeed, even such dispersed authorities as local councils, national funding agencies and the EU are diverting funding towards these bustling cultural centres, often justified within a large spectre of cultural policies ranging from arts funding (local sustainability), regeneration (gentrification) and branding (cultural capital and image building). The attraction for the experimental arts towards the hard grind production environments of derelict factories seems obvious. These large spaces represent an attractive array of possibilities for arts-production, attached from commerciality and with opportunities for building a home for the local underground scene. Performing such spaces is a curious experience, where musicians often encounter a whole new set of expectations, norms and codes outside the established divisions of musical genre. For improvised music this often fuels new musical outcomes, as musicians are able to work outside the restrictions often encountered in heavily branded venues like a jazz- or a rock club. Relevant issues are: Voluntary work, idealism and hidden economies Radical thinking, politics and aesthetics Subcultural belonging and musical communities Performance perspectives, musical codes and audience response Subsequently this paper will deal with the particular fusion between improvised music and cultural factories, and see how the trio The Geordie Approach manoeuvred and negotiated the performative, cultural- and political aspects of these spaces; ranging from an old (still functional) train station (Stanica) to an abandoned tobacco factory (Tabacka), via a long closed brewery (Tou Scene).

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Adam Fairhall, Manchester Metropolitan University

Imaginary Pasts: Representing Early Jazz in Contemporary Jazz Practice


This paper will discuss the representation of early jazz in the music of contemporary jazz musicians. In the first part, examples of contemporary practice will be drawn from four bandleaders with varying national backgrounds; Japanese-born, German-resident pianist Aki Takase, Dutch pianist Michiel Braam and African-American pianists Dave Burrell and Jason Moran. In their appropriation of early forms, each of these musicians modifies the music in ways that highlight the constructedness of any historical representation, a self-awareness that distinguishes them from more conventional repertory projects. The musical techniques used by these artists to modify the characteristics of early forms range from the introduction of styles from different eras to the simplification and exaggeration of stylistic trademarks. These methods will be identified before questions surrounding interpretation and reception are discussed, with an emphasis on the issues of perceived ironic distance and the artists ethnic background. The second part of the paper will present my own practical attempt to develop methods of representation that complicate straightforward readings of irony or parody but which acknowledge the constructed nature of such endeavours. The project, titled The Imaginary Delta, was commissioned by Manchester Jazz Festival in 2011 and a live recording of the premiere was released on SLAM in May 2012. The early musics that form the projects historical references include vaudeville blues, 1920s exotica, Joplins ragtime and early Duke Ellington. In addition to versions of the methods used by the artists above, the Imaginary Delta also uses samples from 1920s recordings, employs electronic sound sculpture and mixes conventional jazz instrumentation with archaic folk instruments such as the diddley bow. A discussion of the function of these methods in the projects objectives will form the final part of this paper.

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Kevin Fellezs, Columbia University

Suburban Jazz Meets Cosmopolitan Country: Earl Klugh, Chet Atkins, and George Benson
This paper investigates the relationships among the guitarists Earl Klugh, Chet Atkins, and George Benson as part of a long history of black and white musical crossings across the color line that have been obscured by the particular racialization of jazz and country music. Earl Klugh is an anomaly in popular music as a guitarist who has built a career by performing fingerstyle guitar on a nylon string Spanish, or classical, acoustic guitar. Citing Chet Atkins as his primary influence and defining pop music as an inclusive rather than a benighted genre, Klugh insists that he is a pop music instrumentalist and that jazz is a limiting race-coded term. Atkins faced criticism for his part in creating the cosmopolitan country music that incorporated elements from jazz that would come to dominate Nashville production in the 1950s through the 1970s. George Benson, who mentored Klugh early in the younger guitarists career, cites Hank Garland as a major influence, a guitarist more closely associated with country music than jazz despite recording a number of Nashville jazz recordings in the early 1960s (including two releases with a young vibraphonist named Gary Burton). The music the three guitarists produced individually and with one another not only contested the racialization of jazz and country but also reminds us that conventional jazz histories often ignore Western swing artists such as Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys and that country music histories often ignore early African American country music stars such as DeFord Bailey and Peg Leg Howell. Most significantly, the three guitarists collaborative work demonstrates that creative interactions between jazz and country musicians can often reveal the compatibilities across difference. Peter Freeman. University of Queensland

Strings with Jazz


The integration of strings with jazz offers immense sonic possibilities, yet apart from some well-designed classics such as John Lewis A Day in Dubrovnik and Artie Shaws Interlude in Bb, few compelling strings-with-jazz standards have been produced to date. This paper presents new insights into the hybridisation of musical culturesspecifically the integration of classically trained string players within a jazz ensemble. It looks beyond the more obvious racial politics inherent in jazz culture to address a more subtle, yet significant, cultural division in jazz that has provoked adverse criticisms. For example the critical and cultural resistance to strings in jazz is evident in the writings of Francis Davis who refers to string sections as being regarded with suspicion in jazz, saying that the combination of jazz and strings has generally resulted in fusty
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romanticism or amateurish experimentation. Julia Bullard also highlight s the historical negative connotations previously associated with the term crossover, the combination of classical and jazz styles. Most music education institutions providing training in jazz in Australia (and to my knowledge overseas) do not include string players, either as solo instrumentalists or in string sections. I propose solutions to some of the more obvious practical problems of integration, such as the lack of improvisational understanding and rhythmic feel amongst many string players and an occasional lack of musical literacy on behalf of jazz players. The key feature of this approach is choice of repertoire, but there are many aspects and challenges that stem from this choice that require careful attention and a sympahetic understanding of individual capabilities and aspirations. This holistic approach results in a more comprehensive understanding of the idiosyncracies inherent in this instrumental integration that not only provides a broader musical palette for jazz artists but also a dissolution of some of the cultural barriers that prevent the discoveries and rewards of an eclectic attitude towards music. Gerry Godley, 12 Points!

Teach me Tonight: a perspective on the impact of jazz education


The onward march of jazz education over the last two decades has been unstoppable, and it is hard now to think of a European country that does not afford its young people the opportunity for study at graduate, doctorate levels and beyond through the medium of jazz and related music. By my estimate, there are in excess of 30 conservatories/schools with a jazz prospectus in Germany and The Benelux alone, part of a wider ecology best represented by organizations like IASJ (International Association of Schools of Jazz) that includes member schools at the European periphery like Ireland and Greece, in addition to extensive membership beyond Europes borders. From where I stand, which is usually at the back of the room counting heads, its hard to escape the conclusion that this growth in educational capacity has been mirrored by a contraction in performance capacity, and therein lies the rub. This paper, therefore, explores the tension within the jazz scene today where more and more people are playing the music at a time when less and less people are paying to hear it. Rather than demonize jazz education for being a success, I argue that the prize is getting jazzs undeniable power as a pedagogical tool to work in symbiosis with the performance and audience development. However, it is equally valid to argue that, just like the impact of the web on traditional sales and copyright models, the jazz education dynamic
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is becoming a disruptive influence on traditional channels for transmission and performance of the music. Liz Haddon, University of York

The development of the individual voice within the institutional community


This paper draws on the experiences of a group of undergraduate and postgraduate students at a UK university music department in order to explore aspects of emerging identity within an institutional community of practice. Twelve students were interviewed, stating their thoughts on learning jazz within institutional ensembles, academic jazz teaching and one-to-one tuition, as well as detailing their experiences of informal learning within the peer community. The concept of individual voice Berliner, 1994) emerged as a particularly significant construct of musical self-identity. In this specific institutional setting, tensions emerged between the various pedagogical components of learning. These seemed to highlight the importance of the peer community and the need for students to consider their own needs as learners and to create contexts where these could be addressed. As many writers have observed, institutional belonging may create homogeneity of sound and approach (Collier, 1975; Beale, 2005; Nicholson, 2005; Louth, 2006; Prouty, 2008). However, these students, recognising that similar influences may create a similar mindset, were keen to create contexts for learning through which they might transcend these limitations. This paper examines students views on how their learning processes developed within this setting and identifies some examples of practice through which students hoped to attain individuality and accomplishment as jazz musicians. The findings are likely to be transferable to other institutions and communities of learners. Nick Heffernan, University of Nottingham

Reds, Blacks and the Blues: Left Filmmakers and the Representation of Jazz in Cold War America
In the 1950s the US State Department adopted jazz as a Cold War propaganda weapon, sponsoring international tours which showcased the music as a uniquely American art and the cultural form that best defined liberal capitalist democracy. Yet for three decades prior to its appropriation by the state, jazz had been a vehicle through which American leftists analysed and explored the complex relationship between culture, class and race in their struggle to develop a progressive political movement. This tradition of cultural analysis
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and debate on the left informed the work of radicals within the film industry. Though the imposition of the anti-communist blacklist in Hollywood from 1947 onwards severely constrained the expressive range of movie radicals, curtailing the careers of many, stories about jazz served as one of the few areas in which they found it possible to continue to articulate a left-wing cultural and political vision. This paper looks at three important examples of movie treatments of jazz made by Communists, blacklistees and fellow travellers in the high Cold War epoch. New Orleans (1947), Young Man with a Horn (1950), and Paris Blues (1961) stand as exceptions to the customary Hollywood representation of jazz in so far as they seriously engage with the questions of race and class that arise from any proper consideration of the musics social origins and cultural significance. Moreover, they use narratives about jazz to develop sharp critiques of bourgeois culture and of American whiteness that, alongside the films visions of posited interracial solidarity, echoed the attacks on segregation and American racism being mounted elsewhere by Civil Rights activists and white bohemians alike. Nikko Higgins, Columbia University

