\

=

.

\

=
=
s
s
y
c
s
y s c
y s u
y s n
n u
d
a
d a
ity compatibil strain
Eqn ab
f
f
A
f A b a f T C
Eqn
a
d f A M
a
d f A M
M M
Assuming 
1
= 0.85,
c
s
a/d
0.005 0.319
0.00785 0.235
0.010 0.196
and choosing a value for c
s
in about the middle of the practical design range,
] 3 [ 235 . 0 , 235 . 0 Eqn d a
d
a
= =
Fill:  =32
o
Unit wt =100 pcf
Natural Soil:  =32
o
allowable bearing pressure =5000psf
w
toe
t
stem
w
heel
H
T
=18 ft
t
f
surcharge =q
s
=400
psf
CE 537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 2 / 8
Substituting Eqn. 2 into Eqn. 1:

.

\



.

\

=
2
85 . 0
'
a
d f ab
f
f
M
y
y
c
u

And substituting Eqn. 3 into the above:
d
d
d f b d
f
f
M
y
y
c
u
883 . 0
2
235 . 0
235 . 0 85 . 0
'

.

\

= 
Inserting the material properties: f'c = 3 ksi and fy = 60 ksi, and b = 12
in
(1footwide
strip of wall, in the direction out of the paper).
2 2
71 . 5 ) 883 . 0 )( 235 . 0 )( 12 ( 3 ) 85 . 0 ( 90 . 0 d M d M
in
k
u
in ksi
u
= =
Equation for area of reinforcement, A
s
. The area of reinforcement required is calculated
from Eqn. 1:
d A M d A d f A M
s
ksi
u
ksi
s y s u
7 . 47 883 . 0 60 90 . 0 883 . 0 = = = 
Design Procedure (after Phil Ferguson, Univ. Texas)
1. Determine H
T
. Usually, the topofwall elevation is determined by the client. The
bottomofwall elevation is determined by foundation conditions. H
T
= 18 feet.
2. Estimate thickness of base. t
f
7% to 10% H
T
(12" minimum)
T
f
= 0.07 (18' x 12"/') = 15.1" use t
f
= 16"
CE 537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 3 / 8
3. Design stem (t
stem
, As
stem
). The stem is a vertical cantilever beam, acted on by the
horizontal earth pressure.
calc. d:
lb ft ft ft
sur a sur
lb ft ft
fill
o
o
a
ft
a fill
psf h q k P
pcf P
k
page of out h h k P
2070 ) 1 )( 67 . 16 )( 400 ( 31 . 0 ) 1 (
4310 ) 1 ( ) 67 . 16 )( 100 )( 31 . 0 (
2
1
31 . 0
) 32 sin( 1
) 32 sin( 1
sin 1
sin 1
) 1 ( ) (
2
1
2
= = =
= =
=
+
=
+
=
=


in in in in
in
stem
in in in in
stem
in
in
k
ft k
in
k
u
ft k
ft
lb
ft
lb
u
fill u
d
t use bars assume t
d d
ft
in
d M
M
h h
P M
5 . 12 5 . 0 2 15
15 ) 8 # ( , 3 . 14 ) 0 . 1 (
2
1
cover 2 8 . 11
8 . 11 , 71 . 5 ) 12 ( 9 . 65
71 . 5
9 . 65 )
2
67 . 16
)( 2070 )( 6 . 1 ( )
3
67 . 16
)( 4310 )( 6 . 1 (
)
2
)( )(P LoadFactor Live ( )
3
)( )( LoadFactor Pressure Earth (
2
2
sur
= =
= = + + =
= =
=
= + =
+ =
w
toe
t
stem
w
heel
h =8
ft
16
in
/12
in/ft
h =16.67
ft
t
f
= 16
in
k
a
h
k
a
q
s
h
CE 537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 4 / 8
calc. A
s
:
in use
bar
in
ft
in
wall of ft
in
bar
in
in bar one of A
in A A
ft
in
d A M
s
s
in
s
ksi ft k
s
ksi
u
6 @ 8 # , 13 . 7 12
33 . 1
79 . 0
79 . 0 8 #
33 . 1 ), 5 . 12 ( 7 . 47 ) 12 ( 9 . 65
7 . 47
2
2
2
2
=
=
= =
=
4. Choose Heel Width, w
heel
Select w
heel
to prevent sliding. Use a key to force sliding
failure to occur in the soil (soiltosoil has higher friction angle than soiltoconcrete).
Neglect soil resistance in front of the
wall.
found stem fill T
o
soil natural
soil natural T
sliding
resist
W W W W
W
F
FS
F
set
+ + =
= =
=
=
= =
=
62 . 0 ) 32 tan( tan
) (tan F
friction) of fficient Force)(coe (Vertical F
sliding for 1.5 Safety of Factor FS
resist
resist


