Paris: Capital of the Nineteenth Century

Author(s): Walter Benjamin
Source: Perspecta, Vol. 12 (1969), pp. 163-172
Published by: The MIT Press on behalf of Perspecta.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1566965
Accessed: 30/06/2010 01:04
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the forerunner of the girder. with which the constructional principle entered upon its rule in architecture.' 165 . railway 'The magic columns of these palaces show to the connoisseur on every side. With iron. On both sides of these passages. De ces palais les colonnes magiques A I'amateurmontrentde toutes parts Dans les objets qu'6talent leurs portiques Que I'industrieest rivale des arts. an artificial building material appeared for the first time in the history of architecture. so the master-builders of his time equally little realized the functional nature of iron. The great ladies are out for a stroll. just as later the first railway stations were modelled on chalets.WalterBenjamin Paris:Capitalof the NineteenthCentury 'Paris. began. began to gain ground. the evening is sweet to look upon. and made use of for arcades. Reprinted by permission of the publishers. with which experiments had been made since the end of the 'twenties. Most of the Paris arcade came into being during the decade and a half which followed 1822. the first establishments that kept The waters are blue and the plants pink. The rail was the first iron unit of construction. Nouveaux tableaux de Paris (1828)' The beginnings of construction in iron constituted the second condition for the appearance of the arcades. The first condition for their emergence was the boom in the textile trade. This received its decisive impulse when it turned out that the locomotive. They were the forerunnersof the departmentstores. and the struggles between builder and decorator. Empirewas the style of revolutionaryterrorism. which obtain their light from above. The Empire had seen in this technique a contribution to the renewal of architecture along ancient Greek lines. in I Fourieror the Arcades miniature. there are arrayed the most elegant shops. whose proprietors have joined forces in the venture. Iron was avoided for dwelling-houses. The illustrations by Jean Grandvilleare from the nineteenth century book Un Autre Monde. It went through a development whose tempo accelerated during the course of the century.' 2 'The great poem of display recites its stanzas of colour from the Madeleine to the gate of Saint-Denis. factories in the style of dwelling-houses. Hauptstadtdes XIXJahrhunderts'is published in Illuminationenby Suhrkamp Verlag. in the articles which their portals display.'2The arcades were centres of the luxury-goods trade. exhibition halls. An 'Illustrated Paris Guide' said: 'These arcades. the formal principle of the Hellenic mode' must come into force. 'Construction occupies the role of the sub-conscious. which came originally from the Revolutionary Wars. marble-floored passages through entire blocks of houses. that industryrivalsthe arts. the concept of the engineer.'The arcades were the setting for the first gas-lighting. For long afterwards they remained a point of attraction for foreigners. began to appear. Nguyen-Trong-Hiep:Paris capital of France (1897) large stocks of goods on the premises. a new contrivance of industrial luxury. Ecole Polytechnique and Ecole des Beaux Arts. Contemporaries never tired of admiring them. could only be utilized on iron rails. behind them walk lesser ladies. These master-builders fashioned supports in the style of the Pompeian column.Frankfurtam Main. Translationcourtesy of the New Left Review. The architectural theorist Botticher expressed the general conviction when he said that 'with regard to the art-forms of the new system. for which the State was an end in itself. The magasins de nouveaute.' Nevertheless. Just as Napoleon little realized the functional nature of the State as instrument of the rule of the bourgeois class. indeed a world. one goes for a stroll. are glass-covered. so that such an arcade is a city. copyright 1955. The manner in which they were fitted out displayed Art in the service of the salesman. Itwas the time of which Balzac wrote: 'Le grand poeme de l'etalage chante ses strophes de couleur depuis la Madeleine jusqu'a la porte Saint-Denis.

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These images Chaque 6poque reve la suivante Michelet: Avenir! AvenirP . Their innermost origin lay in the appearance of machines. which have their store-place in the collective unconscious. As a matter of fact. Jean Paul in his Levada is as related to Fourier the pedagogue as Scheerbart in his Glass Architecture is to Fourier the creator of Utopias. The phalanstery was to lead men back into relations in which morality . Preparationfor the dioramas reached its peak just at the moment when the arcades began to appear. Its highly complicated organization resembled machinery.stations . The phalanstery became a city of arcades. with the aspiration ?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~`% 9~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ most recent past. the locus of a perfect imitation of nature. formed of men. In Scheerbart's Glass Architecture (1914) it still appeared in the context of the Utopia. this derived both fromthe amoralityof the marketsociety and from the false moralitymustered to serve it. that Fourier's Utopia had filled with new life. formed in the material of psychology. Its fading brilliance lasted until Zola. and stressed his 'gargantuan concept of man. Contemporary with the dioramas there was a dioramic literature. * * * To the form of the new means of production. In these ideals there also emerges a vigorous 4to break with what is outdated . the rising of the moon. La 3 4 166 'Every epoch dreams its successor. back upon the primal past. These relationships became discernible in the Utopia devised by Fourier.buildings which served transitory purposes. . there correspond images in the collective consciousness in which the new and the old are intermingled. prends garde a toi! A. Their reactionary transformation at Fourier's hands was characteristic: while they originally served social ends. via photography.which means. and in them the collective seeks not only to transfigure. But this fact was not expressed directly in their utopian presentation. defending him from Carl GrOn.the moving-picture and the talking-picture. painting did the same in its turnwith the dioramas. * * * Withconstruction in iron. were primitive analogies based on the machine. Le livre des Cent-et-Un. which to begin with is still dominated by the old (Marx). the primal wish-symbol. The experiences of this society.< f are ideals. . David counselled his pupils to draw from Nature in their dioramas. by means of technical artifice. the architectonic areas in which glass was employed were extended. Fourier had seen the architectonic canon for the phalanstery. Whilethe dioramas strove to produce life-like transformationsin the Nature portrayedin them. which gains its initial 1W0stimulus from the new. In the dream in which every ?* $ epoch sees in images the epoch which is to succeed it. Wiertz: Oeuvres Litteraires (Paris 1870)' had been made to render the dioramas. This machinery. just as he took his leave of the arcades in Therese Raquin. look out for yourself. J. the latter appears coupled with elements of prehistory . the immaturity of the social product and the deficiencies of the social order of production. from permanent buildings to ephemeral fashions. The latter took over Fourier's ideas in his Travail. with him they became dwelling-places. however. ' i fj4f) In the arcades. Fourier established in the narrow formal world of the Empire the highly-coloured idyll of Biedermeier.Marx broke a lance on Fourier's behalf. produced the land of Cockaigne. People sought to copy the changing time of day in the countryside. would become superfluous.' Michelet: Future! Future! .' 'Sun. Le diable a Paris. The imbrications of the passions. the intricate combination of the passions mecanistes with the passion cabaliste.that is to say of a classless society. But the social conditions for its increased utilization as a building material only came into being a hundred years later. These tendencies turn the fantasy. architecture began to outgrow art.' He also turned his attention to Fourier's humour. Les Francais peints par eux-memes. or the rushing of the waterfall. Tireless efforts II Daguerre or the Dioramas Soleil. Simultaneously. interact with the new to give birth to the utopias which leave I t- their traces in a thousand configurations of life. but also to transcend. they foreshadowed.

which determined the subsequent history of photography.wereat the same timethe expressionof a new attitudeto life. de Paris jusqu'en Oui. at least helpedto pavethe wayfor montage.' Inthe same year Wiertzpublished his great article on j:IXXi iH ~Ji| L'f _LIII' photography. O L'Aged'ordoit renaitreavec toutson eclat. _ I ~~~Photography ~limitless i^M_^^i -flA - .' The workers were to the fore as customers.r Thisliteraturewas sociallydioramictoo._ . .|^^|^fl^^ ^l^B ^ ^ ^ The dioramas. as a stage-extra in an idyll. Heprophesiedits scientific applications. for it offered on the market. divin sera dans ta doctrine.or onlyas a pictureforone customer.and . of which the first took place in 1798 on the Champs de Mars.firstlyto emphasizethe colouredelementsof the image.in reaction to photography.- .. Forthe lasttime the workerappeared.quand le le monde de PThe Chine. Andits significancebecame allthe greateras. into which for the time being photography could not follow it.As the scope of communicationsincreased.: '^[.The miniature-portraitists. Inthe dioramas.^^J." said Taine in 1855.~ .the subjectivecontributionto artisticandgraphicinformation was seen to be increasinglyquestionable. Les fleuves roulerontdu the. it renewed its objects by means of modish variations in camera-technique.Inthe same yearhe announced the inventionof the daguerreotype. This was a result of the desire 'to amuse the working-class.lb 1 W '.?"l^ 3^ painting. in a w politicalsense. Dioramas.~iU grandeville belongedto this.whose establishmentwas situatedinthe Arcadeof . Arago presented photography in a speech in the Assembly. the town was transformed into landscape.the informational importanceof paintingdiminished.' .whichnecessitatedthe mostintenseconcentrationon the partof the subject.eventswhichhadpreviouslybeen utilizableeithernotat all.-.. made an attempt to bring the country Bff _l -^H ^i^ . QiS 'I J iS^ whose documentary content corresponded to their painted background.The town-dweller. ' _1 i just as it was later in a subtler way for the flaneurs. He assigned to it its place inthe historyof technicalscience.. : . -The 5 'All Europe has 167 set off to view goods.Thesocial reasonforit layinthe circumstancethatthe firstphotographersbelongedto the avant-gardeand thattheirclientelefor the most partcame fromit..Andinorder to increase sales. The public festival provided it.^ --- . Nadar's leadoverhis professionalcolleagues was demonstratedwhenhe embarked on takingsnapshotsinthe Parissewers.-_a away from his class. du chocolat. and is for the latter a festival of emancipation.paintingcreatedforitselfa broader i'.Whereuponthe artistsbeganto debate its artisticvalue.~'.. if he did not foresee. Thusforthe firsttimediscoveries were requiredof the lens.'1i H M ~~| q __ domain.~ .. --.!s"11 Saf fi i^^L ^^ utilizationof photography.Heunderstoodthisenlightenment. Saint-Simon.In the 1839Daguerre'sdioramawas burneddown.---_-.fromthe middleof the centuryonwards. Chaptal's speech on industry opened this exhibition.As gave wayto Cubism.. They consisted of individualsketches whose anecdotal \ formcorrespondedto the plasticallyarrangedforegroundof the dioramas. Photographyled to the destructionof the greatprofessionalstandingof the Thisdidnot happenpurelyforeconomic reasons. Lesmoutonstoutr6tisbondirontdans la plaine. Daguerre was a pupil of the . <12 technology.as his own paintingsshow.Thelatterbegan. world exhibitions were preceded by national exhibitions of industry. 'L'Europe s'est deplace pour voir des marchandises.^ _^ -Impressionism ll 'igl"'"i ..~^j~~ : ^...figures. Worldexhibitionswere places of pilgrimage to the fetish Commodity. inthe lightof the newtechnicalandsocial reality. l<G^^'^ {i into the town. s K: .diorama-painterPr6vost. in quantities.Descriptionof the dioramasof Pr6vostandof Daguerre.? ll Grandvilleor the WorldExhibitions monde entier. was The earlyphotography artisticallysuperiorto miniature-portraiture. technicalreasonforthis layin the longexposuretime. Etles brochetsau bleunagerontdansla in its turn. which signalled a revolution in the relationship of art to s i! expressed in the course of the century.- -..extended enormously the sphere of the market-society. These books were a preparationfor the belletristiccollectiveworkforwhichGirardincreateda homeinthe 'thirties .. e J :I :' s : T ~TheWorld ~ Exhibitionof 1855was the firstto havea special exhibitcalled 'Photography.. J \1 Iii. in which he assigned to it the philosophical enlightenment of 3' ^.whose politicalsupremacyoverthe countrysidewas frequently v^^^^^^*^*jl^^^jl i /^?% _ * .as the agitational . The framework of the entertainment industry had not yet been formed. with the feuilleton.landscapes. Wiertzcan thusbe designatedas the firstpersonwho.

and the second. In relationto the living it representsthe rightsof the corpse. Baudelaire:Une martyre7 the privatecitizenentereduponthe historicalscene.follows your doctrine. IIneigera du vin.They fantasiestransmittedcommodity-character modernisedit.Theyopened up a phantasmagoria into which people entered in order to be distracted.The Saint-Simonianshad anticipatedthe developmentof the worldeconomy.to thatof 1862.Grandville's ontothe universe. Les arbres produirontdes pommes en compotes Et I'onmoissonnera des cerricks et des bottes. Fetishism.was a pupilof Enfantinandeditorof the Saint-Simonianpaper Globe. Laugleet Vanderbusch: Louis et le SaintSimonien (1832)6 of the earth.and ducks will drop from the sky with a garnish of turnips.andGrandvilleextendedthe swayof fashion over the objects of daily use as much as over the cosmos. the riverswill flow with tea. il pleuvera des poulets.he revealedits nature.The ringof Saturnbecame a cast-ironbalcony.The enthronement of the commodity and the glitterof distraction around it was the secret themeof Grandville'sart. . Inpursuing it to its extremes.Itstands inoppositionto the organic. and chickens like rain.Hepresentedthe latterinthe same spiritinwhichadvertisements -this wordtoo (reclames)came intoexistence at thattime-were beginning to presenttheirwares. VictorHugopublisheda manifestoforthe ParisWorldExhibitionof 1867: 'Tothe Peoples of Europe.Theytook clearshape inthe specialite: underGrandville'spencil.a wayof designatinggoods whichcame intouse around this time in the luxuryindustrytransformedthe whole of Nature into specialities. They yielded to its manipulationswhile savouring their alienation from themselves and from others.Offenbachset the rhythmforParisianlife. fricasseed spinach will spring from the ground. sheep already roast will gambol in the plain. Saint-Simonians.the firstauthorityinthe newfield. repose Comme une renoncule.Itsrefinementsin the representationof dead objects correspondto whatMarxcalls the 'theologicalcapers'of the commodity. UnderLouis-Philippe.Theirpartin industrialandcommercial enterprisesaroundthe middleof the centurywenttogetherwitha helplessness inthose questionswhichconcernedthe proletariat. wine will fall like snow. .Seine. the naturalistToussenal.Theoperettawas the ironicalUtopiaof a lastingdominationof Capital.' 7 'A head 168 rests upon the night-table like a ranunculus. . of 750 members.Thecorrelativeto thiswas the ambivalencebetweenits Utopianandits cynicalelement. O divine Saint-Simon. and buttered pike will swim in the Seine. The entertainment industry made that easier for them by liftingthem to the level of the commodity. The Second Empirewas at the heightof its power.Pariswas confirmedin its positionas the capitalof luxury andof fashion.andthe cultof the commodity recruitsthisto its service. and bales and sheaves will be harvested. the rulingclass made history while it pursued its business 6 'Yes. The literarycounterpartof this graphic Utopia was represented by the books of Fourier'sfollower. The trees will bear stewed apples. Under cover of this.who projectedthe industrialization appropriatedthe idea of worldexhibitions.is its vitalnerve.Fashion prescribed the ritualby which the fetish Commoditywishedto be worshipped.' .The latterwas of directimportanceforMarx's foundation of the InternationalWorkingmen'sAssociation.Thephantasmagoria of capitalistcultureattainedits mostradiant unfurlingin the WorldExhibitionof 1867.'Theirinterestshad been championedearlierand moreunequivocallybythe delegationsof Frenchworkers. then must the Golden Age returnin all its brilliance. Fashion:MrDeath! MrDeath! Leopardi:Dialogue between Fashion and Death Theworldexhibitionserectedthe universeof commodities.butnotthe class-struggle. from Paris as far as China.Theworldexhibitions glorifiedthe exchange-valueof commodities. with chocolate. Avec des cro0tons frits tout au tour concasses.whichsuccumbsto the sex-appealof the inorganic.uponwhichthe inhabitants of Saturn take the air of an evening. Les epinards viendrontau monde fricasses.Heended in madness.of whichthe first had been sent to the LondonWorldExhibitionof 1851. The extensionof the apparatusof democracyby meansof a newelectorallaw coincidedwiththe parliamentary corruptionthatwas organizedbyGuihot. Et du ciel les canards tomberont aux navets. IV Louis-Philippeor the Interior Une tete. with a border of crushed fried bread. Itprostitutes the living body to the organic world.Chevalier.Theycreateda frameworkin whichtheiruse-valuerecededintothe background. when the entire world. sur la table de nuit.

'1.Concrete offered it new possibilities for the creation of plastic forms . it strove to win back these forms ~~~~~ ~for Art. Individualismwas its theory. Je crois. Ornamentwas to such a house what the signature is to a painting.on the basis of his interiority. Through ornament.character by means of his possession of them.fill ~.Itencouraged the construction of railways in order to improve its . ?r-. The de-realized centre of gravity ~created its abode in the private home. ^no intention of adding social preoccupations to his business ones.i W.The criminals of the first detective novels were neither gentlemen nor apaches..\Y'9 IJI^B ?_^^'^^^I^^^bm d was a box inthe world-theatre..as much as his detective stories... Paris for the first time became the subject of lyrical poetry.The transfiguration of the lone soul was its apparent aim. in the flower as .Aroundthistimethe realcentreof gravityof the sphereof existence was displaced to the office. from the place of work.'. It represented the last attempt at a sortie on the part of Artimprisoned by technical advance _i_.!. were devised in abundance.. It mobilized all the reserve forces of interiority. The resident's own traces were also moulded in the interior. The shattering of the interiortook place around the turn of the century in art nouveau. but which was also a better one.BI _H^I..~gaB^^ ^t _ l ^^^^i^^^^^nfi^.\\''""-' task of Sisyphus which consisted of stripping things of their commodity . it was also his casing.. Init he assembled the distant in space and in time.6?-:_ businessman.'i"-!::ll ~': ^ IHI __=ll^ .. With Baudelaire.girder-forms -obsessed art nouveau. His I l ^_ I^ ^^il' -^ '^ ^^^R^t^^ 9 ?.. . becomes allegory.'.. It supported the rule of Louis-Philippe as that of the private <!a^^^^7 'l-. which investigated ~ these traces..to vie B _.. The former constituted itself as the interior. They . ILiving means leaving traces. This poetry is no local folklore.. Withthe July Revolution the bourgeoisie had realized the aims of 1789 (Marx). Fromthis the phantasmagorias of the interior.. for the first time the living-space became distinguished ~.. to bring with it the perfecting of the interior.. . in my soul: the Thing. within her ivory tower. la Chose Leon Deubel: Oeuvres (Paris 1929)8 4 . Itis the gaze of the 8 9 ' believe . ' .. vegetable Nature that confronted the technologically 'lll t:j .. Ibsen's Masterbuildersummed up art nouveau: the attempt of the individual.. :affairs.. a mon ame. in which to be sure people were just as poorly provided ^with what they needed as in the world of everyday.J~H ~ in architecture. Inthe . 8 B1 .The detective story appeared. required of the interiorthat it should maintainhim in his illusions. symbol of the naked. ~armed environment. l.. ~~i~'i. i' ^ ~ w~ l il H~ :.. which drew its nourishment from melancholy.'~{. the allegorist's gaze which Tout pour moi devient allegorie.Z.i '"'^j^ev Vf'^ i. \ creation of his privateenvironment he suppressed them both. V Baudelaireor the Streetsof Paris Baudelaire's genius. .:.-. Baudelaire:LeCygne9 falls upon the city is ratherthe gaze of alienated man. This necessity was all the more pressing since he had .ratherthanuse-value. He made the glorification of things his concern.. these were stressed. With Vandervelde. ttTheinteriorwas not only the privatecitizen's universe. a f "^i"!'^E:1x .. In the interior. according to its ideology. To him fell the ^i .3^ ~Forthe privatecitizen. ..l.Thecollectordreamedthat i l he was in a world which was not only far-off in distance and in time. The Philosophy of Furniture.-i?' -_|MB^^^^^^j^ withtechnicalprogressleads to his downfall. The real significance of art nouveau was not expressed in this ideology. ~ holdings. was an allegorical one.~. Coverings and boxes and casings. traces of everyday objects were moulded.. shows Poe to have been the first physiognomist of the interior.-_> H i.*- The interiorwas the place of refuge of Art.. but in which things were free from the bondage of being useful. 'counting-house was its complement. /1-W.This represented the universe for S ~sprang gI the privatecitizen. The collector was the true inhabitant of the interior.- . But he conferred upon them onlyconnoisseur'svalue.The new elements of construction in iron. The private citizen who in the counting-house took realityinto account.._~ ffound .. in which the *'antimacassars. but middleclass private citizens. 'Everything.0' ^^H^KiBl^l I^Sf. drawing-room Digression on art nouveau. for me.The I..^SUsk '_ their expression in the mediumistic language of line. there appeared the house as expression of the personality. |^^H|{ yrs~~~ W/. And yet the latter appeared.' 169 ..

who withoutexception belonged to Bohemia. whose way of living still played over the growing destitution of men in the great city with a conciliatory gleam. but were already beginning to familiarizethemselves with the market. in the illusion of infinitesimilarity. Neitherof them had yet overwhelmed him. This illusion of novelty is reflected. Its arbiter novarum rerum became the snob.flgneur. there is decidedly a social. Itis the source of the illusion which belongs inalienablyto the images which the collective unconscious engenders. The press organized '0'The road to Hell is easy. Baudelaire's poetry drew its force from the rebellious pathos of this group. levons I'ancre."2The flaneur's last journey: death. 'Aufond de I'inconnupourtrouverdu nouveau. * Facilis descensus Averni. As flaneurs. The flaneur still stood at the margins. That happens here through the ambiguitywhich is peculiar to the social relations and events of this epoch. He sought his asylum in the crowd. Ambiguityis the figurativeappearance of the dialectic. now a room. This standstill is Utopia. which made use of flanerie itself in order to sell goods.its topographical formation.which began to have doubts about its function.' 3 'To the depths of the unknownto find something new. The crowd was the veil from behind which the familiarcity as phantasmagoria beckoned to the flaneur.The CommunistManifesto put an end to its political existence. and the dialectical image therefore a dream-image. And such an image is provided by the whore. To the uncertaintyof their economic position corresponded the uncertaintyof their political function. The commodity clearly provides such an image: as fetish. Its goal: novelty. The department store was the fl&neur'sfinal coup. He achieved his only sexual relationshipwith a whore. The Paris of his poems is a sunken city. Art. As spleen he shatters the ideal (Spleen et Ideal).Yet with Baudelaire. * Le voyage pour connaitre ma geographie Record of a journey. He was for art what the dandy was for fashion. il est temps. And both of these went into the construction of the department store. Inneither of them was he at home. (Paris 1907)" * * * The last poem of the Fleurs du mal: Le Voyage '0 mort.The product of this reflection was the phantasmagoria of the 'historyof civilization'in which the bourgeoisie drankits false consciousness to the dregs. of the great city as of the bourgeois class.the old abandoned bed of the Seine have indeed found in him a mould.they took the form of Bohemia. of which fashion is the tireless agent. old captain. . The most spectacular expression of this was provided by the professional conspirators. in the 'death-loving idyll'of the city. and on occasion the proletariat. In it. Itis the quintessence of false consciousness.'3 Novelty is a qualitywhich does not depend on the use value of the commodity. like one mirrorin another.' 170 . Virgil:Aeneid'? * Itis the unique qualityof Baudelaire's poetry that the images of the Woman and of Death intermingle in a third. to observe it.' 12 '0 death. He took the partof the asocial.but in realityit was already to find a buyer. Theirfirst field of activitywas the army.that of Paris.However. The arcades. in which they still had Maecenases. Inthis intermediary stage. and more submarine than subterranean. so in the 19th century did nouveaute. vieux capitaine.this group saw in the real leaders of the latterits adversary. let us weigh anchor.The modern is a main stress in his poetry. the intelligentsia came into the market-place. and ceased to be 'inseparable du I'utilite' (Baudelaire). it is time. the law of the dialectic at a standstill. provide such an image. which are both house and stars. And the newspapers marched shoulder to shoulder with the magasins de nouveaute.Just as in the 17th century allegory became the canon of dialectical imagery. Earlycontributionsto the physiognomy of the crowd are to be found in Engels and in Poe. who is seller and commodity in one. As they thought.' " 'The journey to discover my geography. was forced to make novelty its highest value.later on it became the petty bourgeoisie. the city was now landscape.sub-stratum. But it is precisely the modern which always conjures up prehistory. The chthonic elements of the city . and modern.

Haussmann's urbanistic ideal was one of views in perspective down long street-vistas.' Baron Haussmann:Confession of a lion who has grown old. The institutions of the worldly and spiritual rule of the bourgeoisie. des grandes choses.and newstreets wereto provide the shortestroutebetweenthe barracksandthe working-classareas. upon which at first a boom developed. To the phantasmagoria of space. Both left out of consideration the social being of man.Louis-Philippehadalreadyintroducedwooden paving.Theybeganto become conscious of the inhumancharacter of the great city. Der Reiz der Landschaft. as far as the Parisians were concerned. The latter encouraged finance capital. Haussmann or the Barricades J'ai le culte du Beau. to ennoble technical exigencies with artistic aims. to those evil men your great Medusa's face amidst red lightning-flashes. set in the frame of the boulevards. Haussmann P intendedto puta stop to it intwoways. Paris experienced a great speculative boom. Engels gave some thought to the technique of barricade fighting. 6 He felt a vocation for his work and stressed the fact in his memoirs. great things.'17 * Fais voir. From this slogan there sprang the conception of the total work of art. The rites with which it was celebrated were the counterpart of the distractions which glorified the commodity. This population kept increasing as a result of his works. The red belt appeared.' ' 'Artist in demolition. It corresponded to the tendency which was noticeable again and again during the 19th century. FranzBohle: Theater-Katechismus's + I . often reached 4 'I worship the Beautiful. he alienated their city from them. They no longer felt at homein it. which drew its inspiration from the bourgeois and Orleanist opposition. en d6jouant la ruse. The real aim of Haussmann's works was the securing of the city against civil war. Meanwhile. which attempted to isolate art against the development of technology. Haussmann attempted to shore up his dictatorship and to place Paris under an emergency regime. were to find their apotheosis.a ces pervers Ta grande face de M6duse Au milieu de rouges 6clairs. They rallied round the banner of L'art pour l'art. It extended across the great boulevards. Haussmann gave himself the name artiste demolisseur.der Architektur Und aller Szenerie-Effekt beruhen Auf dem Gesetz der Perspektive nur.Thebreadthof the streets was to makethe erectionof barricadesimpossible. christenedthe undertaking:'L'embellissement Contemporaries strat6gique. du Bien. to which the gambler dedicated himself. the charm of the countryside. O Republic. Maxime du Camp's monumental work Paris owed its origin to this consciousness. He wished to make the erection of barricades in Paris impossible for all time. The expropriations caused by Haussmann engendered a wave of fraudulent speculation. The Jeremiades d'un Haussmannise gave it the form of a biblical lament. to which the flneur was addicted. Baudelaire gave way to the delusion of Wagner.' h X. Lafargue defined gambling as a-miniature reproduction of the mysteries of the market-situation. the marketof spiritualvalues. J'ai I'amourdu printempsen fleurs: femmes et roses. The Paris quartiers thereby lost their characteristic physiognomy. Baron Haussmann:Confession d'un lion devenu vieux'4 Das Bluthenreichder Dekorationen. the barricades played a role in the February Revolution. boulevards were covered over with tarpaulins. whether it enchants the ear or charms the eye..the Good. De la balle nature inspirantle grand art. It was stronger and safer than ever. beautiful nature inspiringgreat art. Nonetheless. In 1864 he expressed his hatred for the rootless population of the great city in a speech in the Assembly. The increase of rents drove the proletariat into the suburbs. Speculation on the stock-exchange pushed into the background the forms of gambling that had come down from feudal society. O Republique. or Vl '. of architecture and of all sceneryeffects only depend upon the law of perspective. The non-conformists rebelled against the surrender of art to the market.' 'Reveal. Before their completion. I love the spring in flower: women and roses. there corresponded the phantasmagoria of time.' 171 . The judgments of the Court of Cassation.' "7 'Strategic beautification. and unveiled like monuments. increased the financial risk of Haussmannization. 5'The wealth of decoration.Withthe same purpose. by exposing the fraud. Gambling transformed time into a narcotic. Chanson d'ouvriersvers 1850" * The barricade was resurrected anew during the Commune. Qu'ilenchante I'oreilleou charme le regard.Haussmann's efficiency fitted in well with the idealism of Louis Napoleon.

The utilization of dream-elements in waking is the textbook example of dialectical thought. From this epoch spring the arcades and the interiors. Mygood father had been in Paris KarlGutzkow:Letters from Paris (1842). But it was surrealism which first allowed its gaze to roam freely over it.as Hegel already recognized . Everyepoch not only dreams the next.Itshattered the illusion that the task of the proletarianrevolutionwas. and coincided with the philanthropic movement.' The failure of the old working-class insurrections was brought about by the fact that no theory of revolution showed them the way. which masked it and which experienced its most significant development under Napoleon III. and reveals it. but while dreaming impels it towards wakefulness. There followed the reproduction of Nature as photography. Hence dialectical thought is the organ of historical awakening.Under him. there appeared the movement's monumental work: Le Play's Ouvriers europeens. we begin to recognize the monuments of the bourgeoisie as ruinseven before they have crumbled. creative writingbowed to the exigencies of layout. from the Lyons Uprising to the Commune. just as in the 16th century the sciences freed themselves from philosophy.the bourgeoisie had at all times occupied the open one of the class struggle. They are residues of a dream-world. the exhibition-halls and the dioramas. Rimbaudand Courbet declared themselves for the Commune. hand in hand with the bourgeoisie. which reached its peak in the Commune. A start was made by architecture as engineering. The bourgeoisie had never shared this misapprehension. Allthese products were on the point of entering the market as commodities. The development of the forces of production had turned the wish-symbols of the previous century into rubble. Withthe upheaval of the marketeconomy. This illusion dominated the period from 1831 to 1871. and shielded the trenches situated behind it. at times won over to the working class the best elements of the bourgeoisie. As the Communist Manifstoended the epoch of the professional conspirators. 172 .by a ruse. As early as in 1831 it recognized in the Journal des Debats: 'Every manufacturer lives in his factory like the plantation-owner among his slaves. even before the monuments which represented them crumbled. but on the other hand this was also the condition of the immediate power and enthusiasm with which it set about the construction of a new society. The creation of fantasies was preparing to become practical as commercial art. so did the Commune put an end to the phantasmagoria that held sway over the freedom of the proletariat. This enthusiasm.first-storey level. Side by side with the concealed position of philanthropy. Itbears its end withinitself. This development during the 19th century liberated the forms of creation from art. t A J E Balzac was the first to speak of the ruinof the bourgeoisie. to complete the work of 1789. Its struggle against the social rights of the proletariat began right from the great revolution. but in the end led it to defeat at the hands of its worst elements. The burningof Paris was a fitting conclusion to Haussmann's work of destruction. But they still lingered on the threshold. In the feuilleton.

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