Sedimentary

Basins

Sedimentary Basins • Sedimentary basins are the subsiding areas where sediments accumulate to form stratigraphic successions • The tectonic setting is the premier criterion to distinguish different types of sedimentary basins .

either characterized by subduction of an oceanic plate or continental collision • Transtensional basins occur where plates move in a strike-slip fashion relative to each other .Types of sedimentary basins • Extensional basins occur within or between plates and are associated with increased heat flow due to hot mantle plumes • Collisional basins occur where plates collide.

.

It is constructed by sedimentation above an ancient rift.Passive margin • A passive margin is the transition between oceanic and continental crust which is not an active plate margin. • Continental rifting creates new ocean basins. now marked by transitional crust. Eventually the continental rift forms a midoceanic ridge and the locus of extension moves away from the continent-ocean boundary. • The transition between the continental and oceanic crust that was originally created by rifting is known as a passive margin .

o The second stage leads to the formation of an oceanic basin similar to modern Red Sea. .Formation of passive margin There are three main stages of formation of passive margins: o Continental rift is established due to stretching and thinning of the crust and lithosphere by plate movement. The subsiding continental crust undergoes normal faulting as transitional marine conditions are established. Areas with restricted sea water circulation coupled with arid climate create evaporite deposits. Drainage starts flowing towards the passive margin causing sediments to accumulate over it . This is the beginning of the continental crust subsidence. Drainage is usually away from the rift at this stage. o In last stage crustal stretching ceases and transitional crust and lithosphere subsides as a result of cooling and thickening (thermal subsidence).

.

.

and Mackenzie rivers) drain across passive margins. Extensive estuaries are common on mature passive margins. • • • • . Typically they consist of a continental shelf. Ganges. The morphological expression of these features are largely defined by the underlying transitional crust and the sedimentation above it. continental rise. Coastal plains are often dominated by fluvial processes. Yellow. continental slope. and abyssal plain.Morphology • Passive margins consist of both onshore coastal plain and offshore continental shelf-slope-rise triads. Orinoco. Congo. Although there are many kinds of passive margins. Yangtze. Nile. while the continental shelf is dominated by deltaic and longshore current processes. the morphologies of most passive margins are remarkably similar. Passive margins defined by a large fluvial sediment budget and those dominated by coral and other biogenous processes generally have a similar morphology. The great rivers (Amazon.

.

Nature of transitional crust (volcanic and non volcanic). 3. Whether the transitional crust represents a continuous change from normal continental to normal oceanic crust or this includes isolated rifts and stranded continental blocks( simple and complex). . and Sedimentation (carbonate-dominated. or sediment starved) 4. clasticdominated. 2. There are four different perspectives needed to classify passive margins: Map-view formation geometry (rifted.Classification of passive margins • 1. sheared and transtensional).

.

.

Arctic ocean. • They are also found on the east coast of North America and South America. . India. Greenland. in western Euorope and Antartica. and define the entire coast of Africa. • East Asia also contains some passive margins. and western Indian ocean. • Passive margins define the region around the Atlantic ocean.Global distribution • Passive margins are found at every ocean and continent boundary that is marked by a strikeslip fault or subduction zone. and Australia.

.

.

and Western Australia. Productive fields are found in passive margins around the globe. and kerosene all come increasingly from deposits buried beneath passive margins. including the Gulf of Mexico. and noted that continental passive margins account for 31% of giants. • A large proportion of oil and gas are found at passive margins. large sediment and organic flux.Economic Significance • Passive margins are important reservoirs of oil and gas. (2001) examined 592 giant oil fields (which contain proved reserves >500 million barrels of oil or >3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas) and are estimated to contain ~65% of oil. Early continental rifting conditions led to the development of anoxic basins. western Scandinavia. Mann et al. and the preservation of organic matter that led to oil and gas deposits. Mann et al. Basins associated with collision zones and subduction zones are where most of the remaining giant oil fields are found. • Passive margins are petroleum storehouses because these are associated with favorable conditions for accumulation and maturation of organic matter. Continental rifts (which are likely to evolve into passive margins with time) contain another 30% of the world's giant oil fields. diesel oil. Crude oil will form from these deposits. These are the localities in which petroleum resources are most profitable and productive. . (2001) classified 592 giant oil fields into six basin and tectonicsetting categories. Gasoline.

"Shear Margins". Elements of Petroleum Geology. Petroleum Geoscience . Encyclopædia Britannica. J.C Ringenbach. K. www. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.the next wave: Fresh insights into the Petroleum geology of global rift basins". Encyclopædia Britannica. "Deep structures and breakup along volcanic rifted margins: Insights from integrated studies along the outer Vøring Basin (Norway)"..nap. (2nd Edition) . B. Petroleum Geology. The Leading Edge (Society of Exploration Geophysicists) 20 (2): 150–159. Fraser. R .edu/catalog.. S. S. 2007.google.References • • • • • • • • • • "Diapir".php?record_id=1500#toc North. F. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.I. (2007). C. Le Gall (2004).com http://www. 2007 A. Scrutton. USA: American Geophysical Union Gernigon. ed (1982). "Return to rifts . "Petroleum". L. Dynamics of Passive Margins. Selley. Marine and Petroleum Geology 21-3: 363–372 Bird. Planke. Dale (February 2001)..

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful