3305ENG Data & Computer Communications Laboratory 6 Bandwidth Limiting and Digital Signal Restoration David Denham

Question 1 Why does bandwidth limiting of the channel cause the PCM Decoder module to output incorrect voltages as well as the correct one? Reducing the bandwidth of the channel reduces the frequency range of signals that can be transmitted effectively. When the bandwidth is reduced to less than the frequency range of the signal, parts of the original signal is lost. This loss of frequencies often equates to a distorted signal which oscillates around the original transmitted voltages, outputting incorrect and correct voltages. Question 2 If this were a communications system transmitting speech, what would these errors sound like when the message is reconstructed? Distortion due to a limited bandwidth would produce fluctuations in volume as well as changes in tone. If a large proportion of the original signal was attenuated due to bandwidth limiting the received signal would be barely recognisable. Question 3 What two things are happening to cause the digital signal to change shape? A bandwidth limited channel acts similarly to a filter. Components of the signal outside of the BW of the filter are attenuated producing an output which oscillates around the original signal.

Figure 1: Minor Signal Attenuation

The propagation of the various sine wave components through the filter are not equal resulting in a noisy output signal.

Figure 2: Major Signal Attenuation

If this DC voltage isn’t adjusted to an appropriate level it will cause the comparator to ‘swing’ (change from high to low) at the wrong value. the short delay in the transmission would not affect the listening quality and it could be ignored. Question 8 Why does the comparator begin to output the wrong information when the control is turned far enough? When the DC voltage control is turned too high or too low. Question 7 Why do some DC voltages cause the comparator to output the wrong information? Varying the DC voltage changes the level which the comparator uses to compare with the attenuated input signal. Question 5 Although the restored digital signal is almost identical to the original digital signal there is a difference. If the system was intended to transmit a signal such as music. Can you see what it is? Figure 3: Restored Digital Signal There is a slight time delay between the input (yellow) and the output (blue) signals.Question 4 What other change to your communication system distorts the digital signal in the same way as increasing its bit-rate? Limiting the bandwidth of a communication system distorts the digital signal in the same way as increasing its bit-rate. it would create delays within the conversation and couldn’t not be ignored. The amplitude has also increased by 980mV. the DC voltage level no longer intersects with the attenuated input signal which causes the comparator to output either constant high. However if the system was intended for ‘real time’ use. Question 6 Can this difference be ignored? Why? Questioning whether this difference can be ignored is entirely circumstantial on the systems’ purpose. This DC voltage has to be set at an appropriate position between the maximum and minimum values of the attenuated signal. or constant low. . such as a 2 way communication device. outputting the wrong information.

and only the sinewaves with frequencies outside of the bandwidth are lost.Question 9 How can the comparator restore the bandwidth limited digital signal when it is so distorted? Although the bandwidth limited signal starts to become so distorted it is barely recognisable. This remaining information provides enough detail so the comparator can reproduce accurately what the original signal was. Figure 4: Attenuated Signal and Restored Signal . This remaining information survives because the original signal is made up of many sinewaves. some of the information from the original signal remains.

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