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lie (hall ftand before kingi. LATELY LIVING Xi» **SrATi^viJo^.. IL y^^j^oit>p^^^rk^^ )m^ HAIiLOWELL ^pnted hy Pitbr Edes. J^ ^ 1*^ •: KLIYOG Seeft ihou a G. fold by the bookfelkrs in the pnncip553 towns of the United .-.^ ^J4e >:^j> KNOWN BY THE NAME X_^^ is. 29* man diligent in bufinefs. and (district op maine) States. Proverbs xxii. Spiritus unos Manila AfironMikon^ I. OF^. SWl^ZERLd^ty ^*^' AN1> 0tu9^9 •M i'^ 1:. tHi: C>^ai^^£^/^^ l/'^^'i RURAL SOCRATES O^ AN ACCOUNT OF A CELEBRATED Philosophical farmer. —— ?er cunilas habitat partes.

He I 115. 'Ji.'U im .

KtijsgP*s eriglfi^ i. II. I. Ill. ilL hift7i The cehhrrJed^^ynrtr to horjcr^ u^fcrih-s l6'J ttfpeclit^g Sedi. Dijcvfjflrjn. Ffffj teftimonifs concerninz him. His agflcuU pare i Seft. Arthur Yomtg's preface to the nmor}. Jxothert Vv. Fragments from the tranfathn: cf tki Rural ^JCfdic^i omiiled i» the body of the ivorki 5 31 VJ. Pajticulars concermvg fhe add -ionil farm cf Kltyogg. Scft« IV. I.l H<rKdrs paid to agricuhure in certain Eaftern countries^ VL 'Smf l>ari'(ul<irs ^^Jpf:^iing Chir.CONTENT PART ^i£i. rartbfr accounts veftifdivg his family* Hii hthnvior at the nvtddin^ of his fccr nd Jon^ 1 2J AV-u.C9 No. til. n. his 1 preference of oxen S^t\. V v! vii y.vfe trgricKiltHrst . III. Another fvagmiJiCt IV. philofa. His fecend marriage^ His laf iilnefs) Z40 J>hyt and family t PART Sp(5h T. liii-v^s cf his htr/handry. Additional particulars in kis charatiet muf^icatcd hy a cotrefpondtKt^ and his patriarchal plan'st andfeniimcKts^ com' 74 . S. I. Mr. jogg gave rfe in she Ri^-^h >' '-' ^ '•->- - %z Si'ft. Pnjeiis for iha ad^anumertt of agriculture^ to nxhich Kli^ iural plaKSi HU enif&nce tfpen hhfarin. il' I'urvietjo at the Helvetic Society b:tn. V\\\\o{oi.Veen Prince Louis Eu^eTtf of iVirtcmber^ and Kh\ ogg.h\c &uel ^on-e^xo particulars in hu ckara^er^ 4s S£(f^. Se^. II.* nj^iih rheir 'infjierst ^j 1 1 St^.J him. Ucxv 'vifis /. ^ffiiie: ^'ffptai?!g hio: .

Though furratned Gouycr. for the exigence or for the nrierits of the fuHjeft of the prefent hiftory. Arthur Young . TchifFelli (rhe chief inftimtor of the celebrated Economical Society of Berne. in proportion as the life of Kliyogg furniilicd the materials. which is Ger. and yet it is as proper for contemplation. andchriftened Jame^. and a /«?/ of the Englifh trannaiionip were reprinted in New-'erfey in America. by calling him Kliog or Klyog. feigned . German Duval and Ludwig. a member of its Council. and lately made Secretary to the Englilh Board of Agricul- ture French publication.uon pu' lilhed under the liircdion of Mr. eame from the clafs of fmall landed proprietors began by being a mechanic . and Klyogg. and fa\y many whj had known him. Dr. as if it had been iavented . for even the faults of Kliyogg arc inftrui^iveo — The only point artificial about Kliyogg is his name. Count Treffan. was by office. wrote in He . in 171^2. who had majority in a Swifs regiment in the pay of France. The famed Livater. procured for it an EnghJ^y drefs .) however ftyie Hiiti Kleinjogg. wiih the notes ftill icraiued in their places. which is ihe language of the largeft portion of Switzerland. As fuch ciiverfiry prevails among his countrymen. The principal of thefe accounts were gradually tranfl.) the feventy n^erobers oi the. THE editor of the prefent memoirs vifited Switzerland nine years af • icr the death of Kliyogg.ius. with the father of rhe tv/o Mirabe. and the feveral hundred members of the Helvetic Society. a native of Bafie . Young. he was by his countrymen called Kleinjogg . adding the preface given in our appendix.. M. atid anriexed it to one of his own works . Arthur Young.i- German — ted into French by a friend of the prefent edicor.PREFACE. as ihofe fometimes arifing under erre- New too Franklin nothing of Shakcfpear and a the Scotch Fergufon.Philofophical Society of Zurich. His accounts were publifl-ied at difTerenr periods. Kliyogg. (the German for James being When writing in French they l>y turns taken from the Latin 'Jacohus. if the fagacious The charafter then here reprefehted is not neous fyftcms of education. a liberty in iavorof fimplicity ought perhaps to have been ufed in the prefent work in Englilh. Klyiogg.^ fince honorably known by his a publications. flruck with the firll part of the ' ' and . and (to hy crowd of others) if the Engiifti Brindley.— Mr. with the rank of LieurenaritColoncI. are additional vouchers to the public. and the If the great . when defcribing him in a foreigt^ language. The Englilh franfl. and Mr. Mr. who firil made known this perfon to the public. fprang frum the loweli clafs of peafants 5 why (hall wc doubt the reality of a Kliyogg ? Unaflifted nature can produce perfonages as extraordinary. Young's own work. h nonainally adopted liere for the pari to which it reb:e«. and occafionally Secretary to its Senate.-nan for Liule James . It required^ . firfl: phyfician to the Republic of Zurich. Hirzel.

) contained thirteen memoirs. prefent compilation offers only one original article. fines he is intere^ed iu it by his zeal for the public benefit alone. and far left digreilive . * * * and produced life. given by — The liberality of Mr. Za- fJch fia Societe de phjjiqne) above referred which took great intereft in common * * < * had for its objedb. finee called Socratic. of hiftorical raafter as the German e<Htion. The amiable author of the French tranflation claims the merit of inventing this title . The work. compilation here ^fFsred to notice. and Dr." fmalleft par- As to the Helvetic Society. a new rranflation would have been more fa.) that the work even to ticulars. Young alfo will not allow him to complain of the reform macle in the Englilb trar:{lation . Hirzel confirms his pretenfians. befides a but it is as full . his perfonal feelings. The editor indeed has fome where feen the appellation in Vcltaire. and not by their refped^ive authors. Dr. proper to Rate here. and cercainly more eafy but the couviciion of this occurred fensr late. artid V has received. but the differences are made fufficienily diftinguiGiablc. It may be . it will be the courfe of the following pages. but this author probably only borrowed it allofivcly trom the French tranflation.i Interefling views of the life and ccsverfauon oi Socrates lo be foar. and medicine.PREFACE. its application to * Its firft romathematics. tisfaffiory. which appeared s? Angular to his cotemporaries as were his doLirines. laooe (fays the Swifs author of our French tranflation. was founded in the moft perfect truth. of which feven regarded agriculture foleiy. The notes tion . I can teftify (adds the writer who lived within twenty leagues of Zurich. fince he was the mafter of Plato. have bten purfuant to a fpecial authority for the purpcfe. natural hiliory. of an too internriixture Yet fince marr faults hav® and fome have even been introduced in confeqoenr« of ftyles . natural philofophy. ftill fceen left in it. and twice as extenfi^^e in ifs effiutial parts as the — It has obtained thefe advant-iges by the privilege of rejeding or feledling from each at pleafure. that the Philofophical Society of to. The liberties taken uith the German and Frencii works. profeffes not to be an original It exhibits therefore (different fpealiers. fLeSoerate Rujliqt/e^) by which Kliyogg has been characfierized. Socrates^ the antlenf Greek philofopher. whofe difclples in the church of Chrift have been numerous and important. Kliyogg — excellent efFefti. was criginaJty a ^atuary \ yet he improved the Athenians in their ideas of mor^Ury and divinity.i — . and at different periods. He may even be confidereJ as having it^fiuenced the faith of rrany Chritir-ians. A number of the clergy recommended its it from the * * * pulpit to their congregation?. it is con titter ably more cotrplete alfo ihan the French ediEngilih. Socrates pcfTesTed aifo « mode of inculcating his precept?.-— Among the varioa. made fufHciently mcHiO'rxjble ir* Something mufl: now b^ faid refpe^ingthe title of the Rural Soerafe*. Hirzel's firft account of Kliyogg formed one of thefe articles . corre^ions in every line.

as he which fome of thea) delivered down to us .eai thcfc. but it tovok to imprint deeply \\\ the hearts ot hi'. Law. as * fs:c. by (he'AJng that I:c pradifed vvliat he taught. wi. Hccraut lays cut all his time in going about to admoniOiand reform hh counfiyiaen . that he would * continue this eoaife. < Inftead cf ufing or permitting any ether means to avoid his death. beat* ing ail the injuiiea and defpifing theaitront?.ity. and declares * that he ir.' Such left He and fercr. and mai:e his charaftcr more unex* ccprionablc. none oi his philofophy in writing.1 * * ' has often bicen coTiparetl to Chrifi^ confiticred as a kinti of /j»^* of him to ihe heathen . were protligiuui*.. difLOurfes on what occurs there 5 * tn^jking ule of ^\try place. arsJ occaGon. and proceeds * ordy (b ht in his o vn defence. for their hensfit. beca^ifc it was become * ieceir^ry for the world inftruments thereof with the 4 and meets the * ' 1 * orm'. which lie siTures ihcm * was a miniflry enjoinedXAa^hy the Deity. ther.. He choofes a Hate of poverty .— ^''^e? has omitted mention. indeed.illiop) among the Greeks^ w ho a.vi r tl'C K E F A C E- among * jninds. !i< ity.(lru6tionsj and exatnples. (though in a manner very different from that fiao. Itund vp to n.ovi perfcvveie i the farvje couyfe. to exetcife and in* culcate his philofophy. on all occafions .} and. and took hi:f poifon <n)iib caltn'ifj'sy 'ij^ithQut re^Mmg h\^ ferjniiton far the ifjutj d&ne /* . to clear himfelf * fiom all Aifpiciou of pri^'ate inferefr.oith this auth'j/s Theory Religion.i. and Hii^ proptiety. * he infoi. ihnt Socratts rt-jt^ed an cpparlunity ef ejcaping ftcm prijon . th?t \)\zy ought not to av5rrjit of any fuch application . " Sec ihe rrfl^rtlons on of tije iilt' atid thaTa«ner of bi/?Jop Chiiit. than the following modetna. He pcrfsveres in filling and examining them. ^nd reafon. thcai. he? * HgniHes that it was free and voluntary in him. bifliop of Carhfle.Tis their reafon. to whom he * furpofcs \X\\jXt\\ gyvtn ot/. ar. even when he dearly forefawr * that the iofs of hJs lift v^oold certainly attend it : nay. in fiith bad times.j (fays ihe l. had upon theiin.d gcrjcraily grounds hi'. He conftaatly reforts to places of public * concoijrfe.r.! fceiag a great rereiubbncc bstvt-een them ia fome rerrarkable particula/s. and on a raoft ma* Itcious piof'. <lifciples . ihe cfteds which his io. as would be juft fufficient to aflert his * inr^ocence and (hew thitn the greatyfa of perfecuting and opprclling it. beJore h'j had done them any confikralle fcrvice. to which he was continual« ]y expofed on that accour. * he proves to.d of having rccourfe to * the ufua! wp!y cf fuppijcation. When " merely out o^ cni->j he h delivered np to Vh eiieroies. in oidei to dctfft their ignorance and * prefurr^piion and to morjjf/ thgir pride. and appeals to their confcience .'Kt by Go<i : with tlie uinioft fiffanefs. and applying to the pafilons ol his judges .il calnrjncfs ' ^ frilui ' * * * good care. iRiie?. mud have preripiiated hi3 . There was a vvoudrous u^a. pcihaps none will appear more ftiiking (o ferioas by ihe refpdtable Pr. decHnas poils of authority * amongft ti'.h which the gofpels are recotded .!cut!On brought to his trial . He avoiils * fTjeddling H'iiii the aftai rs oi the public. though lit were to die ever fo often Jor it.

esori0n:. KHyogg poffefled. KHyogg nM only refiflcd popular clamors which fo often mi»ke the brave rrernblc. mended the diligent. had for his adnrsirers. Socratea alone of the tvvo c on tefii plated the political intcreRs of man . for cur time and for ilie many. was content with tnforcing a love of induui}'. hia family. the of. nl Such IS the p^clurc of Socrates .nd we muft ga« thcr ioftru^ion for ourfelvea from the other. pecritical forms and from fanaticifoi. and it may be afked. For indqjen" dencc of mtnd and for infleKlLility of character.hcr for himfelf. other. but eve?y one has a private ftatioB to fulfil . Secretes hifiorian^ hgd hih theft ir€. wherein Kliyogg ycfembles him ?-~Their charaifleis certainly diiTcr much 5 yet in much do they coirer^oRd. but Kliyogg being fatisfied with hh own benevolence and being more than dubious 2I to the advantage of reading.explicitly and pointedly iaRruifled by the one. we miift not be thought to piace ihem upon an equality. Socrates attCinpted to purgR jhe notion of a Deity from pagan groffnefs .iirahti rmifor hii ^upiU^ find the hji for hi: . We We * fFfjea ^Vihen Alcihiades tuaf ivounded and a prifoner. which was all that his fjtuatioa demanded . Each fhunned public olTicesfrorn motives alike j'j ft iHable. and ferene before his judges. and like hiro. and Kh'yogg. The one labored for the hiunan race. prcfeat and future . and ira. with his perfecutors. but refalotely furroounted almofi Socrates comevery internal infirmity and every external diScuIcy. culiar talents for difcQurfe . like Socrates. The one \v. chieSy exarripl?. H-jdied the influfincc and bearings of every incident upon the human mhid. ?. fi:>3y even be the moft ufefuU It cannot belong to every one to legillate f. If Socrates was the inventor of various new opiiiioi. magoanimooa as raodcls. but Kiiycgg equalled kina in an atlection to man in his fecial.i3 an enlightened teacher of philofophers . and Kliyogg preferved it difentang!«d from hypa. and practifed generofity towards his iLmdercrs . each raay be confidcred Socrates was heroic in cle fiel-l of battle".-r the human lacc. but many will thirlk it equally nervous and corredi.ricOiate neighborhood. domeftic. are.y. and the otl.. various perfons high in the conduct of affairs. and individual chara^ers.P R E F A C £. and order. and. utilitjj-. Socrates fought to render benevolence and kaowledgs v. and many of the learned and jx)litr. But each in bis turn may be ufefol .nu verfal . if he is difpofed to fulSI it wcllj he may profit by the hiftozy of a KHyogg.:-jKliyogg was the author of feveralnew pradicc?. The underftanding of KHyogg was indeed lefs tl^jvated and diverfified than that of Socrates.er. a felf-taUght ruf>v% The one gave precept and eKatnple . bat KHyogg prad^iced hitijfelf a fevcre diligeace. till by habit he had rendered is pleafanr. and ih. Esch according to the extent ci his views. But in juftifying the analogy eflablivhed ber>veen the charasf^ers of So« crates and KHyogg. Socrates nfcued him J Xenophcn ivas di/mounted avdfutigued hi a rtlreaty Socrates c/irried him off upon his Jhouldcrs. like a Socrates or a Confucius .

of which unfortunately the number is too fmall. which req^jirc to be filled up . he Had Kliyogg might perhaps have fnunned the dan- ger of drinking . certainly would not have rejeded the ufe of the gifts ot nature. as well as the heads of Kllyogg. becaufe of this mixture in In viewing an extenfive library. and their nuiiber to be increafed. than that good books reThough many quire to be ftlefted.it KHyogg was little friendly lo learning. attention to all written knowledge. and to a domeftic and a Wd — fobar life. daily an^i . which all perfons are tlius permitted to read and to confider at Ieifure . lU8 la{^ iHnefb . is in effe^ among the reft to arraign attention to a knowledge of nature . yogg iTiight exclaim.fiii r R E F A C r. between knowledge and learning. Kliyogg perhaps had no opportunity to fee good books 3 and therefore of books. that no better fupport is to be found on thefe occdfions. good books are the written fpeech of the wife. Let us employ the inftance of Kllyogg againft himfelf. Kliyogg. that where outward circumllat:ce9 do not trouble. a thinking head. and the benefit of his own example thus be loft to the world. bleifing : labcripg hand. itiighc have been excufed. In fhorr. but Kli>oggi as a farruer. who read at Vfa(t one ^o^i. as well at ccnfured the ititewpaate ufe of reading. If his prejudices againft books were juft. wade an occafiona! ufe of books. He fergot that education. he is the happieft of men who has a portant branchi^s of fcience. a better inftruGed man than Klithem. his bible. than religion and reading. whatever the rich e8» which does not carry an intereft with it. have been primed in diSerent countries. would not be ferviceable. ** how many of thefe things do I not want !" but even a cafe like this leads to no ©ther conclufion. and that there is no better tie to our homes.into which he for a time fell. comes next lo Zurich. between books ufefol and not ufeful. an antient and very Ori^i^ fe6^ prevails 5 which has encouraged many to affed great zeal for the outward forms ot for explanation. a pious wan. had his rrind too much fixed on fi igle points. than books. fermoos for exannpie. and through ^ge. and the ambitious may think. lather than too gre^t.— He did not diftinguilh. have intlfnated th. which are of little ufe in faniilics . and a feeling heart. had he condsmned the majority or had he reproved tlw dearth of good books for perfons in inferior iitua* But to arraign lions. intercfting hy their matter and couched in forcible houfhold languagCi fo as to fuit at once both children and domeftics. Among vegetable?. which is indeed one of the mofl im- — Whoever truly pofTefTes this. even the account of his own life would be fupprefTcd. when he firft planted his own He might alfo have borne with more refignation and dignity vineyard. and requiring as little inilru^lion j that if bad books are ihe vvritten fpeech of the foclith. — itligion. fome are ferviceable. has ftored tip a ( Ttlix qui potuit rerum cegnofeere cevjui :) for nothing then paff. through ficknefs. it does not follow that fets of family fermons. obfervation wijl afcertsin. it feems. for experience (hews. like other men of limited families. Kliyogg's aveifnn to hypocricy and oftentation in religion. that all farmers have not a mind as original as his own. fame indifferent. idle hour? neceHariiy occur through ieifure. fome noxious .

