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vqntljo thonk everyone iNoh/ed In cleoiicg lhls book. Buonarlo.l\. recod'ng. 1515 aroadway NewYork. 3. 1 23.1 5 6 7 8910/919089 8A87 86 .t pr. moti!€s. and CandaceRan6y Ed'led by MarySLrilody by BobFlle Oe{ign€d p|oduclion by E lenG€ons Graphic Lrpli I Publoations Cogright@1986by Wat6on-G Fn$ pubtished 1986in N€wYork by Watson-Guplill PLrbllcations.I\. r475-156a-Thern€€. N. F$tEdlawing-Tschnique. Drawing.. electD. Title. grcJeful lom sinceely lo Donold Holden.ln"Publlcatlon D6lt Lrssolls tom Michelangslo. 1. Publications.Y1003€ t ir'ry ot Congr€s Cat loging. 2. a dMsioi ol Billboard nc.4 ifc6t5. 6 hturdir| $rage ard leidevalsystems-wilhout sm€.Ed.Lld.4ory Suffudy ond CondoceRoney for lheif wisdom ond gL]idonce. [4ichelangelo FgEirsaE-E{hniqu6. indlding photocopying.S-A.B8'/ €86 86-11107 rsa o{e*zzr+1 Disttrtsd h !E t niled Kingdom by PhaidonPress. SL EbbebSt.. Li@ab Eols€. Oxiofd All riits r€s€. No pa.t of ihis publication may be rwodr€d 6us€d h any iom or by any means graphic. 743'.*i n nE ls*:al. l. lalirE.tri*irx: d t|e Fui*rer Manuftdll€d in U.

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ou. works :eeplyLs cosuoywo kedlhroughihe :aw o drowingI coudn't toke my ey€solf.1986 .my inien responsib N4ore lhon on!4hngese.€ to soye\€Mh ng express -ci con be sod oboui drowng. iseemedlhol nly here10observe howo mosler drcflsmon monyol the fofmsof lhe body becouse of myeducolion foreshodens . when lbegon io wriieihisbook.lho!€ nol oltempled ng. deos in o more simplfed wqy ond I loke iV lor thot..llch6ongelo3 for onolomyanddrqwng prlnc\^ofklhoi ore ceoresllo ob.enihlsiosm some comp ex :?tueos wel os mosl imporiantio lilsl_roie p es.mYinTen.iocl.oungorihisio beg n to reqllyundefwqy.€d n the process _.waslrecept\€to hh nfe|preto ond chongeslheif shopesin ihe different _?ns f hodn-. . wou d have lo express '3iJ|edrowng.nly now perhops :nd troinng.1e works o di knowledge hos ncludednextlo Michelongelob fgure My increosed _e\€rde$royed ng ony ihe mus show lhe sponlonelly ond mogcl ogromof lhe skeleton ' hosonlyenhoncedilgreoiy ln foct.ilcheongelotworkol my fe.observeoswe lo lirstrolefgure drowing seemedsho ow os mosiimporloni :nd ol lhe olher drowlngs Iire drawngsseecied ior th s trookshow shed by comporson./ \dh e vlewingo drowng show Rothet Vhod on etperience thot offected m-. lhis book is ihe rn wosio keep lhe spit of figuredrowng _ioct. I \tonlecl iclher. of the figure.I ho!€ cle or muscesunder discussion These ore 'rund thol drowng wthouto frm foundolion nlended io he p you underslondond re_ lhe p ncpes of onoiomy s morediflicu I anember exocilywhereo fom beginsand ron ihe ocil. l wsnledlo nne do.in o mosipleoslroble : i downwiih \. ho\€ nol oliernpted affor thol I hovehodwllh on of o lo\.Thoi and undslingu irom a ldi by M chelongelo ih.ed to sla I the mlrscles Mcheongeo.lilscleorto me of thal f wonledihe reoder lo shoremy g€oT thosecspects .ed to lisiolLihe esoflhe h!mon body ihoi would knockdown some borefs ond musc to a low \..These _3nwqsio keep the spirl of fgu€ drowing troducton thoi slLlciy orcotolysl io o pfofound .c\.ver of lhe figufe nfocl.crks ond begindiscusslng '. figurein manywrols poses :rcwingwoso nude sfudy lihough iso greoloppodu h o d b e e n l o m i o r w l h terenlpo nlsofvew There '.lookai lhesemognficent ond beg n d scuss ng thoseospecls of room.I INTRODUCTION in o moslp eosurable woy. of the humonbodl moster Michoe Bubon NewYork C ly. eoch wgrkthol o recleo resi1l.lookol thesemognifcenl stondthe lormsoffhe flgure. nor hove I the exhoordinory drawlngs of lhe greolesl .st down wilh you.rolsdrnng of lhoseprnciples on inwrl ngsoTeio be considered When begonio wte lh s book.I of )o!r doysenJoy io soyeveMhing yo! w spendlhe rest nor frove fei strongly ihol \tonled lo createo book roi con be saidoboul drowing.ilwasos Anyone who serously $ontslo underslond :eenlhembeforeondlholnothingcouldbe -ore exciiing o conslder of greolfrgure drowingmuslde\r'cie lhcn lo be n ihe presence _ gh Renoissonce od ond flnoly hove eyes ob e omounloflirnelolhesludyofonolomy _rolcoud seeit on the moslimpor hoveonlyconcenlroled slr n ionl muscles ond musce groups on l1_ie lhol doy I ho!€ been lhoroLrghly Since ond mogicof drowing face of the f gure Forgreolerclorlv I ho\€ .

45ch) 73/r'.n 1508.a- FOR INFNUDES SKETCH'S tadd point ontl p.l\. \ . . t 9qt p1.ONE CHAPTER UNDERLYING THE FORM OF STRUCTURE .27 t 24.

For Micheonge o.or gesture. whichcreoleso peosingrelotionsh benreen one form cnd onolher Mchef ongelo ncorporoled o slrongsense of ges Hhboldcurving ond turein o lof hisdrowngs.Gestu€ istheh. deloils os honds or€elor moving onlo sLrch 10lhe nsidemodelng of lhe fgue wilhoul firsi eslab shing the ollside shopeoJlhe fig uTen o geneTotwgy E!€ry figurehoson implcil oclion.drow Eorm eleMh rcrm I ng s o pfoceou€ rcr oercrmrnrng appfoxmoleiJ the i uson of form s merely lorm is ndicoledby lighl ond shodeolone Theshopeof o form sdelined exaclly by ihe were use of ne.Preliminory Skerches is n9.4hmor music ofthe p figure. sketches or conlour drowngs Prelminory overolproportonsondlhe ges thol ndicote fure of the pose o€ essenliollo sLrccessfu Thereis not much poini in fgu€ drowings." beforclhe lnol contourisdrown. lire posefrcm bespirolinginespre\r'enled comingstiff ond wno'rurol. . fire lhree seaied figLrres Ines colled p€nr'' drownwilh lighl sketchy or chongesof m nd menli 'Yepenlonces.]helneA connechihe ports of lhe body lrcm heodio ioe and suggesis lhe geslure of nrepose.

untoliernginesusedlo ndicotelhe oulside shopeof ihe odulttg!€ and ch d {A) ore beoulifuydrown Oncethe oliside conlourof o llgufev/osdelermined. : .withline Form Indicoling . r:i! :i' -B l. lhe his skelches on ihispoge cleory demonsirole eorly esioblishmenl of powe !1./l .ihelnes ol Bindicoie the col orbones.ihe shod nes in lhe oreo of C greolpecioro muscles suggesilhe on lop of lhe r b coge. .light nes Forex omple. or c avcles.l f/ t'l J tl' ..l ealg ond belllchelongelo drew consfonil\4 ItI cousepoper was expensi\e in the sixleenthceniuryh spogeswelen\oroblyflled wlh o\.e opping sketches ond studies.A seresof shorllnes. formsthoi ore lo be in shodowtnole lhe cur\.tii Mcheongelo begon to indcote more deio ed forms He represented skeeiol ond musculor mosses by quick.11 .. which \dere suggesi then applied lo lhe arge mosses.ed lines on the bock ofihe thlghoi D. e\ocot\€ dlowings. r 1. Thebod.

* I .

orous chonges lnes l.htilthe propofiions forms oreexocty lhe ol the lorger lhe woyyouwsnilhemObviouslythesiudyof shopes of ihe forms of ihe bodyisfundomenio io drowingihoseforms occuraieyAsihe slructure trueshopes of lhe boneond rnuscle ore underslood.of Form The Shopes on ihe rqhlotlhs drowing.lhe lines of lhe f glle connol the be vogue.lhen colefully ond poienlly refne ollthe genero linesio ochieve the flno ouisde conlour ine Asyou of thesefgures. 6 .oumuslo so delerrn orms ond egs. ond pe vicmosses orelo be p oced inspoce.rib coge.l€epng in mindhowlheheod. lin€sbecome \€ry eosyto *# *. n l .liimotely.Onceyouho€ opproprole y drownlhe oulsde shopelo del lle lhe direc iion ond size of ihe forms. ho\^€!€i notlo drow d fecllonsond linesndicolngdetalsL. wilhoulbeing concemed oboul mnor de toils.muchlike the n o frgu€s on the eft (Bl Itishelplulfilsilo indcolelheoulsideshape of lhe figLrre in o looseond genero monner.r 'i aa! i! rVO SOTDIERS SEEN FROM BACK INVAR OUS POSFS 't534. The n o fgures ! whch ore renderedn lqhi ondshode(4 wereperhops frctskelched ln line. obser\ethe oulsideshopes in difeciion of lhe noiicelhe\.ihey must cleory fepresent onolomy lt s mportanl.block cholk s e / t ' / 4 f t t 1 5t 1 o . ne the poslonsof ihe ).


tou con see how IMchelongelo bu i feshyforrns on lop of lhe skeletolshucture.eo reloble high Bones on olhers lheyore on whlchto setof fixedpoints.ond bock views Closeihe book dnd see how much'ou can dfowlrcm memoryll lsa soo good ideo lo proclice drowing frcm the greotmo$ers. ihe feol and hoads ' \-:. tv.__:. 'ii /ti._'. or ondmorks.l TNETHREE CROSSES SIUDESFOR 1520 2'.Fromewofl( The Skelehl ln the d'owing ol efl. side. ' t'. i :a "'- ' .-. con gi\€ )ou lf N. block ond Ed cholk 13"\qp3. ond lhe bonesof ihe sku l.l chelongelo shoud be pul down. on ideo wherethe lines you ho1€?Another whal betrerhelp coLJld wqyio eorn isio dtaw ftom o reolskelefon. LJndor lhe skin-for Monybonesore directly instonce.i$ . greonyfrom \r'ory one indviduollo oflhe iLesh n pp esorelowl onolherOn somemodelsthe g \. ! ':.lhe ribcoge (AJond lhe pevis(B) ore hugebonystructuresonwhichto Londmork boselhe enlireposeondgesture.bui by mokn9occompony etolondmuscu ordrcwngs.):$. lvloke onofomcol drowlngsolong with the model. Skelch ihe skeeion o\€r yourfguredrowings io seeif lou hove ploced ihe bonescorrecily.the knee.A2x2236chl . Ofcourselour )o!rdraw nggfrom rnode does nol ook like on onotomcal ng skel' drowng.youore liflinglhe curtoinof skin n orderlo seelhe uhderlyng lhe shopes on lhe strlcture thof detgrmnes body s Agoodwoylo eorniheformsofihe ffom lo proclicedrowingthe majof mosses onoiomy chorh Drow ihe frcni. buiLd o drowing..

scopula (shou der blqde) der Jont (bol-ond4ockei) .

.B.ACK \4EW a2nlb6on eoch side .

ic c€sl onieiorsupe or ilocspln€ (petvlc potntj symphys s pubh (kn66lns .SIDEVIEW ( ib) verteb|oe pelv.

I'ti t rr\ .Proportionol Systems I I t I \..

ons scop! o.oI the body sloo wide? osmuch slo work The curefortheseproblems =' .iheoppfoxmoleu/dih oiihe fli) :^glh oi ihe looi muLl ofihe : .lhe r b cooe. I n drowing.Ihese boxes ore bosed on the lenglh af the slernum.:: . of lhe quodrlceps mentsond numbers oLrs ond thosehormon -.-i iowqrdthe fronlol lhe liglrre -: nlerest TheoncienlorT ng lo observe lholihe engihoi osyoucon wth proporions. lhal s. ihe siernol exompes oso occur n cerToin :: rhhsyslem the one ond o ho f limesequa slhe lenglhofihe :'Greek orl Accordng 10 lhs syslern. of lhe br.lhedisloncefromlhetopoisis of Greece lo\. l eqlols the engthof The blode.e porlsoitheknee n ine. -:. io ihe knee ng polnl.or tuberce oi numbersloundihe rwoyinlothereoi onships -: -: . the heighloi ihe fooi (ihe dis y render lonce fromihe onke io lhe groLlndl correcl bodyAfler :-: formsoflhe o drowng oiihe Ho\.or sternum.y anol\/?e belween lhe scopuoe. the top of the sku io the boliom :^qih ofihe midde fngermulip ed by n ne' heod (from _:.equa s the enerlh . englh ol lhe midde fnger opp colions th rd f nger ond lhe w dth oi ihe heod lenglhmutpled n oddton. a.of lhe forms of lhe lgure lBl. lenglhoilhe siernurn shown '. minus the fgure s bu I oul ol mosses bone.lhe d slonce onc enl EgYpl :: erpodsofthebodyThe _:c o propodionol thoi\das bosedon the lenglhof lhe hand m nuslhe tp of lhe system -. M cheongelo ). .:' -e ght in lhisdrowingcomesfromthe ihe orm s ioo long.eongelo ofihe egwihlhe wosevdeniylhnkng of lhe lhighos\de oslhe lenglh :_!i1 of lhe kneeond how il le oieslo lhe fool.or the lengihol lhe shoulder how lhh chosenunil Ie oles10 clovcLe.39. ^lale lhe relallonship af lhis lenglh la alhet lhe xiphod process.(4. p io eoch oiher:Th 5 s wh ch s ocoiedot lhe boliomof lhe siern!m I lhol hoveo relofonsh propodons n o ploportono sYslem Thelenglhoflhe slernumnlocleqLrolslhe acLect _-re of lhe onoiporl of lhe bocly longlhof selerc oiher seclions ori st con usewhotever ^? kesos o lnl of meosure Thenhe need omy Forexompe...n equos the heght of ihe figure The ollhechin)ondthe englhollhe foreormThe ihe engih ol lengihdoubed eqLrols :^glh of ihe hond muiplied by ien or the slernol p ed by sx a so op.aosi.ed lo work wlh meosure -: ::-rmon lendon. or humerus Ihree iimes ihe ol tte ri l'redeveopedlhe drowing eqlo sihe Lengrih here.ihoi s.x moieslhe heghiof on o\€roge hlmon coge oi iiswdesl poinl ond ihe engTh upper orm. :.ouevercompleled :-e :::eeded to odd lght ond shode-noie figureonlyio fnd lhoi lhe head isioo srno.

e (C)rihe meosureThe engih of Jheheod mulip ed iourlh fromthe no\€l lo ihe crolch.Renossonce orlsh usualy used fromlhe mlddleof the owerleg io the bol eghi heodsas o meosuremenl simpy be. One ond one hol heod engihsequo lhe much.Thelefore.ou ihe some height D screpdncyn heighl in con seelhol lhe lengthol one heod equa s mosT insionces.enfh from lhe knee lo lhe roughly by seven equo slhe he ghl ol o shod m dde ol ihe ower eg (G)jond the eighfh ndviduol. odjuslments n heghlwefe .tom of the foot (H) couse il s eosier10 subdivde eighl lhon I yo! oppy lhe englh of lhe heod to lhe se\.or symsevenond one hof lmes equo/slhe loto phys Rfih spubls(D)jthe ffornihe crolchloihe he ghiof on a\erogeliguretlhe heod lengih leve of lhe mddle ol ihe ihigh (E)r lhe sixth mulliplied by eghl equohlhe heighloJololl fromlhe midde ol lhe lhighlo ihe le\. Thesecondmeosuremenl h the dlslou encounler lance beireen lhe chin ond ihe nppes (B) Arlisisof ihe Reno ssoncewere fond of Thethird meosuremeni s lhe d sloncefrom Lrsing ihe englh of Jhe heod os o uni of lhe n pp es io the e\€ ol the no\.usuolly mode n the owerlmbs Qy underrtondng glween fofmsin a siondnq f qLrfeyouw According io lhs system of meosuremenf.Proportions Used byRenoissonce Artists 'iat H' the reoionshrps be.lhe se\. ). hovea beller deo of whot io expeclwhen ihe heod lselfconsiitules the irst meosure fglres in seotedor €clinng meni(A).en ond o holf. occursn the o\^€rlimbsrlhe lhe d sloncebe veenthe nipples os we os lengihoilhe heodond lnrnkdoes not\ilryso lhe d slonceocross the \ro si.eof the personrond the heod lenglh mulllp/ied knee (D. Ofcourse nolo lrnodeho€ w dihsoisorne oi ihe mossesolihe figufe.

oursubleci beireen the ormpihos wellosthe iLsiance resulls ol bod proporlions lemoeb The lntroduclion .our -. Proporiiono n drow ngiromlhelop li so mhiokeiobeg Mchei_ and comiodoble your be lseful sh drow_ shoLrld lo fn ond oliempl ihe heod :: -g of ihe bo1lom oi ihe llgure ore ojl n one ex ongeos meoslrremenls oi the fgLrre lrcm lhoseol soy E Greco sketch n ihe poris of The ceorly differenl :arion Lnsfeod.the lionolsysiems here.. ond the plocemenlof inesconneci €leni noiice lhol the heod ol Sornson is _3 lfese poinlsore mportonl n poitng i\r ce os lorgeoslhol oi Delioh : aperproporijonsbetv€enlormsofthebody DEUL AH S. 'j!re n o generolv/oy.iL--. 127 .or lond lengths lhe Lrnits of .ldlh of lhe mo eh pevc massrlhe too longat ony givenpan or whenyou Look rnossss ghllywidet seLvic the lengih of tu/o heodsequoh ihe ds."r.!.. y'6youdrow conlinuoly scon\.a moe3 shouders./oni io pon ond here ore dfown occordingio proporlionol thal ore roughyihe same I s ihe :.lndicoing oh ond the orger proporiions Thefemoe fgu|e oi DeL ng hove beenstudy tholyou os o lg!re ofSornson figure drow ng nk of Th :_c ceslure. thothovebeend scussed relo_ wlh oiher come up why nolexplore ond norrov€t The ore sighty shouders =moeb olyourown?Themorereollonships . sy$ems role yourlgure wiL be.nglh of iv/oheodsso soequolto ihe lengih uonships thoiyouconlindosyoudrowlhe moreoccu_ :i ilre lhigh.coler ihe plocemenlof the porlsof lhe syslems lhal ore d i of meosure po ol nts. .AMSON ANO 153A rcd chdlk 2 \ 395 ch) loli t 15.delollof lhe body n odditionto lhe propor '3nce ocross lh.:dy lhe esloblishmenl -ark. ).p on whichyo! simpyv.-: .

A good composilionollen hos numerous fildhm hesrunnlng ln monydifferent direclionr. In ihis drowing of Hercuesengoged in d sporole octions. .Thus.ote lhe flaw ot . throughoulihe lorms lhol mokeup o singleflgure. Thelhingsthot )ou leorn oboul drowingo sngle figure willo so be of help in composlngo piciule mode !p of groupngsof frgures. Juslos the€ iso geslule.Fonns Designing plocemeniot one obleci in The eftecllve I fe otonto onolheroblecfs\ery mporlonl in a work of orl.Jenlenlwithin o drcwing ond rclote indiviluol figut$ ta the compositr. os o whole.thm lhot connecls muliple imoges. lhe gesfuresof lhe ind! vlduolfgures biendhormoniousylo creoieo unifed composillon gestue Thoif hormonyof couses the eyelo fow freely fromone fgure lo onoiherTry io visuolize curved. theremuslbe a rhy. or h)4hm. ffowinglines thofconnecithethreef gufes in lhlsdrcwing. ihe podsof o drawingore never ireoiedas bh ond piecesbul workiogether lo forrno lorgerlnljy Rhy'hmlinesindi.rD.

'. ti' i-' i L- F7 IHRFE LABORS OF NERCUTES 1523 rcd cholk 144" ' 16qr (27.'o9.31t 4223ch) DoDoged .t 'i*.

bll the drowingis in no v\rcy vague. .il is wiselo keepo lihe foms smple lf youcon v sucize you one hundred fguresos one lorge rnoss.' en) Dohoaed 127.: .Form Complex Simplifying skelchnloving mony Thk is o foscinolino I fgufes ondmuchdynom c oction. 4 -r.1 ...91 .94.' t:'' fheseswtli.. w I ha\e discovered o fundomenlolkuth oboui whot greatdrowingenlois lhe subord nolionofdeioi io ihe elfeclverendering I 1. bl@k cholkll r 161. lis!cuobe becouseii showshow lvlchelongelo lhoughl oboui ond drew compicotedcuslers oi inlerocJng fgures These ligures ore drownos simpe iornrs. ' . 41. lrt' 16l:rtW.g lihesdenanstole the wcy rotiaus fiqutes Elote ta each alrer dthin lhe can'ert af o SXEICHES TOR TI]E DEAD RIS]NG 1534. Theseporoionof one muscle moss irom onolheron lhesesmoi bodiesis c eorlydeined by Inei ond shorl holched nesore paced on thosetigures or porlsol fgures1o €presentshoding Nole lhat lhe ighi source n N/ichelongelo's drowings ol mosio wqyscomes from lhe efl Wrelherlou are working on o drowingof one fgure or o hlfdred fgures./.

I i .

kch.n) 28 .deloillS!5.I TWO CHAPIER NECK AND HEAD THE rHECRUC|FXrONOFSrPETER.btd.tk3?1i'/51".1r'{26239\15s39.

whenthe feolures ll is ex'egoded.P wj chonge os the mode/3pcrtion chonges 29 . Peopleofien moke lhe ihe cronium loo smollfor the foce Theorlisl mustalsoconsiderhow these1vr'o large mosses ore io be ploced. the relallonshpat the poll of lhe hed b t'heawl at thb fo.or of theowl of lhe nrce. Try heodosif lheydid nol exslond nolelhoi the sosphefe(Al. willRl inloa perbcJsqloretthe ovol ofthe loce isone ond o holft mesoslongos lhe boll of the heod.lhe |.l Mossing lheHeqd lhol oppeors Th s h o delo I of lhe drowing concept oldestmossing I on poge 131. ore dismoss ofthe iJce. cronium. t rolncose. iemey imporloniic wderstondthe slzeof li|e bo oflhe heod in le olonshiptolhe size Thebolloftheheod. oppeors lic be on o\r'ol(B).Bedby orl slsfor lhe head h lhol of ihe boll to seelhrough deloils of lhe ond the owl. lhe relo lionship of ihe ballof the heod lo the owlof lhe foc€ will of cou6e wry depending on ihe posiiionof lhe heod.ondthe or cranium.

.and mouthon the heod r. 63 42 t 21 se cn) L 30 .Nolce lhal lh-. bldck choik.: i:: i: ' . la irs.e as o cftnCtical SIUDYOF IHE NEADOF DA\II. \ 31/..nes represenifg lhe hol (Aldefne ond ernphosze ihe cy ndrcol shope of ihe for-oheocl.'rr .I 1524-21 tot totet) ed chdtk.. ond ihol the rlesusedfor the borderof lhe oweriaw (BJ suggesilhe underpone ol the cy rdetvsuo z ng lhe foce oso cy nderwih inesencrc ng t also heps nsure thot you ploce eyes..ucl"rcomplcoied I fo{m5os lhe heod in o llted posilions greaiy essened f youlrst th nk ofthot head oso slmpeiorm o bock.'.dtowirg.cy ndetorovo ond ihen placeihiss mpe form n o posilion lhoicor€spondsioihedes redposion oiihe heod Disreoord ng ihe ieolures.-lopos the bolTorn of the cylnderprolecls forwarclf o cy nder were poced n lhis posion in spoce you woud see some of lhe c rcuor underpone allhe boltomor bosebul none oi the c rculor lop plone. The drowng of ihs heod con be Lrnclerslood os a cyiinder kemossi lling ntolhepoperoilh.:.k af the fa. t is helptulta lhi. nose..fheHeod in Spoce Posifioning The iosr or dfowng. ohd peh 13'.te lf)e ptapet tlll af the hedd lr .

l. 'r' . '':' .:!:... \:: 1]' '1...'. . .' i 31 .: '"t.* .-.

Whendecid ng on lhe plocomentol lhe feotures.trct il is helpful ta divide lhe loce inla lhnds wilh light hai J *"'.which gives i o fo^/crd ihrust j'' .r' )* -{-' ..Syslems: Fociol Feotures Prcporfionol ri. Thsistheonlypone of iisknd on lhe enl re lgure. / . t s hepful lo dividelhe loce inio Th rds Youmightwantlo rln ghl horizonio lnesoroundlhe ow .1. tomoflhechinw be ai ihe bollomol the osi thirdYouhoveto soy"neof"of "oboul.Youcon seelholihechn ntesecis the neckot o ower elellhon doesthe backoJthe skull.lhe cylindor of the neck {Gl.. you ore io reolronshlps the moresensili\..* : f# .l f .whsn speokng of meosufemenh becouselhere youcon justnotlce ofe no obsolutg rulest how c oselyihe leolures ofihe mode corespond io the c oss cal proportons oui ned obove n iems of depih. The base oflheneck s owerinfronlthon in bock. r youmighlnoice n lhis dfowThe I fsllhinqs I ing of o heod ofe the beoulfulond com p exdetoih..r -$. or areo obo\€ ihe cenler of lhe lpper p exiends downwqrd frornlhe cenlerof the boseol the nose. \ericol.lhe philirurn formso rnosi nlereslngplonet I s conco!€ irom lop io boitomond oso conco\€ iromsideloside. Nol€that on mognory\€r Uco ne exlending upword lromthe bock of point ihewingoJihenosewould conneclthis of org n withlhe innercornerol the ele. ihe belier your drowngswi be.' :l ..Heods gile the u drownby Micheangeoovr'cys sionof beng o solidmossn spoce. blllhedelaiharenotwholmoke ihs drowing greol Whol h mportant lo nollce s lhclthe smollerforms o€ drawnso thotihey appeorlo reslgrocefully on lop of lhe ofger mossof lhe heod ls€lf.-'a ' When pasilioning the feo ^. Iry drowing consiructonlines-hor zonioi.e belween vorous ieoiures.Theforeheodfrom the holrinelo ihe brcw (4 woud represenl one lh rdi lhe nosewoud represeni the sec ond lhirdtond lhe spocefrcmthe bofromof lhe nose (B)lo the bollom of the ch n (CJ woLrld loke up ihe losflhird.ikemoss of ihe foce al the evel of lhe balures... ihe reoilonship of ihe boiufesmust oho be c eory esloblished The nose s fodhefforv.qrd lhan lhe mouihiihe upper lip is mo€ forvr'ord lhon ihe owerllpr ond ihe chln s forther bockthanihe mouih. ond diogono-from one feolure io onoiherThephllirum(D). Noticeloo thot the chn sirop (E)in this drowlng serves aso contourineihothelpsio exploin ihecuri€d ospecloflheunderplofe ot the owerlow(Fl Ihe ch n stroposo separoles the ower jow flom onother cufted pone.lhislosisecton con be further subdivided nio ihirds in order lo ploce lhe moLrih ond chin colecly The seporoton of ihe lps willbe otihe botiomol the firstlhirdtlhe top of the chn wil be neor lhe boltomofthe secondihirdr ond the bol.

oiLt.1o\'.. ::: ..bto-\.5323/.tl I 'itt'r'-+ I . ot )3-3 )3\A-ar I .

shouldbe nlio y eslob shedby drowng o line.the I :' : .Thesideplones nes Ihe lines lhe frontpanes of lhe foce o€ in of lhe hol (Aond B)he p c or fo whereos iire foundness ol the heod Thelinesof lhe shodowLghl and shadedel ne ihe meelng siernocle domasloid muscle(C)help lo de poces of fronlond srdepones.efe Michecnge o wasconcerned wih Thed rect ght n thisdrowng comesifom .ihe iunclureof l^/o panes. The cortiogesformng the eols ond noseconlinue10grow througholtour lelme.ll rsmost m po onllholsr-rch fne the neckos o cylinder clefnilion be estobshedby This olherwhe lhe forms lhreequorlerposI on clro molicaIy n. ihe more ihe reoAfierp npointing ihe conecllocoiion ofThe eor youshoud generolly --stabsh ls olrlsicle shope NoleM checngeob corefuoiJeniion lolhelubekecort ogesoflheeor lhefm.l ng y iilisupword n conkasl lo ihe nose ond o\irl oi the loce Th-.1 .lheFeotures withLight Defining ond Shode .-:. ^nsCrowing There o revery€w slroighl osorelhebockord sde ponesofthe neck. ihe ear correspon.lneor by ghl ond shcder creoses lhe uson of ihe heod os o lhree..1rwilh lhe bofonr of the nose. ihe clork.lownword.-ro!nclecl ihon do lh-6nose. lvlcheionoe o sde ond podonsoiihe fronipiones of ol of . .l..ihehro smalprojeclions (H) /rogus oi lhe irogus(G) ond ontilrosus comes fromlhe Greek wordmeonng goofs beorcl"r il s herelhol hoirsn lhe eor occur Thecorliogessurround cnd deine lhe hear ing cono. ond chin are bocklike n opTlre eor sbeoli fu lydrowno nd posilofed. lines crevs thesmolerforms .The nose.onclch n on which ihe clrongeifom lightio clorks obrupt. l/ore roundedformsore ndicoled by o groduallronslon more ofva ue fromiighiio progression. which cLr^/es dowri\.ow of lh nk of o lhe nose (Dl. -19 crlsfsnlo sketch olthe heodoreo sovisib e. Theeor/obe!) s hondsomey decoroted wlh lhe eorrnO. tsfroniborder s ocaled allheholwrypo nl of ihe sde of ihe heod f th s worco siroqhl profe viewihe lop oriheeorwoudoppeor e!€ w th lhe browondihe bofom ollhe eor woLrld appear e\. whch hove er1roor meons od foks somelimes d nor y bg eorsond nosesi J '. BecoLrse ol th sgrodLra loreheocl oncl neck oppeor mor. by using curvecl r ght.: .n cars besloccomplished of ihe heod ore in ght.of the heod ond lace w I oppeorfol Themerging ol thefronlondsidepiones of dimensionol foranThnk of a cube drown n juslsucho poslon Nowd.s ernphcszedby lhe obrLrpl cube poced n o compelesde vewt nole chonge frornlghi lo shade Therdge oi o form. or concho 0.leci nga soldheodono faipieceolpopet ihe efi ondihe iellecled ghlcomeslrornthe .:=re' c eorwheiher lh s slhe l]owiire symboof o so d s weokened.mouTh.8!i snce ihe hed.:3.or heix (E)r lhe Yshopeclnnercorl oge oi ihe onlhe x (Fl.lord o ongsde ihe he ix.an oro womon.. more the hecrd s t led. I--::: Olco!rsewiihihe heod rilh s posltion. rnollh.l s I 1e.

-!. NEID.nnl red cholkS' \ 6lr" 2AS \ '165 a.1516. .

ondihe lpsoreoll iglrier nione thanthe nesusedon the rightsde.ot lhe eve of the bottomof lhe nose.mooneo horzontc ne running throughlhe eyesond o !€rfco ne runn nOlhrough ihecenierofihe foce Thenose s beouifLrly drowncnd pertucllyp oced coftislenlwth the directon of lhe rnoss of the head ll m ghl be he pfu lo lh nkofonimognoryorrowpiercing ihe bock ol ihe mossoi lhe head.\ o . Youcon undersiond how lhe drcclon of ihisheoclwasesiob shed by vsualzng hvo mpo(onT consirucion nes.ls oi the eye. ond com ng oullhe froni of lhe head ol the some eve This onow woud ndiccle the direction n which lhe nosesnouro Deolown TheInesoflhh d.Lnesuseclto deineformsoflen ioke ihevo uesopp ed ioihe orgermosses ln ihe oreasihai lhey possover Forexample. IEADOFFEMALP FIGURE 3ld ' 55/l(2121 \ 1129cn) ..larl<er as il r'roves nlo lhe shadow oreo(ElTherno$ ofihe foce sstrocl. he om iredor jLrsi borey suggesledsuch cost shodows(A There o refewexlremely dorkionesin ihe eye sockeioreo ondthecaslshodowiromihe {Bl.slightyupward ghl nesonywhere Slro on the f gurelend io 'i .Such o ighlng schemeifsures thot threeJourlhs ol lhe heod s in ighi wh e one fourth s n Theines usedonlhe efl sideofsuchfofrfs os ihe eyebrows.!caexircmely corefu cboul cosl shodows and oiher dorktonesused10 defne forns n ghi oreasof hh drawngs.aw ng oreveryexpress ve onclore reoled 1oo llhe olher eemenlsof clrow ng. nose [C] is oso qule subJe . ihe l. ihe ne oi lhe lroi iso aonTour ihai isdrowno\er ord explonslhe shopeol The foleheoclThis ine s very ghl os i lrovehlhrough ihe high ighl oreo [D]ol the mossoi lhe heod ond becon'es .Relolionship of Volue fo line The con opply qhiondshode lo o cV n lf VoLr I Oer yolr con dfow ihe necl of o mode Oflenlhe heod cosls o shodow on lhe neck Mcheongeo knew lhol such dork spois coud spoillhesuble effeciof ghl. iis nier esing io nolelhol oilmes.od mrch os o large egg woLrdbe The/ighi s fo nO fronrabove efi ond lo\dord ihe ironl.ndicolng thoi lhe heocl s t led s ghllydownwcrcl The ine usedlo sep orole the lps oso curles. and lhese iinescurve sighiy up\dord.ue. Theeyebrows olso rcpresenled by nes lhoi eclro ond expoin ihe fofm obo\€ ihe eye Thesepofotonfiefr'r'een the froniond sideof the foreheod occurs ct F Thecurved Lnes LJsed for lhe eyeldsdelinelhe rounded iorm of lhe eyebol. Micheongeo .ihe w ng oiThe nose.

n ..

lqei of lh. w h c h c u r \ e su f d e r o n c l o w o y from lhe lighfsourceemonolng from obove groylone oppl-ad lolhe g obello sug SLrblle gesTs ih scLrrving owoy lrom the lighi D reciy beow th.lcrjiko rierl] oflhc fos{l lrecomes rnorc noffow os it eiTencis(lown rfTolhe bulb oi ihcrorc (Cl The owerer.wh chslopes upwordTheowerlp lnlhis drawng hosbeen shacled osone woud shodeo horzontacy incleflhe upper p ismade up ofihfeeiorms one in the m . L nes os wel os lghi ond shade n [.!ad .4 cheongelo3 drawngs ore olwcys bosed on lhe orlislsp'oiound underslondng oi forrn.l.rfd lerrrrfoles on o evc ihoT corre spoftls wiTh The nner corncrsol ih.l by ghl.-s o(f.one lee sihoi n h sdrawngslhenose sc eaflyiorwa rdoiihe eyes ofdiholihe eyes ole ceoriyfor\.lle oricl onc on eoch sido whie Theow--r p s made up of hro forms. AdisTs rarey nd cole fhe eye oshesbecouse lhey hove so lllle fo|m McheongeoS unclerslonding oi ihe poris ol The nose ore c eorly demorislraieclhere Theoreo bel\reenlhe bfows. n thisdrowng lheTes o ceofsense oi Tfre mouihcurvngaroundlhe loolh cy n der of the underyingsku The upper p pone.lejemii'r the p of lh--f-. l h ip iooclo. niheceniet ond The wngs on eilhersde.The ower hn iollhc cy r.cyes. receves which s o clownwarclsopng essghithqn doesthe oweriip. rolnded. wideris os l sopes.s n ihe drowngs seen eor er. yelblocklke masseslhebub. s colecl lhe giobeilo (Al 1is o down\aord s o p n g p c n e .t'l I 38 .nose.eyeld linesore cqrefulyclrownherelo convey a sense of lhe mass of lhe eyeba l.. r / l n o s o so n e .theNose ond Mouth Shoping T h e r g h l n g s c h e m ee m p o y e d h e f et r o sa I R)vofrle or Micheongeoe o enge lqhl soufce from lhe efl lowsrd ihe ironl ond obove ihe figure.:. A qoo.Thevo ues con be ihoughloi os lhin oyerc of skin plocecl on lhe so d scu pluro forms of the figufe P.rlirco !l ftJof hornrna onrl v-^dico r.:ls esTob ishecl.rgobela s The Jrone c€oied by ihe bi.which s composeii of l v / os m .aiues le ai onsh .lord of ihe eors ft4icheongeob drowi]rgs of mouihsfever ookfol.l eye n ihe wrongploce sworse ilran o bod drawfg ollh(--cye n lhrir ehip oce \lnr.you sho! d TokecoreTo dec cleon ihe exocT ocoTion ol lhe leoTLil:s.ossyolr nxxlcl! lftje vr lhot yo! can . Once Thesirlclureof Thehe. w h c h s b o n e s( B J ..rol thc nosc s formed by ihree smo ..lowir\. wh ch ore por lio y embedded n the cenlro and slighiy orgerbu b Nolce howMichelangeob maslerfu monpulolionof \4tr ue couses cerioin oreosol Thenose io odvancewhie oiher oreosTecedeThereolonshipben/eenihe forms oflhe head n lermsoi deplh s oiwoys we consdered b'y Micheangeo For n slonce.obove the nose.

_j- t 242.' 39 .. -"'*11"' tA s lda.

wh ch wrinkes on lhe foreheodos seen n lhe exmo\e the ower jow or mandbe. muscle Ths muscle expresOock. hoso iendinous sheeilhol exlends T he dominor I Theob.seslhe letlocll\. i1lto drowlhe heod vlettEbosed o\€r lhe lop of ihe cron Lrmlo lhe foreheod.cousrng shortverilcolwrnkes lo op Theocc p to-frontolis (A co\ersthe peorbei/. i' -'. creoiinghorizonloi lhere ore lwo musceson lhe heod. orginoiing n Jberson lhe bock of the Anolhermuscle in lhe ele oreo islhe cor- . Theoccipiiojronlals hosihe funclion cre the musctes oi expression Addltionolltj oi lfiing up lhe eyebrows.The are respons be for openingand closing ihe musc esol exp€ss on o soorginoleon bone.lopond fronlof the cronium. SIUDY FOEruE HEAD OFTI]E DON MADONM '1503 4. one bone ond insertnto onolherbone. Allhe fo€heod the Thore ole o fewveryihin mltsc es ol ihe foce musce term noles in the skn obo\. Themuscles of expression ore slrucluroly These include hro selsofcirclilor muscles lhe \€ry diJlelenl fromlhe muscles of lhe body nnerondoulerrings of lhe orbiculorh ocu i (B the mlsclesiholmo\€ lhe bodyofginofeot and Cl Theinnefrngs. cle.bulihey inserlinlothe skin ofihe oboveThe eyes. Thls m!s. word. These brows. whenconlracied w llpulllhe irce Whef lhesemuscles conirocl ihey pLt/l skin beireen lhe eyebrows s ghlly down producing the skin. eye ds.or obiiol porl (C).Jl ng rormortheheod sthesku cronrum. wriousfcrcioexpressions.e lhe eye Thoi i ll oulihebonysiruclure ol ihe skutt. on ihe sku I.Muscles The ofExpression . The ouler ring. wherefibers ogoinoccur. ond ore press on of surpr se or ollenton usedfof chewng food Theele s sufiounded by se\€ro musces.hdlk /'h \ 6* [24 \ 1715cn) .eor mediloli\e slo1e. on on underslonding ofthe shopeoJlheskull.eenlhe brows. red.or po pebralpori (Bl.