Fusion in South India and Directions in World Jazz


A recent proliferation of research on jazz around the world has led some scholars to use the term world jazz to describe and unify these disparate but related practices. This paper questions the benefits and drawbacks of using the word jazz with transnational relevance by looking closely at a jazz-influenced musical practice in Chennai, India. Certain musicians in Chennai, many of whom are trained in Karnatic, or South Indian classical music, combine Karnatic music with aspects of Western rock, jazz, and Indian film music. Many call this music fusion, which not only draws listeners attention to non -Karnatic and non-Indian musical influences but also links their music to the fusion of jazz, rock, and funk from the 1960s and 70s. Is it helpful to consider fusion in Chennai as a satellite of jazz, or even a separate manifestation of jazz? There has been increasing interest among scholars to research jazz in India recent historical studies offer evidence of jazz in five star hotels and the film industry-but lumped together this work risks overstating the importance and influence of jazz in pre- and post-independence India. The practice of fusion in Chennai offers a unique portrait of how improvisation-based music with a high value placed on musical virtuosity could mistakenly lead to conclusions about the ease with which jazz flows transnationally, and ultimately exposes the limitations of the understanding world jazz as merely the transnational circulation of jazz. But fusion in Chennai also has broad benefits for understanding music as a way of hearing the cultural changes that
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transnational circulation enables and blocks, and has important implications for future directions in jazz studies and world jazz. John Howland, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim

Hot Buttered Soul and Billboard Jazz: The Curious Case of Isaac Hayes and the Intersections of Jazz and Soul, 1969-1973
This paper explores genre, hybridization, and industry questions around intersections of jazz and soul across 1969 to 1973. Core attention is placed on soul albums by Isaac HayesHot Buttered Soul, the Shaft soundtrack, etc. which topped both Billboards jazz and soul charts. While soul jazz is part of this cross-charts trend, it is striking how long Hayess decidedly soul-centered albums resided on the Best Selling Jazz LPs charts, and how they vied with, and outlasted, the period chart sales of such jazz releases as the albums of Miles Davis. Hayes even won the recording industry Top Jazz Artist award of 1971. By extension, in Downbeat of the era, there is considerable coverage of soul, including an extended Hayes interview and reviews of albums and performances. This reflects Quincy Joness 1967 remark that jazz magazines seem to be writing about everything but jazz. That said, in 1972, Billboard arguedwith support from artiststhat jazz is souls cousin. Jazz historiography has mostly avoided examinations of such muddied cross-charts jazz/soul trends. In a 1972 Billboard issue on jazz, Atlantics jazz producer described his releases, from Roland Kirk to soul artists like Donny Hathaway, as simply adult black music. Indeed, this cross -charts repertory was based on the adult-focused LP medium, and this description read ily captures this musics core audience. The same issue includes the article Looking for Freshness on a Pop Date? Hire a Jazz Sideman. This latter trend of jazz -trained musicians lending their instruments and arranging to pop production is highly relevant to both Hayes-influenced symphonic soul and related blaxploitation soundtracks, where jazz-trained musicians were major contributors. In sum, my research focuses on cross-genre idioms in this family of music, the growing roles of jazz musicians in pop production, and the elevated production sound of jazzrelated textures in 1970s soul.

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Marian Jago, York University, Toronto

It Dont Mean A Thing: Race and Considerations of Hot and Cool in the Music of Lennie Tristano
Though in many ways an under-researched figure, pianist Lennie Tristano has frequently figured in discussions surrounding the racial dimensions of jazz in America. Invariably, the debate turns on a few recurrent themes, chief of which is the way that Tristano employed the rhythm section. This employment, which should perhaps be more broadly considered as a creative choice, becomes a flashpoint for discussions of racial essence and musical ownership due to the politically charged space occupied by the drums; an instrument long coded as black in cultural and musical discourse. Tied closely to this issue are considerations of identity formation in jazz, and the role which race plays in such discourse, both actively and passively. In exploring Tristanos artistic ethos, scholars hip by both Paul Gilroy and Ronald Radano will help to (re)define and (re)contextualize the ways in which modes of musical expression have historically been racially coded; a process which seeks to deny the validity of such racial essentialism. We are then left with a novel theoretical basis for a shared cultural participation in jazz by elements of the white population (Tristano et al) for whom it both held and served to express meaning. Tristanos artistic ethos, expressed through musical and pedagogical practices often coded as white, may be seen to have served as a means by which Tristano could seek a form of jazz expression which was, in its escape of expressive features coded as black, authentic to his experience of the American cultural landscape. Aaron Johnson, Columbia University

Shifting boundaries or "Man, _____'s a total sellout": The Battle for Jazz on 1970s Radio
For many today, jazz is jazz; acoustic instruments, a cool vibe, bewildering improvisation, swinging syncopation, and a lot of saxophone. While there are somehow other styles coupled to jazz vocals, Dixieland, big band, smooth, and way-out mainstream jazz doesn't even need the "mainstream" any more. Jazz is now neatly defined. Of course this is not really the case today anymore than at any time in its history. Jazz discourse has always hosted a contest over content. Today American jazz is sheltered in a small, cozy corner of the music industry propped up by non-profit institutions backstopping its small commercial footprint, and this situation has favored the ever vigilant jazz purists on the discursive battlefield. However in the 1970s, while the foundations of these institutional fortifications were being poured, jazz was
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fighting for relevance in the marketplace and on the radio, and its boundaries were very much in contention. This paper considers commercial jazz radio as one of the arenas where the music industry, which not only dominated the supply of musical content to the stations but was also a prime source of their advertising revenue, could have influence comparable to the purists. In the 1970s a number of jazz musicians experimented in the directions of soulinfluenced and electric jazz and jazz radio responded with access to the airwaves. Usually these musicians were accused of selling-out, but musicians approached this more commercial music from a number of positions. Some were established jazz artists merely trying to remain relevant while others had a sincere and genuine interest in soul/funk. Most neglected by jazz and popular music history are jazz-leaning commercial musicians who enjoyed the greater creative freedom and stature as jazz musicians these projects allowed. Michael Kahr, University of Music and Performing Arts, Graz

Out of nowhere: The role of jazz institutions in Graz in the formation of jazz identity
The Jazz Institute at the University of Music and Performing Arts in Graz, founded in 1965, has built a reputation as one of the first academic jazz institutions in Europe. Since its subdivision into a pedagogical and scientific branch in 1971, the Institute for Jazz Research in Graz emerged as a European forerunner regarding the systematic study of jazz. In sum, the academic jazz activities in Graz have not only shaped the local music scene but have also projected abroad by contributing to the internationalization and professionalization of several generations of local and foreign students, many of whom have become leaders at various international, academic and nonacademic jazz institutions. This paper seeks to explore how the jazz institutions in the rather small city of Graz participated in the formation of jazz identity, both on a local and on an international level. The examination refers to the structure of the jazz institutions in Graz, their role in the preservation of traditions and development of innovations, the impact of local practice collectives and the factors of globalization. The tension between traditions and innovative approaches as a source of conflict and striving force in the formation of identity is particularly considered. Based on the analyses of interviews and studies of historical sources, this paper sketches a case study on identity formation in relation to academic jazz institutions and seeks to construct an explanatory model for similar aspects of jazz identity in other places. The study reflects results of the research project
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Jazz & the City, which has been conducted in Graz since 2011 through a research grant of the Austrian Science Fund FWF. Alexander Kan, Europe Hub, BBC World Service

Soviet Jazz Collapse of an Identity


Jazz was always a pariah art form in the Soviet Union: at best reluctantly tolerated, at worst harshly persecuted. However, throughout the 1970s and 1980s when the ideological pressure shifted to politically much more subversive rock, Soviet Jazz was going through a period of unprecedented popular and artistic upheaval. The still existing iron curtain kept it largely isolated from the rest of the jazz world, with a rare exception of a Soviet artist allowed to travel and perform in the West and a rare Western star appearing at a concert in Moscow or Leningrad. This isolation only enhanced the need for consolidation and integration of a jazz community spread across the enormous continent from the Baltics to the Pacific and from the Arctic Ocean to Central Asia. Enormous cultural and music diversity collided in shaping a vibrant, rich and extremely active movement complete with a multitude of festivals, its own makeshift media and, most importantly, a sense of a unity. Ethnic and religious differences were irrelevant, and a growing antagonism between the traditionalists and the burgeoning avant-garde only enhanced the vitality of a cultural form. The new openness of the 1980s brought a new optimism and a hope for a hitherto suppressed music to receive its long-earned recognition, both at home and internationally. Reality turned out to be much harsher. Collapse of communism brought with itself collapse of the entire Soviet state system hated as it was, it had provided a support without which the feeble jazz edifice could hardly function. The breakup of the USSR created new national barriers. Newly opened borders made international travel easy, and therefore much less exciting. Freedom to emigrate brought in an unprecedented talent drain: scores of musicians from the former USSR found themselves spread across the US and Europe. Whats left? Which forms of jazz life survived? How did the music change? What, if any, is the role played by different post-Soviet states in relation to jazz? How did the newly found ethnic identity influenced creativity? Has the long dreamt of integration into the international jazz community been achieved?

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Mikko Karjalainen, Independent researcher

Performing sonic cultural identities: New Orleans brass band music as sonic practice
This paper studies the ways in which contemporary New Orleans brass band music performs sonic cultural identities. Following contemporary understanding of identity, sonic cultural identities are viewed as processual and performative. Drawing from sonic studies and spatial theory, sonic practices are viewed broadly as simultaneously sonic (e.g. acoustic, perceptual), spatial (e.g. physical/real, socio-cultural, theoretical/imagined), temporal (e.g. historical, prospective) and discursive (e.g. historical, representational, reefing). Music is here conceived of in a broad practicecentred sense taking the cue from Christopher Smalls musicking and J.L Austins criteria for performativity are used for analysing the processes, agendas and agencies involved in performing sonic cultural identities. Although the New Orleans brass band music has evolved to serve contemporary audiences and the relation to jazz might be hard to establish in formal terms, musicians often name improvisation a performance practice as the common element maintaining the musics relation to jazz. Contemporary brass bands perform in communal events similar to those their early twentieth century predecessors performed in, but they also perform at other venues attracting different audiences, creating new sonic communities. This connection is recognised by various agents attempting to capitalise on New Orleans status as the birth place of jazz. The brass band musicians are featured in festival postures and publicity acts but rarely get the prime spots, and therefore miss out on the economical benefits of their status as culturebearers. Identification through New Orleans brass band music is found to be performed largely by negotiating the musics historical, musical and discursive relation to jazz, whether as a music genre or marketing category, and to different social groups in a space simultaneously sonic, social, and discursive. Various sonic cultural identities emerge out of these processes on individual, local/neighbourhood, national and international levels with significant social, economical and political elements.

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Diana Kondrashin, Jazz.Ru

Contemporary Russian Jazz: Adoption, Tradition or High Treason?


Last year 2012 jazz in Russia celebrated its 90th anniversary. A genre that was adopted as an acute representation of the Western realities, semantically and inherently made a shift to correspond with the needs of self-expression for local musicians. Looking back as the perception of jazz in Russia altered through years, we can examine how initially did Russian music influence jazz, what features in jazz had adapted on the regional scene, and in which way did jazz influence Russian music afterwards. It is a matter of fascination with the sound and the rhythm on the one part, but also comprehension of the idea of freedom in jazz music on the other, - which undoubtedly has been vital for jazz adepts during the long years of official persecution towards the alien music that had been a synonym to treason according to a notorious saying: He plays jazz today and betrays his Motherland the next day. How have Russian musicians been tending to introduce national features into jazz, and is there such notion as Russian jazz 90 years after? We will overview the concepts that still make jazz in demand in Russia and understand the reasons of its unawareness within the wider audiences, basically to find out what are the tasks for musicians, music industry managers and musicologists to undertake during the nearest future. The report is based on interviews with artists, educators, and promoters, as well as on 5 years of personal experience in jazz journalism and music management. Dave Laing, University of Liverpool

Jazzetry UK: jazz and poetry in England in the early 1960s


Jazz and poetry have been connected in a number of ways: poets have written verse, fiction and criticism about jazz; some poets have doubled as jazz players; and jazz composers have set poems to music or been inspired by works of poetry. But the most intimate association between the two arts has been in performance. Inspired in part by US experiments involving Kenneth Rexroth, Jack Kerouac and others, a number of English poets began to collaborate with jazz musicians at the end of the 1950s jazzetry was the name coine d by theatre and film director Lindsay Anderson. These poets believed in the primacy of the spoken word over the written and the musicians found a new, younger audience from the emerging movement against nuclear weapons and fans of political satire.

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The paper will focus on three important examples. The first is the work of Christopher Logue and Tony Kinsey, to be found on the recording Red Bird Dancing on Ivory, produced by George Martin and in the song album Loguerhythms featuring Annie Ross. Next there is the collaboration between Michael Garrick and a group of poets led by Jeremy Robson. Finally, the work of Michael Horovitz and Pete Brown, especially their lengthy opus Blues for the Hitchhiking Dead with the New Departures band, which included Stan Tracey and Bobby Wellins. Although the Robson-Garrick project continued sporadically for several decades, the poetry and music nexus was to pass later in the 1960s to the field of rock music and the paper will reference the work of such figures as Pete Brown with Cream, the Liverpool Scene and Pete Atkin, whose songs were settings of lyrics by the poet and critic (and jazz fan) Clive James. Bob Lawson-Peebles, University of Exeter

The Grave Disease: the Depiction of Jazz in some Interwar British Novels.
This paper will discuss a group of interwar British novels that portray Jazz in terms of pathology. Its starting point is the notorious 1919 speech by the senior Anglican cleric, Arthur Hislop Drummond, that Jazz dancing was a very grave disease which was infesting the country. Drummonds warning will be used to indicate problems in defining the term Jazz; and to highlight attitudes to the music in novels by John Buchan, Aldous Huxley, Eric Linklater, J. B. Priestley and Aelfrida Tillyard (the sister of a founder of Cambridge English). Despite their greatly differing political, social, racial and biological agendas, these writers depict Jazz as a symptom of a mass-produced, anaesthetised, sex-ridden culture that is overwhelming an ageing European culture, fatally weakened by the First World War. The paper aims to show that Entartete Musik, the 1938 Nazi exhibition held in Dsseldorf, is simply the most salient example of perceptions of Jazz that were widespread and that have proved difficult to eradicate. The conclusion of the paper will briefly contrast detective novels of John Harvey and Cathi Unsworth to show that the music is still sometimes regarded as a pathogen.

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Jostine Loubser, University of Salford

YOU ARE NOW IN FAIRYLAND: Jazz from District Six


Musical spaces are often mythologized as the place to be and the place to be seen or the place you should have been. District Six in Cape Town was once such a neighbourhood, where human activities and shared musical experiences intertwined so successfully, that it became a notable space, a place where you should have been. Weighed down by the difficulties of poverty and overcrowding, magnified by the segregation of the society, music (and dance) became the ways in which the society was drawn together and held together; functioning as the main factor that led to the integration of the society and the strengthening of the community (Merriam, 1964). Forced removals, on the other hand is the antithesis of this; a counter clockwise motion against the creation of a community. Ordinarily understood as the forced re-settlement of peoples from one geographic area to another, and used as a vehicle to settle political disagreement, it touched the lives of many people in South Africa during the apartheid years. It peaked in Cape Town to displace a greater number of people than in any other city in South Africa (Cook, 1991: 26), including the destruction of District Six, leaving only a Mosque and a Church to keep the cloddy soil company. In this paper I wish to show the importance of space and place, with special reference to the musical life of District Six. I hope to demonstrate the cultural importance of this neighbourhood that, ultimately, led to the creation of the musical city. Finally I wish to focus on the forced removal of people from this area; the resulting trauma of which led to the composition of an album entitled Jazz from District Six (1970) under the auspices of Cliffie Moses. Martin Lcke, MHMK Munich

"Charlie and His Orchestra": Rise and Fall of Jazz in Nazi Germany
In the 1920s, jazz was present everywhere in Germany. In these years especially Berlin was the European Mecca of the genre. However, during the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1945 jazz music has been massively suppressed by the political system. Jewish and black musicians were banned from stage. On radio this music was prohibited since 1935 and both british and american records were difficult to buy at least since 1939. Nevertheless there were a few areas in which jazz was present until the fall of Regime. For example, with Charlie and His Orchestra the Nazis established in 1940 even a band that offered first-class jazz but not for the German population, but for the front.
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The Swing Youth in Hamburg identified with jazz to isolate oneself of the Hitler Youth and even in concentration camps jazz music was played. In my presentation I will look at the changeful use of jazz in the Third Reich, which fluctuated constantly between restriction and promotion. Haftor Medbe, Napier University

Groovin high and low: exploring the jazz vernacular


Debate over origin and authenticity aside, the musical language of jazz is today spoken and understood amongst a diversity of communities the world over. Standard repertoire, evolved formal structures, and aesthetic tenets provide a lingua franca supported by discourses on historical narrative, state of the nation, and the future of jazz amongst the genres interconnected scenes. It is widely accepted that jazz was initially forged in the multi-cultural crucible of its birthplace in a fusion of the inter-continental musical practices and disciplines of its originators. Where there is nothing to suggest that jazz was consciously constructed as a musical auxiliary language, inclusive of cultural difference and universal in message, there are nonetheless parallels with developments in linguistics of that time. The germination period of jazz coincides with the first World Congress of Esperanto in 1905 and follows just a short time after the 1889 Paris convention of Volapk. Zamenhof (Esperanto) and Schleyer (Volapk) individually constructed their universal oral and textual languages from assorted European linguistic stems. In contrast, jazz can be observed to have emerged and developed as a democratically defined cultural medium, although equally a sum of diverse constituents. It is a tragic irony that aspirations for cultural tolerance and cross-border understanding as embodied by Volapk and Esperanto so narrowly preceded the two great wars of the 20th Century and unsurprising that, by virtue of its wartime associations with both imperialism and liberation, interpretations of the cultural functions of jazz have become increasingly complex. Where Esperanto and Volapk fell by the wayside in the wake of the rise of National Socialism, jazz music rode the wave of the globalised marketplace to become a truly world music. This performance-based presentation will investigate the application of language based speech pattern to rhythmic phrasing and melodic shaping in musical improvisation. By contrasting spoken phrases in a variety of languages and dialects, a basis for rhythmic and tonal improvisation will be arrived at that demonstrates the significance of the musicians native tongue(s) in musical gesture.

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Taking referential starting-points from Steve Reichs use of sampled speech and the spoken word manipulations of pianist Henry Hey, this paper will be presented through the use of pre-recorded speech and live electronic looping of guitar. Tony Mitchell, University of Technology, Sydney

Against the Flow: The Necks vs John Litweiler


On the occasion of Sydney minimalist jazz trio the Necks first US tour in 2009, the Sydney Improvised Music Association (SIMA) invited prominent US jazz critic John Litweiler to review the bands concert at the Chicago Cultural Centre in February 2009. Litweiler is the director of the Jazz Institute of Chicago, a regular writer for US jazz magazine Downbeat since 1968, the author of a critical biography of Ornette Coleman and The Freedom Principle (1984), an authoritative study of US free jazz since 1958 which contains chapters on Coleman, Eric Dolphy, John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Sun Ra, Cecil Taylor and others, as well as free jazz in Europe and pre-1980s US free jazz. It seemed a momentous meeting a prestigious expert on free jazz reviewing an up-andcoming (although existing for more than 20 years) improvised jazz trio who had received glowing reviews in the UK and Europe and seemed poised to conquer America. But it backfired badly: Litweiler, describing himself as a lazy reviewer, delivered a contemptuous, blow -by-blow account of the Necks performance, describing them as starting from a concept that might even be taken, or mistaken, as an important development, and reminding him of the ad hoc ensembles of conga, Bongo, and other hand-drum percussionists who play for hours at the 63rd Street beach house here in Chicago on every warm summer evening. Lloyd Swanton, the Necks bass player, replied with an eloquent and passionate defence of the Necks music, and described Litweiler as assuming the prosaic role of timeline controller and writing a bloodless account which was extremely reductive, devaluing every musical occurrence to a hollow, meaningless, zombie action. This encounter between Litweiler and the Necks illustrates much broader issues related to the assumed US (and usually African-American) ownership of jazz and the treatment of outsiders such as Australians as irrelevant upstarts who lack the tradition and knowledge to play proper jazz. I relate it to Stuart Nicholsons claim (in his 2005 book Is Jazz Dead? (or has it moved to a new address) that the centre of jazz in the 21st century has shifted from the USA, where it has atrophied into flashy, showy displays of solo technique, to Europe, and in particular Scandinavia, where far more innovative, melodic, folk-based music is being produced. Arguably the Necks, and much other contemporary
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Australian jazz, fits more comfortably into what Nicholson calls the Nordic tone than into outmoded, outdated US norms, as demonstrated by Litweilers review of the Necks. Darren Mueller, Duke University