850 200 ) 1 )( 3
12
15
)(
12
16
)( 150 (
2810 ) 1 (
) 12
1
2
15 12
)( 67 . 16 )( 150 (
1670 ) 1 )( )( 67 . 16 )( 100 (
+ = + + =
=
+
=
= =
heel
ft ft
heel found
lb ft
in
ft in in
ft
stem
heel
ft
heel
ft
fill
w plf ft w ft pcf W
pcf W
w
ft
lb
w pcf W
lb lb lb
sliding
lb ft ft
sur
lb ft ft
fill
sur fill sliding
F
psf P
pcf P
P P F
7250 2230 5020
2230 ) 1 )( 18 )( 400 31 . 0 (
5020 ) 1 ( ) 18 )( 100 31 . 0 (
2
1
2
= + =
= =
= =
+ =
18
ft
t
f
= 16
in
15
in
12
in
CE 537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 5 / 8
ft
heel
ft
heel heel
lb lb
lb
heel
lb
heel
lb
w use w w
ft
lb
w
ft
lb
w
ft
lb
5 . 7 , 42 . 7 , 1870 3660
62 . 0
5 . 1
7250
5 . 1
) 62 . 0 ( 850 200 2810 1670
7250
= = + =
(
+ + +
=
5. Check Overturning.
)
2
75 . 11
(
)
2
25 . 1
3 (
3 ), 3
12
15
2
5 . 7
(
2 . 50 ) 9 ( 23 . 2 ) 6 ( 02 . 5
)
2
18
( )
3
18
(
ft
found
ft
ft
stem
ft
toe
ft
ft
fill resist
ft k ft k ft k
over
ft
sur
ft
fill over
W
W
w assume ft W M
M
P P M
+
+ +
= + + =
= + =
+ =
OK FS
M
M
M
M
over
ft k
ft k
over
resist
ft k
resist
ft k ft klf ft k ft ft klf
resist
, 0 . 2 47 . 2
2 . 50
2 . 124
2 . 124
) 875 . 5 )( 85 . 0 5 . 7 20 . 0 ( ) 625 . 3 )( 81 . 2 ( ) 8 )( 5 . 7 67 . 1 (
= > = =
=
+ + + =
6. Check Bearing.
ft k ft k ft k ft k
found
ft
ft
ft
stem
ft
ft
fill over
k k k k
T
found stem fill T
T
v
M
W W W M M
W
W W W W
bL
M
bL
W
toe of end at
= + =
+ + + =
= + + =
+ + =
< + =
9 . 29 ) 25 . 2 ( 81 . 2 ) 125 . 2 ( 53 . 12 2 . 50
) 0 ( ) 875 . 5
2
25 . 1
5 . 7 ( )
2
5 . 7
875 . 5 (
69 . 17 35 . 2 81 . 2 45 . 12
6
L
e if only valid is equation ,
6
2
o
Check that e < L/6:
OK
L
e
L
W
m
e
ft
ft
ft
k
ft k
T
,
6
, 96 . 1
6
75 . 11
6
, 68 . 1
69 . 17
9 . 29
< = = = = =
12.53
k
2.35
k
18
ft
t
f
= 16
in
12
in
3'
15" 7.5'
CE 537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 6 / 8
OK capacity, bearing allowable 0 . 5 80 . 2
) 75 . 11 )( 1 (
6
1
9 . 29
) 75 . 11 )( 1 (
69 . 17
2
= < = + =
ksf ksf
ft ft
ft k
ft ft
k
v
o
7. Heel Design.
Max. load on heel is due to the weight of heel + fill + surcharge as the wall tries to tip over.
Flexure:
sur fill heel
W W W W + + =
ft k
ft klf
u
u
klf
ft ft
ft
L w
M
W
plf
pcf
ft pcf W
= = =
=
+
+
=
0 . 81
2
) 5 . 7 ( 88 . 2
2
88 . 2
) 400 ( 6 . 1
) 1 )( 67 . 16 )( 100 ( 2 . 1
) 1 )(
12
16
)( 150 ( 2 . 1
2 2
flexure for d d
in
k
ft
in
d
in
k
M
in ft k
u
0 . 13 , 71 . 5 ) 12 ( 0 . 81
71 . 5
2
2
= =
=
Shear:
controls shear for d d psi V setV
d psi d b f V
w V
in in lb
c u
in
w c c
k ft klf ft
u u
, 9 . 21 , ) 12 ( 3000 2 ) 75 . 0 ( 600 , 21 ,
) 12 ( 3000 2 ) 75 . 0 ( 2 ) 75 . 0 (
6 . 21 ) 5 . 7 ( 88 . 2 ) 5 . 7 (
'
= = =
= =
= = =