finee The Without going through the whole of Kliyogg's perfuafions in the conduct of his lifeand of his family. that the induftry of Kliyogg was accompanied with judgn^enr. nor even to vindicate him from cenfure. and ifsefftfls bore down every thing before it. Handing afar ner. (of which however he fucceeded in infufing a portion into his family . ye thatwcr^ iniquity*'^. conceived that a Pharlfce under Chrif^. without being received them.— The variety which occurs in the fituationa of mankind. be < * * Uy them on but they therafclves will not But all their works they do for to rr. fees of old. — who thus attacked the Phari-* to * Do not ye after the works of the Scribes and Pharifees. in ailing under imprellions like thefe.* to me.-. fot they Jay and do nor. Lardi Lord. and operated through a long period of time. that I am not as *' other men arc extortioners. (yi. that it is neither pretended here to recommend his example. tt^JMaithcrQ v^^ . borne. And again. for it the authority of his mailer Jefus. was fiill woife than a He oppofed then ihcfe modern Pharifees . Ihall enter into the kingdom of heaven . * and prayed thus with himfelf : "God I thank thee. and For they bind heavy burdens and grievous men's (boulders . Kliyogg. the one a Pharifee and the other a Publican. Kliyogg's thirft for fuch labor was incelTant and implacable. had < ife and much . 19—13 . form likewife a new xeafoDj fot leaving the chiet^ b * Set Matthc-jj xxiii. this raaa went down to his houfe juftified.) yet at leaft the powers of thi'j cieaiive quality have become fufiiciently raanifeft in his hands.ove them with one of their fingers." I tell week ofF.PREFACE. tern. It was the piecife iliuftraiion of Virgil's * Labor * om7iia*vi»cJt Im/>rohus. deferved the thanks of the clergy . < Two men went up into the temple to htfeen of men* < pray The Pharifee flood . let it be obferved once for all. unjuft. — ** * < can : I fall twice in the Publican.** And the would not fo mnch as his eyes unto hea- « < < * * God be merciful unto me a fin you. and economy . It muft be obfetved here. to make ftrenuous and Heady exertions appear in the light of a profitable duty. faying. I give tithes of lift all I poflefs. of it. adulterous . Luie xviii. * I never knew ye s * depart from me. or even as this Publi. in every particular. 3— «: . friendly to thofe who debafed and made a mall. namely that of bodily labor. but fmote upon his bread. but he that yen. and Phaiifce under Mofes. name have — indudry of Ktiyogg rofe peihaps beyond the necefiary ftandard few can propofe to themfelves to purfue only one occupaipn or to poflefs only one amufement. — doeth the will of in that in thy my father which ? is in heaven. and we find that he It was tn(y to be a friend to religion. Many will fay to roe * *' day : ** Lord. rather ihan^ And again more pointedly : * Not every one ihat/zi//) unthe other. Lordy have call out devils we not prophefied in thy name ? and and in thy name done many wonder-: <• ful works V* And then will I profefs unto ihem. .*-"But if everyone cannot attain to Kliyogg'a paffion for fuch induftry.

ihaa that h*3 tion. The elder PrufcflTor Martyn of Cambridge in England. it demands more attendants. but the conchifion does not follow. more impraflicable to prote<^ it from robbery and inroads . the plea be allowed. Hit be a faid.. th«t in the TJniied States as well as to ir. comparatively large pofTeffion . that the roafter cannot extend his care of a very Inge fpot of ground. that the rr^irkct. One of the agricultural ideas of Kliyogg will alone be noticed as bear3 .ahU in all things* The for it is faraereferve will be applied to the chief of Kliyogg's farming ideas. of Law.) < : maxim as applied to vines. not prcpofed here to prefent a complete farming fyftem.j a particular relation to the fituation of agriculture in the United States. the neighbor. it will be found. der cultivation. : .yment and when the fanner has become thriving. fuch a property is not eafily travelled over by th. Exiguum colito : (Praife large farms. is more proiUifiive and more profitable. and with fmall tra(5t» aic thofe which raoft readily command z proTnpt pr. that the principal cuUvvatien of the farmer GDght to he extended beyoml a fiiiall portion of this very land. The meaning of the poet feems to be.— Kiiyorig thought that a fmall farm well cultivated. but cultivate fmall ' » « * * * < * He obferves. that ycu may admire the fplendor of a large vineyard. ihe country will be found Tcfs populous within the fame extent . and (he artifan's (hop. and more feed % when it becomes likewife the common fyllem of others in the counfry.5 P R E F A C F« of his fyftems to ihe quiet comment of the reader. and large ploughing* . becaufe the labor of cultivating tines isfo great.— He appears A large landed property kept unin this to hare formed ajull decifion. for \{ contratis are eafily made for large trails of land. ot which he gave a third part with the el>leil daughter is luarii. the church. nnd negligent habits will too certainly prevail in every ihir. upon the data ingsvtia rura ones. it is more diflfhxih to infpei^ it from the farmhoufe by the eye. has a fenfible note in his edition of Virgil. proprietor. but only to rehte the proceedings of an individual farmer. mud each in cfFt«f\ bo thrown at a gjeatcr diftaoce . Afterwards he married the younger daughter. large fences. under fuch a fydcm ."« The monopoljH will not the lefs readily convert his lands into cafih. flial! Inge a woodland for fuel. A m«n had two daughters. but \\viX } ou had better cultivate a fmall one . in confirmation of «his.igc and yet lie gathered as much fruit.Columella relates a iloiy from Groccinua. large taxes. but we rauft not conceire that be was therefore reaJov. or by his teams . than a large farm ill cultivated. he can then eafily extend his purchdfes to the fatisf-^^ion of the proprietor. and a large vineyard. was right by the force of his reajon . by his laborers. This is an imitation of a verie of Hefiod. frocn the Kirgc fize of each farm.ake a it each cultivator has to provide for refcrvc of growioa family.p:. implies a large inveftment oi capital in the foil. as he did before. Whatever was rightl'T' thefe. rauft thence be kept in worfe repair . which utli in time f«^Jze even the moral character of the cultivator. with another third for her pur: » and flill fonnd that his remaining third part produced as much as the whclc had done N'vhich could arife iiiio^ no ether caufe. roads alfo becoming longer.

with little or no attention .E ' F Jvi <W39 able to cultivate a third p«rt belter than ihe v^hole vineyard Columella mentions this precept ofViibefore it was divided. * * *gil with great commenJatlon. and this will net be found one of the caf<. of advifers. bequeathing tc the latelf pofterity. It will be chiefly important however to think of his exto perfedl hira. A few work particulats ftill remain to be told to the reader refpefling the - before him. as . who was a Chriftian after the manner of Jefus. . and often uncommon. not only as he was hun[>an. who formed his charadier by the to more remains — well as virtues. as well as to vineyards .-i? be fdid here of Kliyogg. who prcfcribed nothing to others. civic viiiue.s ta which the proverb applies. If he bad fau!j?.n is kept. i. lea'vei The * That ist end tnjulgSj eaten by ths cattle drj\ t^ See Mfa Teung* AnmVs of /Igriculture^^KA. and a religion copied from ihe words - ofChrift. And i"urely we may pardon much to a man.i fays it was taken (rom a faying of * one of the feven wife roen. aher the expulficn of :he kings. [m. United States fufFers from the high is well known.ored by powetr ci his rcafon who the rich . and ir was a proverb of the < Carth«>ginians. 41 2---4i3. cellencies J which were numerous. who examined the tendency of every acfion. provided the labor on the farm is increafed at the fame time that the farm is divided. perfonal worth. and it the parts are treated in like raanner. that. who was a difmteiefted friend to the public . to which he did not firit hixfelf fabinitj who h vedthe poor. and his faults werefojreThe latter may however be fortiroes even occafioned by his virtues. and was hof. * Columella adds. rennaincd to the lafl what he was in the beginning. and cf book . given. Martja's Edition of the Georgicsi book 2. that if. an. as likewife been ufed by many Little fartners. and hitfffelf candid to the faults cf others . after the mannei fuggeficd by prices of labor and other circumftances.-*-The reafoning in this note applies to other farms. feven acres was ihe * allowance to each perfon.upon being divided . but as he wanted the help of exa-rples. important. abounding in chari ty and good works j and finally died at a good old age. ICliyogg . 207. liuh and modern*. iiom which they derived more profit. than they * did in his time from large plantations. but it is equally favored by the land being cheap and by the taxes being low. undaunted perfeverance. that a field ought to be ^weaker than the hujlandman.*— -5^? Dr.the parts will not profper for being feparated . and never did a thing which was not founded on fome well-deliberated principle . as it often is in the United States. and to public imprcvements . That cultivation indeed certain that it is that the in the half is better than the 'whole. an example of profeffional n^ill. as h. /.'iron orijion'] . the virtues largely predominated who raifed his forfune by the merit of his condo(^ .bound with the means of making manure. 2s well as by the freedom of the governmerir. antient with a fubftltute for comnion fodder. being uncorrupted by fLztitxy and profpeiif}'. Cut if a large fdf. The woods toa i.

gives the foUo^ving j. Young's from the French trani^and thofc by ihe lettet E. under the article Dialogue in the [French] Encyclopedia. without any examination. it makes the talent of readm^ w^//." . in this refped^. but no dependence can be placed on itsTcprefenting the fame nieafure as the Wincheftcr bulhel of England. is troublefome only at * < fiift : As foon as we are accuftomed to it.— *• I propofed fome years * fmce. arc taken letter Y. are new ones added to the prefent edition.xu R notes tcrminatfd ihofe by the E F A . not cafily be removedi and happily it will not be found a very important one. appear to greater advantage. and I think it has fucceeded. The denominations of money ufed. are generally Englifh.iftiticaaon of the method. lion published by Mr. This * manner of rendering the narrative more rapid. Various paffages in the following hiftory are in efFedl given in the form of dialogue. Young. are Mr. The latlon .embarrafTtnent vhich canparts oi the continent of Europe. the meaning of the word boijfeau differs exceedingly in variou? Tnis is an. by the letter F. . In truth. I have * f»ad« the experimeuf in thefe Tales. (or fterling) j j»nd the amounts exprelTed are generally copied from the Englilh tranlla. . though the change of the Speaker is often marked only by The editor had to copy what was before the ufe of iyroertecl comtnau him. and Marn-ontel in the preface to his Moral Tales. T he word hoijeau has been traollated hujhel . to bar^* ifli \\\zfaid he and jaiJ //jey from lively and animated dialogue. and perhaps it has the fjme origin in point ol etymology.

the weight of which labor ra^y not fall upon raan. without giving the example of premedirated bhor on the Sunday . 23 to 1. the n. read. 25. fecond paragraph. 28. ernta only ai aitefl the fenfe in the following pages. after except^ infert. and twelve bufnels of unwinnowed grain.—-. to thist read.//^i will refiifyand allow for them. 1 The comparifjn is no unfavorable are net to fpelt fince an acre produces but four maLers of fpelt. I. no. E. confirmed his p. read. 1. beginning thus. 123. and coaiiiionly more of philanthrapift. Iefs tranfparent p. p. 8. 8. 22. b. after feafonf read. n. but upon cattle.R R A T A. 5. as ten to fix : a \ziy cfTential difference . as a day of arc violated in which view the Sunday is valuable in the eyes of the mere Sure!/ then the preparation for the Monday's work might either have taken place on the Saturday night or on the Monday morning. meaning in general Indian corn or maize. the purpofes alfo of the Sunday. 71. Kliyogg at lafl: became a ftrorg advocate for clover. beginning with the words. ffons the bottonn. for end of the malters:|: — iefs p. 89. SUCH thcT. refifting the adionof fire and of the chetrical acids. E. as he proceeds. . which 1. read. that \ht root of the potatoe remains p. Page r^". 172. b. for the lad fentence in the note fubflftute what follows. the unwinnowed 22 and for the hft line. printp. 20. infert. line 23 of the note. 129. is. By reft^ this adl cf Kliycgg. 64. impatience. fubftitute what will be found in the fentence towards (the bottom 'of p. laft line of the note. in the note after j^Z/ooy and before the femicolon. . ar* here noticed. laft line.) n. add. We may likewife add. expunge from 1. N. read. b. the printer will be fcuni'i to have to anfvver for little ref- pef^ing The reader who detef^s the exiftence of others ftiU paff^d over in theyf. 28 . after *whfat .) St the end of the firft note F. and in !. 27. Botte is a French word for a bundle (of hay or ftraw. three I. 30. facilitates his work by permitting p. Roman letters. p. read. to an acre of wheat. and p. and confequently the comparative value of an acre of potatoes. His animated ejesf &c. grain. for hi him. for raw. more in value than fix rauids cf wheat. in the fecond fe6\icn of the third p^rf. His eyes . corn^ in the countries cize^ from Great Britain. This corcolo- reftion mut^ he made throughout work . The occurrence cf the chief of thcfs errata being explain- ed in the preface. for the third fentence in the ing the paffage in p. with full thirty bortcs (or bundles.

ERRATA. B. colleftion ftrikc out. may application p. 100. an outnuard i54> an<i 184. fopply an K. for «. 129. 44. 198. not is author its where note. had not been be p. 8. 14 and 15. mUt title. 97. In the p. 1. In p. 141* already pointed oot. 140. read. p. each at the end of % ^HWnawsp . 113. 1. In the note. In the p. >o« fo>f correaion. ftrike out. for i»as not^ read. and death. read. 158. 1. 184. 102.

aiiicles ' parr. that among thofe engaged in the fame occnpations. 1 perceived that thofc who formed no regular plan^ and worked only from day to day. fome remained in poverty. A . in the S. His j^oricultural Plans t * * ' ^ fladied with much attention (faid *Ih. SECTION Kliyogg^s Origin.THE RURAL SOCRATES PART THE FIRST. li. difference — + Dr. "^iuutig's compilaJion Mr. The caufe of this of ^ ' ' ^ ' ' leemed worthy of particular fearch and examination . Socrates the antient Greek philofopher) the charadlers AVE * * ' ^ men of every profeflion. whilft others arrived at affluence. who have been didingaiQicd for undejllanding and prudence. had only themfelves to blame for their want of fuccefs. ArtbuT jTeccn:! publication coicpiized this parr. this part of ihe prefent containing the tranflaiion of his/'r/? account of Kiiyogg. L upG72 his His Entrance Farm. and two py ihrce Iboii uiih Seft. and fo)lowed prudent and fixed plans 5 joining. in the appendix. and the pains which I employed in invefliij gating it were at length faccefsful. HIrzcl is the fpeakfr. as they went ' along. I had oblerved with lurprife. Thofe on the contrary. who availed themfelves of fleady and well fettled maxims.

He was pointed out tome by M. is moft important to be known for the improvement of hulbandry. * * ^ ^ ' along. The circumflantialdefciiption which I have colled:ed of his management. will increale his fortune with conilant fa- tisfadion to kimjclj and in cbfiaiice oj every thingJ^ I had the good fortune to meet with one of the charwhich Socrates thus defcribes. the moH. James Gouyer prefented to my admiring eye. Happy (hall I be. in the perfon of yames Gouyer . aflidaity to attention. tlic oiiglnaj not being found as yet in the works of Xenophon. . rendered their taflc eafier and Ihorter. and inch in fhort as they come out of the hands of nature. and order to exachicfs . a native of Wermetfchweil.. Whoever will iKidy in the fchool of the latter. the combirration of whofc parts is ^o admirain his leafl: own — ble.-' in my opinion.THE RURAL SOCRATES. Ufter lies in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland. E. upon the plan of Socrates. offers a portrait. if my efforts can excite a correfponding emulation among our farmers The jull praife bellowed on the man whom I have felevTted for a model. ^- E. void of pretenfion and ofcentation. in a (late of noble and interefling fiinplicity . and the honors paid to his fmgular talents. in the parifh of Uiter'r.Vcequeli. with the univerfal approbation and eilecm of mankind. Every thing refpecfHn^ perceptible trace of his chaiacfler. and irifinitely more lucrative. may at lead: aifure them.nlon . exalted faculties of the human m/md. Hirzel have been difcovereii there. comprifes. every thing which. to the country. that whenever they fulfil the duties oftheii' flation with intelligence and affiduity . The extraordinary perlbn who is the fubjecH: of the following work. * Th\s pafTogc of it xs tranfiatcJ from the French tranfl. will be called in it Kliyogg (or Utile allies f) the only appellation by which he has been acters ! y known him. like him they will obtain the bledings of Providence. though othfr fsfli- gcs cited by Dr.

mere infants. If the Englifh foot be divided into looo pa/ts. the family inheritance was divided amongft five fons* The eldefl chofe an cftate for his fliare . that I | fhculd feel much diflatisfied were the fmaliadded to the original.] The Engliih acre contains 43. has made a pretender to learning* Kliyogg is obliged to nature and his own reflexions. Kliyogg has fix children. and his brother five . or a fuperiicial knowledge of books.560 Englilh feet : therefore. and owes nothing to art. * Acres. It liad a mortgage upon it for half that amount at the time The of canton of Zarich. though form but one houfhold. who are all. Y. He.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and to be defpifed for affuming. the two next preferred money . manners ill-fuited to the fituation of a peafant : much lefs is it that of one. as 10 to 14. the Paris one wJU be 106S [that is nearly as 15 to 16. — — Meadow Arable Pafture g.000 royal F. fqii^Tc feet. vary from 30. At the death of their /ather. j . The charader of Kliyogg is not that of a man corrupted by frequent converfe with the inhabitants of fome neighboring city .000 to 36. he refufes every office^ even in the vileft particle lage where he refides. {"uppofing the Zurich acre be to 33'.coo. for Contentall that he poiGTefTes. except one daughter. the proportion between the Zurich and Engliih will be. ed with his lot. and who has been led to afPame. and our afTociates remained joint heirs to a tra£i: of land of about ninety-fom' acreSj* ^yhicli was thus divided : large. in the I'lhe differei^ce of the feet makes it lefs ihao a» ^ is to ^j^ E. His brother lives with him 2 their families. The proportion betwcei^ the Paris roy'sfl foot and the EngHfh foot 1$ this . whom the fociety of men of letters.roun-d Acres Wood Total 94 value of this farm might be ^75^* fleriing.

One of thefe died foon after. and the neighboring farmers judged with great probability. in their — — • 9sA the overplus which * • \ih economy Aipplie*^ enables him . it was charged payment of the younger brothers' fortunes. and envy itfelf was forced t6 acknowledge. father's death. that our prudent cconomifV contrived. many to feed and few circumftanced. unlefs at an immoderate expence. His children arc abundantly fupplied with food atid raiment .. with the management of a farm. and he has all imaginable reaion to hope that they wilL in a few years. how could they fee any other prof- of their •w^ith the — ped hazardous fituation ? burthcned. He reflcded on the bed manner of improving the property. and the land To impovcridied and negledted. and returned them a part but by adding a payment to be made to the youngeft icn. that our two brotTiers muft loon fink under it.'/^ THE RURAL SOCRATES.—-This undoubtedly appeared a heavy incumbrance on fo fmall an eftate . and purfued it with alacrity and checrfulnefs. Punduality in payment keeps his mind at eafe. produce : They animated him with rcfolution to redouble his zeal and application to furmount them. The fuch were greatwages of peared indifpenfable. be able to afTiil in rendering his labors ftill more fuccefsful. and the carried in on that manufadlures ly advanced from the obflacles. Eefidcs this. muft occafion cultivation of the a farm of fmall alliflance towards hiring laborers alfo apneceffity of fuch extent. confiderably to augment his fortune. and afford great to work. the debt flill amounted to 547l» 6s. as they were. Indeed. Heaven beheld his perfevcrance with a fmile of complacency . Such that efFe<a on the mind of KHyogg which they ought. united produced partoftlie country. the health and vigor of their conftitution incrcafes . that it feemed impoHiblc to bring it into conA family fo dition. without the aid of flrangers or contratSling frefh debts. but rarely do. where there were confumption. whole produce znuft previoufly raife an annual rent-charge for the payment of intcreft .