of Youmusiunderstond thal lhesemlscles wllh one expTession ore ol inlerconnecled lhusin ihe anolher n ihe r porlcu or oreos.ond exlends osIn of lhe mouthwhen conlTocled. arbiio covlly lhese iwo muscesexi'enddown 'o inseri orlsin lhe oreoof iniolhe orbcuorLs 'le upper p They hovethe funclonof ftng 1e upper ip neor ihe midpoinlwh e lhe os n expresslons ofthelipdropdown.d of low oro o.ery smaI muscle : i (D). nger on ol o sl c of lhe express rosechorocle ihem ond tronsoles hlhe ioiny knowsol ob. orises Iheconinus.€rlp down in lhe aclions oTcryrng. cwerborder down io nserlneorlhe cone.ed n one expression. upwordto : ae. Theorbcuors orls0.3per lp. ihe depressor ihe mon orisesfrom ::cressorongu oris(L).orri one oflhech efmuscesofihe rnoLrlh o olthe heodlhoishows . From -Jgotor of lhe eyebrowor corugolor super or ginoting on lhe o \..!ardcreolng expressions .so th n rnuscle moxilo. aorners ine exp€ssonof oughtei thismuscleplls oflhe mouihupwqrdond tolhe iiie corners mouth onother minor(G). severolsmollfociol muscles nosi(E).or e\olor lob super oriso oeque nos fromlhe lpper orlginoting -1. of ses aone. olzygomoT|c oflhe cheekbone. a circuormLlsce ihe moulh.ygomotcusrnojor (D I oig noles ol lhe lhem inloo drowing greoi dea of expression. or depressor -e depressor on irremonohoorignoies :: nferors{lvl).ihe ocl on of sobE ng. Or the rnd exlends upvr'crdlo nsed nlo lhe skin moy be in\€l\. or ewior ongu oris(l!.vhich surrounds lhemoulhisouleribersbendwlh rf closing mus_ :nd con act ogoinslthe wriousolh-ar : esthot ore otiochedio t Anolhermusce ol lhe moulh.creoing lon n o drowing lhe ndviduol nol d.hoslhe funciion .subllemo!€rnenisof the eye oreo or the Oneofihe muscles _ridolis li orsesfromlhe nosa bones moulh regon.exposing or ofthe angleof lhe mouTh. oi lhe lo inserlnlolhe wing. '3reheod. oslh sone. ofthe nosesthe p^/ro.ow lvichelongeo does of lhe short horzoniolwr nkes ol ihe bridge he cer_ iirem. or e\'oiorlobi superios (H)rses or iom ihe lowerboldel of ihe ele sockeT.ihe nseriinio ihe musce fbels surrounding lob lnmoulholthe lower p Thedepressor ferioispu lsthe ov. Thezygomolcus 'nusc zygomolic frorn the fronloflhe e.coser io lhe nose Theelewtol oflhe Jpper p. pu ling lhem n of . ol lhe heodsuch :kn obo\€ lhe nose downwqrd. Thecorrugolornserh nlo lhe skin -ndpo ni of lhe eyebrcws.rordond up\.co led ihe : evoioroflhe upper p and lhe wingoi ihe -3se. extending or the upper :. ng moreirronone emoThis musce pu s lhe loce moybe express ceiweenlhe eyebrows. -3m the moxllo and inserls inlo ihe skn musc e litisihe I30\e lhe con ne looth This lhol loothto giveo sneer . i swnword _3se ore lfied forms ond lhe upper ip These . musunderlhe occipiiolironiolis oiihe ae. or owerlow qnd exiends _:garnlolhe corners olthe moulhTheiunc_ _ar ofthismusc e islo pul the cornersoTThe -auih downuordn expressions ol ogony ofihe ower p. exiends up lo ihere ihe muscle : : e. lruT he mosses focio musces. :ornerc al g ef.

which ls lhal of fo sing lhe lowerjow This powerfulmusc e con be fellby c enchinglhe owerlow h th ckifont border o sho creoles lowdepression on the foce.lhe oiernoing coniroclon ond reoxalionoi the iemporalsmusce s opporenionlhe sideoflhe heod in iheoreo ol lhe lemples Ancenl onolomslsnarned lh s musce ond lh s oreo of lhe sku I lem poro s.:.i .t:. whch exlends down$ord and bcclolofd from the zygomoicorchoflhe sku lolheongeoiihe owerjo\. .vBybeing owqreof lhe posiiion of ih s mlsce. .i .ir .oflheJow The Muscles the h{o musces of mostcolon edend I do\anhi.. .becouse liisherelhol hoirs lLrrn whle so qulckiy .reolng iollme.. you can underslond is funciion. rdtromthe mmovobl--slill ioihe molcbe owerlow On lhe bock port of lhe cheek s lhe mossefer muscle(Al.* : :aIUDGEMENI 1534 block ond Ed cholk l Sl/t' t 3r A NEADtOR TllE LAST 42 .d recly ln froniof Thelemporos musce(Blis locoledonihe sideotihe cronum in the temporo fossc ls lbers possdownwordunderlhe zygomolic orchond inserinio the coronod process on wih ihe moslhe owerjow Ths musc e works selermusce lo rose lhe oweriow when o personchews.

...-..Ji TNE MASSETER MUSCLE IHEIEMPORALIS \4USCLE O r gn : to ihe corono d process .

..Ji TNE MASSETER MUSCLE IHEIEMPORALIS \4USCLE O r gn : to ihe corono d process ..-..

whichlbtmlhe boseof lhe neckore chculor. ond fhry lprm the generol cyllndor 9hope of fd9fronlof lhe neck THE SCALENE IVUSCLES Orlgin- \)C f--'-.lh€9ethlnrduscies ole mossgd.26 . ]he hlgherle\.ord icrmsthot ftom the cyllnder 'lhese mo$.6*'n) .HEAD OFAN E\IAXOEUSI '1517-18. 19. ]he 6cdlenus muscles couso the n6ckto b6nd. ond pod€fior.brJt occurs wherelhe underplone of lhe lower JowlepoiEis6ftom the fiont plon6 of th€ neck ]ho lhrootmufclos leatowr tho corillqger of the\olca bo(. J (\. x Hl 123.ordfromthe ffnt two ribsic the upp€r neck\erlebroe.elof lhe neckIn lhe bocklhon ln the fronlof the body€6ull$ in o fcMurdthrust moredfomotlclnwomen lhon In men.Ihe6e muscle6 upv.'er lirlledto emphoqlollly of ihe neckwhichis size thecyllndrlcol widetot the bosethonot lhe top lhe neck ossumes o cvinddcol shooebecouse lhe flsi lvroribs. thls smollh)he b hot vlslblg on th€ rurlbce. or trocheo.o smollhoBe' shoe+hooed boneoboletheAdomtoDole thol helprholothe wlndplpe In ploc6.lhe neck is essenliollv o cvllnderllke moss. The opo(of lh€hlongle ls locdtedat the pli of the ihroot(Al.rtv.the sldes of the neckCyllnder or€ fomed bVthreescolonus muscles-onleior gdend m6dlus. o€ th6 cortlloges o@!ndlhe wlndplp€. The shope of thelorynx lslhot of on upslde-down lrlongl€. Onthefronioftheneckihere ole importont piojector.Foms oflheNeck The sees brm in lerms of sirnple The orfl$nrsi going I mossbeic€ onliosmollerforms ond deloil. which fom the\oice boxorloryrx.olce lorynx bo0r Adqln! SIUOY FOR IHE. Ano\er fom thdt i!4lch6long€lo wosw€ll owsr€of ls th6 hlold bone. lvichelongelo ne\. ondthe upperbordercofi€sponds to o le\€l lustbelor tho low€r low Theportof thevolce boxthdl lvlchelongelo v ts most lnlei€sied In portoylnghelelslhE upp€redge @). whlch prcJecis liofom the ldomt opple. Bd 6&R 'ht\.

l i : .

IheStetnocleidomosfoid Muscle
d mlsces resi The two nernoceidomosto I on, ond ore porlio v embedded n the cyindermoss of lhe neck,They ore ropelike musces thot exlendfromthe top ofthe ster num up to the heod beh nd the eor They nserinio lhe moslod process (A)of lhe sku Eachmuscleis oi ls widesiobout ho tMoy downtheneck.Alls lower end tbronchesoff inlohro iendonsr one lendonisotiochedto ihe top ol lhe siefnum(B), ond lhe other s altochedlo lhe clovcle (Cl.These hdolendonscreoieo smollhongLrlor (D); deprcssion lhe heod of lhe c ov cle s ot lhe baseof this depesson Theiendonlhol oltoches lo lhe lop of lhe sternum h verypronounced and cordlike, whie lhe one lhol ollocheslo ihe clovcle isrolherf ol ofd brood Theiendons thol ollochto ihe sternum formlhe pil oflhe ihroat IEJf lhe slernoc eidomosio d muscle on one sldeoflhe neckconhocis, ihe heod wll roiole in ihe opposiledireclionor t i downwordloward the shouder These lwo muscles usuolly \^/ofk ogo nsleoch oihot bui whenlhey do wo.klogelhe, ihey cousethe heod lo be lhrownup whie smuloneously pullnglhe neckdown, l\4ichelongeo hos drown ihe steF nocledomosioid muscles n o subiewsybe" cause, oshasbeennofed, iheyore delolls on ond porliolyembeddedn ihe orgermoss of ihe neck They musinoi oppeor ioo promnent.ln ihs drawingo smoI podlonof ihe orge tropezusmuscles vlsble (FJ, EetMieen the slefnoclo domqsloid musce and ihelropezius iso rolherlargefiongu or depression (G) co led ihe 'onofomicol sollbox" Theneckh consirucied lor greoi freedom ond vorlet of mo!€meniThesho!dergidle (i,,/oscopuloe ond ]u,o c avic €s) s ihe skeelo siruclLrre upon whichtho l oshyforms oi-

'.'i., .ot,' ..ri,...-'
.t " .j:







ST]JOY FOR HEAD OFTHE NUDE ATLEFT ABOr'E PERSIAN SIBYL ',511,ed cholk 14h \ 7lt t3s86 , 1937@)



r. .a:-:: . ..

n L r ce hc s e r i c p c a e o a .rc!_ rnporionl lo :rlislaslcbefore '. .gy ihe obiecl h focng. a oced vedcollyihroughihe cenier oi the llled fo^altrrcl of rbjecl Now mog ne ihoi lhe objecl roioies Thereare ih€e mpcrloni orge mosses h u m o n i g L r ei h e h e o d T h e r i b c a g e . mogne on oxis o f t h e p e v s s i l r n e d s i g h t y t o t h e g h t o n d io\rcrd The eft.ght and by how much?Howfor foovard or siori dro\^/ng ihe 'gLJre i s 'e .simpe mosses th s ligureverycorefuly n odv.ft Plocing lhelorue Mosses oftheBody l nr formlhotthe orisldrowsw obviolrsv ook ng Lrpol lhe body of Chrsl bLriyou o€ ook ng down on h sfeeiond oilhe sku otihe Ahove o cerloinposton ondd recionreo '/elo thespacelholsurrounds position base of lhe cross The heod of lhe figure s il The : delermined bythe locolon oflhe obiect n direcled 10 lhe rghl lhe rb coge s turned :oocetlhe d recion s deiermned by wh ch lowofd lhe iefi ond si led londordrihe moss r.:er. s o r yi o s e e r g h l i h r o u g ho l l h e i n i r c o i eo n d l\4icheangeodetermned ihe poslion of confls ng clelo h lo the crrge.iLr ircn' ihe is lhe form ng? Furb e g i n nn g . : r . detetnine lhe elolire pasilian af lhe moses the heod. 'onshipof h sown poslon n spocetothotof o r b o c k l t i s . o n d Thedegreeof roloion s of T h e rround ih s cxis. . on tire pevs A: hos ceen shov/n n iire eor er . i o d r r w i h e s g .cu6elhe obleclsdreclon Thequeslons clrowing a I gureoreiWhcts sludy oi ihe hecd. ' : : ' Crowlhe ne Youcon then skelch I lhe r b ccge o''sr i'e !ews I bulil hedoesnot. r/b . i ! .e dreclon of ihe part oJ the body onr :rowng? s I d ecled lowsrdlhe ell oI lhe . ihe orlistrnustconslder lhe relo lorms.he rnusldelerm ire position from which lhe iorm s To be block Snce lhe humon figLrre s tne most occommodoTe complex iorm on oriisi can drow i s neces ond he muslmeniolly drown.c 9 r -heobieclbeingdrown Hedoesnol hovelo f o r ml k e l h e i b c o g e n o d f t c r ' p .a s s e .for exomc L cn egg. . :cne€ a! . .rnceYo! ore Ihese sinple bax figurcs con be Lsed l. / oblecl n lhe posiliofiromwhichhe d r o w i n go s i m p l eb o c k i n i h a i p o s i o . < as srnpe in spoce eon cocL^r'ord iitermore.


4 S? : ':':.ii.:: ..€/.: :i . 'i.$.n) 1232 51 .i:i jj .2.-*# ':t i:v' )v:"'... ': OVEPTHE DEAO CI]RISI t 26.



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' 't.{ r.. .

drow ines thotseporote one ponefrom on' ofher Think of ond drow lhe plonesof lhe lorgest mosses f rsi lhen go on io ihe plaries of lhe smoller forms / Ihese slmpledrcwings werc dohe os preliminorysketches fo determine lhe lorge plonesal lhe la6o frcm lhe frcnl.lrom shou der lo shoulder and from npple 10 nipple Thesenes\^/ould define lhe b g lop ploneof lhe chesi(C)./d(3).Do)ou seelhe loo fionl sde.of theT0ls0 Ihe Plones nons der whol porlonsotlhe vorousporis \rof the igLrreyou ore lookng ol n ihis drowng.tl lo consldef ony one eement ol o iime.. lhls pone lncLudes lhe fronlplaneof the delo d musc e (D) You moynolcetholthe occuroiedef niiion of plonesisd reciy fe oled 1othe successful hondingof ghi dnd shode.€ esloblished ihe ouhide shapeof ihe lgure. Snce t s diilicult in lhe beg nningio ddselero ih ngs ol once. Theelemenhof o good figure proporilon. thrusi.e\.moking the bockwider lhon the front of lhe torso rnogne o seresof linesrunning frcm lhe lop oflhe shoulderslolhe n pp es. Dsregordlng foro momenlthinkof detoils thetorso aso orgeb ockcreoted bythofioni plone (4 ond ihe sde plane (Bl The sde plones onofthe lorsoole ol o sighl obluse g e lo thefrontp ane. I moy be he pfL.entholgh lt is !ndersiood ihoi oll e emenisof o drawlngore nierleloied. 1a! \ 9.13m1 . For insionce. deioil. or o I ofthese? These are the plonos of o form. mossond perspecii\€. b@n ihk ond block chotk 1496 150]. the block armon lhe righiisdrownoso rounded the lght top plone (E)is clearlysepooted fromthe pane in shodow(F) Thetocilholbolh ihe ffonlof thelorsoond o section oflhe sldeorevisib e gives o powerfu i usion oso lhree-dimenslono ofihe figure The moslinlrigu nglhingoboulfigure drowyouto ihlnkond do seving s ihot ii requkes erol differeni ihingssmuioneously. drawngareline.47| 23. which iswiderol lhe shouder ihon ol ihe nipples. Whenbeginnng o drowng. bcck and lhrcequoners views NUDE MALE FIGURE RIJNNING pq.iiisoflenhe pfLrlo consder onlyihe plonesAfleryouha\. onotom\t lighiondshode.

l 9 4 )*'- t 'F' { f .

lher bcoge is I lhonthepreceding dromoilcolyUppedforv/ordli s cleor thoi Mchelongelodrewthe ligurewhie beorng ofihoiform n mnd lheiop orsuperiorview girdle.butwhenseenfiom obo\€.Theshoudergirdle s oiiochedio ihe rib coge ony ot the pil of lhe lhroolwhere lhe clovclesmeeiihe iop of lhe s ght ollochmenito the restof slernumThls the lwo scopuoe ond the skeeion offords mobLly1 Sinceihe up c ovicles exiensive fu/o bylhe per limbs ore oitachedlo ihe scopulo the ormsore oso onlyslighty shoulderloini. &: :.' -iir ..-" .J T.]?.-'. os I s in lhs drowng. conssh of lhe hro clovlcles(A or ond B) ond ol lhe 1uo shouder blodes. '- . drowng.the c ovlc e oppooB osa slroghi line.-i...'' whch k less finjshed I n lhisslrongdrowing. ore bolh co\e€d in scopuloe. ottoched lo the restof lhe lrunk oi the body ond ore olsocopobe of greol movement \lewed from the fronl. .t"x"i.Gidle IheShoulder }. -.*{-. \. ils S shope cun€ is io observein suchon un It is inleiesiing nnshed drcwng os this one which c€os . Thescopuloe posebyihe hvc mosses of ihe iropezius lhLs musce [C ond D). which reshon iop of Theshoulder ihe b coge.i' :{- '.

rrcn. is weokened.howe\.wlgreoilyenhonce the ilusionol lorgermosses sirongly pilchedJoMord or bock in spoce . Ve\{ed from lhe fronl..:ecrs os o vertcol line.e. (E)n a waythot c eof y defines the stefnum d rection of the r b coge lorbordihrLr$jng ond l led downrard lowordlhe righi n ihis drowlnglhe siernum oppeorsmuch shorter wiTh lhe Tjpof your Coler up ihe siernum oJlhe orger lngerond seehowlhed recijon moss. drowncorreciynperspeclile.et :_ yei been refrnedievdenly lhe odisi of ihe .!ru€ of lh s bone con be cleary ob.1 ii-r'i - ':helongeo decided lo workon frsi ond _. f os c ovc es. Thoseoreosthol projecl lorvr'ord ihe -:n ihe shoulders ond ihe righlorm ore hos : moslde\eoped Theheod..r whendrowng lhe fibcoge n o djllicult ihe slernum r.breosfs._ied ilsl lo e$oblshthe symmelry :_:.-. fromihe slde :.bLrl : .der gndle -e poston oJlhe siernlm scn impodont -:-. HereMicheofgeo hosdrownlh-. Suchsmo el forrns or lile sternum. lhe lono.

ofile Chest IheForms LI ere iso mognifcenl drowing oJthe torco. givlng lt o somewhoi intheupper€gion.ml Dodidoed . loroh. of ihe chesi.1 t I lHEGREAT MUSCLE PECIORAL Orlgln: (hondlel sruDY FoR $ &qRrfploMEw 1s34-3tbtdcrchok 15t" \ 1YP9n9x 25.of monubrllmjihe body or blode (lometlrneg pofwhlchlsthelongesl th6 Olodlolus). lhe iuo greot pecfl the b€osi muscles.wh ch cln€ oulurordond downv/qldliom the slernum Mcholongelohos Indlcoledo smollbLlt of lhe importonl detoll of lhls oreo lho frbers pectorolmuscleneol the orm oro pusneo c€otlng o foMord bV ihe delicld muscle. lhe sides the liefnLrmis shop€d\ery mlch lke o sword whlchpoinildownvlrd ll smolll?omon ls composedof lh€e pods iho hondle.lo. coLled whLch replo' ioni ond the xlphoidprocess. Theuppq exlromily senlsthe iip of the sword.exiendourwqrd from ihe sidesof the slernumond the borderof the clov holfof ihe lo^r'er lnlernol Intoihe orm underthe shoulder cle to inserl muscle. lhe fiberslwistos lheY neor lhe insertionpoinl. neof (D breoot obole lhe bulge smolleggllke ihe armplt.or oppeoronce ffojlened gredtpecicTol m!sThe icp shelf. A !€rtlcol groo\e (Gl s the rqsull of the owayftom ploirudonof ihe peclorol muscles of lhe sialnum. frorn lhe lho b coge the front of cles cover clovicles10the le\el of the fftthor sMhrlb The lowetbordersof theselwg mlsclesole ropre' sented by h\lc llne6 (D ond E). peclorclis mojor (Aond B).or deltoid (c). cenitms thleo noicheslthe ot the siernum ier noich forms lhe plt of lhe lnrooi (H) lhe inthenotcheg lnnerend of oochclovlce rests on elihersde of lhh ceniro noich thg plt of the stomoch0 l5formed bv the xlphoid l i i .whjch wrdp oroundthe fronl upper holf of ihe ib cgge. Ihe two greol pec ln shope lo llot ote sjmlLor torol muscles bloclc.

.! : *&. ' .

IAGNLIs .ihepeclorolond cle ore n fronlof lhe groo\e oi the sternum Theseiorms e oncllhecy ndershapedneck n fronioiThe iigureS righipectoro. bock ke mossr ico The oclion orfunclon oflh s muscesTo drowihe orm to lhe lroni ollhe bocly oi Theserroturs mognus anlsce s mode Lrp ocoleclon n ne ifger kedglalonslhoiore ihe sclesoJlhe r b coge bul are lorgey h clden by the peclorolsmolor Thed giloiions orgnolefromihe uppereghl rbs.and ex lend lo\4ard lhe backoi ihe r b coge.The dig loi orisoresomelmesconiused wih the r bs.6 of ihe pecToro jor musce (8) ftom lhoi ri the prccedlno smusc eoppeorsas o drowng n thcrlvr'orkih nihsclrowngiTisspher fol.M cheongelo \.-rlorms n the. the orlsi fnds i helpfu lo cnot"e lhe overoppng oi lorms f yolr ook ol lhe youcon seelhollhe dei fguret leltshou der. lo cl musce (4 ond upper orm ore ceory posilioned n fronlof lhe etl pecloro smojor ccvi musce ondcovice.cnce.bui I bs ore poro el Toone onions oul on lhe olher. whch i is fonir'crd al lhe lop ond irockot lhe boiiom The efl orm is o bock ke cy nder lhe iower lhon doesThe end prolrudes fcrlherforv/ord lop Nexl.Forms oftheTo|so overlopping Ll e'e .msof lhe body fo^4ordwhile pushing olhersbock. o smo!poriofwhchisvsjbLe pose. pu somefo.ho over oppingfoimsot Thebod\r Noice loo ThoT on lhoseoreosol lhe body rirereara sirongvolLre ihoi prolecltoru4.ihe ori sl i rsicor€cly drowstheforms nspoceHerehedrewlherb coge mcsscs o roundedbock.ird conirosis Theolh. buTthe cof ol5o nosT isnot nearly $ sirong os on ihe proleci It s niereningio nolcehowMcheorigeo smo haschoriged theshop.wh ch s n lroni oi hisrghTarm Thsi lsiol] s occom p shedby overoppng neslhol e.!€nted ond orm To lhe igure3lefi shoulder To odvonceond lhe righikfee to od'.whereos th s nruscLe on iop of lhe ribs sides ol ihe r b coge resling T ]ESERRAILJS VL]SCL' I'. /ef onothe'qrond drowng of the I lrqurelholtuns!rpossed n 15 represenio iion of o soid iorm n spoce.ircwng orc rendcredn ghiand shocle.o peclorolis mclor oi lhe body ol C bei"veen otssmLrs ondolorgebockrnusclecoledlhe in Ths dors(D).wrrere lheyconverge ond poss underihescopuo 10 iermnole ol h nnerborderThetwo serroTls mognus mlsc espu the iwo scopuoe oporl ioword lhe fronlof lhe iorsoTheuppersx or bylhe pecioro s modgiloions o€ covered ore vsibe on lhe surioce lortihe owerlhre.

T6d ond whl€ cho/k1Atu r 71/!!2699 \ 19OScht Ao ..a I iL.!::' .lt -a :iUoYfORTHE NUDF ATEFTABOVE PERS|AN SByt. .

lng lhisrfusce iri ho f \r'er lco y Themusce s furlherdlvcledby lhree horzonlol.cliv.asil sin ih s drowng. o sma muscleon ihe scopuio. onotherrilersecls the bollomol lhe rib cogei. no musce. wh ch protecls the pubc bones.F\rronrida s s coverecl by Jony tssue.Ths s o orge po ntedorchformedbythe cortiogesofihe f bs ocoiedbe ow the siernum. which mokes !p ihe bock flop of lhe oxi o holow Thelosilhree (E.]S ABDOM RECI Or0r.lonrn s./een the bollornoflheslernum ondlhe bollomof the rb coge flhemusceswe deveoped. STUDY FOR TNE NUD! YOUIN Or'ER THE PROPNEI DAN EL 1511 rcd cholk avet bldck cholk pepobtiahs 131/ t 9fd'.lon lhoiextends downlhe csnlerol lhe rec lusob.Abdominus Muscle Reclus The mo llrhenihe ormisrosed.ethe pubic bones. nofiowng os lrlescends Ihe neo olbo ( wh le ne l iso slrong ien' .formsa mass(Dl. ThereciLrs obdom nisworks ogoinsiihe slrong musc esof the bockto ho d ihe r bcoge in on uprghi posion.31 cn)Dohoged 62 .or reclusobdomins f s lhis irornlhe owerrbs qndJhe orchond e\:lends ol lhe slernum x phod process to ihe pubic bones orfio povs.The obdom(Hl.rndihe Jhrd occLrrs beh. or lransverse.66 / 23. coLrnieroclng the force ol grav]y Thhmuscle couses the lorsolo bend fo^rordrI o so formslhe wol on lhe fronlof lhe pelvc bosin. wh ch proleclslhe orgons of digeslionEoch ndviduoLsecJon of lhe reclLrs obdominus muscle h lke o porlionof an -. Exceplior o smo i!' ongulor-shopecl musc e.t G) of the serratus d gitotions nrognus poslion muscecre eegonly drown Their lhe pecloro smolorond oissmus behveen dorsi musc es sceoryvsible The pectoro regionol lhe lorso s seporcledfromlhe ob'domino regiof bylhethor occ orch of the rb coge. (33. lhe lndviduolsections of the musclecTe vsbe.gginshope ondconbe dm orlyshoded n lhs poselhe rb coge s lilledforwsrd oslhe pevic mosss plched bcck ihe obdom nol muscesfodedon hefolo eve iLrsl obove NUs L.the oeciorols tt lor musce (Al lckes on o iionqucr shope Thelbefs ol lhe musce exlendfrorn the r b coge ond inseri nto lhe lpper orm (B)the moss underthe deioid muscle ol the peciora smojoro soconsliuiesihe troniilop or ihe ho ow oi ihe ormplt or ox lo (C) The ieresmojor.rectus ob dom n s isthe onlymusceon lhe froniol lhe obdomno regon. iendons One iendon crosses the abdomenotihe leve oflhe nove. iogeiherwliho sma pori on of ihe loiiss mus dors.pyro m dols.wh ch s locoled obo\.

. . 63 . :/.j'1. t)'.

n ihis pose. A musclemoy become thlckerond $oder ln d sloie of conlrcclion.Ihepelvlcmoss lsboundbylhe llloc crest (B). by ihe abdomen (C).44 t 26. obseryngtho nlde oth elesot ihe gymnoglum. or ilioccreslthe shape of lhe exlerno obllque ook like o leordrcp from mony ong es. Obsefwtion osw€llos under.li ls offonsl\€io see o drowlng of o llgure in gr6ol octlonwhlle ollihe mlsclesoreportro'€dos Ino 16oxedstote.whlch slopes downvrordbei\re€n lhe lh ghs. bscome mosieA ot porifoylng the exdcf onolomyoflhg body In mo\€ment.Whenlho lwo obique musc es simultoneously coniroct.lhe ribcoge isrotoigd. of pulled. Ihesem!scles olso prelent o ddewsysclllqpse of lhe db coge.lion or funciionof q mlscle wlll enobleyouto drow lhe foms wlthiruth. uusexternus obdom nus(4.siondng lhe oc.or ll moy be €loxed and reloilvely ffotlened.or obliq. oro €clinlngfgurewliholl lhe foms coniroclodqnd buging Inon oullondshmonneri The onci€ntGr6ek odlsh. Whenonlyone contrcc.ls. bLJi olso lhe chonges ln ihEshopesofihese forms ln the dlffefenlmowments. exlendsfrcm lhe losleighl rlbsof lhe b coge ond inserh lnic lhe iop of lhe pelvis.01\n] ..block chotk '16"x 10h [40.The Exlernoloblique ng drowingot lhe figT his s o mostinJeresl I ure ln whch youcon obserue o rib coge lhcrl lsdlsiincllylipped to one side. hore\€t lhe efrernol oblique oppeors os o rounded block.ord.The116shy moss ofJheexlernoobliquemusc e. o gif: the losleighlrbs (lhe libe6 nterd9 ioie w1hlhe d qltotonsof lhe lo{er senotus mosnut FIGURE SIUDY FOR THE 'ECrrE OF QASCTM 1501. theywo in concerlwiih lhe recius obdomlnis io bend lhe body for v. ond by the buttocks(D). Theodhi olJghttoknownot onlythe forms of the bodtl the mLJscleg on the surfoce.loone sde.

. ).l&' ' t |.t f . .# /'.r* t'i t. 'z: q.i l' .b .. t..


onieror superor iac splne o n i e r o rn i e o r l o c s p n e .

The llne epfesenilngihe lod of l'ne gron (C)ls nol os cleorydefned os ll vr'oub oi D ond Ecb be in o mole fg!€. dels shou fefeniln menihon lnwomen. SIIJDY OFCIASS CAI FEfi4AIE TORSO AN]IRIOR.Mole ondFemole of Form: Voriofions of ihe lemoe iorsoc. lke n ond more block ore brooder deltod lssphercqloiihe o womon's whereos cleol_ downvlard slopegroduolly topi flbers oi ihe botlom of ihe tullness lng increoslng n pp e hiusl fgures. lhkd of ihe rlbcogerihe I b coge oreoobole lhe breosis isequo lo ihe rib coge areobe_ lheseare closscalpro_ ow lhem Of course portions. Theforms coused bythe ei ihey are musc nol €p€seni fatryllssueof the th ghs.which downwqrd ond fo\dordlhe I ghl sid€ of ilE tho iil of ihe pelvd body. Ihe shopeof ihe deio d muscle(F)ls dif. n drowngsof femole figu€s. lold x 714 [25J2 \ 'r3.counterbalonces lowsrdltE lhe ib coge s olsoiurnedslghlly pelvic o€c whereos lhe lefl side.lvlen3 shope.ond e\€ry mode is different. models focesfondsrdloword lhe vie\det lhe moss (A) represenls lhe exlerno obllquemusce ll ls ony sllghtyseporolec frcm lhe mossbelow ii. but genero y breosisore p oced c oser to lhe thon lo ihe obdomen heod ond shouiders Vlewedirom ihe fronl. npples appeor io point oulvirrd iowqrd the sldesol the body ne\€rsiroghi io^dord. moreintereslng whenihe moss€s h rs ore onanged in opposingdireciions. ihesei^lt forms becouse muscle e modelsl^ on monyfemo osonelorgemqss generol. bt6ck chotk 152A-21. Figurgs ind been coreful oflhe boo. of lhe obdomnol 'e ihe muscles glonofthe femolefiguleolemuchmoresubfrom one onolher ile ond essdlstlnguished ofthe mole musces cofiesponding ihon ore lgu€.e the ow€l border ond s ghily lo the side of the peclorolmusce. ihe g uleus medi-6 appect (Bl. Th6ls o ne drowing hc € I whichlhe bosicformsol lhe figLJre y ole olvcE coled.ihe n drowLngsofTnole obo\.10cn) . howe\€t the breaslsresl di onihe mlddle recily on ihe peclorolmuscles. l€g ison herright modelsweighl drowinglhe Ihereforeihe pelv s h pushed'rp\dqrdon tE l|16 ighis de of her bodylhe r b coge.

69 .




'I .,J

ANDFOR THE DAMNED cnl 15*' / 1ar'dUAA1 t 24.99

Simplifying theForms oftheBock

Micfrelongeo hod on mode lo ioke thh lnusual pose so lhol he A s hosbeen shown, Aeiiroord noryobi ly to seecomp er torms couldcoreful y copyit?ll sun/ikely Hehadon ci ihe body n lermsof lery simpe mosses, extensi/e underslond ng of the formsof ihe \oie ihe hvo orge egglikemosses thot ore lrody lhol o lo\red him io drow the hLrrnon creoled by the rlb coge. The heod of ihe figurefrom oulofh sheod,wthoulomodet, in liyng i gure smerelyndicoled ol lhissfage of onyposlon n spocethof hewished. Drowing thedrowlng. Micheonge o obvious y \,!'onied lrom liie is\€ry mpodoni,o greotiesi oi on io eslobishthe symmelry cnd mossof the oarists obiliv but i s no1ihe onty exerctse iorsowithoulthe inJerrupton of lhe smoller necessory n leorning howio drowltrefgLrre iorm of Jhe heod The muscesorcundlhe Fgure drowng is noi copryingfrom o backond sideof the ribcoge oreolsodrown mode Sfudy lhe muscesso ihoi yo! know os smol,egg ke shopes, wh ch ore porlio y wrrereeoch one comesfuorn, ond where i embeddedno orgermoss goesto, os wellos ls aclon. \\,b ore oble jo Thesublle ilgure ol ihe uppeftettcornerof drcw inesonty by knowing ihe originond iil s drow ng suggesiso iorso seen from lhe inserton of the formsDrowing of the forms of sde lhe ouler line (4 represents the orge, ihe bodyccn comeonlyfTom onewhohoso dominonl moss oi lhe r b coge,Thedefn lve comp eie underslanding of construcion ond nesond tonesof ihe finsheddrowng are onoiomy ProcJice dfowingihe ngure fromout cbsenthere, olowng )oU1oobsenethe m- of yourheod, without o modet. Th is son excelcodonl inilio nesol o mosler drawing enTV/oyio see f you reallyknowJhengure. Do you lhnk ivichelongetoosked ihe

Muscles oftheBock Deep
lhe bocI iso gfeol cholengeben rowing ih influence lrcouse lhree olefsof mLJscles of oppeoronce. The deep€slloler consisls lhe ereclorspinoemuscet which orlginote ond lhe bock of the pelvs,or ai the socrum io inserinlo up llium, extend the bockbone, Erecthe owerlorlebroeof lhe neckregion, buLge on ethersideofthe tor spnoe muscles \eriebro spnescousng o furrow(4 down the m ddle of the bock, ond exlend ouiw,ord lo lhe oreo ol whichthe ribslurn ond bend lowcrd the onlerior of the boq/, in lhe oreo of Ereclor spinogo€ lhlckest ihey ore lhe lo\der bock or umborreglonlB). lhere,whee they consequently mosivlsible on ihe surfoce masses c€ol6 iwo cy nderlike floi in lhe r b oppeorrother of lhe body Thgy coge oreo becousethey don't hove rnuch flnclion lhefe.Their funciionislo exiend,or pullbockv,r'ord, ihe lrunk of ihe bodyofb ng ii bock oflet it hosbeen flexed,oI benl fondord. Theyoso hove ihe imporicni ftrncllonof bodyhiheupr ghi helpnOtokeepihewhole ol ihe Ariists oflen €fer io ihe deep muscleg spne os the shongcordsof lhe bock bemosses lhey moke couseof lhe cylndedlke on the su oce of the ow€r back (umboi lkedto ploy up those regon,Mlchelongelo becouse oftholr!€ry musces ln h s drowlngs humanfunclon ol holdlng us In ihe g€cl posliion. WhendrowlngIn lghi and shode, the odist th nl<sof ihe \ir ues on fuo greoi thesemosses becomewry ropes orcolumns, pfomlneniwhen the mode 19corryingq heoq/ object.








STIIDIES FOR ADAMS RIGHI IdEEANDINREEANGEIS INlHECREAIION 6F ADAIVI 1511,ed dnd btockbhotk 11q." \ 7/a" [29.s3 \ 19.69cn)

.4 t: .i . '11 tl .

beh.ly. thal s.roioieihern oufilard. whichore pcriia y cmbedde.lowrrcl lhe lronlorlhe bo.lby lhc rnus. g€ol movemeni.you con visua lze ihe enllre bcick oso orgef olTened ovolr thereiso ctecI progresson ol clorkefingione from left Tc righl Thelighl crreo(ll.or groy oreo.the ho lfone.lln the argermassolihe n ilr s clrowing the lighioga n comesfrom obo\4:ofi iyou. Theleres filld (rndo othef lorms creole.vo nlo lhe ocromon process scop! oe Theorign of ihesemuscess lhe the shou der (El se\€nlh. neckveriebro and thel rslfve The suprospinclus musce (F) s ocoied ihorocc \€debroe Thefibers of ihe rnuscles obove the bony rclge of lhe scopuo ond Trovedownwordond ouhlcrd lo olioch to Tefm noiesol lhe bock ol lhe upper orm oi ihe nner.or spne (D)Thhbonyrdge exponds promnenimosses ot ihe summl of {Aond B)be /eenihe 1r.S FOR ''| 3 h " ( 2 3 5t 3 2r.lrionguar bone thol is crosse.a-j J" :: . i s importaninol oniy lo knowihe exocr shopesof the scopuoe bul olso precisert howondwherelo p oce thesebones reolve lo lhe rb coge Thescopuoe occupyihe upperholfof the rlb coge. border ofihe scapuloe lhe humerus undef lhe deloid nruscleThe (C) Ihe fiombodeus musces pu ihe nfrosp nolusmusce ond teres rnnor bolh scopuoelogelher. ond lhe s! prospinolus io pLrll lhe ormsbock Bli i acis o one io roiolethe ormsinwcr..ondltsMuscles The Scopulo muscles whch reslon dogonolyin ls uppef podon by o bony Tlre rhombodeus I ihe deep erec torsp noemlsc es. Whenihe shoLrlders onc armsore ihrownfoMord. Thefunclion ofihesethree oppeorcgrecty conirocled The fiombod mLrsces s to pu ihe ormsbock\rsrd ond lo moss s mode up of fu/o seclons rhonr.ihe infrospnoius. Theynsertnio lhe upperorm besde bock.formNvo rdge.lnmode n-c ndividuolsmolL lorms )ou shouclkeep ir minclihsmovernenl of ght fto dofk.') . f o mode! sho! derscre lhus pu ed riclge.les of lhe scqpuc oppear os smoI.27cml . cgg kcishopes.l.leen lqhi ancl shocieond lhe shodow i uslrole ih sprogresson.lo$ardlhe bock foTmo rnoss(G) ocoled beow lhe bony bone.' -.lhemoss of the homboicleus musces lhe suprosp notus. the scopuloe drau owsy lrom eoch olhe| when lhe sho! defs ore pulledbock.J ihe owerporion of the scopulooncl nserls nlo the lronl of the upperorm beneoththe deTol:lmuscle Theieres molor\dorks wlh the teres minor. orverlebrol.lisreoard a thesmollforms lor o momeni.owayfromihe fronloi boideus rninor o nd rhombodeus mojor -'bui The orisilhinks oflhem os one moss (Hls occied beow Theteresmolor muscle Thesccpua hasmusceslhotrestontopof nirosp nolusand leresm nor I orginalesoi 1 t is o foi... or lcsf.eriicoto a horizonio b coge Thekeylo delermn ng lhe posi or oflhe sccpLrlo whendrowng o f gurewlh cf ormro sedoboveihe shoulder islo ookotihe direclion olthe orm:1he scopulo cnd ormw II]ETISYAN SIBYI :i-f.lhescopuoeore drownic word eoch oiher When ihe orm is roisec higherlhon ihe sho! det ihe scopuo rolote: poston on ihe lronra \.ond ihe d sionce belween ihem isequoliolhelengihoi oneo.

& rHERI-]OMBOIDEUS MIJSCIE c rnree ol lhese musces luberosity ol lhe hlmefls 75 .-----t.

1] !$ ori the m|rsclesD€i := w h c i r l o r m so r .lfow /:t lri 1D'i t1r3/ . shouder the ibers ocoEd lhere wi pul ihe he:: :_: -33er back regon lls nner borcler ex':_:. : Thescop! ae drowihe shouce6lowara : _= o n o t | r e rf l h e h e o c l s f x e d .r on llE b(r.--e oo-. b.I hrs osT a r c o i ..rl.rtrrLr. w h i cc hl e r .l noLrs slreeioreoson l.i i r e f b e r so ' ' _ : Trapezus i r i l r e n e c k o n c l s h o ! c l e rr e e : 'lb.iexrlhe I and sho.lc. : : Torre o.ireo nrrr()rn. lhe mLrsc es ollhe back lo g !e _.. ncnsvory occord ng lo lhe parlofihe nLrsc: T I :e e . r a r | o n d s h o p o . . heodwi be pLr ed down io il-r cl sho! cler -lowerf bresolTheia of iheiraoez u3clrcn --: s h o i r d e To s o w n T h em d d l e f b e s o e .nl ..le One afeo of ten. r _ 5 liol s ocivcied f bolh shouders ore i!e: :::'!: an t.-br..Lrbc lrov. wh ch oppeoras s ght depressonson ihe s!fface oithe body Tne erlent oi These depressonsdepends on The erTenT oi muscu/ordeveopment ol the iro.rpes s|rch .ls lhe promirn|l 5ev. trrfi:r rErg ns ol iho ltupezus ni!s..lon sheei s loccied orouridiha lwelflhlhorac cverl. y o !.6/.l . P ' .rrrrrs otth. the edllc bolw. rh ren.LJi f ony one sde is oclivolec -.r l l w i r c h o r e n s h o d o \ rS k e k r h . lo l t h e s p i n eo f i l r e s c a p r a o n ThesLrmmiof the sho! cer (D). l s I o n s l by th. -8.e backof ihe neck.a tlre iropcriLrs r|Lr5c e 5 ior!1.eJ: ro veriebro sa s l C ) T n e t r o p e z r .profe nrccls. .rs lr .! : fo conTfo Thc\.on.] ihe lhrr.l riints nio s. ts nrnc back.o bock.: e i f e d o f a l h r e e d m e n so n c i g u r e .r $urp ec! : wfoG on..bro oTlheI p of the ia oiiheTropezus musce (C) Anolr]er o r e o s o c a i e . o .The Ttopezius Muscie o.on.. n:n'ire bock oflhe slul tothe osi or -. ar ] i h e i g h T .xjoTfr(j 76 .rkoi the r--ck (L).i rir:: To rouril oli The lorms Ony geonr€ : sli.o..ariih cer v (! !erT. ": url{resol ihe orgcsl nrosses lr5t Thenso:.rvcr. lo r .

€! +u€uDo orqafe qr q1zieL{ ol €uoq r4ao. ^r€trqlt t l.o €tri ! brO snzlnvuJHl ltcsnDt {"' .9 ) Ulal (lreLr) orqstra^ tD.