Duke Ellington: Live (but Mediated) at Newport 1956


To celebrated Duke Ellingtons 100th birthday in 1999, Sony-Columbia offered a re-imagining of the Maestros greatest-selling record, Ellington at Newport (1956), as the centerpiece of their reissue series. The double-CD boasted 100 minutes of new music with extended liner notes detailing how producer Phil Schaap created a stereo mix by combining the original mono recording with the Voice of America broadcast tapes, previously unavailable. Significantly, this captured saxophonist Paul Gonsalvess famous solo in full fidelity for the first time, since Gonsalves had mistakenly played off mike in 1956. The Newport reissue caused a minor controversy when it also revealed that the original LP was a hybrid creation: producer George Avakian overlaid audience noise and studio overdubs in the studio after the fact. In the CD liners, Schaap disparages the LP as bogus, phony, and a hoax, arguing that post production and non-musical shenanigans marred the original LP. Schaap offers the reissue as a historical corrective, a document of genuine live music. Yet, if the LP documents an imaginary event created through technological mediation in the studio, how are we to understand the post production needed to artificially create a stereo recording? Why value one production technique, but denigrate another? By closely comparing specific moments from the 1999 CD and 1956 LP, this paper explores how the means and methods of production, post production, and technological mediation impact the circulation and historical understanding of iconic moments on record. I argue that representations of liveness are at the center of the discursive debates that surrounded the Ellington at Newport reissue. Using documents found in George Avakians private archive and interviews with both producers, I offer a sonically grounded analysis of records and their reissues that troubles the dichotomy between performance and its recorded other.

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Fumi Okiji, Royal Holloway University of London

Jazz Insists! - Music as Social Criticism


One of the features of what Maxwell (2011) has termed the new new jazz studies is a reconsideration of jazzs participation in the civil rights and black nationalist movements of the 1960s. While jazzs role as a mouthpiece of the political intentions of musicians is a focus, there is also implied a related but separate notion of the music itself being a critical form, capable of providing social commentary and alternatives. This paper explicates this idea, contributing to an emergent body of work within jazz studies (Saul, 2003; Anderson, 2007; Thomas, 2008; Muyumba, 2009). It is argued that jazz music, when faithful to the specific demands of its tradition, is capable of revealing fresh perspectives on the inadequacies of modern life; that it is a works critical engagement with the musical material that precedes it which allows it to comment on and challenge society. The paper will put Theodor Adornos writing on the critical character of radical music in conversation with African American writers, such as Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin and Bob Kaufman (and the associated scholarship), who have recognised the potential for social critique in jazz. The paper explores the peculiarities of vernacular expressive criticism, arguing that the quarantine of black life (Pavlic, 2002) by segregation and inequality provided the music with the necessary critical distance, and the space for it to develop with fidelity to the demands of its material. The paper attempts to, on one hand, suggest ways in which Adornos music aesthetics can be used to augment our understanding of the jazz tradition and what it says about society and, on the other, to challenge the narrow identification of critical potential with the music of the bourgeois subject. Tom Perchard, Goldsmiths, University of London

We must expand jazz so that we never have to leave it: Andr Hodeirs contested territories
The French writer and composer Andr Hodeir (1921-2011) produced what is commonly acknowledged as some of the most important jazz criticism of the post-war period. In formation and outlook Hodeir was positioned with unusual equilibrium between classical music and jazz worlds; in the wake of bebop and through the 1950s, jazz, though still a popular, commercial music, would take on more and more of the trappings of art proper, and Hodeir would emerge as a key figure in the international attempt to translate jazz practice into an extant system of bourgeois artistic values. At the end of the 20thcentury, Hodeir would again be routinely cited, this time in scholarly critiques
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of what had come to be seen as a disreputable, Eurocentric approach to understanding jazz. These critiques focused on Hodeirs u se of musical analysis, but this paper which examines the Frenchmans now-rarely discussed music as well as his critical writing shows that Hodeirs project to shift the centre of jazz creativity from American culture industry to European art music tradition was far more thoroughgoing than that; though the agenda was hidden in his writing, it was overt in his composition. The contemporary, scholarly rethinking of jazz often equates to the demand that the musics histories become more global in scope. But the troubling cultural politics of Hodeirs putative European transplantation of jazz creativity and its valorization should give us to reflect more critically on that project. Ari Poutiainen, University of Helsinki and Sibelius Academy

Nordic Jazz Curricula and Personal Voices


Jazz art celebrates personal voices. According to a common jazz ideal, solo instrumentalists should be recognized from their characteristic, individual performances. This ideal might not anymore be present in contemporary jazz: It is sometimes challenging to distinguish younger soloists from each other. Often jazz education is accused for making jazz sound the same everywhere. It is said that contemporary jazz pedagogy is too concerned about technical and theoretical matters. Institutions and educators do not pay enough attention to developing of an original expression and style. In 2007 I conducted a comparison between Sibelius Academys (Finland), Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (Finland), and NTNU -Trondheims (Norway) jazz curricula. This comparison (an academic article published only in Finnish) revealed interesting differences between the particular curriculum texts. In my presentation I update this research and extend it to altogether four Nordic countries, 13 jazz programs and the related curricula. Although far-reaching conclusions of present jazz education cannot be made on the basis of curriculum texts alone, my analysis does introduce some exciting emphasizes. There are major differences, for example, in the use of theoretical terminology and the ways the artistic independence is textually supported. In addition to my analysis report, I discuss curriculum texts significance as legal documents and their influence on jazz education in general.

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Ken Prouty, Michigan State University

Neo-Classic? Neo-Conservative? Neo-Colonialist? Jazzs Shifting Geo-Political Discourse in the Early 21st Century
In a 2004 article in The Guardian, Israeli-born saxophonist and critic Gilad Atzmon suggested that jazz serves as a vital critique of American hegemony and neo-conservative politics. For me, he wrote, to play jazz is to fight the BBS (Bush, Blair and Sharon) world order[and] the new American colonialism. Comments such as Atzmons, in which jazz is used to ques tion or critique aspects of American identity and culture, resonate with the ideas of Yui Soichi (quoted in Atkins 2003), who pointed to the use of jazz as a way to be free of America. Such perspectives run counter prevailing perspectives on jazz as an exemplar of American identity. This paper opens with an examination of the relationships between jazz neoclassicism and political neo-conservatism, and between American cultural ideals and jazzs critical discourses. I highlight important parallels betwee n dominant jazz institutions such as Jazz at Lincoln Center, and the ascendant political discourses of American Exceptionalism. Expressions of jazzs American-ness resonate with neo-conservative ideologies regarding Americas identity in global culture. Such ideas have long played a role in American jazz diplomacy; the parallel expressions of jazz as a metaphor for American democracy and as Americas greatest contribution to world culture are central to this discussion. The second thrust of this paper examines efforts by musicians and critics to situate jazz as resistance to perceived American neo-colonialism. Using the writings and music of Atzmon as a point of departure, I illuminate the development and limitations of such counter-discourses. Atzmons arguments reflect an inversion of the America-centered jazz narrative; yet his criticisms of neo-conservative geo-politics and American-led globalization are framed within his self-identification as a bop player. In invoking a mainstream jazz identity to critique neo-conservative politics, such statements reflect the complicated and conflicted nature of jazzs identity within contemporary political landscapes.

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Brett Pyper, NYU & Klein Karoo National Arts Festival, South Africa

On Jazz, listening and sociality among South African jazz appreciation societies
Among the contrasting post-colonial music scenes to have emerged in South Africa during the transition from apartheid, voluntary associations of jazz lovers known as clubs, stokvels or appreciation societies remain a relatively under-documented aspect of township musical life, operating at some remove from the formal jazz club and festival circuits that characterise the contemporary neoliberal public sphere. Yet on any given weekend, in a variety of locales ranging from working-class private homes to local taverns to larger community halls, groups of formally constituted jazz aficionados criss-cross urban and rural spaces to attend listening sessions, where globally circulating jazz recordings, and sometimes live performances, are reinscribed with a range of local meanings through various performative practices. In this paper, which draws on my doctoral ethnographic research, I examine the particular ways in which jazz is (re)appropriated and reframed in this milieu as sounds with their immediate origins in places like New York, Chicago, Copenhagen, Tokyo, or indeed South Africa, are harmonised with vernacular local soundscapes and aesthetics. In doing so, my study of the social life of jazz in these contexts takes its cue from general calls for a more ethnographically grounded cultural and historical contextualisation of musical listening. I consider the ways in which listening to jazz, no less than musical performance itself, is socially enacted, culturally and historically contingent, and implicated in the transformations occasioned by modernisation, musical commodification and transnational circulation. Heli Reiman, University of Helsinki