6d. 3d. The profits of the dairy are confumed in the family. I2S. fo that his profit. and the allowance to each a load of hay. It is • able. ys. 4d. is no more than a piftole . fmall as it is. Kliyogg finds his horfe more expenfive than fervicc* and feems determined to fell him. f fiim to extend his improvements.THE RURAL SOCRATJES. / /I ' 4 I i2 ^ ^y^ U-I Hogs In all lo according to the breed his diflridl . fevcral new pieces of ground. is a very expenfive animal. He requires the fame quantity of hay as an ox befides oats and flioeing. pd. 6s. whereat . 2s. Their allowance is three loads of hay per ox. According to his calculation. and cod about Though they are hard worked^ 5I. but from an article more to be depended on. JEIis cows are middle fized. his cows annually eat each two loads of hay. to the amount of a piflole yearly. and. exclufive of grafs in the fuminer months. the increajc of dung for manure.— The finefl cow he values at 3I. m — ' — not from grazing therefore that Kliyogg expc^lg advantage. A horfe. 6d. a beaff. is. 9s. 3s. the fecond at 2I. he fays. . bat well fed . His oxen arc large and well made. 6d. ss they fall in his way. in reality. they are in good plight. 3d. The felling price of a fat bullock is 61. Kliyogg's live ftock confided of Oxen Cows Horfe 3 ' . depends on the conftitu-» tion of the animal j and the rife and fall of the market. and the two fmallefl at 2I. Kliyogg finds it anfwer to buy two or three lean bullocks every year. and fatten them during two months and an half for the market. which may be eflimated at il. and even to purchafe. and lay out the money in oxen. and yield plenty of milk. The value of a horfe dccrcafes with years . The firft price of thefe is commonly 4I.

fatisfied and undeceived me. an ox. it may be added. office He worked theon. as the dang of horned cattle.commons rc- " duces determination of our cultivator is very remarkable. thirdly. for family ufes .f nji^iereas ." fays he. THE RURAL SOCRATES. '' This conclufion appeared to me at firfl very extraordinary . ihat horfedung ^ by no raeans fo beneficial to land. abfolutely dccifivc that it is the difcoverf was greatly wajiied in hulbandryt and fhould be kept ^k fneau/f^ as a poiiU of knowledgeY ©fa proporiion ^ Tofl»iHre2a. work . may be In a fatten- word. and ihouU all Englidi farmers and others. about a hundred tumbrel This is double the quantity he gathered the Ioads»t firfl year of his farmmg (which yet was equal to what Lad been done by any hufbandman in the village) and kd him to conclude.rty pf ^hefe . that two oxen may be maintained for one horfe . to graze on commons at a diftance from 5* their ihcds . '' When a farm. advantages which Kllyogg derives from his catfirfl:. he computes. benefit. fed them. who have an opportunitj^ of making a choice between horfcs and oxen for the works of huibandry» *aFhi» peafant attended to the minutiae of the comparifon with an accuracy l>e ^Thk attended to by ^ every M onattainable in his fuperiors. and almofl tempted me to believe my philofopher a man of paradox and fxngularity. ed aiid fold for his mailer's tle are. . fecondly. himfrif. .rd« Tte pjve. from his fmail number of beafls. He very rationally confiders ^le lafi article (or manure) as the bafis of the improvement of the foil confequently he has applied the whole force of his care and indullry towards its accumulation . them. he colle& yearly. when old and pafl labor. manure. that. in the fummer ** months. arid perform'- relative to How particularly judiciout therefore cnuft be his idea* of the matter !—The proportion of tivo to on. '' that the generality of farmers *' have too great a proportion of live ftock to their *' ground. milk and butter. But his explication of this aenigma. the ** farmer is forced to fend his cows. snd has fo well fucceeded. a pi'odigious fuperiority to oxen.i-y5.* and. 'Ms overflocked. which is the lofs of fo much to the The — : — — f-* farc.

without fuppofii g the moil egregious folly. but fj very fi'tghtly.x»iv turnips sre mentioned. and frequently die of difeafes eahly accounted for Thefe are melancholy tiuths which e^^perience too \\ cll evinces !* 'Oar fagacious hufbandman keeps no more live frock than he can amply fupport with grafs and hay Irom his own fields. 7 ^' '' ^' *' ^' ' duces ence. Doc3 Mr. It is a ccitain — cattle than they can conveniently fapport in winter. If therefore hay is ths orilv food. thai. . The cattle being enfeebled for want ofwhoiefomiC nourlfhment. (particularly towards the fpring) lofe their milk. * '' '^ '' Scarcity of hay mvifl imply a call for flraw . which occviilons a necelTai ily diminution of winter riores. [Qnery.ork does not it fiifficiently : explain ths is article of winter food : I apprehend is hay alone all ihe ^. . The (traw is carefully prefer ved. as without it no improvement of foil can beexpcded : befides which.— but how a rcan Ihculd in general overnock hiaifelf in winter. liuer — The writer : oi this v. bad food is the fouice of an infinite variety of diilempers/^ In tlui maiiner the judicious Kliyogg pointed cut a principal caule of the decline of agricukuje in this country. or tlicir laboring flrength. the overflocking is explained j but the hufbandry is wretched.g. deprived of part of the manme they require. when their miik . and to remedy tliis inconvenithe manger mufl be filled with freHi grais they are biouplit home at nigiit . by this bad management. Young re flefi that turnips in countnes where (he accompanied w^ih fnow which remains till fprir. have not the firre advantages 'a hicb they pofTvfa in England* of which the climate is mild : E. 'i he arable and miCadow lands are. — enough . J cold fetsin caib.one can difcover nothing of their management. The misforiune in England is. and ufed only fa6V^ that many of our farmers keep more ! * Tfils pnrt of Kltyo£g*s econorriy is very particular ! The S^ifs firmers muft manage very differently from the Britifh ones.. but winter food knew Large Tock? of fhould certainly for be provided. the rot keepinj. to be (o overflocked wiih caule.^ 7^HE IIUHAL S0CIIATE5. cattle are the {oul of good hiffnandry . I not. Y. which ought to have been entirely appropriated to the life of the dunghill.

compoil: dunghill appears to him an objrvft of fo great importance to the imprcvement of laiid. hours. By this method he amadcs many proper materials for good manure.8 onl}^ for THE RURAL SOCRATES. mofs^ and rnfhes from his ground. fir trees in particular. which is fo much real •' A moil excellent praiPore I'lft tliat r?nnot he too much aihnireJ. that. to procure fifty loads more of marnre. he prean empares thefe faggots for the purJDofes intended ployment fo little difagreeable or fatiguing. laying them. that it He begins wiih cutting the ferves him for recreation. It is^ sirriBzing qoantity of »ht» a a^^'^ can coar> manufc th''(«T>aybe raifed by fjch Y. and efpecially in long winter evenings. Utter. tliat can ferve fojThe finall dead boughs and pointed leaves of litter. tcj be ufed for litter . imail boughs away from the larger ones . trees Thefc he binds into young faggots and carries home . he regrets the want of allidants in this the mod . of all branches of labor. during thp rncoTi's increafe. in little heaps. with the pointed leaves of thefe trees. of which he it is fo liberal in his liallS.* He is attentive alio to gather all the dried leaves. Kiiyogg goes into his wood wM*i:h a liCuge bill to prune the fupernuracrary branches of fa* even of thofe which he thinks it ufeful jiud j>ine trees boldly venturing to cut the lower dioots of to leave clofe to the trunk. that the beads are baried ia up to the knees. v^ithout increafing the number of his cattle* 2n profecution of this defign. placing them under a died At Icifure till a proper feafon for piofccuting his work. that are commonly — : . oani a phnty of liucr» p'sfikcs^-v . in autumn. — : iuffsred to rot ufelefsly in the woods. the time when his children d^all be capable of contributing tiieir So thoroughly is he jjerfuaded that he wants onihare ly laboring hands. afford plentiful materials for this . while the Inrger and tougher boughs arc rcfervqd for fuel. . and waits as a fmgular bleding. and he employs in this occupation the greater purpofe part of the tia:ie he can ipare from his other work.

and thanked God that his beads had always been remarkably healthfni and vigorous. fo methodized. and are converted But into manure though of a very indifferent quality. by obferving certain rules in the preparation of litter for his cattle. This exa£i:nefs is equally confpjcuous in the management of the litter when taken away.THE RURAL SOCRATES. which I my felf could namely. falts. It is placed in leparate layers upon the dunghill . real lofstohufbandry. who had experienced how defc^ive this method was. that thofe where the fermentation is fooncft to be CKPeiHied. firewing frefh upon the top once a t — by which means it becomes impregnated with aniand acquires a very evident degree of fermentation before it is removed to th^ dunghill. that the health of the cattle. comfortaand ble.. by which means they acquire a beginning of putrefa£lion. more warm and the . The opinion is farther verified in Zellweguer's defcription of the mode of hufoandry iifcd in the canton of Appenzell. that the flrong effluvia arinot avoid making fing from the fermented litter. of which we were either ignorant or forgetful. muft be prejudicial to But Kliyogg afTured me. Nor does this method prevent cleanlinefs. converting thefe very materials accomplifh into excellent manure. . at the is attended to fame time. Kliyogg. has fucceeded in what at firft feemed-hard to namaly. and of the different flrata of his dunghilL In regard to the firfl article. f js To Kliyogg^ this difcovery an ineftimable treafure. experience contradicted this . he feldom removes the litter under a week. They fcatter there dead branches of fir and pine-trees in great roads to be tram- pled by cattle and paiTengers .— An obje£lion may arife to this pra£lice. It is known that the refinous and aromatic juices contained in the prickly leaves of pines are powerful enemies to putrefa£lion : but what obfl:acles are not to be furmounted by reafon feconded by induftry ? Kliyogg fubdued them all. if a day mal . : conftant fupply of frefh litter cattle are.

The regulation of his compofl dunghill is lows—Left the fermentation fhould be totally fuppreC* fed or even checked by drought. as well for the purpofes of vegetation. gn ay accelerate it U autumn he litters hia the next two cattle with flraw during two months months he litters them with twigs and fpines (or pointed leaves) from fir and pine trees then flraw again.*— But as the expence and labor o£ fuch a — work • Were with part 1 the encourtgert of agriculture to compare 1. in three weeks.-In the beginning of . by h«i fcd^ion ^» of that .dung at the bottom of his wooden boxes. he has nothing to do but to preferve a conTo facilitate ilant fermentation by frequent waterings. he is afliduoufly attentive to the prefervation of a certain degree of moifture.. in his treatife on hatching eggs in ovens or hot houfes. and then fills up the pit with frefh water from his wells : this brings on. that to obtain a manure thoroughly rotten. this.ilarity that appears in the prad^ical hufbandiy of our iudirious peafijnf.-. K^liy^gg <3ircover9d ihfrri by the light ©f oiaiOfe . or more flow. that when the heat of the hot. tbcy would certainly beftruck with the exaO fiir. without boiling water. efiential to £0 anany operations. he has funk near his dunghill feven large fquarc pits. obicrves. which. what Is here related incomparable work of Dto Francis Hoire%> in'itled. he pours in a pretty confiderable quantity of boiling "Water . Home. The celebrated M. Firll:. could not be attainable in two months. de Reaumur. as to keep his dunghill in a conftant flate of humidity. and the Dolor's precepts given as new obfer« vstioct. the Principles of Agrkulirne and Vegetation. which are planked with wood in the form of boxes* In thefe pits he keeps the prolific water. The fagacity of our philofopher has explained to him. it fnould be watered to increafe fermentation.bed decreafes.a# THE RURAL SOCRATESk the putrefaction of others where . He has thus a perpetual fupply of corrupted water. ruflies and dried leaves 5 then twigs and fpines y and £0 as fol- on alternately. putting fome thoroughly fermented cow. -a ftate of putrefcence .

"there *• are ferments for the potrefa^ive fermentaiion as well as the Tinoas. preffed down. which gi\es an cafy opportunity of moiftening the dunghill frequently. if proper refervoirs." fays he. There is likewife a trough at the declivity of the dunghill to receive the water that drains from it . till converted into rich mould. in a great it : Kliyogg has thought meafure. I think donghills are genaraliy kept too dry. *• A hollow fitnsoch moifture •* is likewife bad. without ufing them for litter. it will. fceowlejge ** in cbymitlry !— ** Let us make.'' which a is fundamental maxim in all way to work In purfuance of it. The fuccefs of this method of watering his dunghill. and are themfelves raif»d to a confiderablc height.vtxt (eem to be very ignorant. "foma praflical obfcrvations with regard to tke this is ' " ** *' *' in affair of confidera'islc msBagement of dunghills . ." again. Sec. without robbing the foil of its fhare of the ftagnant water. Corpus in pjitredine exi^enSi Sec. and in which hf.THE RURAL SOCRATES. per occafion for by a wooden pipe dire^Slly into the copper* His refervoirs of flagnant water arc funk below his flails and ftables. and covered with earth. to his bleaching.ground. This may be prevented by having hollow places with **clay bottoms at the fide of the dunghill. page 6r. and from whence it may be rcftored ** again by pumps to the dunghill at pleafure. very mijclj quickfs tl'. ** Hence Slahl. the (horteft . F. work ihight far exceed the profit that. He Jays them in clofe heaps. into which the foperfluoag «* iroirTorc may be allowed to run. this he calls. that he believes all foils. reduces both s '' going in his language. heat in accelerating putrefaction. at a pro* adjoining orchard an convey whatever to quantity of water he has height.e h^^ isiMtation. Too ——And «nd tarn ftall-fed cattle is carried into ftale. Kliyogg is Co perfectly convinced of the efEcacy of of a means. with the fame view to conveuiency. he dug a well in his proceedings. is the beff-. fbggefted an idea of putrefying finall twigs of fir or pine. uation. as they are commonly placed on a high fitwhich will retain the raoifture. fot importance. to prevent evaporation . and there allowed to thtowiion th« duoghill. and pours flagnated water on them everyday.** If the urine of Jiorfe* uation. Dry vegetables require a comfiderablc degree of moifture before they can be brought to putrefy.

and vigorous. confequence of this opinion he told In and enriches. Mr. that the enmiddle the me. *' putreliest bly fruitful one.is foilsj THE RURAL SOCRATES^ even the moft barren. Piioy fays.e. or of iflclefatigablc laboring hands in thofe countries. For the fame rcafon inferior foils in hot countries. as well as the ancient fertility ofCorfica and Spain. about yield three (heaves inflcad of two : would harvefl fuing The event confirmed the prediction." fays Kliyogg." of the winter I75'9. that he fowed ieveral forts of leguminous (t<td^t which afforded twelve crops in a year.which favors the fucceeding crops i but it is at the cxpencfi of the firft crop. Lt^ng continued — . increafe its fterility. Let us recolle(5l the former teriiliiy and populatioji of the Holy Lind. ca.erland which is frniiful : it is the fucceeding or. the proportion was one hundred and fifty i Chili produces from fixty to eighty and a hundred. of kinds «f giain. ers gather is ftill — greater i There all are fields where the reap- tour or five hundred for one. long to great and growing weather ia equivalent to two or three fummers in the courfe of one and the fame ^'ear . if feconded by moifiurfp yield more i\\ a ^ivcn crop. if we extend our refiexions to thofe countries where the climatep without being excclTively hot. warmthv — may be rendered ferlile by iremely hot Upon this principle * he infers. joined to a njoifl: foil or air. It * may be neceffary troo. ^gypt. The never failing harveits of Sicily. ivhere h yet we (hall find a nmch nacre our own . But it is not the hot furhmer in Swit? — sr. that in Lybia. than can be ac- much warmer than counted for from difTerence of foil or labor. jnents. • which to obfervcthar where the foil fs irrpregnated with on the contrary. F. i We (hall be fenHble of the truth of this obfcrvation of our judiciou* pcafant. The fertility inpatficular didric^s of Peru.ot be fo great a proportion of manure. He repeated the lime thing inamed lately after the drought of lad year. ibau they do in the colder clinsates o{ iha r:i:'th» E. are there canr. prolific vegetation The of cerfln hot countries is ovviiig heate. The fatmer cannot be too careful in examining the quality of his lands by the u{yal expeiiF. and fon^c particular provinces of India and Perfia j— and we fnail be convinced at leaft. dry fummer will be fucceeded by that an ex^ a remarka- ^' Heat. fife will. and therefore gives room for fuccelTive crops in the farrte year. hfallo'w occurs during the h?!af. attributes theextraori^inary frcitfulnefs ihefands of Senegal to the efl'efts of heat. Thus far the French tranflator. and part of northern Afri- welikoown . which it would be well to perfed. Let us call a look towards China. Adof amfonj an ingenious naturalill. as in our own.vegetation. He informs us. that all things confuiercdj. Herodotus allures us that the lands of Babylon produced fro»ii two to three hundred ears of corn for one.

The preparation confifts in expofing the turf for two years in open air. cut from the jRirface of the paflurc or fallow land where the grafs is very luxuriant. proper materials. which come He finds the eife£l of to about 2S. his induflry dii- covered a method of improving land that anfwered very near the fame purpofes.— He like* wife found in turf. when well prepared.till it is entirely decayed . he turned his attention to othWith this view he er methods of enriching his land. Kliyogg never fuffers prejudice of any kind to lead him to the rejection of new experiments/ — . of which I Ihall give a circumflantial detail when I defcribe Kliyogg*s manner of preparing his land for corn. if allowances arc made for the north winds. 1761.THE RUR^L SOCRATES. the twenty bufhels. ydTheie he mixes with fix tons of peat afhes.-— What a pity that this examiner of nature ftiould be a ftranger to the ufe of the boring inftriiment in thefe inquiries I ^ — x\s a fubflitute for marie. v/here they ufe marie with great fuccefs .to all the influence of the learons. this fpecies of improvement appeared to him fo defirable. it being found in — abundance below Laguerberg. which prevailed in the beginning of ApriL indefatigable cultivator does not bound his improvements within the circle of that quantity of ma-* nure which his induflry procures from a fmall num- Our ber of cattle. Having made flriiSfc inquiry into its properties and the manner of ufing it. l j Vfhlch is veriiied in the prefent year of plenty. It will even appear that the earth has been more lavilh in her produtStions this year than the preceding. took a journey into the bailiwick of Regenfperg. for rich manure. los. He buys every yearTeven tumbrel loads of dung from hi^ neighbors. from a fmall gravel . thefe two kinds of manure anfwerable to the price. which cofl him il. — — Not fatisfied with this. that at his return he made many unfuccefsful attempts to difcover marie in his own neighborhood. when it may be fpread with fuccefs on meadows-or corn-fields.

if he : had • Thofe parts of rural economlca which have iVivided the opinion df *hc fuperior clafa of cultivators. is the uUimate perfection of hulbandry. tlic fmalled particles of earth when in contact with them . be deterrnin^id by opinioni Kliyugg's teftimony In this aCair coincide* totally unbinffed by />/^r/»j.14 biat thinks liis THK RURAL SOCRATES. vjih that of the beft hufbandmeo from the beginning of the world to thi^ ^ay J and have found it true from ihe proof of foms hendredi of parti"^ |M^ar «xptrijncnts on bsth grarelly ar. in gratitude to the communicator. nay. Let it be granted to Tull^ that manure has no other effed than to heat and render the earth more porous. will by them be very feldom determined i Their ingenuity Is (oo great to admit of eniifc conviiJJon . in <S:c. I - . — teilifie* U contributes to fertility . in fuch cafes. notwithlianding Tuil. that the oily and faline parts contained in manure are and in the continual pains to obtain — extremely conducive to the nouri(hment of plants Nor js it lefs certain that an union of tliefe two methods of improvement. even where the diitin^ion lies only in color . that in the opin^ ion of our judicious cultivator. from a fermentation excited : Is not this effed more likely to be produced from the facility with which it penetrates according to its nature. Thus a light foil. It would be for the advantage of every farmer. at a trive to carry refli mould . he can conto it of a different quality. according to him. an Jinglifti writer. and he has no doubt of a field f moderate expence. than from afimple divifionof thefe particles by an operation merely mech:^nical ? It may likewifc be added.d clayry bani». them all deferving of attention^ and He apprehends. than * by frequent ploughing or digging . The unprejodiccd part of th« world ftioiild. and with lefs trouble. by proper manure. that all mixture of earths^ "where their nature Sffirent. It is tiiefe different modes of procuring manure^ it. In truth. attempts to prove the fufficieney of the latter alone. the fundamental bafis of agriculture confiils. Jby a red clay.. is improved by a a f sndy foil by a clayey one \ a blue clay heavy one improving if. general. lands are more improved.