Alonq wilhlhe bockoi lhe shoulders ond a srnoll lrlongulor o€a of ihe muscles oflhe scopuo region. ll willolsope\€nt the ighl fromjumpingto hil formsfromdlfferenl direclions. olong wiih the leresmojot intothe fronlof lhe hlmerus.lllshelpfuliovlsuolize. Theholtlpne oreofo ls alonglhol line. lhus lending to destroy ihe I unit In rendering mojorforms il solsohelptuio runo I ne down ihe formsto seporoJe the light oleo fiomthe shodoworea.- . nothersuperfrcio tillhe loiiss musdorsi. ond lo\der bock. Short. LJp\rgrd ond lnv. Theupperboderoflhismlscle{E).whlch runs horizontally over lhe deeper icrms of ihe bock oi.symmeir col musc]e origi [Aand B).the le\€l of lhe sxth r b veriebroof ihe bockbone.ThoiwllleslobI shihe diect on of lhe mo\€menl of lighi lo dorkocross ihe flgue. Aciions thal por lcularly depend on ths muscleore rope climbing ond workon a horzonlolbor Thehoh€sof the oiissimus dors ond ihe l -nderlyng rio coge s-ggesl'he shopesot lMr'o lorge \^icfermeons.allhe socrum. To ploce lighl and shodeon suchdominoniforms in Wlr drowing.'ordtoMr'ord the bockbone. posseso!€r iho lowErpofllon of the scopua ond ihusholds ll downon ihe rlb coge Thelroni bofderof the otsslmus dorsl (D extendsdownv. holched lnes(D)ndicoiewhereihe muscle fberc'ofloiisslmus dorslorsefrornihe lendon sheei n the lo\rerbock These linet exlendlrom the higheslpo nl of the pe vls. I showshef cleody in such movemenls os ployng gol swmrning. TNE LAT SS N4US DORSI MUSCTE org n: '. nales oi lhe pe vis and socrum. or elen ic indicoie on ihe paper on orror showing ihe direciion iromwhich lhe lighiiscomng..lhe underlyng e€clor spinoemuscles (C)show cleorly on the surfoce ofthe figlle ln ths drawlng.is justo lhln lendnoussheei. ond the lo^. Lqtssimus do|simokeg ll possible to ow€r lhe rclsedorm ond pu it back wlh fofce.Dorsi lotissimus muscleot lhe bocL s /f.of p! lingono rope.lenob eslhe enllre bodylo be puled upvr'ord ond fonr/ord wh-cr) ihe ormsore in o flxedposlllon.Beneoih thisihln sh6ef.€rportionof the sccpuloos it exlends ollwqrd io lhe ompl.--\ .exiendsup ward overjhe lurnbofregion.ord fforn lh6 ormpll ond clrves oroundio the bock of lhe rb coge. creoilngo beouiiful Ine on ihe fgufe.lhe lowersix poirs of rbs.lust below ls heod Thelowerport on of thisrnuscle. pelvis. choppng wood. ihe iorms that rnoke up the surfoce of lhe back orei iropeziL$ ondthelwo holves of afssimusdors ihishuge. lhere loiisslmls dorsi nseris.

: *. " .. r r rloqr reDlqpuo per'rtg..t ... .. tZ LZ x t6 tZJ"%9 r.lu. /l*::'"'-' .. lOnNdol Sl onls .

ore relotively by lhe externol lhin folher ike o of lhe pevh is represenled cookei ond o€ thereforeinfuenced by oblique(ll.or tres lghls ov/oysoppeor ghterihon theyore.embedded n lhe greol mossof lhe bock pezius muscesA smollrnoss belowlhesplne lseI l€rnemberlhotdark nlhe ghl oi\4oys theyreollyorc.moke lhe ighlsdorkerlhon splnoe [H) ore v]sibleihroughthe lenclon meyoppeorrc you 7!. t #) !{ . lropezius ond lhe underyingsuprospinolus.lhe moss of lhe deltoidmusce l1cu (E). ofihe bock(AJ Theformsoi the bock in ihe spineol ihe scopulois forrnedby ihe ing musclemosses.liismosiimporlonlio noie oppliesfor relecied lighl ln shodow lhe thot ihe infrospnofus inlerockswilh.oppeordorkerlhon frosp notus musc e. ond when working n the dorsi(GJThegreol coumngof lhe ereclor shodoworeos.9*. n. wh ch orepadolly The 1r^o mosses betweenthescopu oe (Bond mosses C) ore lomed by lhe rhomboideus ond lra.69\ 2572 cn) "'f..qndShode withLighl lheBock Modeling Lol dorsi The mossbemuscles lhoi cover sheetoi ihe lalissimLrs T.o finshed drowing ore dep cied by smol in lghtond shode. d recly on the iop borderof lhe lolssmus oppeor lo you. Thesome of lhe scoplo (D) is caused by th-. lie torms of lhe deeper Lrnderlyjng muscles As lhey ore shownon onoiomlcolchodrs. ona modelS Ln ltr sdrowingihe moss obo\€ ihee o€ no lines bockseporot. orqesuperfic I m.lf posses fo lowo simpe rue. t 101/t [19.' 80 .lhe vo ues). The ow€r end of ihe scopuloond the shodelhe bock w be moredynomc and lhe ightoreosol or€rlyng leres mojor form o smoll egg occurole Whenmodeling mokethe dorksLghter ihon they shopedmoss(F)Theie€s major is locoied tour flgurc.i$r.ouuseio onto.J cf ihe bock lolissimus of lhe rbcoge ondlhelop dors ond lro tu€enihe bo1lom Deziis.

!'. i.tFr- !.\ "4t .. .. ) .i' .\ lsq .. . '.)cv€ tHl tQ sltcsfl.

eelo grdleson lhe body. the posierior of the body os whichoppeor on ihe surfcce londmorks ole fat andmorkd mpes.l. lhe lhe posilion of the pevh delermines ihe model is rcsl_ I pose of the figure Lf o\r'ero ng herwelghlon one eg.45 ml . which €sts on iop of lhe heodsol lhe luo hods up Thebocklhghbones.or ilac. or iusedlogeiherio iorm one isnollot bone. cresl(4 Theos socrumCsocred ond lhe sacrum(B). Theonlyporlsof lhe pevislhot o€ vsible on the bock ore ihe pevic.72 t. on lr ongle formo usefuconslruci socrum of ihe pelvs ln ony for clorlyingthe posilion g\€n pose. os t wossomelimes bone ofleredup lo the gods n socriiceby early rnon ll i5 ociuoly fve !€rtebroeihol ho\.lhe lerocl lhe d reci on ol lhe pelvis by tilt ng n lhe opposiledlreclonjthot s.The socrum lfionguor-shoped but cufi€s ouhv]rd (con\€x)from iop lo bol tom. spines (Cond Dl. ond in l|onllhe hvopubc bonesore frmly connectedlo eoch other Thepelvs. These wlh lhe po ntlhatindcoleslhe bofiomof ihe (E).These womenlhan on men becalse therqpcrrton ond pe visorewiderthon the femolesocrum iv/opo nls. or cocc\.lherghi eg jnlhis drowing. 71h 125. ihroughpo nis (C A line TLrnning ond D)wouldindcofe ihe iill of lhe pevis. 1 olfordslhe upper lmbs lreedomoi Thefunclionol ihe pelvc g rd e s stoblily aswellos ocomoion oflhe owerlimbsThe lwo orge ho\es of the pelvs (meonng ''basinl ole limly olloched n bock to the socrum.logeiher ihoseofihe mo e. lhe socrumore lhe four verysmol Eelow of lhe o ihoi remoins bonesthoi represeni toi.or ilcc.On is boseond nd coiing ls widlhore pevic. \doslhe bonel. Thee ore tuvo I ihe shou der qifdleond lhe pevic girdle g rdle s mob lilY Thefuncton of ihe shoulder ghlly lo lhe restof ihe ske' s ollached Only eion.lheBody Boloncing Gidle: Pelvic The sf.lhepelvsisplshed Lrpon lhe rghi sideA sdeond dropsoweron the opposile lhe smollerformsrnustbe correspgfldingy liled To mointain ihe modelis boonce den coLrn shou ogoinslthepu ofgroviv.€osslied. ihotformlhe humon veriebroe The coccll s nol reo y of nteresllo orlsts ihe becoLrse li cur\€s lnder ond betuv€€n lv/o bullocks and does nol oppeor on lhe surfoce of ihe fgure. co ed. 19. ii ihe pevis s w lle h gher on the rght sde.lhe shoulder hgher on ihe eft side C C IDLE IHE PELV SIUDYOF CIASSICALFEN'IA[!FOQM 101h .or l6murs.

-i {t.i! .e8 'Oat6utroq pu q lDr.-'i..:-n -r .tl .

Moximus Gluteus
ond mo/mus[A] ihe orgesl The qutelrs I th clesl musc e of lhe bodv formsihebul lock ll ariseslrom the bockfourlhoflhe i ac m,ondthe cocc)r(Soflre of ils creslihe sccru n sheeis orfoscio,on fberslerminole off bers, lhe th gh; oihers nsed nio lhe bock of the shofi oi ihe femur lusi beow The greoTer (Bl, trochanier of o orge,squoreprojecTion lhe femur ocoied jlsi beow is heod ond neck Dependng on ihe conirocion of exponsonollhe g Lrleomusces oroundii,ihe grealer lrcchoni-.r o ppeors on lhe sudoce of lhe b,ody asa c ndmcrkdepress on or pfoiecpedecly stro ghl lon.Whenlhemode slonds wth weghiequa y dslrbuted on bolh egs, ore eve Howe\€r ihe greaierlrochonlers when the weghi is ploced on one eg, ihe grcoter trocho nierof the sloncl nOeg slhru$ oui ond oppeorsas o proieclonon lhe sur reloxecl eg on The loce Thelrochonleroflhe opposle sde appeors oso depresson ThegluieLrs moxmus s bock ke in shope, bll the foi ihol occursorj Ts ower border solTe.is lhe shapelhereand creoles the g u 1eo loLd(C) Nollcehow MicheLongeo hqs manp'r olecl lne n lhs oreo of lhe drownO io nclcaie lhe unclerpane of lhe q uleLrs wThthe Thigh moxmls ol ilslunclure Theg {rleus lhe f execl, or nroxr'n!sexiencls bent, thsh,thot s,pu s I bdck rlo ne wih the lrlnk More rnporlonl,ii monlons lhe ir for body,whoserrlnk wo!d olherwise posion vlqrdol lhe hip jo nl, n on Lrprght Ars LongbeloreDorw f\ lheoryof evolufon, iolle coled ihe giuleusrnoxinuslhe mosi ng mlscleofmon Dur ngiheevo dhilngLrsh (rionory process ilssze ncreosecl, ond iwos for ihe roiolon of ihe ui rnoleLy responsrbe pevs iroma horzonioio o veriico posiion HerelVchelongelohos ceory inclcoied ihe lbers ol the gllieLrsmcximusinserlng behreenlhe homstr ng moss(Dlatlhe bock exTurnus musc e lEl ofihelhlghondlhevoslus

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CLJTEUS '.1l.ir,,'lLls l\'luscLE

NUOF 1534ond | 545,blaak cholk | fi.42cn) 9t r 7./t 12.1.13 Domo9ed



^Dlc eql lo pr Lll rero Lr.!\oteql p ol|epeqlJopDd reddnpedDqslDq epsnur eq+ eql JoI LrJurns eql reptnoqs lo lrourpuol ssec poloclp! D q ondocs eql irDac lo -orduotworco elc^op eq1 eql L-ll[v\ ]o pue [€J puDfaeu ralnoor+]o 6uleeL! eql l3plnoqs eqt ua€/'veq o qte^ s )cDq eql ]o lvj o csnLU v pelDln sn?edo4a6roleql JouolJoollou-rs -curotpu+s p eio uro pLJo rop noLls lceu I slq+ uI eql 6ut'^olpeu-rospuoq eql 1osuJ. sloeL! eu]DusIJelcsnu soeoq eL.ll q peuroeleq ol qcnursraieql Oulruesqo ploi on uD uolllsod uollco dnsJo o+Lrrjod eqlJouo$olorro'uollou eq1ur elor o sIDd oqo e csnursll.|oj oql uuvFddnoqlp selcsnw .^^op-ep6dn plolep ar$ue eql sle csnur odoq6ul.lolloq !D ol p sepulolo ]t a6uD4 u.ll }o dol eql L!or} eql e(]ljo +l.ll puo'puoq eqt ]o ^poq sLlllo luo4 ul sllslr '.rouJls ueoq soq+oqlLrroloJo pro \roJpeqsnd ql edDLls uoFnleqlolsppo 6u !apo!! Buorls qpolpp et]llol sluno3roqc q^\lep locueqds lnoqs eql lo lu olF)lros puo.Dqeql sre oc puo punoro sdo} pro+opaq+ .{}o ^l^oc poueto eL.sro0uu u 6!e ]U Olo J aqt ]o luo4 ut s puoq aql lo poq eLl{lDL. r/vleql ro luorl u s LUroeroJ ul seu oql leL]touo l oqs6u Morpqq+ lo luo4 €3^ ow oul+ocrpul)o] euo]o !ot+$od !t LUro] uDstourddDfeo leqpuo sdol ep +uetacxe Je o eu] euo !€|o r^oqeclloN llrlol peusl iLLlolDuo eql il^orpoflnculrpsl|]lJo roLlsarol .lclqassocord uo*ra6uu +uaqo s€qLr]oser pDeq o-ss€3ord pocoloJ e+ uorl seslrD Lpapoeq foqs eql olndocseql LlorJs€sllo -oi {.^foelceull]o esn 9oe6uo|el]crn sessodxa '| lo puoLl eql lo uolsod eu€4xe eL.$ eq] pql eq+ +o'.lI eql sdocrl eW puo sd€cp eql lo sessoLu (H)ocsnurplo{ep eql lo xedo serr ueer^leq o(]l (e) sdeq4 aql PUD'(l) sdoqq eql'El 'M snzed04 eql ero plol 6|.ll pueq reoon eul ol ^ oqF eql sesnorqcLl/r\'LrllD p)o.i^olLur oaroj eql 'pueq rc 'xej ol sl soes q eu] io snrpor eql 'LlroercJ eq Jo Uollcoe|11 puor^oqe eql euop sapululrol seuoqeq+Jo lo fd e! olu sdp ueqlsdeclqeql Dnoocs €1.o uopod Fddn 6ql C p pepclpu alD ecsnur eL-ll rpeppourAlnllnoaqsl t3J ]o $equra.rorj 6110 eql DLndocs ses rDpD€Ll l.l+ rolouJsloro+ced punorr e csnuleql $ep nspql sLlJlol lep eq+ qn urroeq+ eslDr o1 6 o eql o+ eql noqs lo oll lo uoqseq+ s{ snraurnq }o 6pls s uotlcunl io vlDqroqo lu oo D lo ]les "+no eql u/r\op puelxe -ul puo qulod aseqlLUo4 pro^u/v\op jo s6q I eq1 o ndocseql ]o eu ds p ol6p eq+ aq] Jo urolloq 6ql puo 'sseoolouo!!ol3D aql oql'at.


oeE \ tz 6z]. I i I t' il t' li:..lt /.t/t6 ".. 1. . .'' .\ rtoqc./ttL s ::.. l.. $ilvd gNlsE qvlo lHl lo lNo dol lc [u. +' * .D/q 9t-tt9.-1:' j: ii !l i i I t I la.

.The Relotionship oftheFoms offheAm tofie scopulo ' " ":t ig 15/ \ ? 140.The exiernol heod [G].the commoniendon (J tiesabovethe poiniofihe elbow(l()lo lhe lnside ofthe point of lhe elbowis the inner owerend.The rnossobove I oi B s rnode up of ihe inlrospnolug muscle ond the ieresminormuscle.of lhe humerus (L).41 \ 22. ond the ong heod of ihe lriceps(t)orea tcteorly seporoTed from lhe lower border of ihe de lold.or con dyle. ihe nterno heod (H).Theseparotion deliod muscleis indlcoiedby o chonge in The direciion of lhe lineol D Doube curves (E and D deine lhe shapeof lhe deto d Inih s beniposiiion of lhe ormlhe forms on The bockondlnsideofihe ormoreVtsib e. Thus lhe shopes of mus clesin lhiso€o wllllorygreolly occordln'g lo ihe poseoi ihe modet.you con notce lhoi ihesefofmsof the upperbockorebulglngn o sioieof conlroc iion.36chl siudyor the Ll ere s onothermogntfcer]t I I fe ofonsh/pbehtu€en the musceson lhe bock oi the orm ond on the scopLrlo lhe smollegg ke mosson the owerend of ihe scopuo is ihe teresmajor muscte(Al. wh ch forms o prom nem iondmark lhe abilly of the scopuoe lo mo!€ on jhe rb coge ]sextensive.Resi ng overlhe lop of the shouder ond receiv ng o lot oi ght isthe lropezius muscle of the tropez us and ihe {Cl.Secouse ofthe bockvcrdposiiion of the orm.

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n th s areo ihere ofe ihree muscles thoi orig. buiwiihsludyloushould be oble lo drowthis complicoiedoreo of lhe fgure wilhoulony dificu1yol o/1. CORACOSRACI]IALS MUSCLE Orqin .lhe third is the coF ocobrocholis muscle.il pu sihe armlo\rsrdthe sde of Aso visbe ln ths drowng s the ntefno heod of ihe triceps(D). the smollmossof ihe ieres mojor(F). Mlcheangelomode mony siudies of ihe foised orm. oncllhemoss ollhe loiissimus dorsi (G). The ftrslrs lhe peclorolismino[ o smallmusc e lhot scovered bythe pecloro s mojorondgenefolydoesfoloppeoron lhe surfoce oi ihe body lhe second s ihe shori heod ol lhe biceps. Theolssimus dorcifofrns the backiop oi the ormpt wh e the peciorolsmolor (H)forms lhe ffonlilop.Muscles The oflheRoised Arm lhe r! ll of on /l n e\ce ent way to obsetue Flort slisin lire dfowinqoflhe fo sedorm.Theleresmojorond ihe oissimus dorsl exlend fromthe bockoflhefigureand pcssn froniof ihe long heod of the fceps io iermi.lhelnnercondye of lhe humerus (E). shopens ghty ditferent Theorigns ond insgriions of ihe muscles inlol\ed in ihe roised orm moy present o chollengeat frsl.tholh. nate n ihe froni01lheshofiof ih€ humerus.Hedd soaso wayof knowing the forms lr1this oreo and how ihey chonge posilions. whichoppeors on lhe nside ofthe ormwhenlhe orm sroisedtiihos lhereiorebeen coled ihe brucfixon mus cle" SmoI and siender il s visibeoiA. noTelrom ihe corocoid processof ihe scopulo.\oy up the shafiof lhe humerus beiween lhe bceps (B)ondthe ong heod of lhe lrlceps (C) The corocobrochios musce is on adduclorof the orm. lt exlendsupuordfromlhe ormptond nserhinio The upperorm oboui hal6.


bones whenyoudfowtheorm.ihe copilu urn.ol the rodlus lol s shoped likeo horzonloldsc.on lhe boltom of ihe humerus.lhe rodius rololes. ond lhe meioco. on wh ch tsp ns Thespinnlng moton oflhe d sccouses the rodiusto roiole oround lhe u natlhe polm oflhe hondisthus lurned downv/ord ond upv/ord through mo!€menis of pronolonond supernol on Theproject on of bone oi P represenh ihe ponl oflhe elbowor olecronon. on lhe thumbsde of lhe foreorm. The hond equos ihe lenglhof lhe foreormless one lfth Themass oilhewrisisiwce aswide os t is ong.butii is mpor.polbones(S). toni lo indicolethe moss or shopelhot lhey creolebetu/een ihe fofeorm ond lhe hond From the iop of ih-. Thelineof the knuckles (Tl mokslhe meelingofihe melacorpolbones ond ihe lirslof lhree sections of phoonges. Thh mporlont junciure is m dv/oy betuveenlhe lop oJ the wrslandihe endsoflhe fngers. Thetop or heod. om lo the ilngers ihe sections of lhe orm become progressve y shorlerond nofiower. Jhe bones of lhe ingels. ond lhe ulna (lvll. the hvobonesofthe foreorm ondlhe musc esoi ihe foreorm lienexl lo one onolhetBLrlin pronoiion. ond supinolon.or ioc ng downwcrd.oreirce os long as lhe wlsi. o\€r 1h6ulna.on ihe liiileJnger sde ond lhe foreorrn musc esore in o pos Tonwheretheyore beginnng lo cross lhem At ihe elbow ihe iop of lhe u no jo nsihe bollom of lhe humerus (N)os o hingejotnt which permls flexlon(bending) ond exlenson (stroighlen ng)oflheforeorm on iheorm. whichfomlhe bodyofihe hond.whlch shollo\red oulon lop This holowed-oui disc fis up ogo nsl o bo l-like shope.and lhe mlscleso so crossTheforeorm then chonges frcm a flot bockke moss to become cylindricolin shope In dempronolion. Thepfoleclon of bone on lhe rodius belowlhe heodoi Q isihe b cipiialiuberos i\/1 1owhichihe i-^ndon ofihe bceps s olloched There oree ghlbones nihewrisi(R) liis noi necessory io drow a I eighl wfhl or carpus. or foc ng upwsrd. The foreorm s ihe englh of lhe upper orm essone-fifih. or crosses. lhe lv!4. When ihe hond s in supinolon.The Muscles ondBones oftheFoleotm N a Thes!eleton orlhe foreofmsdrownhere n I lhe posilion of dernipronoJion lhoi s. Thelengihof y equollo lhe w si ond lhefngersole rough On the onoiomcol orm on lhe lefi o ffol .wrlh lhe pa m of lhe hand iurned holtutqy beh{een pronoton.bones lhe rodus(L).

