Grade 9 – Academic Math Study Guide Dan Petrenko, 2012

4.1- Direct Variation
A direct variation is when the independent variable is multiplied/divided by a specific number; the dependent variable is ultimately multiplied/divided by the same number. In direct variation, the ratio of the corresponding values of the two variables does not change. This ratio is called ‘constant of variation’. If y varies directly with x, the equation is in the form of: y=mx where m is the ‘constant of variation’. On a graph, we know two variables have a direct variation when: 1) The points form a straight line 2) The line goes through the origin Ex.) This Scatter Plot shows the pay in dollars Tom receives for each hour he works at Wal-Mart.

Pay ($)
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Pay ($)

Is this a direct variation? Why?

Identify what each variable in the equation (y=mx) stands for relating it to the above scenario:

 

Identify the constant of variation. Using the direct variation equation, Identify Tom’s pay for the 18th hour that he works. (Remember to write a ‘therefore’ statement.)

4.2- Partial Variation
A partial variation is when the independent variable is multiplied/divided by a specific number; the dependent variable is NOT multiplied/divided by the same number. A partial variation is when the two variables relate using a constant of variation (like in direct variation) and an initial value. If y varies with x partially, the equation is in the form of: y=mx+b where m is the constant of variation and b is the initial value (most often called the y-intercept.) On a graph, we know two variables have a partial variation when: 1) The points form a straight line 2) The line DOES NOT go through the origin Definition Direct Variation One variable is the constant multiple of the other one. (m is a constant multiple of x.) (0,0) is an ordered pair. Straight line Line goes through the origin (0,0). y=mx m constant of variation Partial Variation The dependent variable is the sum of a constant number (b) and a constant multiple (m) of the independent variable. (0,b) is an ordered pair. Straight line Line won’t go through the origin y-intercept is (0,b) y=mx+b m constant of variation b initial value/ y-intercept

Table of Values Graphs

Equations

Ex.) Billy Bob sells magazines at a kiosk. He gets paid 6 dollars for the hour that he works and 3 more dollars for each magazine that he sells in the hour. This graph represents his sales for one hour.

Y-Value
20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Y-Value

1. Identify the initial value and the constant of variation for the above graph.

2. Write the equation for the line in the proper ‘partial variation’ standard (y=mx+b.)

4.3- Slope

The steepness of a line segment is measured by its slope. The slope is the ratio of the rise to the run and is often represented by the letter m. The rise is the vertical distance between two points, while the run is the horizontal distance between two points. Rise (Change in y) m= -----Run (Change in x)     A line segment rising from left to right has a positive slope. A line segment falling from left to right has a negative slope. A horizontal line has a zero slope. A vertical line has an undefined slope.

Solving slope to get the coordinates of the line: Graphical Method1. Plot the first point. 2. Use the slope (rise over run)- move up/down on the vertical axis depending on the rise and move left/right on the horizontal axis depending on the run. 3. Identify the coordinates of the second point. 4. Connect the two points to create a line. Numerical Method: 1. Add the run to the x-coordinate 2. Add the rise to the y-coordinate 3. Identify the second point. Ex.) Find the slopes of the lines below. (Remember- your final answer should look like: m=rise/run.)

4.4- Rate of Change
Definition- The change of 1 quantity relative to another Ex) - cost per pound - Km per hour - Cost per gram - Population per year - cm per second - Pay per hour - Cost per liter Ex.) Solve the following question using a rate of change as your units. The average adult breath is about 40 liters of air every 5 minutes. What is the rate of change of volume of air?

The following equation represents the total cost C, in dollars, of hiring a gardener for t hours: C= 25t +15 a) Identify the constant of variation in the above equation.

b) Interpret the constant of variation as a rate of change.

Use the graph below to write your own question involving a constant of variation and rate of change.