King of •^'refprfts. The conftant attention he paid to the ohfervance of thcfc regu«* iations completed their' falutary efFcOs. fapplicd all that was wanting to bring this nobie plan to perfection j and we have feen in a very (hort fpace of time. «< «* Pruffia.— The king. [Without entering into a wide detail of tae caufes which have farored This monarch profefforfhip of Rural ^l?e improved ftate of ggricultore feen in obferve that fome cf the^i fiSTtgation in may have arifen fome parts of Germany.his down by Tull and imitators. tbs economy which bad been feea in Europe".^ which has fubfi'^cd jn confequence of which the latter has furnished to the Auftrian domsnlocjt not only many improvements in agiiculture.id made reguUencouraged it in the ftrongeft mamc **tion8 in its fivotw.the gentlemen. and the example has fince been happily copied in rcany other univeifities of Gerrrany. 18O. and that rich lar. that agriculture cfiate. thatesover the would produce t'^ — the fatistat^ion fee. Vol. ** He — <• «» «* •* proprietors of eflatcs in lands.p. and who applied ooanj greai ideas to the it foncd very jaftly in making fyftem." feld. and When the king was expefted to plough them deeply and frequently. pafs thrcbgh any of the provinces. Ihould manure them fulHciently. than in placing — A <• *^* a large dunghill before ibsu doors <' powdered courtier might freer! ingly deny to this economical attention a place amorgft the royal vjrtae* I but the fagacioas monarch was fenfible. in the ii\%. that thefe dunghills fpread fields <* ** *' ' -' He accordirgly ha^ a c?op of doc^tts. and the heattis and moralfes of Pruflla. covered with a plentiful harvcft of the fineft corn in the \7^:Id. by Baron Bidkin'! of economical enchantment. money by prircJpal portion of Germany. nay evefithe peafaots. yrar 1727. the farmer?. reigning Tonne years^ the fands of the Marche of Brandenburg. the fandy def^rr. we may from the fources here m^tiocj- ed. E.T^E RURAL bid laid SOC!lAT£!l. after ** *• tended to the very gates of Berlin. but feme capital in monera When improvements were efiahl-fhed ia fotKC diilil^^iSj tbey gradually <si-» f«flded thsoifclve* to o?bpr?. 15 Icifure to plough his lands . Another fourc-is to be found in the impofubility of gaining •'. converted into excellent land by « (Political Inllitutes. reacftaijlinied principle cf his politicaf and ptofperity of a'. He therefore infifted that the farm«rs of his demefnes. ed from the covneclio. according to the rnles after having iirft well dreffcd them with proper manure. thought they could not pay their ceuri better.ds ai« made I^HI «* richer. F.] Another a'ifohas proceedbetweenAufuia and Flanders j . hi» foB. founded in the nnlveffuy of Halle. is an an exccJIcnt financier In manf defail of praf^ice. This monarch had underftand•* ing to know (and all finartciers ought to be proud of receiving inftrtic « tioos fror« a mafter) that the «roft ftubborn and infrnile foils are roeliJV «• rated by manuring and ploughibg . and th» the fo •yidatiorr^ the opuUnre .* W« *"Fredctic William. i. of which the wifdom was unperctived till after mairjr •• years.

Aqku An orchard (of v/hich the grafs is mowed and given to the beads in the (table during the fummer. according lo Kliyogg's computation. foils he His meadow land is all flat. yielding as under : We Loads. i6s. to make the full ufe of (« Y. excellent a manure. fiiall now take a view of the confequences of the Kliyogg and their agreement with the various of labors cultivated. 3d. will require. for two years.* moreover in a village adjacent. as he had wanted time to finifli them properly. or 20 tons of peat afliest . a meadow acres for 4I.i6 THE RURAL SOCRATES. ten loads of dung. this is nearly two loads per acre. . one third. The hires tv/o lall require manure. foers + This proportion u a point of confe^aence. E. and he thinks the latter fort of manure anfwers by far the bell: for meadows which cannot be overflowed. though their dimenfions were exaiSlly the fame ? He imputed this deficiency to negled of manuring and labor. producing in the Another Wlnikin^ producing 4 4 IS m 27 R. His indullry has enabled him to augment his crop of hay eight loads. It ought to be obferved. that the hay was commonly double the quantity of the after-grafs. and divided into the following pieces. _ divided into be watered ^ Q I A five pieces. — dow did — — Laying * Only 4 acres being cufr. An acre of land. which is already greatly improved. producing in which may all hay and after-grafs 12 8 7 6 A long meadow. asibey cannot be overflowed. and (hould engage all fafwho have the opportunity of getting peat. which is almofl He of three — I was curious to know why the long meanot funiifli fo much hay by a load as that in the Winikin. per ann. improved to the height.) meadow at the bottom.

efpecially towards the fpring • when the water gradually melts the ice that may h?ve lodged . where any perfon that will call on me* may fee the vaft difference between a meadow in the parts watered and unwatered. vvl. but of undoubted importance : I experienced it in my Su0blk farm. and yet ftrong€r in my prefent Hertfordihire one .h it iray deDoHt jn the bedfi ^ 15 f The difEcuhy h this obfervation of A — — C of . in Kliyogg's opinion. an incseafe of heat in proportion to its diftancc from its fource.noxious paiticica. the greateft variation. and prove highly pernicious to the young blades of grafs.— It is alfj to be remarked. there may be inftances of water being found perniciouB to adjacent rweadows. I had thia year (1769) as much hay fronm ofFone watered acre. deep fpring prcferves near its fource. it has been proved. I confefs that I could affign no fatisfa£tory t reafon for *This is a part of hufbsndry (trangely negMeci in England. that the difference is very immaterial between the crops of This. will acquire. When this is too great. Y. furniflies 2iJecond me^us> dF improving the foil To extremely advantageous. wimfe furface conftdcrar mometer. that water takea near to its fource prsferves its original purify .ying meadow under water. ir.)<. ina meadow well v/atered or well manured. nsUft be more hurjful than beneficial. is. it turns it yellow and infures it in many refpef^s It is alfo cuftomary in fome countries to overftow meadow land in winter. while that which paffca over different lands. that the water beft (lakulaied for enriching a foil. greatly depends on the properties of the water.ing it over the ground.. not perhaps great as niay be imagined. From eight to ten degrees above freezing. but falubrious to thofe more reuiOtely Ciuaied 5 Orting tc. efpccially vyhen it can be procured immediately from the fpring . Spring-water is. for he obferves that it infenfibly decreafes in virtue. in proportion to the diftance. near Tts. which may render it injurious to the meadow over which it is to be fpreadOn the other hand. according to the feafcn. and the method of condu(3. therBut a dream. if La. with particles of tufo (or calcarious grit-ftone) or comrade a chaiybeat or other vicious quality. the fiFecis would be too precipitate. One inar rjaturally conclude. according loReauwur's. as all the oifeer four unwatered ones in the fame field. bly exceeds its depth. during the fummer folftice. %! if this operation were left to the aflion of the fun.ay be inipregaated in its couife. hat that degree of temperature already faid to be inherent in water. a temperature nearly the fame in all feafons.* deed. that fjr from refi-efhing the grafs.THE RURAL SOCRATES. to fupport Kliyogg's by philofophlcal reafoning. fovirce : and that af^ream which from the length of its courfehas confidtrably augmented its original heat or cold. the befl: .

are always confufcd and incomplete. on all other occafions. are peculiarly diflindl in his own mind. and even retains them in a forcible.>rings. It is fufficient indeed for his own purpofes.28 THE KVKAL SOCRATES. I'he Annoracor here. a facility in em- bracing luminous views of a fabjecSt. i. and it is in this particular. and de#» Icend to the flnalled: minutiae with great precifion .—. to the average cffedla of the lound. it does not Item advifeahle to oveitiow any land with fpring water cither during the excefiive hear of uimmer. forgeta that this temperature viiries in difif rent climares. elevation''. having. (fold at Zurich byHeideggucr and Company. I have only to regret. joined to a perfcvering attention and an intire freedom from prejudice. and at Pari. Jaqnes Srrett. and to determine in all his obfervations the preciie proportions and degrees of things. for fiich a diminution.VoI. thus at length becoming purified. fnn'ji ^*' it ii confide rahlc cxaditefs. though at the fame time a vague manner .rt/^^ and poIiQied by art and application* The ideas of the perfon who poffefles only natural genius. or the infenfe cold of « inter. which exifls only in his own underftanding. correfponding. but this perfpicuity. not having regulated them by any fixed meafure and therefore the notions of it which he is able to communicate. in fpeaking of the temperiKure of f. hcac through ihc ycai^in the vUot whsrc ihc fj^ring ii E» . found in him thofe qualities necefTary to form the accurate obferver : namely. does not enable him to communicate exad ideas to others . but the party neither gives himfelf pains to deveiope nor to attach words to them.that natural genius difFejs fromthat which is f^////t.i turcs . and expo* inferred in their JournaI. that he is not more anxious to pre^fcnt his ideas with dillinc'tnefs. and commonly lofi — . He makes himielf mafter of the dimenfions of his obje<rt:.— Kxcellent rennarks on the watering of lands are to be met with in a roe- But iDorial which carried the prize given by theEconomical Society ot Berne. as of fand or gravel over which it run?.) ^F. to have his own conceptions clear . but did not think myfelf authorized to difputs the truth of his obfervation .by Brocas and Hu ^ibolt of St.

bears no progained from the regilter of pra^iciil pgricuhurc. that by. man may fufFer himfelf to be deceived well as deceive others. ! arifiog A farmer kno^^s whether he ^rsins or lofes. as to others. excellent — The experience is remark portion to that which which cannot be too often repeated to at! from praftical agrtcultnrc. or upon broken proofpj. expence and profit. Water loaded witli' calcarious grit-ftone.t But it is time to clofe this digreflion.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and But when a river is choaked with fiicculent plants. b . I inflriKfted him in the method of keeping regular accounts of his receipts and cxpences. and return to the detail of Kliyogg's obiervations on the watering of meadows. cofniuonly overlook fome efifential articles . or form a more iroponant qualification in a teacher. E. and marking the progrefs and minute circumflances which altend-ed his improvements. fo that the huf- — bandman cannot attend too carefully to his v^ater. may likewife be of the worft confequence to a meadow . l)er * An — how f An farmers. and deflroys it entirely. he would be much better enabled to form a«5 a precife whillt the wiieft and adequate judgment of their value . their own fyftenns being founded opoa a fort of inftinvftive perfuafion. but in vvhai articles f and in what proportions ? How coj-liafd li his knov?!edge '^hefe fefpcd^« ! Y. brookline.j' and recommended his fending one ofhis fons to learn writing and arithmetic : nor had 1 any difficulty in making him comprehend. rather than upon reguhr dedudlons. otherwife his lands may faffer more from overflowing than from drought. particularizing every article of labor.* I i^ to thought it incumbent on me engage him to correal thefe defeats. where they attempt fo explain. remerethey were taught. than an accurate meafure of the ignorance of othcrgc joined to a happy mode of conveying information. He finds that water^from mofTy grounds is very injurious to greifs. Men felf-inftrufted. Few things then belter mark 2 knowledge of things and of the world. — ruflies^ important praf^ical remark ! Men inSrufted by mhers. Nothing afcertains the falubrity of water more than the produ<^ion of crefTes. if he trulls to the uncertainty and deceitfulnefs of memory .

F. cind«<% and a(hesraay be ftrewed. . be placed in^ a proper fituation to diftributc the water over as much of the meadow as poffiblc. covering . in order to give a due inclination to the collateral branches nor fhould it be cut too deep. bei^efit from this operation. It will alfo be neceffary to change the trenches frequently. cipal * This fpreads in IS occaficnci? its courfe.-^c foils) of caftio? : vnf/akfdVimz'imo the (trcam woc^ld be much gre:\(cr. — Thir.he furface of the ground and entangling the fibres of the herbage and grafs. which will kill all kindt of mofs. and ihc ground drained that produces them. which would prevent the inundation from being gradually ex-^ tended over the whole furface. fpear-wort. as I have already aientioned. from green turf cut from eminences land may Our in pafture or fallow land. to take particular care that the principal and dependent channels. which would immediately occafion for the turf being once injured. and no part remain ftagnant. To obviara Jihis misfortune. and ?••.— cultivator confidcrably augments the vegetative properties of the water by mould. the cattle v/ould not eat it. procured. till they are ftified.•". its be de- ilr LKftive to vegetation. is a good thought 5 but the benefit (on fo. The rules neceiTary to be obferved in fluking of lands. that the water may be carried off with facility. The direction of the principal trench ought to run acrofs the mofl elevated part of the ground. V. if hay coold he made of it. which ths water Thofe of mofs foon rife and multiply exceedingly. Uy the feeds of mcfiea-snd rufnes. are. or'tncfs. according to Kliyogg. This he throws into the prinhead of v^^ater. in turn. for mofs never rifes high enough to bz touched with a fcyihzf Or. fJling up thofe firfl made . fo that every part of the : : reap. . the meaputrefadlion dow would foon become fwampy and the grafs bad. without fapplyinp any nourifhing food t^! rheir room . fo that the lefTer channels may imbibe and communicate fertilitv over the meadow.. •i ' . It is likewife efTentially neceiTary to (lope the trenches in fuch a manner."iL'rh lefs cxp*nre. And rufhra may be extirpated if they ere carefully diii/tn ou' by the roots .20 THE RURAL SOCRATESwater v/ill * rudies.

he flill more overloads himfelf with care and work ? The IP.ly contains resny ideas of culture. lays he. equal. never to purchafe mere ground. Vv^hich occafions the farmer to let them devour every blade of grafs for their fapport. fion : The it is 2 nwft refined experience could not ftart a juder obfervaY. and employs only the fertility of an eftate . that he lliould be able to do it. degree of perfection it is capable of attaining. greatly injures the roots of the grafs. till he has carried the culture of what he. fnould have remained fo long. The autumnal inanurc. kffjn to all the firmers of every country in the vvoild. which comnionly happens in autunnn.on of tiieir feet forms (b ziiany ceils for the water . conduC't. that a book Hvhich certaii. •f I cannot read this work without expreffing my furprife. they fcffer their cattle to remain in the fields all x^intcr. and in a rainy feafon.THE RURAL SOCRATES. to any that have been offered to the public. but feeks to extend them without however deviating from his grand principle. by ncreafinghis pofTeilions. and even fefd wiih hay ia thepaRures there cannot t>c a more cxccraWe fyftcm of . pofTeflTes to the highefl. and this water congealing in This is winter. a new proof of the bad hufoandry of maintaining a difproportionate number of horned cattle. the impre^. .-^JreadypofTefTes. the farm is ento luffer cattle — tirely ruined. at leaft. Kliyogg is not fatisfied with the improvement of his meadows. Y. it will fame * This h mofl cxccllenr advice : but through vafi: trafb of country its England. fupplies his 2r meadow . unknown in Kngland. till.* pendently ofthelolsof fo mucli manure. and run the hazard of robbing the earth of its befl fubflance. if a cultivator has not been able to cultivate properly what he . if. the bcafls breajk the turf. that if a doubles his number of acres. is bedowed nay. for grafs. by degrees. .sn culture always in proportion to the even be found.! How is it poflible. which Kliyogg converts into him with a third method of improving he thinks it very hurtful to the ground Indeto graze late in the year.

» raadt : . that the difference of herbage depends entirely on the nature of the ioil and the preparation of the ground. \]x\\ divncr bnj ihe fame rvmt f-jllowF.zz THE RUQ^L SOCRATES. a crop of this will appear after plentiful dunging. than to take a ftirvey of an over-grown farm badly occupied . and often^ in an old worn-out meadow or pafture. will not produce more than a fourth part of what lands of the fame quantity and quality afford. and commences the work by clearing it of ftones with the utmoft affiduiity.where pafture has precedwithoot any perfon's remembering the fowlngofit. oi prrenfiia! •* ofren obferved «*^ed ** '< covered with wiiiteclover. of the whiie clover fpringing flr'lds arable land. he fows it with grafs-feed. and when it is quite level and all the fmall ftones picked up in a third gathering. coploufly manured. . manuring will improve their liiicuriance as well aa l!iat of the beft vei^etahies. fame mimber of laboring hands as when he had only half the number.The following inftance. where there was before " fuch ri^anuring no appearaace of it. amongfl the inhab* — itants of a populous village* f Kliyogg converts one of his fields into a meadow. that his eflatc will clear Jcfs than it did before the additional purchafe. Nor is he vcvy anxious in the choice of feed . harrows it over . made the fatr^e oblervation ^\:\nX'\ (bat it fiiouid he for if the nature be bnd. mentioned by that *' I havs excellent cultivator Sir Dlgby Legard.) -. that a tarmer may have too much ground.-J have offen liaiireil . divided into equal allotments."^ In this When - ' inflancCj this * Kliyo2. where ?. as well as tuo much Jive flock. For our conviction. difpl^p : hh real experrencr. for experience has tau^^ht him. The fame meadow that is matted with mofs and every kind of unprofitable beggarly weeds. f' in great cjunntiiies on land. Thus it is evident. --Thi^ kaCi. where lands. with every advantage of (ituation. is very cuiions but frequent in •* nonhern parts of Ragland and in Scotland*— -It is not confined to manuF** ing. will produce trefoil of the bcfl quality when improved by mr^nure. nothing more is required. adapted to its nature. He then pionglYs it. he always choofes the befl foil .g» in remark. is a very ftrong proof. and gathers the ftones a fecond time that lodge in the furrows .. change of foil is ^.

not finding fuitablc nourifhment. and pro** : " made by Here or 55 du:s whijc elavcr. and this great btii^hen «» of whi'e cl')vcr fucceeded. Thefe various experiments tended to convince — . and he accurately obferved the comparative produce. Ray. and divided it into two equal parts in one he fowed the Flanders trefoil. in waiting the refult. by me of an Dnconnn)on Ijrge crop. which want nothing but a proper bed to make them vegetate .THE RURAL SOCRATES.. Let but the hufbandman fulfil his part of the obligation by induflrious culture.ition. appears there to deftroy the heath. The firft account of them engaged his attention. 23 inflance. dung or marlc. The Philofophical Society of Zurich remitted him fomc pounds of Flanders trefoil feed {trifQlium pyatenje purpiireum majus. 944) requefling him to make fome experiments. in the manner I have defcribed. like the grafTes common to ac- our own country. and leave the refult to Providence. HijI. was more or lefs luy-uriant chiefly cording I hate an accoant maile. p. For this purpoie he prepared a piece of ground near his houfe. in Northumbeiland^t in confcquencc of a " large qoantiiy of lime being laid on fome acres of black moor land cnv* crcd wi. i.h heaih the heaih was entirely killed. .eans ot conveyance «< of the feed. the winds will wafc from diflant fields the moft ufeful feeds. hvl on in great qir^ntines. — kim that this foreign trefoil. Very copious manur«< ing with lime. will wither for want of the juices appropriated for them.'. where great quantities of fuch moor « land have been lately brought into caltiv. 3^6.feeds . that the fame commonly lap4* pens in the county of Galloway. both divifions were manured in the lame manner and carefully watered^ from the ilagnant pools . vvhilfl noxious weeds. . no lefs chan thjee tons an a<:rc heirg ''produced at Ke<'ge!y-]V!oor. we find a manifefl proof of the infinite wifdom and goodnefs of the Creator. Kliyogg never heard of artificial grafTes. fome richly manured. without any aifignable nr. ." McnQirs sf A^rkuliurs^ VcK I.-I find from other account. Till lately. otheus of the fame fize in an unimproved ftate. he made feveral other trials of the Flanders trefoil in fmaller fpots of ground . The mofl wholefome and nutricious plants will grow fpontaneoufiy . in the other common grafs.

we (houid be able to determine whether the fubflitution of them would an^ wer. where the meadows abound with "this grafs. that the trials they have hitherto made. whofe excellepcies are fo highly extolled by a calculation of their jud advantages over our natural herbage. 'vbo began t. fall fbort of the defired fuccefs and that they find . in ftipplying a very fucculent nutrition. in ground where the culture and preparation are the fame . By this means the value of (haw becomes equivalent to that ** of trefoil.-'-Preft^lent wc MjuiIuc. and ihe cattle are preferved fii'ek and cool. as — exotic graffes. due regulation of the quantify of irefoil which a beall may eat \vithout hazirc?.—-It is^ much to be wifhcd that fenfible and unprejadiced f irmers would take equal pains in making experiments on lucerne. A proportion not difScuk to afcertain. and which never ought to he cxeeded. the Flanders trefoil which. to me. what. with equal *• avidity. Some enlightened friends of agriculture have already informed me.* Kliyogg . "It had been remarked by the Baron de Pontual. and occailons very alarming dlflempers.24 THE RURAL SOCPiATES. appears. The fame Ob/eii.Q wake cxperiitcRis in 175S. -r-The idvaloarh-t Colleciion of ohferiatiofis hy the ^Agricultural Society cf Britannjy recorn. they make layers in their hay-lofflj fix or feven inches deep. in fevera! places. than to ufe thefe articles of modern difcovery . Arr. The ftraw imbibes the fcent of •* the trefoil fo fuongly. heated th'^m xo^ tt^. ••of {haw and trefoil alternately.Och. faint-foin. i *' ably .ationi inform *' that it mcceeded very well when tts. great probflbiliiy likewife that Kliyogg was unacquainted with the l)cU method for the culture of trefoil. at much more profitable to continue the old method of hufbandry. fo^vjj with oats. * I fhoull is a senoe. ends. irr:3ginc the only thing wanting to prevent this inconven." There h. ^'hat oxen and hcrfes eat both. an excellent meihod. excites cattle to feed immoderately. and other fpecies of in the prefent age. thai to ^* fodder cattle \s\\S tfefoil only.v!ih the afljftanceot a little attention anHI experience. «. A — •:.ongll the Flemings. native ** of Flanders taught hiai to temper this heat by a very ufeful piece of *• economy. Kliyogg declares he cannot difcern any that is material. for inflance. has had remark. In re^ gard to the grand experiment to find the difference of produce from the feed of trefoil and that of common jgrarfs. which is the laft *• cropin rotatijii berue the ground is fuffered to lie fHllo^. cording as the foil w?s more or lefs manured.

weighs about 125 pounds cf . for feveral fucceffive feafons. is an excellent pafture. called in the north lib grafs. This is when the plantane is faiFered to predominate . :j: Y. and the the plotjgh- * " ing neceffary for the oats are equally beneficial to has convinced treloH. it is the general cuftom to feparate into three divifions. . or two coombs and a half. The cKaniire ilill refirft maining rience in the ground after the crops are mowed. and when prefled down.t (which iall: grain he commonly prefers) for each acre. that no other herbage can fpring up. that ine. which. in a good foil.^ He pointed to my obfervation a meadow.^ — . which. -—The fole remedy for this evil. more than one hundred (heaves. Let us now confider Kllyogg's hufbandry in his grain lands . The produce is. but the narrow leaved plantane. which may be mowed in inoft years twice> and in favorable ones ** three and four tioaes.hc SBarc. ^ + Spelr. a rich meadow oC <• trefoil. where the plantane was fpread over the foil and reduced it to flcrility. whofe large leaves fo totally cover the farface of the ground. is to plough up the meadow and fow it with grain for fome years .. The muid is divided into four quarters. about ihe time \hiy were ripe. Kliyogg has fifteen acres in each.. in general. The Zurich F« D . At great luxuriancy below. i& may be converted into meadow again. a kind of baftard wheat. ^ malter contains four muids. becomes genuhiw. Kxpe- with only the additional prica of «* feed. Thus the clear profit of an acre of land is three maiters. in his opinion. which. a man may have. the trefoil was in two feet in height. wheti thrcrtied. * This 13 precifely the cafe in England . yield fix facks of winnowed grain th^ Tack containing ten bufhels.. -S Kliyogg made me attend to a circnmftance which may prove the deflruiflion ®f a meadow if not corrci^ed. Y. and afterwards. in the manner already defcribed.* twelve bufliels of grain.The firfl allotment is for wheat .** F. in the diilridl where he lives.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and full thirty bottles (or bun- dles) *< <* ** ably fine crops of oats. his rule is fix loads of manure and thirty bufliels of wheat or fpeit.

in the fpring firfl diviiion three ploughings before the month of May. I conclude from hence. in a former naffc. which he fows every year. that thefinefibres of the roots may infmuate themfelves with eafe among the particles of the broken clods . namely. that whoever is defirous of conPcantly plentiful crops. but wheat thrives beft on a IViff foil. third divifion remains fallow.^6 THE RURAL SOCRATES. is ploughed twice. His computation for ploughing is. a complete day's^ — men and four oxen for each acre. He gathers from this eighty iheaves an acre. The allowance is three bulhcls and an half of feed an acre.* Purfuant to the cuflom of the country^ be gives to the namely. manured twice in three years. a pair.— Kliyogg has alfo fomc Thefe are inclofures. that a Zurich acre is hut a liitie more ihaii three roodsEngllQi . which yield annually at leall five The coombs of grain and forty bundles offtraw. fays he^ requite to be lightly ploughed. Light lands are be ft fop barley. (hould be fcnfible how very effential * Thi» is a rei^arkablc U6{. and can be accomplifhed without great inconvefiience. Barley is mofl vegetativ*i when fowedimmediately after the plough. (hewn. efpecially under the eye of fa inrluflrious atnan as Kliyogg. there is Kliyogg likewife obferves. which he is peculiarly careful never to negled $ conftantly varying the grain every time. rye. it does not interfere with more material bufinefs. and at the endof harveft. and on the contrary. The feconddivifion is fowed either with dies) of ilraw. if fon. at theconclufion of harveft and immediately before the feed-time. pcafcjor oats. \% .—-Light foils. I have. — Wheat (hoots ftrongeft when an interval between the time of plough^ jng and fovving. heavy clayey ground fnould be ploughed very deep. I iifed oxen in Suflfolk. that the beads are very mean cnrs. immediately after hay feaThe fecond divifion. we mufl endeavor to preCerve fufficient labor for two : — folidity for the roots to flrike. They roll roc 1 5J. and a fingle pair ploughed m-e 2n acre a day withow^ any eHtraordinary cxtruon. beans. confequently this i? very pmit work tor four oxen to perform. but in a light foil.

advantageous difference in the produce. had been without this manure. Kliyogg combe one thiid lols in the crop.THE RURAL SOCRATES. though little accuflomed to thde minute obfervations. when he took me into one of his in-'' clofures a ' little before harvefl. larger flones. greatly facilitates his woric by the ufe of fledges. effential it &y frequently to vary the feed upon the Thus he is indefatigable in the aearch of Co thoroughly convinced of the utility of this rule. he made ufe of. Kliyogg difcovered veins of this gravel running along the lides of fome barren uncultivated hills. I faw him lafl v/inter in high delight at the appearance of a fettled frofl:. This remark is worthy the attention of fomc curious natidralifl. fame ground. a very puted lerfible difference betv. and the other. A third part of this field. which gave him hopes of a good road for fledges for fome weeks. and bordering upon marie .he marie itfelf which is difcovcrable among the fmall The manure — — particles . if he buys iced at a village only four leagues diflant from his own. if it is not indeed the produftion iDfr. reddifli fand. v/as a fmall gravel of a blueifh hue. he throws afide the feet below it. in the neighborhood . from a deficiency of hands and leisure that year. whofe effeiSts appeared fingularly aflonifhing to me. the foil en which it was fpread being a greafy. and confiderably lelFens the fatigue of the oxen. 1 Inftantly perceived. new . flrewing only th« fineparton light landso T^his is one of his occupations on winter days . is. that he affirms that there is ar. or at lead to domeflic engagements of fmall advantagCc The deep fnow that covers the ground during great part of the winter feafon.een that part this difference to of tiie field which had been manured. which the generality of Jiufbandmen devote to indolence. There feems a great analogy between the operation of this gravel and that afcribed to marie. or a very few In loading his carts. and is > Our induflrious laborer beflows on his arable lands a kind of manure. commonly on the fuperficies.

By the a-riuance of this manure. that every fpecies — deduced . when it pught to be renewed.28 pcirticles THE RURAL SOCRATES of gravel. grant ed. on foils that had beer? given up from their barrennefs or Alterations fo aftonlQiing. the negligence of the peafant. in a diflant fituation. there is little to be reaped. that when it gets the ma{^ tery in a field. by way of juftification. Kliyogg has converted the worft land imaginable into excellent grain fields. Thefe alledgc. that they will not pretend to difpute its efficacy for a few years .manner. th'e operation of this manure to be limited to fiich a period . 6d.^ a plane fo deftru6livc to barley. that we ought to attribute it to the lazinefs and unfldifulnefs of thepeafants. and hopes to make it worth 21I. or rather more impoverifhfreely. J7s. 6d. as he has already given fpccimens of equal improvement. to invent ncv/ operations.s feems the reafon why it is not more pra<n:ifed. and particularly a Icind of pjudiculaire {rhinanthus chrifia galli^ Linn. encourages blelTed efFe£ls : — — * ! — — We : — plication. Kliyogg apprehends the falutary of this ipecies of manure to arife from the heat communicated to the earth he alfo attributes to it the virtue of extirpating baneful herbs. He lately bought near an acre cf flerile ground for 4I. that the earth Kliyogg fiipports all his yields her treafurcs to man. in reply. rationally from new experiments in agriculture. induflry. the ground will be as much. within a few years : a thing by no means improbable. but that after a certain term. how much foundation there is for his afTertion . prove. 14s. The which heaven has fortunate with fuccefs him. or fome other to be but is not this the cafe with fubiMtuted in its place every improvement in hulbandry I It is only as the reward of confcant and diligent labor. Tf our country does not produce even a fuperfluity of grain Dreffing larids with this manure is not a newdifcovery . forcible. which has never deceived arguments on this principle. than it was originally. The effefe of gravel led him to this general maxim. with allidiious aphis him.

u'hich not only wafies much land. 29 he 'ir. who. . he thus remedied changedithefe furrows into trenches of the depth of about two feet. fpreading the earth tak#n out of the trenches over the whole. cultivate very little vegetable food .THE RURAL SOCRATES. a ftratum of earth hitherto unknown to him. Dirapproving the cuftom of throwing it into ridges. and had been given ypasuDprofitablCa furrows between He — '''^ Our wife cultivator has appropriated a pretty large inclofure to the culture of vegetables^ fuch as French beans. By a procefs nearly refembling this. and obtain from it as good grain as from the reft of the field. Thefe fufRcc for the maintenance of his family daring the greater part of fummer . which he half-filled with large ftones. which. is as great ^n acquifition in his eyes. In this manner he regained lo much lofl land. I is the famous njctbod of draining all fons of wet foils in Ergda not reniember meeting before wiih any nsention of it in th? French authors. peafe. as a purfe of gold in thofe of % niiier. fo neceffary to purfuc their improvements* *This land. he has made a very fine hemp Held of a piece of ground fituated in a floping bottom. Kliyogghas another peculiarity in the culture of his arable land. fo many o^ '' ' t rir". It is very extraordinary that ihia peafant. nnd then covered with pine branches . in proportion. cf earth may . (hould unite in bis Hitls far*!?. . on the lideofagreat road . excepting beet. but occafions the roots of the grain on the fides of the ridges to be overflowed as they lie in the- — the double injury. after heavy rains. v/as conflantly overflowed by torrents coming from the road. a branch of economy that didingaifhes him from the peafants of that country .ftriimenial io the improvement rf an* The difcovery therefore of otker of oppojiie qualities.!*: : ces ot Eoropcan huibandry ! Y. cabbages. the only means they have of procuring money. which obliges them to confiime a much greater quantity of bread and flour. to prevent wetnefs . and diminifhes. &c. enlightened only by nature.

E. adapted to their flrength. free/from thofe dangers to which plants and grains are expofed from the variations of feafons.** The excellent properties of potatoes and their great utility. an eafy tafk.^daily confumption in his family is one bufhel. by preventing farther growth.iIl-ftorra has injured the green flalks »yove the groimtl. and his economy in this article faves a ranid of wheat in the fpace of three weeks. as in theie two articles there is nothing uncommon . . I pafs over in filence.'^ther miftaken or common in the text. nor fhall i expatiate an his manner o^ pruning fruit trees . as ten to d)^ a vtry elFential — likewife add. but I ought not to omit his rules for ihe culture of potatoes^ as he is the firfl man in fhe village who has made them an effential objetfc r^^fafctenri )n . whilfl an acre of the beR land will fc^rcely produce four makers of fpelt. in the opinion of Kliyogg. Thus he computes that twenty buHiels of potatoes are equivalent to one maid of wheat.30 * THE RUa\L SOCRATES. Ik fore the potatoes were arrived at a certain degree o^ gnaturity J which.. is as profitable as ten muids of wheat . and in the bell jcars. The. . comparative value of an acre of potatoes to an acre of wheat^ is. and which trains them gradually to the performance of more toilibme work. One acre produces two hundred bufliels. Neither the nipping frofts in fpring. an acre planted with potatoes. According to this calculation. is about the value of fix muids of wheat . Tior fnow. . his method for the culture of turnips after rye harveft . that this root remains in fecurity under ground. ! ifJifference — We may hail. deftroycd the •rop --^ feet this i« very rare. confequentiy the. : provements. at the highell price. F. which. a very decifive preference over all other fruits of the earth. nnuft be cxcufed. *The f Yet there are inftances where a h. antl this part of thej Socrates wag written Haifa century ago. the other peafants being fatisfied with hav/ing f jme beds of thi^m in their gardens. nor which fo frequently difappointf- and deftroy Iliiral culture of potatoes is in a manner recent. His children are entrufled with his kitcheti garden . What appears* therefore. have given them.

— wc enter into a circumflantial detail of Xliyogg's huibandry in this cfTential branch. A dry feafoor is judged beA for planting. arable land. Let the culture of potatoes once become general. before this he This advantage is fo manifcfl/ part in his houfhcld. I apprehend it will not be thought an ufe. and left in that flats fifteen days . it is prepared in autumn by ploughing. that the culture of potatoes is already common in many diftriills of Switzerland. ofits of his to market the pf expended a very confiderable dilcovery. if fpring. When be has fele<aed a proper fpot of giound. the induflrious peafant will procure. In promoting their culture we find a new refource againft national alarms. particularly in thofe whole vicinity to the Alps expofes them mofl to the inclemency of winter. Thus planted. two or three together. ileld is covered again with manure.anltjg i^jf . si Ic/lroy the labors of the hufbandman. a comfortable fubfiftence for his family . within a trifle. — the unavoidable confequence of our prefent fituation. from a very imall piece of ground. by degrees. efpccially if the foil is fubje^l to weeds. for the luccefs of potatoes chiefly depends on the afllduity of the hufbandman itx- — — — — cleaning * TIftj operation is prcbaUrf deigned to prevent i)b« C. can injure the growth of potatoes. releafe us from that dependence on our neighbors. The very large ones may be cut in pieces. nor will he be liable to diraj:>pointment even in the n7oit He will cultivate. Towards the following I'efs procefs. and a wellgrounded hope that better rural economy. after firfl ipreading over it fome tumbrels of marley gravel .THE RURAL SOCRATES.* when it is ban owed over. the unfriendly years. and ploughs a fecond time. He then fets the potatoes in the turrows. as it is more likely to kill the weeds which are diflodged . may. the His allowance is ten bulhels an acre. leaving a foot's fpacc betwixt. he hys ten loads of manure on an acre. and will be able to carry fame t^uantiiy of harvcfl almoin entire whilfl.

. vvhilethey are fupplied wich the co. a fortnight after leed-time. Y. not touch them. yogg gives the preference to the former . the potatoes are drawn out of the ground.jttlc. a fecond. Horned cattle devout ihcm Douhcro parwef theUoitedStares. Mtmofl care to prevent many from flill remaining. a great number of potatoes that lie in the ground are gathered up. Kliyogg waters them from his pools. Klilotted the third year either to potatoes or wheat. Kliyogg. that the crops of rye are as good when fovtn after potatoes.fork forage. by fupplying the cattle with wholcfome and well tadcd The ground is then flirred with a pitch. great attention is cleaning the ground. * However wholefome if may be. it Is by no means well tafted : and I know from in the expedience. if this can be done a month fooner it anfv*^ers much better^ he thinks. which jnufb be drawn out as foon as the tops appear. He begins to gather in his harvcflby cutting the tops clofe to the ground . — and carried home in facks.m- r>cn Cons of food. from a convidion that the culture they require contributes greatly to meliorate the ground by the extirpation of weeds. and ofIn the autumn. and when the harrow paOes over.3^ THE RURAL SOCRATES* For this reafon. Ic is then fowed with barley or rye . as in fields where The fame land may be al* there has been only grain. E. v*'hich are gathered in balkets. When the crop Is carefully got in. and in following the plough. there is a fecond gleaning of potatoes^ Nor is it poffible with the v/hich are fiill immerous. about ten athird w^eeding is beftowed. in all his fields defigned for grain .—-Kliyogg is convinced by much experience. and approves of planting them alternately.*' to loofen the potatoes. required when the leaves of the potatoes (lioot half a foot above the furface. the tillage is repeated . that vvill C. When this is done. and that varying the produdlion in- — creafes the fertility. ff a frefh crop of noxious plants ariies. to have it — carefully weeded.

is fcattered amongfh woods in detached pieces. and eats it with fait fometimes they ftew them.* To iinifh the circumAantial defcription I purpofed giving of Kliyogg's hufbandry. and is then \ery excellent. but with the addition of fome of the flour with which they made houfhold bread. that there be no lumps. they anfwered His method is as follows Pare and cut his purpofe. but had no fuccefs Vt^hilft he ufed no other ingredient . as the cows and pigs find the parings very acceptable. They are boiled till fufficieirtiy fbft. Nor is it found lefs noiTrifliing or invigorating to the conflitution than when made entirely of wheat. as I ly a buQiel of potatoes : — : : fedl: this operation. whoieibme. there li ill remains ail account of his paflurage — and woods o the P^fl lire ground^ in this country. wliere each perfon peels his own fhare. becaufeit is efTential to the msk'wg of good bread. I have fcldom ieen diftempcrs amcngft foldier?. and of exceeding robuft conflitutions. when they had putatoea lo nftoft * Potatoes are one of the {b. and then had them ground. ^Our hiifbandman determined* to try if bread could be made of potatoes. well-fnadc. E . Kliyogg dried fome potatoes in an oven. great pare of German Lorraine finds in them a confiant fjpport . fometimes a third or fourth part the bread mufl be exceedingly well kneaded. pour in boiling water enough to cover them 5 bruife them till thoroughly fmooth neither time nor pains fliould be fpared to perKliyogg. but hitherto the experiment has been unfuccefsful. and brought to table. nutritious kind of aliment. — They va'uab'e prcfsnts furnifii the A bcil iu their kettle.t new worU. favorable to pppalation. They fome: times with the common dough take equal parts of raafheJ potatoes. them into the kneading-trough . taking care to pare them f:rl"t. The foil is in general extremely wz Iisve received frora country people with 3 pleafant. F.t^HE : RURAL SOCRATES* ^f have already obfervedj allows his famieach day. in order to fee if the flour would make bread witlxout wheat . and the young villagers there are ftout.

Thus the tender (lioots which %ould have fprouted again. and it is lo — : -im^'iiingly improved. eKtremely bad. that he has applied his industry tovvards this improvement. ally reaped from them. according to the rules obferved in his fields for grain . There is great probability that thefe fpots of ground v/ere formerly covered with wood. which has been felled . . This was a long time obliged to be omitted for ^want of laboring hands . too prevalent in Switzerland. The land is then dreiTed with marley gravel and manure. have been appropriated to pafI have taken notice of the little advantage ufuturage. iTnd thefe grounds thus dripped. and ^here there are large holes. that by perfeverance and affidu- — — : ous labor. The firfl: ilep is digging a ditch of about three or four feet broad and two or three deep round each pallure . and to fill up fmall inequalities of ground . that^ ia general. that he could fcarcely devote a moment to his paflures. till by degrees the woods became totally deftroyed . and produced frefh trees. have been nibbled or broken down by the beafls.34 THE RURAL SOCRATES.-— He at Urd treated his pailiures like other peafants . when I mentioned the exertions of Kliyoggin augmenting his compofl dunghill. ^c. and that according to the pernicious cu^torn. it affords his beft crops. fowing them with wheat every (ixth year.grafs. with oats But he was foon (enfible. cattle were immediately turned in to feed. expoled to the weather it is then made ufe of to fpread on the moil barren fpots of the pallure. a much more confiderable advantage might. be gained by turning them into fruitful corn-fields frtr grain.^ of cultivation. and the cattle find but little fudcnance from its natural produce of rattle. and the greater proximity of l>is other grounds prefcnted fo many immediate objedL. It is only fmce his children have made a beginning to affifl: him. cading the earth In the form of a parapet bank. he fills them with ftones before he covers them with mould. and every feventh at all other times the cattle grazed there. inilk-thiftle. which remains two years in that Hate.

Happy (liould I be.THE RURAL SOCRATES. aipecies of knowledge with which our country is unfortunately little acquainted.— He delights more in this part of his eftate. His prime motive^ as evidently appears.' which 35 he takes care to vary. that he carefully roots out . infallibly be produ<5live of ruin. by wounding the young (hoots.thatfcarcity of wood for fuel. is the increafe of manure . I remarked jujfl now. we — may attribute. which the cattle had rendered incapable of bearing farther wood. Woods in Switzerland are regarded as wild uncultivated jpots. where ncgle£t will. fclf fown. for which purpole. crops. and requiring no other attention than to cut them down at a proper age. the offspring of indolence and ignorance. It is with thi^ view alfo. with the utmofl indudry^fmall branches of pines and firs. at liberty to tions Five acres of this pafture knd. in time. he colleds. and it is well known that the bed foil is always feleded for this purpofe. but Avith a viev/ very different from what 1 fpeak of. which lie mod conti- guous to his IVoods^ are fet afide for planting. in places where the foil and expofure are remarkably favorable. To this falfe . in fome refpeds. to gain proper information in reg^ard to planting trees . which is more lenfibly apparent every day. not having been able as yet. Kliyogg beflows a kind of culture on his woods . without thofe reflricwhich confine him to cftablifhed cuftoms in the culture of lands dependent. — He leaves to nature the care of fowing pines and firs . that the pafturage dependent on the village of Wcrmetchweil. One of thefc paf^ tures he has made uie of for hemp . were I capable of awakening th. becaufe he is — farm it as he pleafes. on the Village of Wcrmetchweil.prejudice. which are to be met with in our forefls.s ovv^ing thofe defart trads. had its origin from new-felled parts of the forefb. To the fame caufe i.with dead leaves and mofs. fometimes of confiderable extent.c attention of my countrymen to an — — objet^ fo efTential to public utility.

and firips his from time to tunc of branches.he branches cf ail were confiderably lopped. till it arrived at its pcrfedion . Kliyogg oblerved that every year produced a new head to the fir tree. and du Haniel . Y. I found his opinion well founded. the fame number of circles might be taken off with confidence.^ I their approbation. The neighboring farmers reject this manner of treating trees as extremely prejudicial . to accelerate the growth of the trees and augment the beauty of their trunk. in no fraail degree. a method which contributes. the refl. ventilates the young (hoots. trees jbut Kliyogg troubles himfelf but very little about is convinced that his pines and firs are equal. Bonnet. weeds. but they afterwards grew as vigoroufiy as others. leaving only three knots on any . on jtotliofe of his neighbors. from the openings vifiblie between the trunks where the branches aretaken off but after a more accurate examination. fo long as he — • : know this pracftice is cbntraditftory to the generally ef- theory of the vegetation of trees. to fpeak truly. .3^ 0ut all THE RURAL SOCRATES. he inferred that the lower circle might be taken off every year without injury to the tree . his woods appear thinner. almoft to the top . though t. and that if pruning had even been omitted feveral years together. that.the firll view. and often fuperior in growth It iriuft be allowed. the trunks were from fix inches to a foot in circumference^ He did not lole more than four trees . and the experiments of the mofl: difcinguiflied naturalifts of the prefcnt times (fuch as Kales. I did not fee one fmgle young fir that Teemed withered and decayed. He made experiments Ibme years fince how far he might carry the operation with fafecy he reduce^^i the branches of fo many trees as thfe compafs of a quarter of an acre afforded. were a longer time than ufual in making their fhoois.) tabliflied who greatly * This method of pruning fir-trees I have hefore heard cf afif'wering : but how Kliyogg's pruning his woods for manure can be advantageous I can conceive only by fuppofing the Swifs woods and our Eoglifii >0'< Qn?s totdlly diffcient.

wcuKi narurally conclude for fix *' monihs after. thas from the extremity of the branches to the root ef th€ tree. but at the fame time I cannot help thinking that the opinion of a man. sn gIoi. with /^rhre (irce) in the Encyciopedie. < a trunk thirty or forty feet in height. merits a degree of attention which may ani-^ mate us in the purfuit of more ample difcoveries. on forre paffages drawn from the article f* difpIeafeJ with o^fervirg the agreethe nature and culture of trees. infinite it <' rifes in a «* yet if an oak. a poplar. and which the leaves draw in by futftion. is firipped of its branches from top to will <• throw out from the loweft amputated parts to the top. The roots of tree*. ire analogous to the It is ftomach juices " •* animals. uhofe trunk perpendicular diredion. picurs. contrimore than any other method of induitry to their luxuriancy .* Thus * The rea<3er. below the wounded part. or any tree. an which burfting into leaves round .THE RURAL SOCRATES. Yet the fuccefs of thefe experiments made by Kiiyogg. feems to point out one exception at leafl. that it was a dead trunk. fo it may be trcly faid. But how great the furprife toobferve a tree in rhefc circum<* (dances (booting forth. clofe to the neck of ihe branches. or an f* ** axe. favor of fnch aromatic and refinons trees as have — fpines inflead of leaves. perhaps. the more limbs they retrench in vegetable to a certain point. form a clothing of thick branches ** that almoft conceals the body of the tree. will ccnfider of recovery. and whofe obfervations are fo totally free from prejudice. who difplays in fo many inftances the greatefl difcernjnent. will not be ment between what is faid above. the more they multiply. there is no number of buds every where — '^' ** perceptible .** there the firft and principal preparacion of the * The " buies •* that " life. by pruning away part of its branches. and fit only to be ** hewn down bottom. Thofe who have never its •*feen a tree entirely ftripped of <* it in this mangled lUte : as incapable branches to the very root. I acknowledge that there has not been fufficient time for a courie of experiments capable of eflablifiiing this as a rule . 37 who have demonflrated that trees receive their principal nQurifhmcnt from the humid particles with which the air is impregnated. and cf plants in general. a perfon who firft beholds a tree that has loft its head by a hurricane. culture of a tree. In the fame manner. which may be pruned with lefs hazard than other woods. a profuuon cf young <^' branches that form another head ! This (hews the almoft inexhaufliblc <» refourccs of vegetable nature! For it may be confidently afferted. in. whcfe vegetation could never be ** renewed.

that th€ roots fiipplythe tree with a vaft coIle£lion of nutritious ]uices. that if we are not fupplied at home with grain for our fubfiflence." life ready to appeir. all this reafoning is that pollard trees (thofe whofe heads are regularly faggotf) do nor near equal. th$ are conliderably diminiQied by annual prunings.— I obferve farther. the rnorc I am confirmed in my opinion. Y. The more lemof our ed attentively I rural philofopher. the 3.* and pruned with difcretion at a proper feafon. Thus far may be afHrmcd with certainty . is. examine the economical iyfwhich I have endeavor- to explain. wherewhen covered withmofs and briars^ the young twigs are fo entangled that few can make and thefe fuckers furni(h a perpetual fupply their way trees^ throwing in the fame . — debt' « ** •< perceptihle fpace that ilots not enclofe a portion of erabryo eftion of the fecret fprings of vegetation. as he draws annually from every a^re tv/o loads of . whether their number be great or fniall. good timber one* a l' Even the fize they doattainis defotrocd and odious. according to the method propofed. cF materials proper for manure fo that Kliyogg regards his woods as refources fo much the more valuable. cut off for man's arms off and you will Increafe his height amazing«> according to my obfervation. whenever the fituation of the tree requires an extraordinary ex- F. tlut the heavy weight of n3en. then. foil. this coIle(9:lon of lap will be employed almofl entirely to the benefit of the trunk itfelf . . cooperating with the floth and inattention of our hufbandI conclude farther. it ought much lefs to be imputed to the (lerility of the foil .AL SOCRATES. * Erg 1. :i tree that is If> number of branches will increafe in llze. which are communicated through proper tube$ to all the branches. — litter for his ilalls. that the efFe^Sl of a conftant attention to clearing the foil from weeds. cut ty f —-In theory. ani! How comes it falfe.38 THE RUPX. even in girt.3 ' up a vaffc number of fuckers . than to falfe maxims introduced.

which. the lands which belonged to him were ranked among the worft .which is ever ready to calculate the poiribillty of another's ilr . Fifteen acres fown with wheat. This conclufion was not altogether the refult of envy. have afTured me. thanks to the a(ftivityand wifdoni of this extraordinary man. and yielding very near double the crops of grain and hay which it formerly pro- duced. whofe appearances denounced ruin and decay. which mufl pay annual interefl: Supplied. to involve the tv/o brothers in dedruclion and' they expe<Sled their bankruptcy every day. They iikewife regarded his enterprise. who are far from being partial in his favor. that when he engaged in his undertaking. yield 50 malters 4. as I have before obferved. is not an infurmountable objeiTbion to the re eflablKhment of agrihave Teen in the inflance before us an culture. fortune. in hopes of exciting. cflate.with for 547 1..THE RURAL SOCRATES. and thab now. as themofl: rafh imprudence. 6s. at the rate of ioo Theaves to iixty buihels of iinwinnowed corn. could be comfortably — the neceffaries of life from an eflatc Icarcely valued at 875I. having few natural advantages. produced 1500 flieaves . I will endeavor to render the fadl (till ftsoi) gcr by calculation . I am greatly miflaken if all indifrerent perfcns wouldnot have pronounced the fame fcntence on the follcvving queflion : Whether a family. in proportion to their extent. as far as I am able^ the emulation of all good farmers. confiding of four parents and eleven fmall children. determined in favor of the proprietors. which could not fail in a very iliort time. Some of KHyogg's neighbors. The . and being loaded with a We confiderable mortgage : yet in a few years improved to a height almofl: incredible. they always produce tlie finefl crops in that divifion. 39 Jcbt under which many of the peafants fink. ho^vever. bafncls. ? A quef!:ion which the event has.

(allowing ten bufliels per acre) Thirteen muids of rye for feed for 15 acres. ps! whi':h ia a g?od crop. 8d. in the articles of expence . at five muids an acre. I have likewife omitted the profits arifmg from the wafte ground concerted into good ploughed land in the article of reimburfement . — but we muft attribute ryi^rvjri: g^ it to the induftry of it? l\. 6s.— Thefe 15 acres are aliout lof Englifu. we mufl confult the pfopo/tions. —Th? rvi? is y. amount's £. potatoes. 6do whole produdl amounts to* ^. Y< .40 THE RURAL SOCRATES. price of wheat in Switzerland is The the at leaft 17s. the farrier. per acre a conQderable produce for : fo frtMll a fi^rm lo yield . as I have already obferved. pd. which at 8s. fix bufhels of wheat for leed. 4% 4^. which producing 48I. the collar-maker. excellent culiivator and his ample "iCfe. produces grain. the muid. a. hemp. and a variety of vegetables for * As I am unacouaintecl with thcfe meafures. 4 3 s. and fix 9 6 3 Rent of a meadow Seven tumbrils of tGtis 4 16 ftable s 5 of turf afties g i Total expence Clear profit 50 19 30 i & o 8i 7 If I have omitted the wheelwright. manure.48 4 4 Fifteen acres Town with rye. 6:1. lis. (allowing three budiels and an half per acre) Interefl 5 3 8 5^3 21 17 of 5-47!. is at the rate of 4I. which. at 4 percent. yielded 75 muids. is 3 32 16 5 maker Co that the Total reimburfement The tytheofthe to fields of wheat. 18 6 7 9r The tythe of feveDty-fivc muids of rye is Kine maJters.

but how cotne fpiriterl improvers. That rnind which beholds * This tnaxlai of condu^. &c. had he not been endowed with intelligence and a<5livlty. in the mod plentiful years. firength.THE RURAL SOCRATES. than. the moiety of Kliyogg^s harvefl . is the making his annual payments. 7s. to apply their money to an intereft cf four or live The one.tra^ed . The by This he regards as more advantageous than liquidating^ the mortgage upon his eftate. manufa<5tursrs. by tend towards aggrandizing his eflate . when they might eafily coainiand ten or twelve. it is per cent. or in the purchafe of land. he received in — cows with milk and butter. It is the misfortone o? thofe who fee an objedt but in one ligiir. merchant?. that his his example. ii isean and goi. . fince he makes much more intereft by employing 4I. — nothing but liabit that difficulties and obje^ions foul.— Senfible that the time approaches. he pays . 4? His orchard likewifc fupplies him vvith fruit. by is fo very unufnal in economical fhews the ftrength of Kliyogg's ideas. his hogs An accurate examiner of this ^flimate will profit. for the ufe of the table. be animated to procure. but hecaufe tho advantages more than balance fuch obje^ions.* and he confiders the reciprocal convenience it is to a rich citizen to have ) furplus profits of the year are always employed Kliyogg in Imprcrvements. on the other fidcj the apparent hazard t© hufbandman of unavoidable ruin. true. the other a certain iDcome . according to the above calculation. to an idle unfkilfui farmer. all his his plans polierity may. when the health.. is an uncertain. whilfl more money would have been expended for the payment of laborers. it i* a« mark* a Wvh Y. which liarnds. and vigor of his children will lend ailiflance to his labor. money on' landed fecurity* The only trouble it gives him. in agriculture^ than the four per cent. who regard the paying of mortgages as the fixft aioi . his with bacon. 6d. obferve. by engaging in the improvement of an eftate fo badly circumftanced.~ Thefe waflc and uncultivated fields would fcarcely have afforded. to trade on borrowed roonty f Not becaufe fuch a condud^is totally Iree from objeftions.

a thorough reformation of manners mnft be introduced. but more precarious works of the manu* fadurer^ to the rough but more manly exercifes of the hufbandman. by indefatigable induftry. whom are and the care of educating and employments. and exchanging the ancient modes of cultivation for a more perfect fyflemj eflabllfhed on experimental demonftration. — We — Our .42 THE RURAL SOCRATES. that before agriculture can be brought' to perfedlion in this canton. domeftic is i WHAT working for their children ! The unprodu£^ivenefs then of our foil i% itot the It is not necefTary confequence of want of inhabitants* progrcfs of floth but andof hands. is. as their an« ceflor enjoys* SECTION Itr 0/yc/wf philofophic and domcdic particulars in the ckf^" radcr of Kliyogg^ moft amazing. two of ib few hands who have few hours to fparc fromi women. and merits our particular at-* tention. the the deficiency : it alarm our fears is this ought to which indolence which induces the idle part of our people to prefer the lefs toilfome. The extravagance of our artificers. When the peafants fball be animated with a true ardor for rural occupations. that all thefe improvements are efFc<Sled with a family of four adult perfons . affords another fource of calamity which is daily augmud necelTarily conclude from thefe menting^ confiderations. an equal (hare of good fof^ tunc and as pcrfcil contentment of mind. it will then be the proper time to think of adopting the new hufbandry .