Voices in dialogue: conceptualizing jazz from the Soviet perspective


British historian Peter Burke describes our time as marked by a polyphonization of history. The polyphonic history is polyglot rather than monoglot, presented as a dialogue rather than a monologue, and tells multiple stories rather than a single grand narrative. The idea of polyphonization attunes excellently with current developments in jazz studies where the monologue of American centred perspectives has been replaced by a dialogue with voices from the margin with national jazz cultures and local jazz scenes. The emerging new situation, however, challenges the established categories within jazz discourse. The meanings of well-defined constructs in jazz studies like politics of race and class or tensions between popular and high culture, for
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instance, can have various implications in the context of culturally dispersed jazz cultures. There is a thin coherence between different jazz cultures as William Sewell would say. In light of this, my paper tries to rethink some established constructs in the context of Soviet jazz culture in general and Soviet Estonian jazz culture in particular. Referring here to Mieke Bals notion of travelling conceptions, which relies on concepts of the flexibility to travel between disciplines, between individual scholars, between historical periods and between different geographical academic communities, this study discusses the issues of race, autonomy, resistance, authenticity and art versus popular binary. Rdiger Ritter, University of Bremen

Broadcasting Jazz into the Eastern Bloc Cold War Weapon or Cultural Exchange? The Example of Willis Conover
Willis Conovers VOA broadcast Music USA Jazz hour helped significantly to crush down the East Bloc, as the myth will make us believe really? Or did jazz fans in the socialist countries rather use the jazz broadcasts from abroad as a kind of valve to let off steam in order to cope with grey socialist reality? Did jazz broadcasts even stabilize the system? This paper discusses this question by focusing of the radio listener. The comparison of sources from both sides listeners surveys by Western radio stations, Socialist official institutions, secret police sources, written memories and oral reports - demonstrates that listeners acted as autonomous individuals using the broadcasts for their own goals. Jazz served as a means of cultural transfer, but it did not work out as Cold War weapon as intended. Vast discourse areas remained separated, e.g. the understanding of freedom (political liberation or social niche), the complex of coloured people and black music or the Jewish topic in jazz, which led to productive misunderstandings. Socialist officials tried to benefit from this, implementing a great variety of measures ranging from repression to intensive encouragement of jazz listening, including the creation of own jazz programs. Sometimes, the parallels between Socialist propaganda measures and US cultural diplomacy are striking. The paper looks on the situation in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the Soviet Union by focusing on several case studies.

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Christopher Robinson, University of Kansas

Jazz Criticism as "Paracritical Hinge": The Anti-Canonical Project of Nathaniel Mackey's Bedouin Hornbook
While numerous scholars study the construction of the jazz canon, further inquiry of criticism that presents fundamental challenges to the canon is needed. The need for the analysis of such criticism is amplified considering that most who write it represent marginal subject positions. This paper argues that Nathaniel Mackey's epistolary novel Bedouin Hornbook is a significant form of jazz criticism that questions the validity of the jazz canon and the values that shape it. It shows how Bedouin Hornbook functions as what Mackey calls a "paracritical hinge," in that its writing, which transcends genre and style, is a literary representation of the musical and cultural values it espouses. Via the novel's narrator N. and his letters to the Angel of Dust, Mackey eschews the idea of a jazz canon in favor of a collection of music that is unbounded stylistically, but bound by common cultural values and history. For N., who plays reeds in the Mystic Horn Society, jazz and improvised music is soaked with cultural meaning, and as such, Mackey's work reaffirms the racial and cultural insularity of what could be called jazz and improvised music. Mackey's inclusion of a discography of the music N. mentions throughout the book challenges the relevancy of the jazz canon and explodes the concept of genre insularity. By accepting some forms of music dismissed by the jazz canon and challenging genre hierarchy N., who one could argue is a jazz musician, suggests that genre boundaries and distinctions between "high" and "low" are irrelevant. Interpreting Bedouin Hornbook as a performative form of jazz criticism has several implications for how we conceptualize jazz criticism and its cultural work. Doing so calls into question what counts as jazz criticism, who can be a jazz critic, and the validity of genre boundaries. Johanna Rohlf, Center for Metropolitan Studies, Berlin

Jazz on a Journey: The African-American music and its influence on Germany in the 1920s
One can weep, one can tremble with rage or one can evenmindedly make a historic entry New York achieved a major victory over Berlin yesterday. With this quote, the author from a Berlin newspaper referred to the opening of the show Sam Wooding and the Chocolate Kiddies in May 1925 in Berlins Admiralspalace. Ever since jazz had arrived in Germany in the early 1920s the music and its connotations not only influenced the artistic scene, they also had a great impact on cultural life and contributed to an era that is now referred to as the Golden Age. During the 1920s the use of the term jazz was often lacking a clear understanding of the music behind it. Yet, it immediately caused
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a lively discussion: What is jazz? In how far does it offer possibilities to transform the popular music scene in Germany? To what extent would this African-American music have to be adapted by art musicians first in order to be taken seriously? Should it have any impact on German culture at all? The Sam Wooding show from May 1925 gives a vivid impression of this conflict between enthusiasm on the one hand and disapproval on the other hand. The reactions not only reveal many different dimensions of the jazz reception in Germany, they also provide a springboard for further questions on German jazz concerning its cultural role and the actual music behind this so passionately discussed word jazz. Loes Rusch, University of Amsterdam

How jazz changed the Netherlands - how the Netherlands changed jazz
The year 1966 was pivotal in the development of jazz in the Netherlands. With its unconventional line-up, social-political theme and the use of largely precomposed material, the performance of Willem Breukers experimental Litany for the 14th of June, 1966 at the finals of the Loosdrecht Jazz Competition provoked a scandal and spread discord within the jazz scene. The event marked the beginning of the growing tensions between established modern jazz musicians (vocalist Rita Reys, pianist Frans Elsen, among others) and the emerging group of Amsterdam-based improvising musicians (Breuker, pianist Misha Mengelberg, drummer Han Bennink), a battle that became known as the richtingenstrijd. During the years their conflicting views in terms of aesthetics and social-political issues created a dichotomy within the Dutch jazz scene that not only shaped jazzs musico-cultural developments, but also deeply impacted the further institutionalization and organization of Dutch jazz. Furthermore, the battle contributed significantly to the development of Dutch jazz narratives, against which individual musicians, bands and performances are positioned and valued. By examining crucial developments and debates in post-war jazz in the Netherlands and by exposing their underlying ideologies, this paper explores the construction of local narratives in jazz and its interplay with local jazz infrastructures. Ultimately, by studying both the musical and extramusical implications of jazz within its local socio-political context, it will demonstrate, in the words of Taylor Atkins, the transformative powers and adaptive capabilities of jazz.

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Floris Schuiling, University of Cambridge

Jazz as Material Culture: Mediating Objects in the Performance Practice of the Instant Composers Pool Orchestra
When you hear music, after its over, its gone, in the air. You ca n never capture it again. Eric Dolphys famous words define music as something immaterial and intangible. However, as material culture scholars have shown, even the immaterial is always mediated by objects. Dolphy himself is a good example: his words came to us via a recording of one of his last concerts and his artistry is remembered both because of his compositions and his experiments with bass clarinet and flute. The attitude expressed by Dolphy is shared more widely in jazz studies. Ingrid Monson has shown how jazz musicians enact and comment on culture, but her idea of improvisation as saying something implies an ideal of unmediated personal expression. However, an improvisers voice in Monsons conversation is mediated and made possible by a creative engagement with his or her instrument, the contours of a composition and recordings of other improvisers. Objects are not stable entities, but active participants in behaviour Dolphy redefined the bass clarinet just as it redefined him. This implies that the social in jazz is not one thing, but (to use the terminology of Actor-Network Theory) an effect of a mediating network of human and nonhuman actors. In my paper I present some results of my fieldwork with Dutch improvising collective the Instant Composers Pool Orchestra. As their name implies, the relation between improvisation and composition, between immateriality and materiality, is an important aspect of their musical practice. I will present several examples of how their instruments and scores (conceived as actors in my ethnography) mediate the interaction among the musicians as well as the broader jazz culture in which they are embedded. Sebastian Scotney, Editor, LondonJazz

Giving the musician a voice online - a practitioner perspective


LondonJazz. The site which I run has had now more than 2.2 million page views, has given the opportunity for almost 200 musicians to reach a substantial online audience, and has developed a distinctive "voice," that very often of the musician explaining, de-mysifying, reaching out, building a sense of community. This paper builds on a presentation I gave at the Birmingham Music and the Media conference in Oct 2011 (on video at http://musicandthemedia.com/) in
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discussing the development of the site. Drawing on statistics about readership, for example, I explores ways in which the community works and shed light on the role and value of the site. Alyn Shipton, Royal Academy of Music/BBC

Questions of National Identity in the British Traditional Jazz Revival


In principle, the British traditional jazz revival of the 1950s and 60s was a conscious attempt to re-engage with the New Orleans jazz of the past. George Webb and Humphrey Lyttelton looked back to New Orleans exiles in 1920s Chicago, and Ken Colyer, Acker Bilk and Chris Barber looked to the more recent revival of the 1940s with Bunk Johnson and George Lewis. But both groups of musicians quickly began a process of assimilating aspects of British national identity into their music. With Lyttelton this was a mixture of the straightforward adoption of folk themes ("One Man Went To Mow" became his one-man overdubbed band "One Man Went To Blow") and a gradually more subtle process of reflecting different aspects of UK culture. So, for example, there were themes inspired by London "Red For Piccadilly" or by the rural harvest (Graeme Bell's "Apples Be Ripe"), but more subtle influences quickly crept in, including "Only For Men" which was about Gillette Razors and Kenny Graham's "One Day I Met an African" which explored the African immigrant community in London. Lyttelton's work with the Paseo Jazz Band and Freddy Grant's Caribbean band was an early investigation of multicultural influences in London musical life. By contrast, the "trad" boom saw far more explicit links to British stereotypes, Acker Bilk's uniform of waistcoats and bowlers and Dick Charlesworth's City Gents chimed with hits like Bilk's "Summerset". Chris Barber wrote locally inspired themes, such as his "Merrydown Rag" ten years before Mike Garrick and Graham Collier began similar integrations of English folk and modern jazz. So was the trad boom just an excuse to use national stereotypes as a marketing device such as the "Bilk Marketing Board", or was this the beginning of a deeper exploration of British multiculturalism, with Barber working towards Caribbean fusions with with Bertie King and Joe Harriott alongside Lyttelton's Paseo experiments?

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Alan Stanbridge, University of Toronto

Krazy Kats and Rhapsodies: Symphonic Jazz, Reconsidered


In contrast to the enthusiasm with which jazz elements were introduced into art music in the early decades of the 20th Century by many European composers among them Dvorak, Debussy, Stravinsky, Milhaud, and Ravel the early influence of black spirituals, ragtime, and jazz on American composers was considerably more muted. Notwithstanding popular stereotypes of cultural independence and rugged individualism, American art music composers at the turn of the century remained heavily indebted to Europe for their musical influences and compositional norms, and some pieces by figures such as Charles Ives, George W. Chadwick and Henry F. Gilbert represented early, somewhat tentative, and rather isolated attempts at incorporating elements of African-American music into so-called serious music. The advent, in the 1920s, of the musical style that came to be known as symphonic jazz saw such attempts become more commonplace, although not without continuing resistance from the classical and jazz worlds alike, and symphonic jazz was soon a much-maligned and much-neglected form, with Martin Williamss dismissal of the periods pompous symphonic jazz nonsense being typical of the trend. Notwithstanding these criticisms, the symphonic jazz movement was the source of many fascinating attempts at musical crossover, and contrary to much of the critical discourse on the style in this paper I argue that many early examples of jazz-influenced classical music deserve to be heard anew, acknowledging not only their musical but also their broader cultural significance. With particular reference to the creation, context, and reception of works by John Alden Carpenter (Krazy Kat, 1921), George Gershwin (Rhapsody in Blue, 1924), and George Antheil (Jazz Symphony, 1927), I suggest that pieces such as these went on to have a significant influence on several important strands of jazz development, not only as obvious precursors of Gunther Schullers Third Stream movement, but also in terms of their impact on many subsequent contemporary innovations.

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Alex Stein, Brown University

Understanding Distracted Engagement at Wallys Jazz Club: Nightlife and the Jazz Club Imaginary
The phenomena at Wallys jazz club in Boston a packed house of young people for jazz and the predominance of a distracted or divided mode of engagement are problematic in light of jazzs status as both niche music and listening music. How can we understand why audiences come to Wallys and how they engage when they come? In this paper, I argue that the presence of so many people, engaged in different activities and engaged in divided activity, dovetails with a historically complex pattern of social behavior and ideology associated with both jazz and with the spaces in which it is taken in. Understanding the appeal of Wallys and the predominance of distracted engagement requires attention to the ideational and associational valences that jazz and live music have historically in connection with the imagined histories of jazz clubs and speakeasies, and in connection with the specific history of Wallys. It also requires an engagement with the physical, spatial, and behavioral aspects of the club. Based on fieldwork conducted in March and April 2012, I use patrons responses to investigate how their ideas and expectations surrounding the history of Wallys; imaginary notions of jazz clubs and speakeasies; and ideas about jazz, acoustic, and improvised music are fulfilled in their experience of the club. Jonty Stockdale, University of West London

Tuning to a Different Channel


This paper examines emerging trends in the digital dissemination of music, and considers specifically the impact of new ways of consuming jazz that arise from the use of online streaming services, and computer apps. Notions of jazz identity, ownership, community and audience are being re-negotiated, and in this window of opportunity and change, how might jazz musicians influence new channels of communication to ensure that jazz not only maintains a voice, but also broadens its constituency, appeal, and impact? Jazz musicians and communities characterize themselves as forgotten and frequently overlooked within the contemporary music landscape, and are characteristically resigned to battling from the margins for greater recognition from funding bodies, record labels, radio stations, and promoters. Emerging digital technologies and web streaming services could provide genuine opportunities for practitioners and aficionados to cultivate and strengthen jazz, to influence listening habits, and build new audiences. But is there a weary

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sense of the inevitable: that the dominant musical inclinations, and industry attitudes will prevail regardless? To inform this debate, analysis of data from on-line content-streams will be used to provide insight to the collective listening habits of remote listeners, and to consider how this on-going accumulation of individual response is already changing perceptions of jazz, and disturbing extant processes of canon formation. Marcel Swiboda. University of Leeds

The Uses and Abuses of Jazz and Improvisation in an Age of Hyper-Medial Reproduction
Against the grain of the decades-old proclamations of jazzs death, jazz and improvisation have recently re-entered mainstream media and cultural discourse. On appearances, the recent remobilization of jazz figures and tropes in popular culture parallel to but at the same time beyond jazzs niche status as radio-friendly smooth music doubtless implies a form of shopworn postmodern nostalgia. Consider, for example, the big-band swing trappings that accompanied the pop-soul singer Justin Timberlake s appearance at the Grammy Awards in February 2013, or the use of jazz references as narrative features of the highly successful TV series Homeland, as just two among numerous cases in point. Less innocuously, one might also consider the entirely negative take-up of the term improvisation in contemporary media discussions surrounding terrorism and insurgency as another case of rhetorical remobilization of jazz-related tropes. Rather than assume these jazz- and improvisation-based mobilizations of image, sound and text to be entirely superficial or arbitrary, this paper will consider them as symptomatic of the growing need for a renewed sense of criticality in contemporary culture and to consider what resources a more substantive return to jazz and improvisation in cultural production and reception might proffer in the way of critical culture: an expression simultaneously used by the anthropologist and sociologist Frank A. Salamone as a characterisation of jazz musics inherent criticality and in a different yet related context by the philosopher Bernard Stiegler in his tracking of the potential inherent in contemporary analogico -digital technologies to engender a new culture of reception. The paper will undertake a reading of the recent take-up of jazz and improvisation in media and cultural discourse as symptomatic of the critical
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impasses facing contemporary culture (academic culture included) and as providing potential material for addressing these impasses. The means by which the paper proposes to redress these impasses is to consider some of the ways in which jazz, improvisation and technologies of mediation can be brought an affirmative critical conjuncture in particular in the context of the epochal technological, epistemic and cultural shifts current taking place, between twentieth-century analogue modes of mass mediality and twenty first century digital modes of hypermediality, and their analogico -digital interfaces. Reference will be made to specific case-based examples of the recent mobilizations of jazz and improvisation in both analogue and digital modalities and their contemporary imbrication. Tom Sykes, University of Salford

Jazz in the Big Society: participatory cultures and local jazz scenes in Britain
Jazz has had a place in British culture since the beginning of jazz itself. Since the end of the ban on visiting American musicians, jazz has enjoyed periods of relative popularity in Britain, and has maintained a cultural presence up to the present day. However, its coverage by the mass media, state funding and support from the larger music industry appears to be declining. At the same time, digital technology facilitates the creation of participatory cultures (as theorised by Henry Jenkins) by individual musicians, jazz promoters, independent record labels and jazz fans how is this technology affecting the local jazz scenes in the UK? Would such scenes function or even survive without email, video sharing sites and social networking? Local scenes have been an essential part of jazz culture in Britain for many years, many of them dependent on small-scale promoters and unpaid enthusiasts (Review of Jazz in England Consultative Green Paper, Arts Council of England, 1995). Using case studies from current local jazz scenes in northwest England, this paper will investigate the use of digital networks in fostering and maintaining jazz at grassroots level, at a time when a do -ityourself approach seems not only to be desirable, but increasingly necessary. Catherine Tackley, Open University

Rethinking Jazz and Rhapsody in Blue


George Gershwins Rhapsody in Blue is one of the best-known pieces of American music, and is widely regarded as the foremost example in the jazzinfluenced style. Despite a rich diversity of recorded interpretations which exposes the Rhapsody as a flexible and ever-changing entity, performances
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have not yet been subject to the same degree of critical scrutiny as manuscripts. Historical recordings, including several with Gershwin himself at the piano, rather than scores, preserve certain details that have been influential on interpretative approaches. In addition to Ferde Grofs orchestrations, many arrangements have been recorded which adhere to the stylistic conventions of particular genres, including jazz, progressive rock, and easy listening, and also cross freely between them. These versions have both popularised and problematised the identity of the work which has resultantly attained novelty status with regard to the jazz and classical canons, and has been subject to sustained criticism from those engaged in their formation. Rhapsody in Blue has had a particularly problematic musical and critical relationship with jazz. This paper illuminates the multifarious ideas of jazz which are active in nearly a century of renditions by exploring the performance history and practices of the Rhapsody through the analysis of recordings. These encompass the improvisation in Gershwins own performances, ideas of jazz that are brought to bear on the work by many classical performers, and the relatively wide adoption of the Rhapsody (holistically, but in particular the central slow theme) by jazz musicians. These performances invite reconsideration of the Rhapsodys inherent properties and the established boundaries between interpretation, arrangement, composition and improvisation while simultaneously contributing to debates surrounding race, genre and American cultural identity. Jasmin Taylor, Goldsmiths, University of London

Billie Holiday and Gendered Networks of Collaboration


Once established as a vocalist, Holiday became part of the close-knit New York jazz community which has generally been presented as being largely male in membership. Even though historically, women have been circumscribed in jazz environments to the roles of audience members, vocalists, girlfriends or sex workers, Holiday was often spoken of approvingly as one of the guys by fellow band members. (John Chilton, 1975). How women have been described has in the past influenced the description of the origins of jazz and the created narratives of the genres origins; (Nat Shapiro and Nat Hentoff, 1955). However, within the jazz community there also existed a female network of musicians and artists and in this paper, I will be considering the working relationship of Holiday with some of the female members of her milieu, (e.g. Irene Armstrong, Carmen McRae, Helen Oakley and Mabel Mercer) and the impact it had on the artistic material she produced. I hope also to deepen our perspectives on the nature of the locations where jazz was created and by
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whom. For example, close readings of material on Holiday reveal that jam sessions often took place in domestic environments and/or female only suppers could steer a song towards being taken up and recorded. This approach makes it possible to recover womens culture and women as historical actors and also challenge a dominant jazz discourse where the contributions of women have often been erased or misrepresented. Like Sherrie Tucker (2002), the intention is not only to argue how jazz sounds and spaces are gendered whether women are in within them or not but also to see what we can learn when we theorise from the representations and experiences of women in this area of music. Robin Thomas, University of Huddersfield