^^ ]o rosuaFe tDporOlot eql ero sac puo snraurnL] -snur rnoleql puoqpuolslr^\ or.i I u0rO I 'sn por puo rnoj ureql eql !r sepurLr.lllo +sr.^oqle eql e oqo u.r eqf lo rosuqxeroutneql puo rlHjLunrol .luvldol oNV aNw rln v lo srNo€araNlxr v{dv!r dor sr ctus Ml|. oz \ 9r'9zt.rol Joon epourssorll ]o qcol sepsnu] lo puo rarol oLll pro\\u^\op splelxe t3J rosuale eq+ stuoaro.ll /\q oc srolcsnLU F!.r a{]llo losuelxa lolpor loqs eqi u qror apsnL! sLll ssecoidplouoioceql :g)sn6uolslo por puD ro'puoq dol eql Du n oql Joluo-U eq.FeeL+p se+ou 6|lo eql sDu/qoui ulrD oLllJoluo4 aq] uo elcsnul .ttt x .4puoctoure.' ' l]csnn S]V HCW€]HT nI' i:i.*nt rptlc p4 3CtS Olw tNodl ''!Odt dlotnoNstjlt v oNv r. aql ro )poq eq+ uo .l laro luor] eL.\ tNodl t :.Lort 'LUro eq+ epsnur)oloudngOuolaql ) lo elq s srDun Joeps aql ro UoL-ls eql ID srouln droc rosualxe ro -ro oql uo eqFl ero sreproq lorelolqlnq 'soocrq pere o|c]roons aL.llo se.ll olulsuopuel sepu 6fo slo qco4 eqt (C)sdec4 eq+puD s (€)srotqcorq eql uea teq etqBr\ oulpuespro/qur op spuelxepuo snreLunLl M sdoctq eqt Jo (ll a . \.ta.lou urel lo lD d]oorosuelxe eq+ eql Jo jlor. :t Ar\lA )3V€ .li.6lp rcsuayero'$eOuU aq_L'LUrD iedd n eql prcvnol eql Jorosue])(e uolrl stql JoasoJrns +uo4 -uroceql l[e] s orq s[Dlpo]drDarosuolxa ro uroerot eql xeuol soastqaq+qll^ !3ruoc 'puoq puD+slr.

the powerfL{l lendonsof .' .ound whichdefnesils by a bold line. ro loing (cfossngllhe rodluso\er lhe uno. whlch inserlinlo lhe undersde of the wrlst ond hond.emeni of lhe foreorm. Beneoth thesefour supedcio flexols lso deeperflexor musc e. ihe conlour ol the am chonges.lhe llexor digtorumsupefiiciols I s vsibleony where is lendons oppeoron the wflstbehdeen lhetendonsof lhe mo€ superfic ol iexors.ole responsible for bendinglflex ngl the wrsl ond hond fotu'ord. which ierm noles ho fi\oy down ihe ouief is one ol the musces bords of the rodius.The egglke shape of the lpper holf of lhe foleam h coused bylhe fieshytbersofthe esilhe musc ke shopeof lhe lo\irer blockl holf sformedby the iendonsond ihe fu/obones lhe rodus ond u no of ihe foreorm. Becouse lhe muscies become tendinousobout hoif\4oy down lhe foreorm. or fexor corpl ulnors The pronolorteres. ond the llexor of ihe wdsion'iheulno. ore bulin frgure drowing lheseiorms mossed ntolhreegroups lhe llexor muscles as one group Theerensor mlsclesos on olhet ond lhe longsupnoloros o lhkd moss of lhe foreormArnoslolof lhese musces o glnolefrom lhe condyles ol the humerus ond ofioch io the bonesol ihe wrhl ond hond. lhe fexor muscles on the fronl of lhe foreorm.d reclyunderiheflexdidgiiorumsuperf ciols. iowqrdihe fronl ol the foearm.ond Thumb 0ftheFoleorm Ihe Muscles :' . wrlslond hond li controcls. orginoielromihe innercondye of thehumerusondconslsiof fourrnuscleslhe plonolorlerest the ieror of ihe wrsl on ihe rodius. wh ch ploceslhehondpo m down[srd (pro noion) The olher three supericlolfexo6. (B).27 of ihe orm ln Ll ere ore o seresof siudles I ldiihrofl posilions ond direciofs in spoce Theorm o1A s seporaied frcm ihe bockg. q) t 27.k chdlk 1511. form Thereore some fu/enlymuscles n tho foreorm. respons ble for the roioiionolmo\.94 eqd x 11'(21.Deeporsii ond not visibe on the surfoces the llexordgiorumprofundus. or fexor corp rod olisiihe pomors ongus.4 ARM SIUDIES FOR IHFIORD ANGETS ANDSILIO]ES FOR CREAT ONOFADAM INIHE tud ohd blo.

{ rq 'sopsnul q peurol sl LurDarol eql lo ssourp1q.lctq^ (31 eq1e oqo sosrD louratx€ or.k I :urqro slt36nv!dot3l tru ! 6rO :urouo '+eu jo uol+lsod outnplo snlpor eq+ 'ssour puo q Joxeu eql ouln eql o1 ogo eq sl ^+5eroc ooto Joluo4 eql ozllonsl^ u!Fu/\ puo sfltpor eql lo uolltsod aq{ aluop qql 6ut/'orp ol lot eql.ro ^ l!o6p puo r9rllooo eoo dole o H +o seul 'o+LUDero] oql xausdecq eql dteqos|o t/r\ eql snpor aql qo€urepun ssod (g) ssoul pior\dn 6ucql urtodeql q+l^ +t {uo[ou]dns) .ro poe raeol aql uo ssoLlt [ou]s o !ulo. etcsnur cr't! tsq eq .Lr.ubro :UI6UO :!|ol10 €hinrulH1 losllcsnn .oxaggJo ouln eql alq..^o)p u pe p^ut lou /q pa+Dacs ssDLU str.uo reddn eLtlp.ioJ eql puo puoq oql lo 6ul Jo)icDqeql uo soiou6uo rlc|.o uqJs@ a]l s/\oqs I p aood aql Joieluec eql$uto6Dqrorroloutdnseql sntpot pue le/' olaqloN s]losllpuosnFulnqet+p a{ u puor] puo uxo erll .ro 6! /v\olp eql 'qurnq+ oL.1.laql .tl erDAeqloeep ero sepsnur loql sepsnuiearql eL+ oql aseqlasnoc 'uroe.{ 'prol iol pe lnd elo puoqeql sulfl rlcrql 'oulneql ol |ellorod uo + -lsod g) rosu€Uapuo por ssoui snlpor eql uollouold o ol sn eql 6ulplo.ploqcoq pLroq rosueua loouadns eioLu eq+Iq pere/\o3sl puo qFuet rteqllo tsol^ sr^erq qqtod rcsuetxero ls|r\\ eq1pueq rc pueue /€q_Lsnr€urnqeql qurnq el+Jo rcsuaFe eq+ urort osuD'Llloelol loqs eql puo isn6uol JOOlipUOCOUlelXe stcltodropnpqo rc 'qu]nqleql Jo lopnpqo eql ro fcoq eLll uo selcsnL!rcsueue eql 6uol eq+3n6uolslcrod losueye to 'qLUnL+ lrroercJ eq+p eqlp losuetxe 6uote(+:qlunqt eql epredo sessoL! eorot eqt lo s6u.r rolDuold )cDq aql ]o .l qJo)qrc iolouldns sllorpDro 6uo aql .ll e^oqo Lljo€rol elipLro3 L.]/t\ -e€ srebuu to outdsoro '(C)ssour -xeJ o q hopoJ opqno eqlelqFsod oullour'sra6uu eql Joseuoq llorlJs Etqcelo qcrq^\ 'Luroeroteql Jo pjtql la\ ol €r+ uo eql ol prol u/rop pueye sqcsnuJolv eset+ .o qrod re '\ot or.


Sy{lVlONOLSSS V l$ OS nN X q l dol SONV O HN v SIIdV J OS 3 l o t u ! .'/tttuatlpua\Dqcpal9A9A9..'__i*:_:I:' 'r*r ..'* .*: f{' J: . d ...{@96AZt99gzl'/1At.:i-.-..!r.

s formedby mosses. whichpfolecis lhe hond. of the skinco ed w sl brocelels.in lhe r ghlCrossing hand drowng. lllle fingerore the hypolhenor muscles whichcontroi the lilllelinger Onthefronlof theforeorm. -.orelhec€oses. C in the drcwng to the r ght They whgnihe oremosivslble hondond wrisi ore pulledtowardihe frontof lhe foreom. muscie lhe shopeslhoiorcos ol lhe ormossume n posilions foreshorlened ore cleody depicled n ihe lowefdrowingTheseclions of lhe orm poced n shouldb-. w nkes ore formedon ihe po m these nesofe occenilaled by ariisis lo express form. At one tme.on ihe surloc€ iheseforms oppeorosonelorgeiendon (F)Belween theselostlv/oiendons and lhe iefdon ot the long exlensoro depfesslon (Gl called ihe "onatomcalsnutlbox" is apporeniwherithe lhumb s pulledbocku/.befiveenihe ihenarond hypolhenor (D) n the top drowing. visuoized os cylinders fronlol one onolherThe coniour ne usedfor the rightormot H s ocluolyo serles ofsmo .erysmollmusclebul only ihe groups.ismode up ofthe musc esofthe lhumb There orefourof them an odductoror adductorpo icisian obductotor obductorpo lics brevs. men snffed lobocco ffom thls Thekeylo drowinghondswe s o com p ele understond ng of lhe skeleiostructure ond oi ihe n-oshy forms ihol fi t oul.J I Y. o\erloppng nesthot indicotethoi lhe deioid moss {l sin fronloflheupperorm (Jlond lhollhe uppercrm isin fronlof moss the foreorm (K The lell orrn n lhe lowerdrowlngot L is exlremelyforcshorlened.Underlhe (B). the bockofthe hond.o short fexot or flexorpol cis brevs. cun€d. ihe thLrmb On lho ouhldeborderof ihe wdsiore thelv"otendon9 of tho shorloxiensor ond ihe ong abduclorof tho ihumb.Asthe skln on lhe hondfoldsoverlhe Jonls.The Muscles oftheHond otlhe polm ofe1l!omLrscle n n lhe su'foce \rqfoups.islhe tendonof ihe ong extensor of (E).ond o musc e. lhe podding. MUSCLES OF THEHAND ono opposoo e mLrsc es . The oreo on the po m of the hond. where the hond meehihew sf. opponenspo icis. . **!:J 'i.Theseclionsof lhe ormoppeoroso\l3soregglike foms p ocod one in frcntof onolher .Youneed nol leorn e\.ord.the (4 n M che onge ot drowingof thenormoss the handolihetop ofihe poge. orwr nkes. ond extend ng loward lhe ihumb. Themossundef the thumb.which rfakeslhe thumb workln opposilion lo lhe fngers.

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35.SIX CHAPTER LOWER THE LIMB i' i". block chalk 11' t 161/.J o/ ..i ' 4191ch) 127.?s STUDIES ANDSKETCHES FOR ITELAST J]JOGEMENI 1534.94 .

ll soqqrourq 6uxeuJouotpurytolo$tppoeq+ snpaj eL.TLUOC eql 'O O6pele+noeql o+ul I UOpUel 6ql lo Luolloq Eiosll puD leNor]corl le+Der6 eql rDou1nL!e.!|6uO ulqro Lr|6ro s|wo!\ll sdtcu1 rosdtcuqvnolHl I I \ eroluqcnureLuoceq lueulLuord rnuro. u.luoteLl{o{ spue86 I ereq/v\'oet UOLT. sdel ponb oL+pelloJseJsnurrosualan e6roto srL.! eeq eql lo do+ eq+ o+lJler'Jncol sloeddo eul rnoluoc snurelul snlsDo!116u[uese]der uorl pd\el^ ueqrlA olFloo leuulel']l'NoUeq+ plro uopue+ uourLuoc eql to o6pe 16!!leqi olutsl]6sulpuo rnuJsl e|']lrolloqseqlro eps sqso^eql reulleq+uoI sestro E) snure{u q6lqleql ro )icoq eq+LJo e csnur+sr ] eqi qeour ll 6laqj!\ )cDq eq+ ol lolDrooslJnl eq+ ol prJo SllouJq sn+cer punoro eqlro.t6rql oll Jotuo4 eql ulli' lo ssolu q6tqloqlP luotl otll .rop senu&oc uopue+ !o!!L!oc 6ql aeq eq+ lo luorl oql s+colord '€colns xe^uoJo q+r ron6uol4^qonod tr 'otlalod ro 'uopuel q qql pepp€qure ut '(gldoca€Dieqt dnorostr{p sepsnlu eql o o] uouruloc s Llcll/r sloluel soecrrponoeq+ lo uopuel uoururoc orll lo ool eql o+uleeLil puo o selouur. eql Jo uoqsaq+p loo leq -dn qO ql eql ]o ep s+no eq+ eq+ uot sostro I uo papco sl tcj epsnLu snulelxesnFo^aq_L lJ) o q$ eqt]o atcreqnlro'tupdoltFaq eq+ ol lJlol eaui aql ouFsora olutpesul lueuots| ollepd eq so pro.r 'snureye le+no elll snFo eql Jo€ul lno+uoc seop uoql |e e )a\ol o +opuo ilploq eror.+ SJoeqaqlueq^ d q eqlploql lurolpuoces o sessorc ll puo sned eq+ uo dn sr ur6ro eql sf esnooeq ^poq eq1 to lun4 eul ot q6 L.4o eql Jo loFlelxe eLll sltll]ledq3q/n'.|el oql e oqo eclolqp lroL.oql lo pue rei o eq+p seipuoc eql puo 'no peL-lcla4s ao s€psnlueql uot+lsod stL+ urieeq oql lo dol eql tD sedoLts tculstp 'tueq s ieql jo ouos esol sdor|ponb eL. so ecoJlns eorq aql 01relel uegoqspo op pql sqcsnLrj eql uo Llrol i\luenbesuo3slslD lo] eco]rns rolouro lou $ { arcJeleqlpuDe csnL!snureye deep sl 'snlpeurulel snlso^ eql q+Deujepun -ul sruso dnor6 qql ]o elcsnu q+rnol eql oelo eeu)leql oNt Atonporose^rncqqq.{uoleeq eql uedo q6tqieql buLlcv eqll6q+e6o{ lo luorleqt uo sepsnui q0lql eq+uo rDeooo eq+lo gdec|llor.ll'slroual srucer srusDeql'snure+xa eql sepsnu rnol lo dn epoLusl I sroure.ll SnureNl snFo^ aL.ls uroj uopuel s|^edoqljo eups30 llle^ oleq+ eql p uol+rod 6uo4sD sDselDulolo I ssour elppllu eql saldncco M sroLirejsnlcer€ql 'snlpeLUrapl pLro sqso eL.ll '6e le.

whereiiierminates neartheupperparioflhe innefsurfoce of ihe ibo. In that postion the sortorius is cloory conThe sortorils musc foscioo e ond th6tensor lotoeworkogoinsieoch other ihetefsor rololesih-oeg nwsrd. orignoles or onlerorsupeToT ioc spne.s lhe quodrcepson lhe lronlol lhe lhigh ffomlhe odduciormoss on the insdeof ihe ihgh. o\roy fromthe body (lateroy)..ond lhe sododus rololesitoLrluord..{..i cn) aqd t 1th' (212J x 28. ': ..€ lhoi sepo rai. . Theodduclormoss o g natesal the pelvsond terminotes in the innersde of the shoftol lhe femurlhe ower porlionof lhis mosss cov eredby lhe quodrcepsfemorsmlsclesThe odductormosss boundfromobove by lhe iold oflhe groinond lhe obdominolmuscle pu I lhe lh gh bocklo\4ord Theodduclors lhe body fromo poslon of obduclon. . .i " . i s. toword lhe body {medi o y). Thesodoriuss knownos the 'io or's muscle"becouse in the posi lallors soi crcssegged on top of Iorg€\dork tab6s...Thot Move theThigh Muscles The iheuppefporloflhelhgh nnlhe nsideof ry s o lfionqulof-shoped moss[A]. the i oiibol bond couseso s ghi ridge on ihe ouiside of lhe kneeond o \€ryshoilow Oroovg on ihe wsiusexiernus muscle Thesodorusmuscle(9 o so orignaiesoi the anleriorsuperior oc spne.26 . whjch principollyoiihe pelvc po ni (Bl. the outsde of the Crossng kneeloint. l^r'o olherimportontsma Iermuscles onthe lh gh ore lhe lensorfoscioeloloe ond lhe sarlorus.lhe sorlo us s only obouf /o fingers wde.. o longbondol f berson lhe oulside ollheth gh ca led ihe toscioala Ths band posses overand holdsdown the vosius externus. ll exlends down\tord ocfoss ihe insde ofihelhigh ond sweeps orcundlo ihe nnersde otthe knee. of ihe ihgh n o beauiful c!r\.oppears as o smol mass jusi in fronl of lhe greoier irochanier ol ihe femur Jusl below ihe greolerlrochonietlhe musce exlends inlo the oiibol bond (D)...q'::-'. Thetensor foscioelqtoe (C). bul when ihe lensormuscleconlrocls.the bond lerminoles oi lhe ouier condye of the libo Generolly lhe iolblol bond s noivslbleon lhe oLriside ofthelh gh. 1 l I I .-. but ii h lhe longest musceofihe body tspirohdownthe nsld-.When boih muscles acJtogether ihey help lilithe thigh Lrp\eord. n which the ihigh s oMr'oy fromthe body.".

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This seporolion does nol exlsl on mosimodes lJ /o or moremusces ho\.Muscles Homstring The n the bock of the th gh s the homsfing moss. n ls enl rely the homslr ng moss isshcpedverymuchlike o foolbo tsfuncton islo bencl lhe knee. lt olsoshows the sroc is (Fl. howe\€r.whore ihey{orm lhespircmoss known osihe goose foor tcl Becouse lhe homstrngtendonsore !€ry shorl. or ihe heelof lhe schum.wh ch ismode up of threemuscles the bicepslemors. exlendsdownlvordr olonO withthesoriorius ond ihe nnerhamslrins lendon t nsertsnto the inner surloce ofihe tbia ot o po ntltrst be ow the knee Thetendons ofiheselhree mLrscles sweeporoLrnd the insdeoJthe kne6. ond lhe semmembronosus Ths rnoss of flexor musc esorignaies on the bock of lhe pevs.I is dffcul io lfl the thgh when ihe knee s unbenJ.ihe hamstring moss wouldoppeor on lhe backofihe ihighnotosthreemusc es bli os one moss n the rshl-honddrowng nol ce the line(H) runnng \€ri co y downihe cenleroflhehomsft ngs. Thedrowng on lhe efl provdeson exce lenlopporlunlyio observe the sp ro quo t of the sortodus musce (E). I the knee bends.on oddlcior muscleocoled di groc ls(meon' recty beh ndthe sorior us.lhe seporo I on betu/eenthem w / be ind caled by strong inesor shodng.wh ch clelines The nsideconlourot ihe ihgh.A n '.e lhe somefunction. . Try itl n theseonotomco drowngsof the leg.ACK fAOM THE NSIDE ch) 11 '3 [21C4' 20.be' (B)Thenro ten' neolh the g uleusmoximus dons of ihe homslrngmuscesbronch oul ocrosslhe bock ot the knee The nner homstrnstendon (c) crcsses the kneeond nserisnto ihe nsideedge of lhe lbia jusl beow lhe knee Theolier homslaing lendon (D)crosses the outsdeof the kneejoni ond nserls niolhe heodoflhe fbLrlo. he dld nol seeor drowmonyof the musc es ndivduc yl nsleodhe d€w them os mossesln o ile drowng. ihls fex ng the ower eg on lhe thigh. the sepcrotion behleenlhe muscesw noibe ndicoledol c in o drowng or wi be ndicoted ony slghiy by nes or shodng. The ns sendef' ln tatinl orsesfrom ihe ower porloflhe peLvs. M che ongeloco refulydel neoiedihe forms Whendfowng frorn fe. ola point neorihe meelng of ihe lvlo plbc bones Ths musce.32 ihe right-hond drawng. the sem tendinosus. li i\ro or more muscles hovediffe€ntJunctons.\I GHTIEG SIUDIES OF A SIRA T\^/O ANOTNE 8. the homstng tendons ore releosed ond iththen eosyio ro sethe thightowordthe trunk.or posleror femorol musces.

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ethe gLuleus medius musc e (Dl (El oflhe lemurond Ihe grooler lrochonter it ore olsoc eoly dethoi sLrfiound the forms ined.AntE Ot CASC M 15u.J).ol lhelhighto thePelvis Ihe Relofionship I rrthisdrowingyoucon cleoryobse^€the p ol lhe muscLes of lhe lhigh to I reoiionsh Theextenlof lhe musc esol lhe pelvc oreos.the commoniendon(Ll. musce (G) is behind t. (M) FGURESIUDYF lltE B. pen ovetbbckchdtk 10. lho lensorfoscioeloloe (Alfrom ihe pelvc po nl (B)downwsrdond boclolqrd to lhe ouie. Thewstus exlernus (Hlby o moss fromlhe homslring seporoied lhol lhh seresof shortInes 0.Ihe exierno sideoftho lhlgh sc eorlyvisib on the creslof ihe e (Cl resis obliquemusc pe visobo\. ond the g lTeus mox rnedius rnoss blocklike mus lFl formslhe rounded.U \ 71.eil.4" t 6rA [26. Remember defniiionoflormsindicoios cearlyrendered funclions ihotlhesemuscesho\€ seporole lhe fronlof ihe lhgh The ine represenling expo ns ihe anolomyl ond knee beouilulLy (.44cn] Domoged bl donphds . ihe tensorfoscae loloe musce (Al in frontof ihe greoler loms on egglikemoss trochonlei lhe sphericolyshoped gluieus (Dlisobo\. externus femoris ihe \l]sius noieihe rectus ond lhe potelo 10.

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Allhough the knee hosmonycomponenls.exsurfoceembedded lnio lhe orge commori tendon of ihe quodriceps. whichcrosses the iiont of the knee Thepotelo les ln ffonlof the lo\der end of lhe femur ond forms o projeciion on the flont of lhe kneejthe ower border of ths prdecfionis le\€l wlth ihe poni of seporollonbeiween lhe femw ond ihe lbio. Theligomenlof lhe pdte lo (EJ terninotes ot the kneellngpolnl.or kneecop (Dl. ihey ol mokesense joinl in iems of lh funclionos o compound lhe lowerend of ihe femurwidensinb n{o prcjeclions of boner lhe inner condyle (4 ond lhe outercondyle (B).hos okeody been described oso smollroughylriong!or bone wlh o con\. these condles l€sl on the lop or ploifom. fhis diogrom af lhe benl kn6a shows lhe rckrlbnshiqaf the tibla ond tenut ta tha pate a . The knee is one of the oreosof lhe body I whelethe boneisc oseto the surfoce ond y infl si'ong uences ih form. of the tbio (g lhe poiella.or jhe iubercle ofthe iiblo(0 ]heiuberce ofthe iiblo ls on unmstakoble andmark whlch morkslhe lowefboderofthekneejit19c eo y vslblewhenthe eg isviewedln prolle.oftheKnee The Bones "t w'.

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Forms oftheKnee The




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flecouse lhe l,neeiswder in bocl,lhon in l, front. someforms of the boci.of the [nee oreopporenlinthisdrowingoflhe frcntvew Theouler homslring lendon (Al is visibe on ihe oulsideof the knee lhis lendon insefs Thespko moss intotheheodof the libuo (B). lol,whichsmodeupofihemed ol homstring oflhe sortorius ond iendonond the tendons groc ismuscLes, su€epsoroundlhe insde of on ihe shoflol lhe knee, whereil lerminoies lhe lib o Ths spiro mossof lendons cu^,€s down lowordlhe f.oni of lhe eg, wh e lhe outer homsfing €ndon exlends slroght dowa nlothe heodof the nbuloon lhe ouler sideof ih6leg Abo\eond be ow lhe pofelo (D on the frontof the kngeorelhe lol mosses ond E)whlch ore esponsibefor lhe greoi vorioions lhol orlisls encounljgr when drowkneesore ditferenl lng the knee.Eyeryoneb ond ihe fot masses oroundihe poleliocon show!p os smollproject ng foms mosking They o€, ihe rest ofthe onoiomyoflhe kriee. howe\€tnot o grealilcior on th€ benl knee os l-e) €c€oe nlo o hollowc eoled bv 'he oo-or oll_e fecr.'o"o'^e op ol lre'lbo


homsiing iendon oLrier lo ilblo bond potelo goment

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a i o r l l i r x r l c s .a do f TlreibLr.lors|]mol Thefool fhese imo er len.J y lo ih. o c o i e d o n i h e n s d e o i i h e e g .ld sop i l r r f . o c a i e d o n i h e o u T d T h e n n e rs ! r f o c eo f l f e s h a f l c f l h et b o o n d lhe shorp anlerlor cresl cre enirey on ihe The cutue ofihe ibo from ihe boi surfoce. or . s n c eg h l hlifg ihe igure lrom d ilerenl clreclons iends lo breok up the lorms oflhe igure.w h e r c I pa$. l L s ( E )l l i s m | ] s c e o s o o r s . n l h e r o r e o r m .-ary D re. The shofi Lrn.rlh .rpback..rnke.rl lo.-r.ror (Dl.r rs ocoied on lheo{rts.qndMuscles oflheLeg Bones The -": ir'.le s!rfoce ol The knee Ofy ihc uppor and ower ex lrem tes of th-a l b! r ore v s b e on irre sur facc.U 118 .l The eq. o f l t t r r n u 5 ! . l .:r . l ll h c L r p p -h .lo15 n s e n n t o l h e o s t p h a o n g e so f t h e s e c o n d lhrough i h .rTlonouton iir--T. wheri ih. ... se o n d l h e s m o l e rf b ! o . o l l h o l o o l .qs sflro erTenclons llr. iiie Tcl].l ol rtlr rfch rxlir l)ornr oi lic ltrc.t. r"' ..nclonoTTh s ri|]sc e crosses into l.o!lt|.. l h e e x l e r n c. n a fbu o iThe worcl rio eo us comes irom the L a i n i o r " h a n r m e l ' o r " m a l e t : l T h e h .rf.rv o t h ( l s o l l t i eI b r r T t t l .ai div cl.s L rdint.rot D n ihit posi. .L 4 ) t ) .leres tlre m|rsces oT lire . l l o r l n r o r .s fronr l h .edchalk1t 6 31.rLrr ire nonTollhe. iol.ie ofih. wh.. d l e x o r t r r ( r s . 5 lr f c l N l o r n r L T hj j i l .rf. or .' . rhere ore tuo bone5 n ihe o^er leq lhe o r g e ri b a .D. ) l i h { r i t r t ro n . llrc l . i p o r l of Tlre f bLro lhe T. J i ! l o r i o f l l r \ nrrn:u pdjlrs I iurl ol ihlicf kc. r l-h .Ubo sornerrr is The .. rf i t h i o e s A s l s n o m e i m p e s .lor.-. lw r ( )l t i ( l : r .q i o l h e o l h r 1 ! .noflhe knee lA)down loihe proiecion on l h e n s d e o f l h e c n k e k n o v r 'c ns t h e n i e r n o n a e o u s( B l s c e a r y v s b l e T h e p r o j e c l o n o n t h e o l t s d e o f t h e o n k e .l.4s.d (l--rlthe iooi nrv]l. I u + c 5 l h e r eo r e t a o b o n e . l ( ) f J V c r vo r g c o n c i s !i be wheie t cr.rsses lhe troft (n llre ()w..rnke isnrnclon slo b.nq ollcnsor ol The To.Frl.] . t.o! cn. ' s a n T . -i-b o s i h c i r r r .l rnscrls inTollrc lros.or be mod c. creongelodd nol copy iohlng os l ex$ed n nanrrebut creoted h6 own FDHAMA\ ESFORTNE CRUC]F STUD \ A& t 2A96cn) 1511. l l r e ong erlensor oi llre ioes exlends (uncursl these i o e sa n c lh e L Ffs exthefooi Boihibois c1renrcrssed anleror oncl ihe ong exTensor lnto one lorm or the froni ofihe eg isironr the efiironi The ghl n ih s dravr'ing of ihe fgure Youfab ly to clrow n ghl ond slrade greoiy mproveswhenyoLr reo zeilrol ghl os i oppeors on o lgLrre n noiure s noi necessorlylhe besl ol-tl lor drowng Ari$s usuoly d e v s eo s n g e i g h l s o u r c e .Fns. r lfh ..

r ra .: .i !- rLr 0 ro !elo ts6o1€![ {) ell llMot tHi lo sltcsnl/.

r pLrslr olc rorey s.-lor9-^r o f t h . pen ond btd.l ihe exlerno molLeoLrs..i l .l leverirfg tl The short peroneo nLsce.'ss 1'|row up os sep. rg th€l Thel. orses fforn ifre ovr'er The oi Th 5 nusce r.rncc.lruie fttffis onTh. k 1 2 6 1 7/ 1 9 3 / c n ) lne /e9 e. e f r o ml h e f b L o I on ihe ouhde or ihe eq The rorcl PeF fbuof Ceorly o n e o m e a n s p e r l o n si o i l " r e vs b e on ihe ouls de of ihe eg s Tl-teong peronecrmLrsc e. inTolhebdsc ofTlrenrekrt.e ore covejed rry Theten tuf ol ihe of.J formrnq ih--llcncra cy n.rn by tflnq Thehee wh .J wilr The The pe(/re!s brevs ext--n. or ifih rrrer ibre5 of lh s m!s.l fr:]rofeo Togel'.)on oth s m(rsc.A nfhe ihe up r i g h t . of --xiensordSLTorlnl brevs(Cl.-short el1ero oi ihe loes.-prer-6n onler o| the te r.howevei beccLJse clon acrossthe soe of lhe fooT.-ol ih. the eg s I o iT. 1 . n .rieot llcol Vhef..r--5 lfrcse musc.]5 orq peri]nl:].lon th of lhe oho posses oroln..Ji{)f ior nn.rr cg.b(rly s on The l. r f i l w o p e r o n e o m l s c e s a r ..lvil|ro nrrj. .rrlons oflhelen dons ol the nto p.l. Rememberthot the eg oLuays lo.fooTwlh no. or percneus ongus.lDlcreoies o hondsornecurye on ihe fronl of ilre onke.1 on(l slcnder Theyt--f(l io nrosi log--lh. i e c o r o T e .-5 nr. lrowcver.lrowr oj n. w hc h a r s e s i r o m p e r t w o i h r d so i i h e i b u o T h e i e n d o n o TT hs orolno lhe ouiet moleous mlsce posses and exlenos Lrnderond across ihe fool lo ierm nole n ihe base olihe meloiorso oiThe g r e a i l o e l s m o l n f u n c l o n s l o e N T e n dl h e of lhe poih of is ien lool.lri. i l h e oLrls cl.l1. o. wh-^n llic --ni re weighj .smo niossof Th.oerior ThertAofca mLr5c-as .-e q M c h e o n q e ( ) t ) l l .rsr on-. s cleory visbe Th. ferr.rt Th.s ihe fool noje ihai lhe eg shoLrdr]ol os o cLrrveALso o p p e o r i o e n l e ro l l h e i o p o i t r e c r c h o r l h e fooi.rrso The mnld o The l!e lol].h o n c l d r on w g . ne rLrnnnll lsihe I blo s clownlhefronioi lhe eg r.ihrs 'nuscle oso s responsib e ioriLrrnrrgihe so e ouiwrr.vroppnq oro!fil ihc bcrckol lhe exicrfol nro eourr r ths dfowng lh.k chotk 1 A 1 ' .rr shopcolThe ow.ls lbLr o.rrsoof blrl 1 rserTs ol..roneus brevis[B].'roneol n|]sc es \. ihe aciuo meellnQpo ni s allhe bock SIUDESFONIHE SANLE OF CASCNA NIO T GURT 15U.ters rhe ioor o/ rhe boci pod ol /he orch cnd ror or . ol two p-.

lt *:. :uErC :ublro (Dalored 6uo) sntNould lHl r'tcsnNsneNol lltrs0r\ st\34€ lfu snlNculd .].t'-t'.'.r:Fil=:.

lt hoslwo heods.on lhe bock of lhe leg Thepoinlotwhichihefibers ofthe musc ejo n (B) thol l.oy is we I bock of lhe leg lf ihe gostrocnemius de\€loped or In o sloteof controclion. rfomihe upperpodon oi ihe bock ot the libio nsedion: cM€rthongaslrccnem us.€f.oftheCoff Ihe Muscles The colf of lhe leg is rnodeup of hi/omue(4 (the nome I cLes.Theyenoble o person lo putthe enl rewelghtofthebodyon lhe toes. the juncfure ond lendonwll of the mlsc e fibers be cleorly denned. .how€\.lhe dorsum ofihe fooi sdol ned bylhe iendon of lhe extensor of ihe greoi toe (O).the 5olgosels s covorodby tho moIe superfcioL lheAchilles tendon(D)lswlde oi lh upper bofderjlilaperctouordlhe backollho onke and ihen wldensogoln os t nseds intolhe (E) heelbone.ond it inserls the pchilles lendon. ls on ihe higher moleolus ond le\el lhon lhol of the exiernol ln o drcwlng. MUSCLES OFTI]E LOWER LEG o r gn O r gn : underneoih the soslrocnemllrs.ll or glnotes oi lhe upperpodlon of the bockof the tblo ond fbu o ond Inseft intothe Achilles tjendon wellbeow ihe go!' lrocnem us.endon \cr esfrom person lo person downlhe bui usuolly occurs obout holfvi/. In lhis drowingthe iendon of lho tbiols (0 lscleorlyvis onterlor ble on lhe lronioi ihe onkLe.lheinnerholfoflhe gostrocnemlus lson o lo\der le\€lthdn sthe olier holfjlhe Innerholf thefefore Inserls lntothe Achiles tendonon o le\€lslghily owerthon pont of the ollier hoi Theinthe lnsertlon lefno moleolus. The gostrocnemius vsimeonstrog3be ly'l h a bulgingmuscle ble on lhe surfoceof lhe leg.or calconeug Thepow€rlul colf mlscleso€ lhe extengor muscles ofihe fooi. shoudbe so epTesenled ls The soleus lC) (lhenone meons'floifsh') o llot nluscle ihoi esdlecily underthe goslrccnemlus. wh ch orig nole frcm ihe bock of the con dyles nlolhelop of of the€mur.Exceptfor ilsriower fbers.

r9aa | 960r) lrte t itDq.oagl "/tgt AVC lO glt tl3t ll.uauaa ut eiD saataql puD uqsueaa 0 srpal eqt NbL etl ua laBue!\e u seoteq! pua uaxau la ato$ o ut s!laal atl llat eqt ua i\ Lu. )t.otq tz.trdol s]otus .

ond lhe heeloflheloot oreformed by lhe se\. ATRIGHT ANDMOON INENUDE OFSUN NGJOMI] FGURE r'JTEND ANO TNE 9 w t 1 3 1 1 1 2 3 3/1 3 3 6 4 c n ) .Theonkle. ondthelendons of lhe ong exiensor of the toesond olher muscesthat ore ocoledon ihe frontof lhe eg. N THE CREAIION FOR ANANGEL STUDIES ABOVF DANIEI. ' '%.hosony 1wo t" iv: . osnoledeorlier Abole i the oslrogolus restsn the covt formedby lhe lowerendsoflhe iibo (B) ond lhe fibu o (CJnlhiscovt lacls keahnge joinf.". wh ch o owsihe fool lo mo\. lhreecuneforms. lhe orch.Bony Arch The The Fool: Voucon leornogreoideolo boutlhe onolI om/ of lhe fool from studying Micheange 03 drowngs Theformsof ihe fool o€ determined more by skeelal slruclure lhon byo nyotherfociorOnihe dorsum ol lhe fool ihere s only one sma musce. of ihe greolloe.enlorso bones lhe coconeus.the shoriex tensor oftheloes.€ up (flex ionlor down(exiens onl lhe novcuor bone. lhe oslaogalus. the ncviculorbone. wh ch formlhe bodyofihe fool. ihree ond the cubod bone. co con-auslorms the hee (4. I \.ikethe thumb. connecing lhe lorsus 10lhe loes Eochloe hos threepho onges.The cuneiform bones. ond lhe cubod bone form lhe archofthe loot ol D Beyond lhe lorso bonesore ihe i\e meio lcrso bones. exceplf which.

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.eryd fferenlfromlhol of lhe othertoes. The fool h remorf however. Aso.on inihe osi(dsto) ihe fronloflhe leg. O r qn : SIUD ES FOR THE LEGS OFTHE LORD INCREAT ON OFADAMHEAD OFTHE NUDE 1511. Ths h ihe lendon (4 of lhe exlensorof lhe greol loe. whch orises from oboul holfwoyup lhe shoflof lhe fibuloond lermnoigs phoanxoflhegreoiloe..!-. l\/lcheongelo emphosized lhe powertullendon of lhe tbio lsonieriormusc lho onke loinllo e (G)os l crosses i.whose onthe honddlfferc poslion thegreoJloe's fromtholofihef ngers. ot the boseof ihe meioioGo . osfoisd eor loi whch orignalesotihe h6elboneond lorms sdeof o smoIegg-shoped mass onlhe oLtler ihe fool (B).ed chdlkdet blo& cholk prepbollo* \ 7Cf [2953 t 29.. Whenlhe g€ct loe h lified._.or rldge.1. n thisdrawingnoiice thol. downvr'ord ond oulvr'ord whiLe ihe pdne ot the insdeol the fooi op" peofslo drop downobruptyThefuncilon of lhe exiensofof the greol toe h lo extendthe greoiioe by llfilngt up io\dord lhe fronlof the leg The on y muscleon ihedorsum oflhe foolis lhe sho exiensorofthetoeg..69m) 11C3'.or obduciofhol uc s (c) on (dlsfal)end iheforiher of ihe metolarsc bon€ (D)ihoi s an of ihe g€oitoe s o proleciion mporlonl ondmokforihe odlsl Theouiside conlour oJihe fool isdeflned byihe obduclor of ihe tlle ioe. whichiscousedbytheenlorged c oser(prcximoI end oi ihe meiolorsol bone of the tt e toe ln ihh drowng.. loe isnol os mobib oslhe lhumb. o len' downlhe center of lhe don-runnlng stroight loe-is cleory vsibleon ihe dorsum of lhe fool.this muscle h complefely co\eredby the moresupernc ai rruscles ond soh noivis b e.lislendon lsimporlontioorlsls becouse il morks the hlghpoinl..N4lchelongelo hosmode groduoly onep oneoflhe foolseemloslope iowrrd ihe litl e ioe. or obduclordjgitiminim (El and by o second londmorkprcleclion(D..rm nole n ihe nsideborder of the fool. on ihe fool isnot \. :r' OFTl-tE FOOI N4ISCLES Org n oby s mibr io ihe hond.on the dorsum of lhe fooi.ffomlh s fidge. -.unlike posilion lhethumb. Fouflendonsextendffom il ond ioes insed iniothe pho ongosof the ffrslfour poss These iendons underlhe fendons of the long exiensor of ihe toes ond iherefore are fololyvisibeon the foot Theskeletoorch on the innersideof ihe byihe abdLrclor footlsflledoulond sofiened of the greoitoe. ihe greol I lhere ore dfferences.direcily n fronl ol ihe externo molleoLus.Muscles oftheFoot The .

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40. ihe obdomnus rbcoge moss lsheldup by r€cius splnoe irom elec'lor on the lloni ol ihe torso. btlck cholk \ 14'.lhe on lhe fronioflhe lh gh resem iricepsmass blesfhel cepson lhe bock ollhe orm. 25.iding lhe deloils ol mus ci€ mosses ond prcilberonc€s ol bane.porexomp e.cyllndel ihe l ceps muscesos deloih portolly embedded n ond wroppingaroundthelorgel moss bet$€enmon one of ihe g€dldifferences up" ond ihe ofhercnimosisthotmonslonds drowings rghi l isevdent n M cheiangelo3 ihoi he knewvreI thot monyof the muscles hove ihe funclon ol hodng lhe body up ogolnslihe force of glovljy. thol d tierenlfromdrowng lhe orms.69 . ihe knee lolnt h ol the thlgh muscle supported by lhe irlceps (D) (C)ond ihe homslrlng moss .One grolp openslhee bow ond slroighlmuscle lo olgn wllhlhe lpperormj enslhe foreorm openslhe ond the olher group of muscles leg ond olgn il kneelo slroghlenlhe lo\der wlh lhe ihigh muscle exlernus Thef bersof lhe voslus {4 connectlo the commontendon (B) In the forms o projeclion while lhe muscle drowing porlrot€d os o llol oreo Ihe the iendon h t cepsmuscles on lhe fionl ofthe thighho\€ o common furlc'lontlherefore Mcheongelot linesIndcoiing ndivduoL musc es are subilyond ghtydrown t isimpodonlloren_ ond lkemoss deriheth gh aso lofge. ond iho exiernol maxmuspfewnh lhe lhe sldegi ond gLuieus pelvlsfrom foling foMald.Animql Ihe Uprighf Mqn: nfowinglhe egsolthe hlmon flguresnoi l.j Befarao. lhe lhlgh shautdfnn be conceved as a long .[39.nl flGURE SI]JDT FOR IHEBATILE OFCASCIM 1504.yfindtl. os con be s6en In the deto ol lotl.n] 15q3'. muscles on obl qLJe b€hind. And. .