The clergy might be peculiarly inftru*' mental in this laudable work. and finging pfalms and that they may then in" dulge ** *' — — . . ! . either from the " pulpit or in their pafloral vifits. that we can hope *' for relief. in going to church. Thefe gentlemen have com^' monly a great deal too much learning in their fer*' mons. It muft be then from " the magiflratc. if the government and the inhabitant of the country mutually concurred in promoting the general good. that the villagers (far the greater part of *> them) imagine that they have fulfilled all that rcli*' gion requires.THE RURAL SOCRATES. The public ofHcers ^' fhould attentively infped the coRdu£l of every nidivi*' dual . faying their pray^^ crs. by reprimands. *^ ticulars.OurphilofopherKliyogg «' '^' 43 is invariably of this opinion* You cannot conceive. or in other words. which the peafant is incapable of com* ** prehending . in rendering *' to every one his due. They feek tedious and labored explications ^* of their text. that the eiTcnce of piety '* confifls in exa<^Iy performing towards our neighbors ** what juflice di<^ates. who is appointed by the date to watch *' over the good of the comqiunity. to fupply a fufficient quantity of grain for *' our ufe bat unfortunately we err in thele two par. to the uniform *' pradice of the duties of chriflianity : and if they in^' culcated without ceafing. menaces. Our lands want *' only to be cultivated with more underflanding and ** induflry. and exert the *' authority lodged in their hands. to oblige the idle to *' work or to punifh their obftinacy. and falutary ^' corre«flion." he has often repeated. were they more aflidu*' ousin admonifbing their parifhioners. '' how many grievances would be rcdrelTcd. Hence " it follows. Sir. It is they who fhould prefcribe to culti*' vators thebcfh methods of husbandry . inflead of informing him in a fimple ** manner how he ought to regulate his conda£l. leading back to theirduty fuch as have devi^' ated from it.— The pcafant is feldom enlightened enough *' to difcern his real advantages.

and examine accurately the cultui'e of the farms they fiiould diltin1 ' *^ ^' ^' *' *' *' *' *' ^' *' ** *' *^ *' : ^^ *^ ** *' ^' ''' guiOi and reward thofe amongjfl: the fubordinate huf- *' *• bandmenwho give the nloU: evident proofs of labor and application . in fome particularly the unmarried. merit tins !«• p roach. but thofe whofe probity is irreproachable. in my opinion^ ten times more evil in cheating a man of a fingle farthing. on the contrary. ex« pedis all from Providence . ought^ oh their fide. An indolent one. to hear peafanJs accofec^ of luxury in in Switzerland. becaiife his har veil is worfe than thofe of his induftrious neighbor.. but thofe the may be lurprifed who have been diftricis. There is. and exccflivfr. if fuch meafures were purfiied and what an abundant enjoyment wc fliould have of all the necelfarles of life i"t 1 Kliyogg '' 'Viany readers spparel. they (hould make frequent and regular circuits in their diftrid:. and ivho thus earn their A diligent hufbread by the fweat of their brows bandman knows nt/t what a bad year is. and complains of the partiality of fortune.gluttony in eating and drinkingl Thus they begin by diflipating their patrimony. F. and ^^ *' *' ^' end by defrauding their neighbors. whilft they fnould treat with the utmoil feverity. arc fenfible how rnucb women. who refufe to labor hbtwithHianding the exhortations of the clergy.— The magifirate of the difl:ri£ts. nor fuffers the ferenity of his mind to be iufHed at ilerms andtempefls. and their in duflry indefatigable . -' Tb- polic*} of the $mU admitted of iht JiboTC tseafursso . fuch as are notorious for lazinefs and ina«5livity. Good God !'' exclaimed he.^ ^^ ciaige *' 'rHE RURAL SOCRATES e themfelves with impunity. to enforce corporal puniQimehts and' pecuniary 'fines on perfons. Nbne have a right to expcfb d benedidion from heaven. *' What would be the profpcrity of thefe cantons. F6r this purpofe. in luxury * of ap- ^' ^' parel. that in omitting to hear a fermon.

ton:)orrow anothand infenfibly your work will receive its lull accomplifhnienr. waa not a!! at once. that fays Tes to it. You doubt the approbation of the pub«< lie . however fruftrated. «< When — — — «' for the public wc often fee. and proje^s rejeified which are the beft intentioned — for it it prccifely /^<r«. ^ effarc . containing a converfation between moFC thaii nine pages unKliyogg and oar author. Providence has favored me at the time of bar«* veft with a fufficient crop. when we know that we have done oar duty. the fruit of all our labors <» «< <* *« *« «« «« and contrivSuch contradidions difliearten public men .hici\ <. pa'olic . vanilh. end makes yoa every Groke J «« approach nearer to the objcfts yon have in view . " away all hepe from me.^ engaged in hope:* in an honeft enterprize. when we heat <» the truth. an^ ed. «« apart of what yoo feek frc^fT-^?. according to the apodle. al'w&ji . li'jes Kliyogg in the above converfation. To day. when the ftate of the feafons has feem^ to Jake. that I f.IHE RURAL SOCRATES. ha?e meditated well upon objeih tending to th?. and the firft that can be propofed ? Tnift to Providince : every ufeful attempt. may at another feafoti^iroduce " falutary fruits. and he who reckons upon Providence whc:?. in a finglc inftant.«* utility (fays Kliyogg) propofe them with etjergy and zeal. mi will give you coorage in «* your farther efforts. of itHtlf a « fccompenfe . and in the end you will perceive. 4^ *Kliyogg cxercifes all the duties o^th-tmafferoftt family y though he is the younger brother. and let the c< manner of executing theoi be a naodei of feriior acd zCiWiiy . This K-hcn no remedy appears.« " we experience. who in his ^ political conferences ufcd to jrc£r. Do <« net be difheartened yourfelf..icceeded in improving my lands .f3^1ion w. I. But my dear «' Kliyogg (replied our author) fuccefs in your cafs is a conftant motive to «« aiSiviiy of your hoc is a ftep forwards. the more ought we it. hov^ever faint. however difagreeable it niay be. one point vviji be gained. many «* years pafled away beforel could perceive that I had made any advance . whereas in working «' er. aft foKows of yx)u fo much of the paflage as is intereftiog. The rtwre to he convinced of the necelSty of is an im media re attention to And not the internal i}iiti«. Often. will not . and the firft •«<on!y fuggeft the trial of new expedients. He who has the "priority of birth. «t but this did not difcoarage me. but why (hculd you doubt that what is honeft and ufcful will at laft <« obtain its concurrence ? There is fomcthing within us. that efforts is prefling the call.ark» fhaf r?^ . and the •• blefling of Providciice will Yon will always obtain not be wanting. has a iiifficient degree of information and * As tiieEng1i/h cxtrafl •' tranflator has here pa/Ted ovei noticed. their zeal cools . «* '^. they leave things ro take their couifc(exclaimed Kliyogg with vivacity) is exaif^Iy what ought not to be . fecms to agree with the Ia?e Dr. ought to be redoubled. Tebb of London. that ev« cry cne will be afhamed to refufe you his approbation.

fays the Chinefe philofophcr. According to him. Satisfied with feconding that ardor of which he is fufiiilhed with the exampleIn admitting the fyftem which Kliyogg has formed refpedling the obligations of the head of a family. and to reiign. the tree. On the contrary.r/jee is that which is ioundcd on a love for xhfwhoUhu* fentiaaen>. when he himfelf is the firfl to difcov*'er wearinefs i With what expe<flation of^ obedience *' can he regulate and order the bufinefs of the day^ *^ when his laborer underllands how to methodize it *' better I Such a mafler will be the fport. (who however fell far fhort iif^eneral of Confucius. however healthy *' before. the ible direction of every thing to his adminiftration . if it is he who fets the mofl induflrious example ^ fifort is loft. the — *' <" •'* fage who is always content . With what confidence *' can a mafler exa^^of his fervantsto labor with un*' relaxed ardor. the jefl of his *' domeflics . if the intellec*' tual faculties of the mafler are evidently more en* */ largcd . the mafler is to be the firfl to commence The veall forts of work. — *' (fays he) all efforts are *' the. *^ <^' mailer of a family may juflly vain." Many Vnit the ht^ pafrieti/m iftai%. for he does not pradliice virtue in order to be retompenjed by it : I the prad^ice of virtue is he fole reward for which of thcGreeW philofophets. for virtue renders his fool tranquil : noih« ing troubles or difturbs him. ^^ . and if his ignorance is accompanied with :*' obflinacy. as to diffufive benevolence. • There is only. muft perifli with it. and the lafl to leave them. to acknowledge the fuperiority of his brotband talents. in confequcncc. ry elTence of his authority confifts in being a living pat'* Without this.44 and rcafon sr's genius THE RURAL SOCRATES. one of ihc moft wife and amiable of men. which gives life and flrength : if the root ceafes to vegetate.b*t i% ufe ful. few men would be tempted to envy him that honor. all cares are ufelefs t be compared to the root of a tree. the execution of his orders will be an in*^ tolerable burthen. fmce Confucius knev/ ** he hopes. tern to every individual of his family.s .J many of the Greek philofophers have uttered fimilar pfpcftxng a diftnttrejled pu ifuit of vijctHC acd pf v. Kliyogg alfo agrees wuh Confucius.

it is permitted us. 1 replied. to enjoy a reputable and honorable rc" leafe from it. in order to be ** exempted from tt)o great fatigue myfelf : all that *' fecms ncceffary for me to undertake is. is it not natural that every one (hould be folicitous to pafs hi^ time as comfortably as he can I But I find we think in a very different . it no lon- ** ger amazes me that your fervant is idle during your abfence . fbr F had never feen any* ^* '* tt *' body fo remarkably indefatigable. " whatdifferencev/ould there be between opulence and ** poverty I And where would be the advantage thatPro** vidence has difpenfedto us a larger portion of wealth f replied friend. he is not always hearty in his work. to give proper *' diredlions. there will not be a fervant in his hoiifliold will glory to emulate their mafler's condu£t. Is he equally idle. he always found him'unemployed. This lad. and to have an eye to their execution. and I could not avoid admiring his vigor. i. fairly fpeaking. Were we denied this privilege. for. I could not forbear obferving the great injuflice he did his fervant in accufing him of idlencfs. and diligence. when he works in the fame fpot of ground vi^ith your (elf? That is a point. dexterity. as a painful employment f "faid he. and is.THE RURAL SOCRATES. — — — cannot determine. lately to me) to (hew his fervant my method of manuring with marley gravel. I " my — — *' ^' *' '^ — If this is your way of thinking. inter*' ruptigd I at lead think. took the lad into the field with me : he fhared tigue early in the morning. that whenever he went to overlook his laborers. as you fee. ftrongand robufl the misfortune is. " Yoii regard the rougher part of manual labor. on the contrary. ^^ *^ 47 pie . but " yogg *' *' *' *'Iwas requeftcd by a particular friend (faid KI1-. and worked clofe *' I ** my faby my *' fide late in *' " ** *' *^ *' thecveningc He feconded my labor better and better evdry day . docs not want capacity. I hii-e him *' to do the 1: lavieft part of the bufineis. The next time I faw my friend. faid I. He protefted to me. when we are rich enough ** to afford it.

So true is it there fccms but one heart and one wiilconcur in it . It is one of his principal maxims in farming. Many prejudices had he to encounter 3 many contradi£lions to cope with from wife and fifter. only ferves to multiply thofe fpbngy plants which fuck all nourifliment from On the fame principle. and am not under the neceiiity of fhortening my days by hard labor V" ! priety and retflitude he querable firmnefs. of whofe prois convinced. though the moft proper meafures From other refpe^s are taken to make it profper. otherwife. be a convert to your way of tbhiking. with unconinfifls that all the family (hall and when he regards any cullom as perBJcious. he Kliyogg no fooner forms a refolution. for the future. than. and tions. he fays. concord prefides at bis board. not fupport itfelf where idlenefs. and diliipa* tion are predominant. and tells me that I have enough to live upon. manure. in fome meafure. The applaufe and approbation his economic improvements met with from fome of the princip:d psrioiis in the canton.inftead of being ad vantageoits. to begin by re7nov:ng all weeds before he attempts to mend the joil . comfounded on reafon piaifantly iiften to my wife's opinion. whom he found great difficulty in convincing that they ought to rciflify domeftic abufes. ^' *' *' *' *' *. or even of no real benefit. my dear Kliyogg. luxury. purfued my friend^ from a fenfe that it is* I v/ill never. when fhe perfuades me not to harrafs myfelf fo much . this perfuaflon he made ufe of the mod vigorous efforts for extirpating all' bad habits which had crept into his family. which long habit had. rendered facred yet his fortitude always triumphed over their refiflance.4^ ^' *' ^' THE RURAL SOCRATES.^ «* ferent manner 5 I am never more fatisfied and happ^r And I muit than when 1 am working myfelf. contributed not a little to reduce to reafon thefe intefline fermentaAt prcfent. he obliges every body to rcjeiH: and abllain from it. a houfe canthe crop. — m — : — — th:it .

8uch a proceeding We G '' m . and the better part has prophefied that no ^' luck would happen ever fincG you began to deviate *' from the cudoms of cur wile forefathers 1 You fee *^ what fine effects your obllinate caprice has produced. in very fever^ ". faid they. and they are incapable of applying to the occupations or dutie^of life. and maintained his reiblutiod moll rigid exaftnefs. in appearance.— The two fiflcrs (one of whom had been brought up in a tavern) were filled with refentment . or bencfieial examples^ makes an imprcfiiorf on others. Hiat the €>rs jtf encouragement with which' a government honwho diftinguiQi themieives by ufefu! fiifcoveries. conAccurate exafiderabie profit towards honie-keeping. and induces them to endeavor at an imitation^ the rubje<5J:s Kliyogg kept the only tavern which there was in the . which is mof!:' precious for work 5 wantonly difiipating tiie money which ought to be employed to the advantage of their domeilic affairs. and with theme of tire profit arifing from his buftnels. v/iih the He fixed. occafioned by hard labor. terms. The v/orld has long taken no'^ tice of it . and attacked him. was very Toon attended with the lofs of the greatefl part of his company. the greater part of whom wafle in a tavern that time. or the fatigue of a journey : the fole ufe for which wine feemed deilined village — •: — by the Creator. mination foon convinced him that this was a miftake he fhuddered at the thought of the bad imprefTions and dangerous examples his children would receive from the guells who frequented his houfe . from which there rcfblted. ^Thefe reflexions led him to a determined refo* lution not to allow any of his cuflomers more wine thaa Was ncceffary to recover and recruit the confumptiorj! of rpirits. .THE KURAL SOCRATES. that quantity to a pint from his own experience. their under flan ding and reafon totally degenerate. that '^ your unaccountable fingularity would prove the *' ruin of your family. have always foreleen. till their flrength is enervated.

** THE RURAL SOCRATES. ! — ^^ *' ^' *' *' ^^ *' *^' but their (Irength will increafe in proportion. (faid they) but as they grow older^ will it not require more to maintain them J" "True. " *' *^ of the ready money we were daily r€^ ceiving from our cuflomers! Is not this to take the in depriving us *^ ** ^^ *' *' ** ^^ *' *' bread from your children's mouths ? Our poor little ones.''-— '' I am rendy to admit. yet the advantage is far fuperior to the lofs. Have I ever refufcd my children any thing neceffary to their happinefs ? enabied me to fupply them I thank God for having with wholefome food and proper cloathing 1"— ^'Wc do not deny it. But why is ? the profit we '• *' '^ draw from the tavern to be defpifed This. whofe labor acknowledge h entirely loft to the farm. and a fmiling countenance . would be a great affiilancc to the family/'—'' You omit in your calcula(faid Kliyogg) that there mufl be one fervant extraordinary to wait on tlie company. muftfoon be reduced to beg from door to door I --Hope better things.^m. good folks (replfed Kliyogg^ with a compofed tone of voice.) Examine all circumftances vviih deliberation before you condemn me. '' '^ *' *' '^ — We '^ ^' ^^ '^ '' '' '' ''- ^' ." " that the article of hufoandry ma^y fufFer a little . at the caufe of their unhappinefs ? Does tK)t every ckv nfforfl inftances r-f Tons who have great ** wealth tion. and confequently the time is dravt^ing nearer^ xvhen they will be able to aflift in improving our eftate. yet can you believe that the money acquired by indulging the vices of our fellow-creatures will be attended with a bleffing ? Are you deaf to the fad complaints which are poured forth inceifantly by the wives of profell«?d drunkards and dcbauchees. (faid Kliyogg) that our advantage from the tavern is proportionably more lucrative than fromthe farm . Are not the crops coniiderably larger than when I firfl entered upon farming I And is not it apparent that nothing is wanting but more hands to make a further augmentation of our income r'^-— have no objec^'^ We tion to make to that point. added to wh-at you make by farming.

THE RURAL SOCRATES,
^^

p^^

their fathers, advancing with ruin, towards by abandoning themfclves hady ** to intoxication and floth I Is it rot realonable to fcar^ ** that thele unfortunate families plunged into mifery, **. will cry aloud for vengeance againfl the infamous a*'varicc of tavern keepers, who have contributed to ** the diflipation of their wealth !*'— ^' There are, how** ever, to be found, landlords who may be called for** tunate and, who have acquired great wealth by ;

wealth

left

them by

**

ftrides

•'

their bufinefs/^-— ''

*'
*'

*^ *'

Acknowledged ; yet how rare are the inilances of their continuing rich to the third generation ? Their children iulenfibly accuftomed to a libertine life, lofe all inclination for induftry ; in accumulating riches at the expencc of others, they
impoiing and

" grow
*^

wicked

:

and would you wifh

*'

**
**

to expofc your children to the like temptations ? Would you wifh that ail the fatigue and trouble wc have endured in the culture of our land (hould prove
ufelefs
? and that our children, corrupted by bad examples, (hould be abandoned to beggary, and ey.pend more in one day than they can gain in twenty years by this unworthy occupation ? Heaven forbid, but no one ever aUerted that thefe confcquences mull in-

"
*'

*'

" "
*'
*^

difpenfably happen."
that this

—"
;

The

probability

is

furely

^'
*' *'
*^
"^^

**
*'

*'

*^
*'
*'

and do you not daily fee with what facility children adopt bad examples ^''—>'^ muft allow it/' '' Suppofe then that to happen, which you thus admit to be poffiblc ; with wbatNunceafmg reproaches would your minds be deprcfTed, for having been the caufc of your children's depravity ? Whereas, if you follow my advice, you may in truth, amafs lefs money ; but our children, inured to labor, will be contented with the produce of their land, and the blefiing of heaven will vifit them,as it has *^ Weil then you mull purfue your own vifited us !'' courfe ; we are always obliged to fubmit to your opinion) even though w« arc fure you are in the

muft happen

We

*^

wrong

52
*'
^'

THE RURAL SOCRATES.

wrong;. but remember, if the event involves us in want and mirery, yoa are anlwerabic for it." Such was commonly the parting word of that contra*^ di'flory fpirit which oppofed the invincible conflancy of
our philofophcr, who perfifled here in the wiie refoliiThe inhabitants of the village made tion he had taken. it the objcifl of the'ir derifion, and engaged one of their companions to open another tavern, but to their greae detriment ; and many parents, diflreifed with the irregniaritics of their Tons, which daily grew worfe and worfe, complained to Kliyogg himfelf of the bad tendency of taverns, and that the money fcjuandered there would reduce them to ruin

He
rity
*^
*'

of families,

dlfcovered another caufe injmious to the profpein the ciiftom of making little prefents
or for fjew-y ear's gifts, gratuities (faid Kliyogg) habituate them early to acquifitions by other ways than induflry ;
at chrijlenin^s^
is

to children

Thefe
in life

*'

which

*' all
*' *'
**

lowing the feeds of iazinefs, that fource of evils : beiides, preients on thefe occafions, confifl of unwholefome delicacies, which are at Jeafl {{iperflaous ; or of expenfive toys of no real ufe. People

are obliged to return thefe civilities to their acquaintance ; and, hovv^cver fmall in appearance fuch trifles *' may be, they amount to a fnm in the end of the year, ^' very often burthenfome toa family/' He made it a rule, therefore, to receive no prefents whatfcever for himfelf or children, from godfathers or relations ; and never to make any, except to real objcds of charity,

"

fuch as perfons whonl age or accident had rendered incapable of procuring a fubfiilencc. He blames all thofe who bcftow alms on midejerving chjeCls ; confidering it as an injury to fociety ; and that thofe who diilribute their wealth in injudicious benefa<Slions, render themfelves refponfible for the dangerThefe perous confequences refuiting from them. fons, fays he, think to pui chafe by their alms, a benc-

did-ion

TilE

RURAL SOCRATES.

55

diTrion from heaven, eommonly in favor of their oivn illicit purfuits after gain ; while their gifts, by indulg-

ing beggars in idlenefs, encourage them to the commif^ lion of every fort of crime, fuch as theft, impofture, and lewdncfs. Of all the rules of condu^ pra^lfed by Kliyogg, there are none which have cod him more trouble in the He has been accufed of execution than the two laft. unparalleled feverity towards his children ; and, branded with infufferable avarice and inflexibility to the poor.— But, unmoved by the fe reproaches, he has perfevercd in a refolution vv^hofe re£litude he acknowledged. His children, it is true, never experience the rapturous fenfai'ions which are excited by coflly prefents ; but they are fo much the more contented and gratified with the enjoyment of what is neceffary and convenient for their
flation.