The Evolution of the Jazz Vocal Song: What comes after the Great American Song Book?
The American Songbook is still dominant in the jazz vocal repertoire. However, there are a number of trends to show that some singers are keen to develop new ideas. Gretchen Parlatto has a very adventurous approach to material, rhythm and improvisation. Theo Bleckman uses electronics and looping with unusual song vehicles, and a simple, pared down approach. Norwegian singer, Solveig Sletahjell uses popular songs, but in a slow- moving and intense style. A similar approach is seen in the work of New York-based Kate McGarry. Kurt Elling, possibly the leading male jazz singer at present, uses a variety of approaches, including scat, vocalese, and recently composed material. The work of Robert Glasper is also of great interest in that he fuses various pop and rap influences with a sophisticated jazz approach. The paper will therefore focus on a critical examination of vocal jazz music which moves away from the American songbook. Mikkel Vad, Rhythmic Music Conservatory, Denmark

The Tribute Concert as a Site of Memory


During recent years the so-called tribute concert has gained a prominent position in concert programmes at jazz venues and festivals. Celebrating an album, musician or event these types of concerts serve as a visible and audible form of history culture. It has been said that the past is not dead, it is not even past and in this view the tribute concert plays with the past in creating a historical liveness where the concert is a site of memory for musicians and audiences. The paper will analyze tribute concerts as a site of cultural memory considering topics such as nostalgia, collective memory, and reception in relation to this peculiar
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phenomenon. At the core of this musical practice are an imagined jazz tradition and the canonical jazz icon (be it a person, an album or a historical event). As such the tribute concert is a case of showing or playing history rather than telling or writing it. In reception and critical discussion these concerts have been considered by some to be aesthetically suspect in their necrophilia and hagiographic representation of jazz icons. On the other hand they have had success in creating a living history where musicians and audiences interact with history in the present. These different positions on the subject will be discussed, not so much as questions of what the jazz tradition is and consists of, but rather how it should be preserved, represented and literally played and performed. Walter van de Leur, University of Amsterdam

Last Notes: Narratives of Jazz and Death


Jazz mythology, full of heroes, icons, and (living) legends, has a special fascination for death. In Ken Burns's "Jazz" for instance--the documentary we all love to hate--Charlie Parker's death is spun out to drive home what seems to be a Faustian parable. Parker is a genius, elsewhere in the film likened to the Pied Piper of Hameln, whose music is full of Devil's intervals. But such virtuosity clearly comes at a cost, and at 34 Parker is dead of substance abuse. Earlier in that episode, the death of Parker's daughter Pree, is used to painfully expose him as mentally disturbed. Her passing ominously pre-shades his own. Jazz biographies tend to be full of such Romantic notions, from the death of the lone and misunderstood Bix Beiderbecke to the the larger-than-life Duke Ellington for who death was "the only problem he couldn't solve." Such is the fascination with death that there is an entire monograph dedicated to Jazz and Death (Spencer 2002), which "reveals the truth behind the deaths of jazz artists and the secrets of their often fatal lifestyles," neatly organized in categories such as "trauma" and "syphilis". The most important question, "why do we even care?," is blatantly absent from this morbid collection. My paper looks at these fascinating narratives of jazz and death, and discusses how these mythologies represent certain ideas about jazz, which evolve around genius, success and failure.

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Ove Volquartz, freelance musician

Developing a local scene by self-organized concert series: relations between performing venue and the development of (Jazz) music
As opportunities for playing jazz and/or improvised music become less and less there is a necessity for musicians to organize concerts by themselves. This was/is done by the AACM in Chicago, similar ideas turned up in many other cities, mostly in very specific ways. The traditional jazz club is obviously not the right place for combinations of techno and jazz/improvisation or electronic music, noise and jazz/improvised music, etc. The venues have changed a lot. Indeed, it is common for improvising musicians to play in galleries, churches, former factories, theatres. Obviously the variety of venues has an influence on the music: the acoustic of a church can change the sound concept of a musician or a group. In a gallery cooperation between improvisers and artists or dancers (if there is enough space) is possible, this may include videoinstallations etc. Using my experiences as an improvising (jazz) musician and organizer of a weekly improvisation series in a small gallery I would like to give an insight to the concept of the "Shopping Music" series, its advantages and difficulties and the influence of the venue on the development of the local scene. The relatively small amount of musicians in the university town of Goettingen encourages cooperation of musicians from very different fields: "free Jazz", symphony orchestra and contemporary music players, electronic wizards, rock and punk freaks, musicians from other cultures (Brazil, India, Japan, Africa, Latin America), and dancers. All kinds of cooperation developed from the weekly music series and new groups were formed crossing very different styles. Finally, I would like to initiate an exchange of experiences with colleagues who organize concerts in a similar way and exchange views about the development in musical concepts in local communities in relationship to the kind of venues.

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Katherine Williams, Leeds College of Music

Newport Up! Liveness, artifacts, and the seductive menace of jazz recordings revisited
Jed Rasulas compelling analysis of the construction of jazz history through the seductive menace of recordings opens up man y questions about the nature of jazz records as historical artifacts. The idea that a live jazz recording can fix in time a seemingly spontaneous moment of improvisation is problematic in itself, and the way that these recordings are reified, collected and studied by jazz fans, musicians and scholars imbues them with cultural heft. I use the Duke Ellington Orchestras infamous performance at the Newport Festival in 1956 as a case study with which to investigate the place of the live recording in jazz. Although Ellington had agreed with Columbia Records to release the live version of the performance, mic placement on the night meant that the recording was unsuitable. The performance released a few days later was a hastily assembled studio re-creation of the live gig. In this paper, I translate Philip Auslanders ideas of liveness in popular music into a jazz setting, theorizing the implication of the deception of a generation of jazz followers. Rasulas seductive menace is thrown further into question as I compare the 1956 Newport recording with remotely recorded versions of the original performance discovered and released in 1999. I use the Ellington Orchestras 1956 performances and recordings as a springboard with which to explore the construction of a globally accepted jazz narrative, suggesting that a revision of jazz history may be in order. Lawrence Woof, freelance musician

Jazz and the Angel of History


This paper will consider the cultural politics of improvisation, and will begin with a brief overview of the history of the cultural discourses surrounding Western improvisation, from the Eighteenth Century onwards, leading towards the post-bebop definitions that emerge from the Jacques Derrida/Ornette Coleman interview that took place in Paris in 1997. This paper will then consider improvisation in the light of the mystical turn that Derridas thought was taking during the 1990s (though it is only hinted at in the interview, perhaps because Coleman seems more interested in presenting himself as a composer rather than an improviser?), and asks the question, could the radical politics of Derridas Spectres of Marx, that the theorist had recently been working on, also be applied to the issue under discussion? Can the idea, seminally imagined by Walter Benjamin as the Angel
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of History flying backwards - recouping the whole of the past in the everpresent moment - that Derrida refashions in his own remarkable rethinking of Das Kapital, also provide a model for thinking about improvisation? The paper concludes with a consideration in the light of the above of that existential balance between the past, the present and the future that is from a performative point of view - conjured into existence at the moment of improvisation. Per Zanussi, University of Stavanger

Composition for improvising musicians - with particular focus on Asian compositional techniques as structures for improvisation
This papers starting point is a desire for artistic research which organizes music with a high degree of improvisation. I have chosen to focus primarily on the use of compositional techniques, from asian music mixed with techniques from western music, as effective structures for improvisation. I will start by using approaches from the Korean Sinawi genre mixed with Western compositional techniques as a basis for etudes, compositions and musical "guidelines" and systems for improvising performers. I plan to test these both solo and in large and small ensemble formats, as well as in teaching situations. I want to see if they can be used as effective structures for improvisation, as preparation for free improvisation etc. How can you keep a high level of composition while still providing improvising performers a sense of being able to express themselves "freely" in the musical context? How do you balance the composer's material and the improviser's personal material, arsenal of techniques, her understanding of form etc? I also want to see whether there are new ways of organizing (free)improvisation that do not necessarily end up as music without melodic, tonal or rhythmic foundation, but that can include these elements. The goal of the project is therefore to create music with new approaches to the organization and execution of improvisation by studying a mix of older Asian folk music and western art music. When it comes to Western techniques I am interested in using free tonal and serial techniques, conceptual composition, modal techniques, graphical composition (e.g.Cardew), "game" techniques (e.g. John Zorn's "Cobra"), instrument independent and approximated composition, conducting techniques (e.g. Sound Painting and Barry Guy). Sinawi is a scale based/heterophonic modal music with rules for appogiatura, vibrato, trills, etc. that are different for each note of the scale. There are also
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certain rules for rhythmic and melodic development within each piece. At the same time, it is very open to the personal expression of the performer and has some aspects in common with improvised jazz. In ensemble situations collective improvisation within the rules is the main focus. Asian music (and especially the Korean form Sinawi) is interesting to me in this context because I think its organization and systems can be transferred to several genres without necessarily sounding like Asian music. I do not want to create "World Music" or exotica, but rather develop tools that can be used within multiple genres where composition and improvisation are combined and as preparation for "free" improvisation. The building blocks of the music and how they work is what I'm interested in, not necessarily the aesthetic expression. The basic components will be the base of my artistic research.