Shear controls the thickness of the heel.
in
heel
24.5 t use ), 8 # ( 4 . 24
2
1
cover 2 9 . 21 = = + + = bar assume in t
in in in
heel
Reinforcement in heel:
" 8 @ 8 # , 83 . 8 ) 12 (
07 . 1
79 . 0
07 . 1 ), 9 . 21 ( 7 . 47 ) 12 ( 0 . 81
7 . 47
2
2
2
use
ft
in
ft
in
bar
in
in A A
ft
in
d A M
in
s
in
s
ksi ft k
s
ksi
u
=
= =
=
7.5
ft
16
in
M
u
w
u
V
u
CE 537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 7 / 8
8. Toe Design.
Earth Pressure at Tip of Toe:
change) neglible b.c. wt foundation recalc not (did , 7 . 32 ) 1 )( 18 )( 4 . 0 ( 6 . 1 ) 35 . 2 81 . 2 53 . 12 ( 2 . 1
) ( 6 . 1 ) ( 2 . 1
6
1
2
k ft ft ksf k k k
u
sur found stem fill u
u u
v
W
W W W W W
bL
M
bL
W
= + + + =
+ + + =
= o
 
ksf ft
ft
ksf ksf
ksf
v
ksf ksf ksf
v
ksf ksf ksf
v
ft ft
ft k
ft ft
k
v
ft k ft k ft k ft k
u
ft
stem
ft
soil over u
B
C
A
M
W W M M
74 . 3 ) 75 . 8 (
75 . 11
82 . 0 74 . 4
82 . 0
82 . 0 96 . 1 78 . 2
74 . 4 96 . 1 78 . 2
) 75 . 11 )( 1 (
6
1
0 . 45
) 75 . 11 )( 1 (
7 . 32
0 . 45 ) 1 ( 81 . 2 ) 125 . 2 ( 53 . 12 2 . 1 ) 2 . 50 ( 6 . 1
) 0 . 1 125 . 2 ( 2 . 1 6 . 1
2
=
+ =
= =
= + =
+ =
= + =
+ =
o
o
o
o
d for flexure:
flexure for d d
in
k
ft
in
d
in
k
M
M
in ft k
u
ft k ft ft ft ksf
ft
ft ft ksf
u
5 . 6 , 71 . 5 ) 12 ( 8 . 19
71 . 5
8 . 19 ) 3
3
2
)( 1 )( 3 )( 00 . 1 (
2
1
)
2
3
)( 1 )( 3 )( 74 . 3 (
2
2
= =
=
= + =
d for shear:
Assume t
heel
= t
toe
= 24.5
in
Critical section for shear occurs at "d" from face of stem, d = 24.5" 3"cover1/2"=21"
controls flexure for d OK V psi V
ft V
ft
u
lb in in
c
k ft ft ksf ksf
u
ksf ft
ft
ksf ksf
ksf
v
tion critical
, , 700 , 20 ) 21 )( 12 ( 3000 2 ) 75 (.
66 . 5 ) 1 )(
12
21
3 )( 32 . 4 74 . 4 (
2
1
32 . 4 )
12
21
75 . 8 (
75 . 11
82 . 0 74 . 4
82 . 0
sec
> = =
= + =
= +
+ =

o
A B C
3' 7.5'
1.25'
CE 537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 8 / 8
Reinforcement in toe:
" 10 @ 4 # . 10 ) 12 (
24 . 0
20 . 0
4 # , , 40 ) 12 (
24 . 0
79 . 0
24 . 0 ), 21 ( 7 . 47 ) 12 ( 8 . 19
7 . 47
2
2
2
2
2
use
ft
in
ft
in
bar
in
say bars smaller try
ft
in
ft
in
bar
in
in A A
ft
in
d A M
in
in
s
in
s
ksi ft k
s
ksi
u
=
=
= =
=