4.5- Equation of a line in Slope y-Intercept Form
The equation of the line (EOTL) in slope y-intercept form is written as: y=mx+b where: y dependent variable x independent variable m slope b y-intercept Slope & y-Intercept in an EquationFind the slope (m) bye: looking for the number multiplying the independent variable (coefficient.) Find the y-intercept (b) by: looking for the number that is added or subtracted (constant.) Slope & y-Intercept on a GraphFind slope (m) by:  Finding two points  Drawing a right angle  m= rise / run Find y-Intercept (b) by:  Finding the y-value where the line intersects the y-axis. Ex.) Identify the slopes and y-intercepts: Equation a) y= 2x+5 b) y= ½ x +4 c) y= -3x +15 d) y= 40x -12
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Slope (m)

y-Intercept (b)

e) Slope (m):_______________ y-Intercept (b):________________

4.6- Equation of a line in Standard Form
    The EOTL in Standard Form is written as: Ax+By+C=0 A, B, and C must me integers. A & B are both NOT 0. A is always positive.

Converting Equations in Standard Form to Slope y-Intercept Form: (Isolating y) 1. Subtract Ax and C from both sides. 2. Divide every term by B (y’s coefficient) 3. Simplify. Ex.) Convert these equations to Slope y-Intecept Form: a) 3x+5y+13=0

b) 15x+2y+42=0

c) 20x+3y+12=0

4.7- Graphing Lines & x-Intercepts, y-Intercepts:
A y-intercept is the point where the line crosses the y-axis. Similarly, and x-intercept is the point where the line crosses the x-axis. All y-Intercepts are in the form of (0, b) All x-Intercepts are in the form of (a, 0)  Diagonal Lines have an x and y Intercept.  Horizontal Lines have only a y-Intercept  Vertical Lines have only an x-Intercept. For x-Intercept, y is always zero. For y-intercept, y is always zero. By subbing in x=0 into the equation, you can solve for y, which is the y-intercept of the line. By subbing in y=0 into the equation, you can solve for x, which is the x-intercept of the line.

Ex.) Solve. 1. y = 4x +12 X=0 to find y. Y=0 to find x.

2. y = - ½ x +8 X=0 to find y. Y=0 to find x.

3. Is it possible to graph a line if you are given an x-intercept of 0 and a yintercept of 0? Explain.

4.8- Solving Systems of Equations by Graphing:
To solve a system of equation means finding out where the lines intersect. To solve a system of equation by graphing, you need to graph each of the lines and then state the coordinate/point where they intersect/meet. Ex.) Solve these systems of equations.

4.9- Parallel and Perpendicular Lines:
Parallel lines are lines that are always the same distance apart. They may have different y-intercepts, but ALWAYS have the same slope.

Perpendicular lines are lines that intersect at a right angle. They may have different y-intercepts, but the slopes are ALWAYS negative reciprocals.  The product of the slopes is equal to -1.

Ex.) State whether the following lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. a) y= ¼ x-15 & y= -4x +2 b) y= 32x+4 & y= 23x +4 c) y= ½ x + 20 & y= ½ x + 5 d) y= -2x +13 & y= - ½ x +6

4.10- Finding the EOTL Given a Slope and a Point:
Steps for finding the EOTL: 1. Start with y=mx+b and plug in whatever is already given. (Usually the slope.) 2. Plug in the given point for x and y. 3. Isolate for b. 4. Write the equation of the line, including the found b value. Ex.) Determine the EOTL that has the following conditions. a) Is parallel to y= 4x+7 and goes through (5, -2)

b) Is perpendicular to y= -3x -2 and passes through (-1,4)

c) Has the same slope as 6x +3y-21=0 and passes through (7, -11)

d) Graph the above lines on the grid below and label them a, b, & c.

4.11- Finding the EOTL Given Two Points:
Steps for finding the EOTL: 1. Find the slope using the equation (m= y2-y1/x2-x1) 2. Plug the slope into the equation y=mx+b 3. Plug in the coordinates from any point that is given into y=mx+b (as y and x) 4. Isolate the y-Intercept (b) 5. Plug in value of b into the equation Ex.) Given two points, find the equation of the line. a) (2,3) and (-2,6)

b) (-4,0) and (6,5)

c) (-7, 5) and (4,3)

d) Graph the above lines on the grid below and label them a, b, & c.

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