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5 1Ei {2623e' 1553ecn) 130 .CIIAPTER SEI/EN DRAPERY TI]ECRUC F X ON OF 5I PEIFR 3 715 .

ra^ a4 Llf.".nur q6nopio srrpLr bur^rn) tAtr I rqtlo sporaqI aro6u aorpsr+urtu€dorp 6u!qs!lqDlsl ssDW .'i ..t":t: '.'adoro aqt ot surollo.€l... . a. .€qt punorDi quozrrotl dor^ loql (VJsnu A..o|€p lnoqo 6ul qs qoFe slo..ir./sorppuo s Dlap su-lrol aqL lsrLt aqt puoiaq loot po]ire o r'doc^qs^os ol ueqM tuossaceu lou s l lradDrp 6u.: =.^^lo-ern61 irro.^q eql ol Llrrollloc s^D ^ V slsor rapune\11 arnollOULI I ]o )iLJLL-]1 eLlls€)ioltuadorc \13 LtaLro uioleLttlo edoqs iradDrp ot s€rKldooqD..:.lil uai4c .r erolaqssouJ ueq^ e lesqo no^ enl aulos eql 6uL^\orp ra6ro aLll.'v\Drp sarn6.]1 ]o sluro] e5uoq €r+ {no oulq pLro ronasnur'6uorls sasn oeouoeqc r\ san ol arsllfuedDrp Lr€ -6. a.'-.p 6doq9 leqln qr6r l !.r 11 epur aqi ry aro qlrod lloddnt asellal3q^\ oo uroll srapsuo. ...-..'.' 'ornol 3qtlo esodaqt uo DuLpLrad 'slol lDr ep 'Drclsro'lrrr\ T^! oqD Aolr.4'tlt..tsrlFfo aqllloodnsJoslLJ spol dorp13qlrit ^or0lo..


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f. N4ichelongoo schoorsoflen disagree. it. n o studyof the workoi Mlcheongelo.8 | 25 cn) . or geslureThe linesof the iods olA spiro downthe nsideof lhe lhigh much ke ihe sorlor usmusc e underneofh.. :.t.The Geslure or Rhylhm ofFobric on o f gurethot hoso Cince droperyresls lrgesiue or oclon he fobrictoo musf ho\€ o rhyihm.: . my sellh nkthollhls s nol one of Nliche onge ob drowings despileils ollribulion to him The nes do nol hove lhe sureness ond spon ianeiy ot hk oiherworks. ii s nol olwoysceor whch drowingswere ocluoly mode by him ond whlch drowngs ho!€ been lnoccuroleyoliributedlo hm. Also ihe honds. heods.. Nordo lhey deflne lhe underlyngonotomy n lhe unheslolng v"qy lhol ho\.peh ohd ink 14th \ 10 t3). ll IIREEMENIN COIIVERSAT ON 1526. ond feelore rolherweoky porlroled "i i i .e come lo expecl in his skelches.

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tt:'.INCONCLUSION sr \- \..'..i.i: .03 ash nal N n Museun.peh7 r 97h{1773t 25. 't' /54 'u"*r{ . AnaId.. FOOT SOTD]ERS Of HORSEMENAND COMAAI cfr) 15A4.


GTOSSARY Iheljollow.rolomv. a a . h o ris'otterrrsleqLe1ty e^coJnlered qt duc'ljor o musclelhol pullstiM/lry from the mid Ine of the body oclduclor o musclethof pu lslowqrd ihe midline of lhe body condyle o orge bump on o bone cr€sl o rldge on o bone od€nsor c musclethol cousessome port of the body to slrolghlenout llexor o muscleihof cousessome port of the body to bend ins€rllon lhe end poln' of Tusce ottochrren' o gln the flxed polnt of muscleottochhent pondlor a rnusc e thdt lurns the polm of lhe honddownword proluberonce or lube|o6ily o smollbumpon o bone splne o shofprldgeof bone suplnolor o muscle thotilrng ihe polm of lhe hond lpword lemor o muscle lhoi pedorms o ughlenlnq flnctlon .ng in he sfudy ofo.

L-9i|dd racuaoH'[orouon€ ot^tr]crv 'gLNL '9t vzr'rz.EL-Ow'6242 Ed 'gL tt do rprolxo'urnesnnuDeloLurlsv re+uolutpodoS lc €louopDN oesiy\l sepoN 'lt..E r-z .t9-09'.99-t9 '.t9-99 'SV-VV '. 'Llnesnll qq$€ ruopuol ad ' srrcilc s n.wo ecnporoer 01uolsqlLreo qclpuol s eaooe s \eqdeu slq lq uopc 'surnesnu 'e tur. .ozl 'dd '+.19-99'. 'Lor-fit'tt-g€ 'eer-zer'6rr-s 't6-06 18-98'es-28 'rtcrnq3 '601-80t dd rprotxo $ur.rr-or.'901-r0t td :€ouaoH 'EUJfl 'troL '69-89 '.'E-z'. .]c '0t dd recuaroll oso3 1|orDuonS -gel. 'LZ '92-ra 'OZ'dd :rosput/\ tuorqtl 6er-Set Let to^cu '98 iE'eZ ZZ '68-88 '.r-ot.8t '9ffi9'rg-fln' 6L-A L'eL-ZL'9W9'69-8 '68-ge'Qe-ze 'Le-oe 'et-zr '99-29 '9t dd :urauoDH'ulnssnn rede_L't -w 'Ev-zv '&t-gzt'tzriz|ezr-ar' 9t -'rtl 'e0'-z0t 't0r-00t'66-s6 '16-96 'e6-u '.raH puo 'seLrorqll p /lJouen 6ul4\ol urutagzr-vzl'89a9 roJsuo[ce]loc puote elc od rpuoteeo !v lo LLrnesny\l .in€sny\l '96-96 11-9L E A9 00 'qcupua) puo tuuaH r$uc.IV uDllpdo4er! 4q{ aeN lo u.o' eqf o+epDL!I luauropel/v\ouiconjelDie '.

12-13 moe/lbmoe voriaiions.26 30.92-93. musc es of.62.139 drapery130-137 wiih line.19.19.24 Concha.96-97 ond flexon. 38 pocemento132. 84 85 122'125 18.8A-81 toms ol 70 80 81 modelng.98 99 at.128.52. Coli muscles. 100 pointof. 124-127 bonyarch. 8A Colarbone.46. 34 34 Antirogus.62.'131. 96 Coracoidprocess.68. Arms.88-105 bonesot 17. Analom 125 Ankte. 16.21. 124. Nch.98-99 Condy es of bmur 122 Contour drowng.36 mouih. 19 r bato.124-125 leg le olonshlp120 muscles of.56-57.96-97.90.52. 147 118-119.95 58.34 propodons.17.'118-119 Foldof lhe groln. 16 19 underdrapery131 undeiyng structure. Anotom 102 col snutfbox. 34.58 . 132 po nts. 96 Ereclor sp noe.124 Extensor d gitorum longus.89 short heod. 96. 17. 82 iorso. 89.118 Exlernol obique muscle.68 Femur 17. 68 plocemenlmole/femole.62.40 relolonshp to foce. 18. 96 of.82. 30. 68 overlopping.99 movement musces. 14 15 slmplfuing. 120-121 Fingers. 58. 98-99 lowereg. 92 93.17. 89 p ones ond.19. thumb. 122 123 Geomelrc forms. Colconeus. 18.66-67 Focn. 36 Cheekbone.77 Acromion moss ofthlgh.98.musc es.56. 124.62.58 59 Ch n $rop 32 '12.66 Anler Anihe x.94-95 Dep€ssofobi inferor s.92-93 100 lendons.108 109 lhumb. 124.78.122 process. 17.'100-101.115 Composlon.44 Dollvn. 96 exiension 97-99 exiensors.62 Abdominol ingers.38 prcporlionol syslem.89.110-11'l loreorm.95 Bock10.124 125 pit. 92-93.21.108 109 Adduclor grocllh. 34 Condy e ol humerus. 136 slmpting.96 Costshodows. 41 Copilulum. 23 ELbow'17.€. 96 97.68 orign ond lnsedon.41 D giloiions.100 Anolom 46 col soltbox.38 bock.122 123 Coninus. 17. 16. '11.99 Externol molleolus. 100 lneond. 126-127 Foreshofen ng. 102 Form.4a-41 eyes. 126 . heod of.124 Flexor rnuscles. 136 GlobeLo. 118-119. 78 Bicp tal groo\. 42-43 Cron um.'18. ]egs. 60 Gesfxe.68 Eyes. 134 Dtaw)ng. 84 seeHumerus Arm-bone. 10.32. 122.89.95 ArnT Ar$oie.126 um of hiploinl6T Aceiobu Achi esfendon./5.'104 1oal. 60. 123.89-97 scopu o ond.'126 Dropery 130-137 gesture of.100. 89 Corpus.16-27.4'l Chesl. dorsiond.24.19. 104-105 Flexian.94-95 Corocod process of scopuc.'t2.32. 110-111 thigh.29 C. 72 79 50 Bockbone.54 shopes ond. 64.1'18 119. 17 124-121 .71.78 Da'srm. 24 25 fofeorm.66. 123. 38 Glodio us.94 95 orign ond nsettion. 17 .97 Brcch see SlernLrm Breoslbone. Breosls.29.'110-111 bockof €9.99 col drcwn9. 131 Go$rocnemius.131 skeLelol slrlclureond. 89 roised orm.r'96 97. 74. C avtcle.'10 27.12 Eor34 Eorobe. '19 muscles of.82 pe vis.96. 19. loreom. 126 127 Extensors. 96 Bicpiol1rrberosiv olis. 84 Femo e/tvlole lor oiions.40 4l lghl ond shodeon. 52.96. Chor es.124 of supeioriliacsPne. Boonce.17 Corcnod process.118-119.84 Delold muscles.19. t ceps. 104 89.68. 94 95 oclionoti 89 on lomoe.110. 18. support 132.52.72 Enendorl 96. 32 Fdscio. 34.7219. 98-99.58 Cacc\x.122.see Clovicle Commonlendon.90-91 upper 89 Axilo. 38 mlscles ol40-41 nose.75.70 desgn ng.icod cori loge. Egypton 21 ElG€co. 78 loiissimus lengthof.82 socrum. 60.126 Extensor oJlhe greotloe. 68 Buuocks. 82-83 Biceps.64 DofsoLspnes of lhoraciclertebloe. 11 Corccobrochio s.21.104 fnger '104 '126 laat.

.]6|1 '|.t[ 'tg sepsnul 9..92 '.z suoloooro lrL-9r.JO SSOU-I tt lt'D[xDl.aI z0r 3sourroueqlod^H tt euoqpo H €6 Z6 p etlploc 16-96 9t'.\ t€t epoqspuDlqonqu zet t€t ^reoorpr€pun '3oD3qr 0q 'puo paurasqd 6t 89'.t sl)oslDlnc 'lnco slrolnc qro 0t '. 'lu cL^tei od 99 c ^led 6t +serc S[Orol3oi t6 1OU[_r_] '89 lotolu slDroped '68 '.t 'qrotradns rqotrop et tt tt s roln6uoro+oat 60t-90!'.'saf. .tl '89 '.r[-0tr'r8'ssoLu l.02'.tt to sacsnu 'lo sLr.L 89 urnqnuol\ tt'lt'etq puon . '.tt sosrololen 96'.snur JtDr 56el tt'xul]o'l 'L!rD pesor 96 t6 'uofesu puD! olo 8l 81 1o uoll. pro UJlot 'po rnc tg 6tt'z|t'?t lnoluoc '99 '. '8l '.rq'.09'. vt|z aeuyL wZ'WAVL^al 8Zr'rLtblrdn g8 z8 'puo sr^leo g8 z8 1o ecuotDq '9r 'rL'asod 00t'eg z8 99'.tl '9€ 'rz 'tt puD epoqs .sn oellon 6t suoloug\ eton/elo!!el e€s'suolorD etourel/eton lL rqDn 8rr'6t'snpeDurDurelu souDlDlsn€esaqsu 86 26'.91 '.'e3oos poaq ur 0€ LUep to uorrouorc 16 96 urrD '0uruoursod t^ .19-991o 'suolodod tz rcere 06 4 soleqq reloorS tg 6r'8.'z0t suopuel q0.t toluo4-olo 8r'elroqtoldtcao sn!re$esnnbrqo t9 snurLLropqo z! Jo lueLlecoLd t9 lo secsnL! '8e 'ze '00 '3soN tP '. 10 sLUro.zr laot [ +qo qlo |.tuedorp 00.61. 'Fo! anbaoo srotrsdns rqotrotMet |.28 tz rlalJ-rpual 89 elourq uo p ol'. Sot puoqtoquoI 8r lOLe$Od loleluo 6L loUeOnS co tl 6t'8t.SnUJlxOU_r 68'.'a6 69'r8'. 3e csn!! to€uorod tr'uueauued 9Z '..L 9tr-tlt'1o seuoq 9w 9t.rs t0r'zot:lo sopsnul 'L_t16uo 96 96 10 sauoq '96'puoH q0r 20l.8t uouol3ao 96 68 '0t 3 3co .ll.90 '. 0tt looJssooe .sorqeuaroqurnl 6L roqLLlnl 8l'slsorneuodo buot rolouldns eeslolourdns 6tt-8r|.a3ol o+ otqsuolo ar 6Z 'ecDds u uo!+Fod oe 9l'p!o )perJ '62 '6u ssDul z8 opoJ 8e'te'20 serruoei lt 1o saloq zv-6z poeL]' t0.Lt 0[ s]tcDr3 tr. 68 6€t gL'29 .99'.N^da .qbqt 8'.'lt'eutds vg 8t'v9 Lt lsel.eloure] uo 89 !€-og'puoou lspoLu t 9t zt 6z poeu l.s]^ed '.sn 98 89 peursnertS Snqnte 98 t8'.|/ ]o 0tt 0[ Jo uoll3o 6uL4surDH 9r!'.f/ '9e )1ceN t't l|seuoq tosoN 'uoBserdxa sacsnf\ lo |.llai o 96 ^^oqF 96'.t 1o sa3snur tt! otl 36urlsLloL] tzt zzt'aar'prD+oa! €zt zz.. 10lueurooI 9w .9t '0e p 88 t0 1$ 'lo uotlDlor 9t '.92'.0' 001''urrDsroJ t8 09 2coq '0urssol V' Zl ssoN 89'6V'.D 96 V6 '18-08'.9t'.91 tl sr4DutosDrju zL L9 &t1ll 9tt'60|. 5€ol eqllo rosueyobuol 'te 'puo onto 90 o 00. t0.81 '.zt.rZ '.6tt 8 .lutod6u eeu) tz Dta+Dd aesdmeeu) '.lt 'eull 6€l tet '8 '.u or9 99'.29'09 t6 9tt-9t.Dltra.rrol .6t'.t8 08'.r '8e'ze'09'!+nou\ ')poqeq+ 6u spol^ t8 o8 .'t9 puDseuo t8-08 )lcoq eqlouLtepour 'q.o oouoteqcln 8ll 't8 $elnpel olcq 90 ger. 'selcgnn '.a eIDa 9t seuoq oleroi '68 'se! zot | ouddotro o '09 sLrrotouddotre 68 c) .tZ'.82 '.t et-Z.fi'6t'L'.\ 9t'gt'sse:)od plolsol et Lt'epsnurral€ssol.8'it^Dc p|oueo . Fluoqcot reloe€ ttt qat.Zq '. ltlo l 'DqLO O€lll z9 'puo en o 9g 99'puo selod '6! ddotrao ZO.acrnos rL.snreurnH t8 z8 sLrolloroe oLriel/ololu 'puo ecuDtoq e8-28 1t 9t sntei '61.t 0t os/oe6s uoFeEpuo uorsuelxl 'uorsserdxe tt 0t lo IL aL V9 lr luewe/ou-r prro^ etoLu/etDura] 89'.Lo .s3uod z0 urnrutqd gZt-VaL6tt Ll saol vot L6 96 Lt e6r! lL re6uotoqd tzt-02.1t'tuole6uH 'qq6tq6 98 H ttxoH sneuoc 03 eos euoq |eoH te lDuoc oufoaH '.e ou luauJaaoo 89 OlrJate selddN 6' 1O€OrqAlrO^ 91'.29 '.r€.tt sLodrocotan ze 1oluaurecop .L'vg lo ual.'6utA[dL].suo a6 rg .srop snll]rss[o] 9Zt'rt.

lorms n.76 77.66-67 Torsq bones. Ir cepsfemoralis.86 pronolion oi hond.90. 46 Sternomoslod. 18.83 for boonce. 116 107-108.78 108 109. 50. 18.92-95 Thenor mass. seeTbio Shorl exlensor of lhe loes.19. 56 57 t pped.19. 96 97 Uprght pose. ol heod. \brlebrae. es.60. 34 Tropez us.72.104 reolionship 1ofingers.78 scalene musc es ond.107 on. 17.56 ScopLr oi 60. seeQuodrceps Iuberce of lhe libo. 86. 21 of.58 Thoroc c orch.82 83 fromework Skeletol 16-19 Skul.44 \bia.84.124-125 Torsus.96-97 Rodus. T6-77 Tro\.100-101 mo\emeniof. Shope.2o 23 22 23 Reno ssonce. 21.21.82 83 of pelvis Torso. 104 105 mLrscles of.102 Thigh.46. 30. 58 Shouders.46.44 Scoene musc a. 102 Xipho d process.62 Wist.96-97. 24-25 Rhyrhm.75 ng.21 Ternpora is. orign oi lol ssmusdors. Ribcoge.99 rb coge n spoce. oi dropery131.36.62 Thumb. proporions. major62.122 123 Spoce. 110 111 Soriorius. vraotons.34 Stefnum. 134 smp fuing.58 iormsol chesl53-59 formsol 6l overlopping po$eior ot 70 87 prof e ot 86 rb coge.62 o150. 74 75 lrapezius ond.78 vtetgfi .52 seeHomsTr ng moss femorh.34. 115 '116 Reclus femoris. 76 thotaclc.56.19 . 62 corliloge Rimot eat seeHelix 72. 107-108 \bsluslniermedlus.19.80-81.80-81 \tstus exlernus. 14 '15 oulside.8o 81.50.7 4 75.32 Pyramidolis.18.46.t laes.18 lgoment 66 67 Pouporls 12.76 eeclor spinoemusces ond.74 75.76. 56 57 shouldef Trogus.78 Tensor fosce oioe.120 a. 68. 34.64 Serrotus 36 Shodows. \hsiLrs 116 iniernus.99.19. syslems ot 20 23. 18. 74-75 pubis. 84.80-81 Rhombodeus.58.82 84 socrum. orginond inserton. of. 22-23 ssonce Reno 74-75.17 Shou der muscle. Symphyss 19.96-97 movemenl Recius obdominus. moss ng.132 ol fornrs.62 107.80-81.l07. 93 90 orlgn ond inserlon.50.56. 40 Saetrs.122 plocemeni ol 68 Whiiene.92-95 ociionol 90 externoheod ol92-93 nlerno heod ol 92 93.52.118-119 lLrberc e ol '19. 18.30.64 Ribs.02 on egs.56 57 Shou derjo nl.94 ong heod of. oclon ol 108 '108109 ofign ond nserlion.50.62 Zygomol c orch. 128 129 Slond Sternoc e domostoid.l'12-113 reloiionsh Thlghbone. 100 101 Uha.107 ociionol 107-108 common tendon.21.48 69 bonesol 17. Posleror Posler or iLoc spne.17. 1'10-111 movemenl ol 108 109 p lo pelvis.58. 17 . seeFemur Throol46.14-15.52. 100 101 Wistbroceleis.124.80-81.89.86. 115.89 orign ond nserlion.92 94 95 inseriion.erse lendons.132 Shinbone. 115. 62 Tr ceps.40 43 Zygomotclsmolor41 /gomotcusm not 41 .60 Spne ofihe scopuo. 19.14.107-108 org n ond inserl 17.128 \(rue.104-105 Throid codioge. 89.56 57.19.72 34 orign of g uleusmoximus.prof e of lorso.134 mode ng ihe back.108-109 Teres 93. 19 ceNical. knee1obody 21 ol lgr'e.19.84.44 scopu oe ond.78 musces p ocemenlol 74 75 p io orms.76. 18.96.126-127 Shou der blodes.50 52 gkd e.38. 107 113 ironi ot '107 homsir ngsond. 17.9293 rcohonsh splneol l8 onierot 95 Serfo'tus rrognJs. seeScopu o Shou dergirde. 17.21.'18. 72 latssimus dorsiond.21 19. 75 Teres minoi 74 75.41 43 Tencion sheeh. 17.74- 108 Quodiceps.21. 21 Tbiohonterior 118119.58. 78 trmbat. 58 Supnolor 97 99 Suprosp noius. 48 86 onlerior of. 32 locio feollres.126 lt t.60.52 mosslng poslon ng in sPoce.58 Portsol. 107 .23 Pren'r noryskelches.82 83 mole/femole orion ol ereclorspnoe.

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