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Poster Presentations
Poster presentations will be delivered during lunch breaks on Friday and Saturday. Please the poster boards in reception over the two days and talk to researchers about their work! Alison Eales, University of Glasgow

Glasgow Jazz Festival and its Venues


What makes a suitable venue for a jazz festival? This poster will illustrate various different attributes of music venues - architectural and aesthetic features, acoustic features, ambiance/atmosphere, and the attitudes of those who own and run them - with specific references to The Old Fruitmarket, a venue used heavily by Glasgow Jazz Festival since 1993. Drawing on primary sources such as company paperwork, press coverage and interviews, this research seeks to assess the suitability of the Old Fruitmarket, and the adjoining City Halls, as the Festival's 'home'. This is part of my AHRC-supported PhD research into the history of Glasgow Jazz Festival. Jamie Fyffe, University of Glasgow

The European influences of Bill Evans: Reassessing their impact on Kind of Blue through musical analysis
Bill Evans played for the Miles Davis Sextet for only a matter of months, yet his impact on the group was profound, culminating in the seminal recording Kind of Blue (1959). Evans brought a deep love of classical music to the group, introducing Davis to the works of many European (and Soviet) composers. Davis acknowledged his influence and European music appears to surface in the impressionistic Blue in Green and Iberian Flamenco Sketches. Evans claims to have composed the former and co-written the latter, despite Davis being formally credited with the entire album. This paper attempts to measure the impact of his European influences on Kind of Blue (1959) by assessing the validity of his compositional claims. Using musical analysis it reaches two key conclusions: (1) Evans was involved with the composition of both pieces; (2) Davis was conceptually more advanced.
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Two comparative analyses will be presented examining (1) the improvised lines of Flamenco Sketches and (2) the melody of Blue in Green. The first compares how each musician approached the Phrygian section of Flamenco Sketches (which provides the piece with its characteristic Iberian flavour). The second compares the distinctive use in Blue in Green of extended notes in its melody with other recent tunes composed by Davis and Evans. The study concludes that although the impressionist piano style of Evans was integral to the success of Kind of Blue (1959) compositionally its European influences stem from Davis. Only he improvised fluently using the Phrygian mode and had composed using extended tones. This finding enriches our view of how culture moves between musical traditions, demonstrating how obvious sources of influence can oversimplify complex processes. Matthias Heyman, University of Antwerp & Royal Conservatory Antwerp

Picturing Blanton: visual sources in researching Jimmie Blantons bass playing


James Jimmie Blanton (1918-1942), best known for his tenure with the Duke Ellington Orchestra between 1939 and 1941, is widely regarded as one of the key figures in the development of jazz bass playing. His technical and stylistic advancements gave him the status of a revolutionary pioneer and established him as an artistic hero in the pantheon of jazz (bass) history. However, this jazz version of the Great Man theory leads to sweeping generalisations and consequently does not give us an accurate, informed insight of Blantons bass playing. Therefore, in this project we aim to analyse and situate Blanton's artistic output in its historical context using a combination of methods such as transcription, comparative musical analysis, archival research and musical experimentation. Based on a strong theory practice nexus, the results will provide a deeper understanding of Blantons bass playing in the proper musical and historical context. On this poster we focus on the use of visual sources. By comparing photographs and videos of bassists in the thirties and forties we determined that the typical posture of the right hand prior to the forties was unanchored. Since the forties we saw an increased use of an anchored posture, enabling the bassist to employ a hornlike solo style. Since Blanton is usually seen as the pioneer of this solo style, we would expect him to use an anchored right hand. However, photographic evidence shows that Blanton combined the traditional unanchored posture with the more modern anchored posture, giving us a more nuanced view of Blanton as a revolutionary pioneer. Overall, this poster aims to demonstrate the importance of visual sources in
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researching musicians and their playing styles, and argues for a truly holistic approach when revising jazz history. Joseph McLaren, Hosftra University, New York

Rethinking the African Link: Nationalism and Ethnicity as Jazz Signifiers


It is well known that in addition to Western musical structures, jazz as a form owes a significant part of its aesthetic to African influences. The rhythmic and improvisational elements of jazz can be paralleled to the polyrhythms of West African drumming ensembles and the improvisational possibilities inherent in the role of master drummers. However, to what extent have jazz musicians signaled other linkages to Africa, recognizable in the naming of works through certain signifiers. This paper poses a rethinking of the African connection in jazz by considering the relationship between titles of compositions or recordings and nationalistic, ethnic, or and racial sentiments. Titles that employ African signifiers, particularly nations, ethnic groups, or poetic images, are numerous. Jackie McLeans Appointment in Ghana, Sonny Rollinss Airegin (Nigeria spelled backwards), Wayne Shorters, Angola, Billy Harpers Somalia, Buddy Collettes Tanganyika, Duke Ellingtons La Plus Belle Africaine or Togo Brava Suite, John Coltranes Dahomey Dance or Africa/Brass, Randy Westons Zulu, Jimmy Heaths Afro-American Suite of Evolution, and Wynton Marsaliss Congo Square or Blood on the Fields demonstrate the use of African signifiers. Are these signifiers merely imagined nationalistic or ethnic connections, the result of sojourns, or do they show an underlying political or cultural link intended by the artist or assumed by the listener? In addition, South African Abdullah Ibrahim, who emerged from the African continent but is recognizably international, has also signified Africa as in Cape Town Fringe or African Dawn, but may have had a different intention in his use of African signifiers. The above works are primarily instrumental, and it is through the musical imagination that they paint what Duke Ellington referred to as tone parallels. Furthermore, the dates of certain works can be indicative of the artists interest in signifying Africa at important moments in its history, such as the African Independence era of the 60s. Most important, certain titles evoke names of African nations whose legacies have been complicated by internal conflict or neocolonial predicaments. These realizations complicate the analysis of historical and contemporary understandings of African signifiers.

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Artist in Residence - Matthew Bourne


Pianist and composer Matthew Bourne first came to national attention as one of the winners of the Perrier Jazz Awards in London, 2001. Bournes unique ability to create powerful imagery through an esoteric piano language along with spoken word samples earned him the Innovation Award at the BBC Radio Jazz Awards in 2002. Bourne was the recipient of the IJFO (International Jazz Festivals Organisation) International Jazz Award in 2005, performing at key international festivals in mainland Europe, Scandinavia, Canada and the USA. By the end of 2005, Bourne had become co-leader of The Electric Dr M, Distortion Trio and Bourne/Davis/Kane and was beginning to work in a wider context, in the UK and Europe, with other international jazz musicians and with producers such as Dan Berridge (Broadway Project) a successful partnership that has resulted in the music for two albums (In Finite [2006] and One Divided Soul [2009]) and three award-winning films (Indians [Richard Penfold, UK, 2005], Here is Always Somewhere Else [Rene Daalder, USA, 2008] and Flikan (The Girl) [Fredrik Edfeldt, Sweden, 2009]). Throughout the last decade Bournes particular stamp of individuality and virtuosity, combined with an uncanny ability to communicate with his audiences, attracted commissions from major festivals and organisations to write and produce large-scale projects (The Glenn Miller Project [Leeds Fuse Festival, 2006], Ending [Conservatoires UK, 2007] and Songs from a Lost Piano [Arts Council/Sound and Music, 2009] and music for dance (Mekwae and The Dancical [RJC Dance, 2004/2006]), as well as classical composition (and I didnt fall in love, again. Autumn 2004 [BBC/London Jazz Festival, 2004] and Written/Unwritten [London Sinfonietta, 2011]) and collaborative electronic works (Phone Book [Michael Tippett Foundation/Bath International Festival, 2006] and Dinner Music for a Pack of Hungry Cannibals [FuseLeeds, 2009]). Bourne has released two solo albums ( The Molde Concert, 2007 and Montauk Variations , 2012) as well as several collaborative works. Matthew will be performing as part of the opening reception on Thursday 11 April at the CUBE gallery with Christophe de Bezenac and on Friday 12 April at Media City UK with the Bourne-Davis-Kane trio.

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CUBE Gallery, 5 14 April 2013 William Ellis


William Ellis is well known for his performance and portrait photography and has exhibited and given talks on his work all over the world. His contribution to jazz culture was recognised by the American Jazz Museum in Kansas City where his work has been exhibited on two occasions. The Rhythm Changes project is delighted to include examples from Elliss exciting new project at the CUBE gallery in Manchester.

The One LP Project


One LP - a study of the artist portrayed with a favourite recording. Each portrait is accompanied by a short interview that explores the album's meaning and value for the subject. The first person I approached was Stan Tracey and he very kindly agreed Mr. Tracey doesnt do small talk so I knew when he said yes the project had legs. Its very moving and a great privilege to hear players talk so generously about the music that is so dear to them - and in many instances helped set out the course of their artistic lives. I photograph musicians on the road at venues, hotels, bars and restaurants and sometimes at home. Al Jarreau was photographed and interviewed between sets. The location, date and links to the artists site and chosen album are given in the caption so if people want to learn more about the recording and maybe get hold of it they can do. Ive opened it up to players in other genres of music - people like Johnny Marr, Tommy Emmanuel and Anna Gabler - and soon figures working in other aspects of the arts. Jazz is such a diverse idiom of course, on the website you can see styles represented from Acker Bilk to Soweto Kinch along with American artists like Robert Glasper and Terence Blanchard. This is an ongoing project, for exhibition and presentation enquiries please contact: w@william-ellis.com Visit: www.william-ellis.com
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One LP: Jack Bruce - L'Ascension by Olivier Messiaen Photographed at Band on the Wall, Manchester, 24th March 2011 ------------------------"It's called L'Ascension by Olivier Messiaen who was a French composer I have loved for most of my life. Why I love his compositions is he shows that music has always existed. Humans only stole it - we borrowed it - but it's in nature. It holds the universe together, ask any skylark or ask any blackbird they'll tell you." Jack Bruce

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Rethinking Jazz Cultures


Organising Committee Nicholas Gebhardt George McKay Tom Sykes Walter van de Leur Tony Whyton

www.rhythmchanges.net Follow us on Twitter: @rhythmchanges Conference hashtag: #salfordjazz13

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Project Partners

Rhythm Changes is financially supported by the HERA Joint Research Programme (www.heranet.info) which is co-funded by AHRC, AKA, DASTI, ETF, FNR, FWF, HAZU, IRCHSS, MHEST, NWO, RANNIS, RCN, VR and The European Community FP7 2007-2013, under the Socio-economic Sciences and Humanities programme.

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