Thefirfl time I went to vifit him, I was defiroiis of leaving a ^leafing remembrance of me in the minds of his children by fom.e trifling prefents ; and was fomewhat furprifed not to find in them the lead inclination to accept them. Their father defired, at nrH:, that I would not give mylelf fo much trouble ; and as I took his manner of declining only as a compliment my offers were continued ; but he infifled flill more vehemently that they fhould not be repeated.—- In vain I remonfrratcd that it was right for young people to have proper indulgences, and that what I begged their acceptance of was a trifle. It is not. Sir, faid he, with fome emotion, the value of what you wifli to give my children, that caufes this repugnance ; but my perfuafion of the dangerous coniequences to them attending thefe fort of
gifts.

He
tions

exerted eqtTal iirmncfs in banifhing

tliofe dlpin--

anntxed to particular days ; for at his table there k no preference in good cheer given to Sundays or Feftivals, the conclufion of hay or corn harveli, or chriflenv

54
incoiifiitent
jneiit

THE

RUP^AL SOCRATES,

ings, or country wakes.

It appeared to him abfolutely with reafon to allow the boi\y more nourifti* on days of relaxation, than on days of labor jvvhcn

the rtrength,exhau(led by painful toil, has much more ocHe therefore regulates the food csiion to be recruited. sccoiding to the nature of the work ; and prepares iii$ laborers doc to expe(5t any extraordinary feaft at the end of harvefL^^ '* This is not the eife£l: of coveioaf'^ nefs, (ne lays to thern) for I (Ijail fpiend the fame mo-, ** ney that others do ; but it (haU be in maintaining you

^*

better every day

when your work

is

mofl fatiguing.''

Kliyogg drinks no wine at meals ; but carries his pint with him into tite fields ; and ufes it as a reftorative, >cvhen he finds himieif fiaking \inder the burthen of la*
J)or,
/^«?^j" for the iife^ofhis family, like other never table pork a didi at his yet is (eparate $ ; ijut a certain quantity of bacon is dreffed daily, cut in

He

fattens

farmers

fmall pieces,
this,

and mixed with iome kind of vegetable : he finds, renders the vegetable a more ir.vigoratHe is of opinion that food of thehardcft di:ng diet. gefrion, affords the greatefl: degree of nourifhment. For this reafon he gives potatoes the preference over other This convi<n:ion he roots, and 'rye bread over wheat. draws from his own experience ; in which he cannot eaiilv be miftaken, as he labors inceiTantly in an equal decree ; and has condantly oblerved that his ftrength is much (boner exhaufled when he feeds on delicate meats^

irhan

on thofe which are grofs and more
••
^

difficult

to di-

rcd.

^

.

.

and unofl material obje^l of his care is, ^:je educafion of his childreii ; which he rationally confikrs as the mod iacrcd of all duties. He regards them -^3 fomany pledges intruded to him by the Divinity, /i7r ' - - > - ^' f nooth the road that leads to true happinefs ; convinced

But the

fird

'

•'

Kliyogg undertakes to teach them himfelf. and infifls that they [liall attend him in all his labors^nd Ihare in them in proportion to their fli ength*^ Thus he endeavois to give them an early talle for his ov. a prohibition that has. One of them always ilaysat home \ as well as to pieferve decency of behavior amongf!: the children . and ^^Xs in the Sunday. he is defirou3> gion from others. the brothers attend their duty at church alternately. as he is able ing them. with whom they live . village feads. he can avoid fetting any bad examples before them. taught him that children imitate the manners and actions of older perfons. as to hear them repeat the catechifmjand give them lefTons in reading and wiiting.n kind of life. him from fending many fchool communication unprincipled lefl with and lic . by injuring their morals. and be apprehends that. convinced that juHicc would be required of him. TheTame motive infinences our philofophcr to forbid fome hours * his children fubie<fled fairs. and for his own way of thinking and ailing . to have his childien always with him . — ting. In confequence of this. fuch as &c. and to be confidfrcd as a fee tarj% .THE PiURAL SOCRATES* lie direct 55. (hould. from partaking in public diverlions. in triith^ ban to cenfure. prevents them to a pubfplit. faould His great principle on this head tliem wrong. ill educated young perfons in their walks and hours of recreation. by a due government of his ow^n paifions. if they could be equally prefer ved from contaTo prevent this evil. mske them too dearly purchafc the arts of reading and wri* — — . they are not expoThis rock. and hopes to infpire into them that true contetit which he regards vvhilii by removas the only foundation of happinefs from far all other fociety. on which fc ied to the danger of imitation. as cnftoms manners he has taken whcfe bad and depraved pains to banifh from his own houfe. apart for this occupation. is to prevent the entry of falie ideas and irregular dct^bfervation has fires into the mind while tender.

niy 5^o?d neipjibor.' that when you " have been. undoubtedly *' the appearance of a good harveft gives me real plea*'' fare. you refuted ta •^^ let your daughter accept an invitation to an entertain* *' mentjwhere fee might have eaten and drank. *=' cefBvely in the wrong (laid one of his neighbors to' — Kiiyogg) to treat your children ib inho'ninly by refufing them every kind of recreation \nd who has *^' informed you (faid he) that I deny them recreation ? ^' Pray have they not as much health and cheerfjlnefs •'' *' as your own f** Bat do not you abfoliitely deny *' their appearance at all places where young people *' meet to be merry with propriety and decency ? Have *' not you commanded your Tons not to go to the tav'' ern ? Nay. THE RURAL SOCRATES. •^^ flie can' laugh and divert herfelf at home* Do you think *^that drinking to excefsy or being imiTioderately mer^' ry. yet fu rely life is not *' intended to be a circle of labor.'* *"* then. and per*' forming the duties of your flation r"-^'' Never. and beholding the hap*' py revi^ard of your induflry ?"— •' Yes. do you not give the *' preference ^' '* ! — — My — 1 ! Why . *'• we return to our occupation with frefli alacrity. *nd dan^^ ced."—-'' Have you then no plea^* fare In eukivating your land. guilty of irregularity at the tavern over^^ ivight. and a rigid father whofe parfimony refufed to his* *' You are exchildren the enjoyment of any diverfion. without including *'* Ibme hours of plcafure. it \|K3" but the dther day. iB of great fervice . have I not oblervcd.^'-— *^^ Ah my friend. aild I'cgrettcd the money foolhiily ^' lavilhed away .''^-~-'' I confefsit. ^'^ of wane of rcfi. but a lit'* tie fcflivity at proper intervals. afb?r laboring all day. you were very little difpofed for bulinefs in the " morning You have complained of tiae head-ach." '^Andliave you ever felt the leail difpofi*' tion to repentance. and diverted hcrfelf like the refl of^the world !'* ** daughter had not the leaft: inclination to go.56 tarlil. are the only things that give fatisfa^tron ? Can " you eat more at a tavern than nature permits ? Can '•* you be more thian merry V' '' Clearly not.

aird lends as no he can be conlidered only has a right to expert fubfiP. claim to being treated as a member of the community. It is only by an obedient behaviour and by doing well. when let in competition with thofe that render you incapable of profecuting your work. ples of virtue. he admits them to fit at table with the family. or fpade. hisfons and his nephews : and inflrut^lsthem with equal zeal and alliduity in the princiimal. and he has found thefecret of making himfelf equally beloved and feared by theme They are accuflomed from their infancy to hearty food. In other refpedts. deferves to be taken Whilfl they are too young to labor with the notice of. according to the pernicious fuch as as is much as will H cuftoci . His approbation is all the recom-penfe to which they afpire . avoiding carefully to excite gluttony by feeding them with delicacies by way of reward. with equal afieiStion. whilft the mind is iie^iible. he makes them eat their dinner upon the but from the moment they begin to be of fome iloor ufe in hufbandry. — .*' The method Kliyogg ufes to cnconrag-e children to work. that I am fecuring their In teaching them to ihun thofe future happinefs miflaken pleafures you recommend. he is peculiarly cautious of creating the leafl diftindlions among the children. provided for the family j and he gives them thoroughly fatisfy their hunger . incapable of labor. by exciting their emulation. that they can gain his friendlliip. \i'hich has been the confequeiicc in io of depravity of manners many families. to me. «^ '^ ^' '*' 5/^ ** ** *' '*'•' *' preference to joys which are not attended' wlth-remorfe. that io long as man affiftance to fociety is . hoe.THE RURAL SOCRATES. I hope to prefer ve ! ^ them from ** that ruin. In this manner he teaches them to comprehend. and which have frequently been followed by repentance t I endeavor. He feems to love. or ex- who an anbut no — ped his carefles.ence . to infpire my children with an inclination for rational pleafure : it appears.

of the man. defcendants may. he came to leek. and I took the firft opportunity to procure him that fatisfaiHrion. the opmlon which Kliyogg has imbibed . that to which they are moll iccuftomed. friend. had not the lefs regard for Born with high his own country as a worthy citizen. is the mod pleafing to their tafte . for they regard money merely as an inflrument that fupplies them with what is neceffary for the wants of the family . in fomemeafurfe.^ THE RURAL SOCRATES. I have heard him expand upon this idea in a converfation with a friend of mine. and ar^j infenfible to all the pleafures of the" Indiftabic except that of appcafing a keen appetite. the fortune his merit deferved. fo that Kliyogg may. for Tome centuries. feelings for all that is beautiful or excellent. without any hazard^ difpenfe with the trouble of locking the clofets or cupboards where he keeps his flores. The moment he heard of the fame of our rural Socrates. ferent in the choice of diet. in a manner fo fatisfadlory. This fad j unifies. no one entertains a thought of any thing beyond. vv^ho had acquired in a foreign fervice. continue incorporated in one family. he conceived an ardent defire to be perfonally acquainted with him . that their. This confidence extends to the box where he keep^ his money . and — My — . that I cannot forbear relating it.— Hs was ftruckwith the fmgular geniu:". an elevated relaxation from military fatigue. which is equally open to all the members of the family who are old enough to underftand its ufe and This are fuppofed to be equally entitled to a (liare. and as they find tbemfclvcs abundantly provided with all that can fatisfy their reafonable wiflics. and baniflies an immoderate defire of riches . communication of wealth occafions every one to avoid/ with the jiiceft circumlpe^ionj the flighteil: appearance of felfiQinefs. ^juflom of tnoil peafants. in the bofom of the mufes. Thus they have no palTion for ihefe things. in all probability.

^*= " —I am fully peiTuaded it abounds in both. interrupted my friend. of your underftanding and probity.. through *Vthe mediation and affiRance of his Holy Spirit. and ufe all my cn** deavors to render them happy : and I mean. not to be convin^^ ccd of it y yet is my ion dvvays to meet with fuch . You have infpired mc . Sir. But pardon my freedom . The duties. *' conneded with your employment. Sir. and 1 lland bound In a pcrfonal ob** ligation to be accountable for ihem to Providence . " *' deferves.THE RURAL S0CRATE5. for your kind intentions j and feel for you aU V the refpe<rt and regard that an officer of your rank. replied Kli- yogg. I cannot anfwer *' to my confcience to part voluntarily wi^ any of my *' children before they have attained the ag6 whenrea^' Ton is mature. without a crime. not to *' fail in this facred duty. my dear Kliyogg. and have " too ftriking an example before me. *' I perceive. and I will make his fortune in the ** •* army/' — '^ I am infinitely obliged. and *' man fufFer himfelf to be drawn into the allurements *' of vice. when he falls into bad company !— Do yoU — > *' '' think.*' in a moment with the mod iincere and uncommfon *' affedlion : and as you have feveral fons. it is impofllblc to rank '' you too high in one's elleem. *' which I cannot. ** may . " with all the pundluality and fidelity of which I am " capable. *' as confcientious in thefe articles as yourfelf ? I unf dertake to acquit myfelf as your reprefentative. truft me «> with one of them. will not admit " of your beflov/ing the attention which my fon may *' require with what facility will not a young . difpenfe myfelf '' from. j^ fqon faid to him witlj a tone of fricndfhip and franknefi."—'^ I believe you (faid Kliyogg) but they '' are my children. t" and what is more. or confide to another. God has blefl me with children that '' I might educate them to his glory." '' Your manner of think'' ing (faid my friend) is laudable but I w^ould be . that there are no men of honor and virtue in the fervice I Only allow them '^ as much probity and religion as any other profeiiion.

" who have been habituated to them from their infanProvcy. that ardor for work. who cannot always be kept at home you mufl by fome means or other. in reading with them. endeavor to procure them (bme eflabllQiment . but 1 have a competency for all my fons. as able.6j> THE RURAL SOCRATES. and on Sundays I pais m. By this fyflem of education they will efcape the evil of bad example . Sir. cultivate d with — fit^ — *-^ farm. (replied Kliyogg) ag un to .-obferve. provided they unite to regularity of condu(5]:. as well '' Indiiputabiy it may. or in waikjng over fields which our hands have cultiwhere I explain to them the different parts of vated agriculture. will fupport tion prudent : — them and their defcendants." furcly happinefs is to be found in other flates.- — I find (faid my own life continues irreproachmy friend) your maxims of educa: *' ^' *^' *' *' ^' ^^ ^' "' *' end fenlible . that your itation in life will not allow you to watch his condu6"i with the vigilance ance I I beo. This very eftate. ^t leaft. faid the generous officer. if Providence thinks ^^ '^' when "^ *' '•^ '^^ '' But care and induffcry. their hopes of happinefs. ' ^r-^ br-:^pdcfi to the blciTmg ^vf favorable feafons on idertce having placed in me in a : my children agriculture *^ their .y time agreeably. but you have feven fons in your family. .'' '' Whatever reli- — *' " ** *' have on your goodnefs. and on this fuppofition many a worthy man the army is not to be defpifed makes his fortune there. Sir. necefTary to ly a my tranquillity. - " may he not often aflociate with the diffipated part of " mankind ? 1 will guard him from it as much as pof'' fible. or in fmging pfalms. ^' '' ^' fo long. by thofe as in huibandry. which nothing ought toextiwguifli. and remark with what fii'guiar liberality Providence has rewarded our labor.I acknowledge it. which has fupported me hitherto. and have made themtiicir conllant iludy.'' -". 1 have inflruifted Hiey are ignorant of eve'-' ry thing elfe : their ideas. : My children are Icarce- *' *' *' *' *' *' *' *' ^' momernt out of my fight they accompany either mv brother or mvfeif through the whole^courfe of country bufmefs .

it appears to me fear ceone to b^ truly happy out of that circle of life to which he has been early accuflcmed. could he relume it with the fame ardor and alachave contracted abroad anothet rity I He will fyftem of life. it foon brings on difgufl and fatigue. be much to be pitied.e thing foon happen in military exercifes ? A mind without prcj jdicc which applies with zeal to the purfuit of any profeflion (no matter what) will enter into it with readinefs. ^' to labor. I have praclifed bodily labor without re* '^ laxation. Sir. to which a variety of circumftances m'ay oblige him to return.^' *' '' ^^ ^' — " *' '*' *' *^ *' ^' '^ order.lef^ contended than '^ with my homely It is the fame thing in regard fare. And I. his houfe will be the feat of dif- ^' fubniitted to ^^ . but my fon would at lead forget his firfl occupation.THE RURAL SOCRATES.ind long upon any abflrufe point. on the contrary^ ihould be equally fo. which furnillies me with a continual *' feafl. " where you reduced to the neceility of dining on the " coarfe food. in all probability. ^^ that children Ihould alv/ays follow the occupation of : ' '-'• — '^ their . would >' to them appear painful and difagreeable whereas the their labors. In fhort cuflom is all. if unfortunately he knows not how to lay afide vi^hat cuflom has rendered a fecond nature."-—" Would not the fam. " The cares and fatigues attending a military Jife. If I '' am not miflaken in your opinion. *' You would. they *' would find themfelves tranfplanted into a new fcencj. day after day and I am i^o much the more . *' '' were I obliged to habituate myfelf to your delicate meats with high fauces I flionld not enjoy {o good a flate of health. and to the enjoyment life ! of The moment : *' employments of the hufbandman have hitherto been with fatisfaiHiion. *' robufl and more difpofed to work : but if I cxercife '^ my m. my dt^^r Kliyogg. and fiiould this happen. << *' 6t of the real ncceffaries they enlifl in the army. and fhould be far. *' '' ly poffible for any Sincerely (peaking. and may beaffured of fucceeding/* Be it fo. the hour and the nature of his meals will be different ] and.

that fo ma*^ ny perfons fhould be moved by the fame inclinations. Kliyogg.— ^' Why not. There will *' always be a greater want of laboring hands. and wlien that is accomplifhed. Sir . as the land is capa** ble of. that the *' iif^ they lead renders them haj^py and contented. than of '' But you are not ** materials to excrcife them upon/' *' immortal. ** Peace. felt any '< want or the ilighteft inclination to covet the poifeffion ''But your fons. Sir. I have never yet met with *' the perfon with whom I would willingly change fitua<i tions nor have I ever. and your death may be the caufc *^* of divifion among your children. when experience has taught. and contentment of mind and of ** heart would cflabiifh their refidence on earth For I <« faithfully afRireyoUj Sir. *' — ** ^* ** employment of mankind. *' v/e (Iiould hear no more of treachery or violence. the *^ 'produdions of the earth are always in proportion to the *^ culture. af*«of what belonged to another!" uni'/crfal ** found his t : — ter all. their father.62 ** THE RURAL SOCRATES. there yet re^^ main large traces of neglected ground in our neighbor*' hood. I have long been iolicitous to fee my chil*^ ^\tv\ of a proper age to aflift me in bringing this farm «* to as high a degree of perfedion. can hardly avoid embarrailing each other : youreflate (excufeniy repetition of the-queftion) can «* it be fu^icient to maintain them all I Yes. and every one fupport from the labor of his hands. When your for«' tune becomes feparated. to this prefent hour. the rcfult of it would be. but murt '' How <' ufe their united efforts to keep up its value/' ^* is that prafticable ? there is no poflibility." where woLiId*bc the misfortune if there was not ? reIf agriculture was the plied Kliyogg^ with a fmilc. ** *' — — — — . will they be able with the *^ fmal! allotment afiigned each. which may be purchafed for a trifle. that there '* And v/ould only be one profeflion in the world. to continue their pre'' It is *' fent way of life J" precifely for that very *' reafon that they mufl not divide the eftate . and where *^ we may undertake new improvements. tranquillity.

may {igh for more to a bet- delicate V " *' and v/hat then will become of this happy union ?" *' Thofe (replied Kiiyogg) once habituated to a certain mode of living.THE KUP. furcly defires will extend no faithcr. *' ion in many articles where the command can only *' proceed from one. fooner or later. *' or debauchery. and food. their '^ Yet. ^' who find that mode to conftitute their happinefs.to gratify ? From their infancy they will have beea in-ured to la- *' *' *' *' The profits of that will yield them abundant bor. *' with the utmoft circumfpedion from being prefent *' in anyplace that may tempt them to idlenefs. or finer raiment — . he who " exercifes the authority of mafter will know how to '' fupprefJ them in the bud." *' plied my friend) that your maxims may be fo deeply ^' rooted in thcmindsand hearts of your defcendants.uft be a contrariety cf opis. I take all opportunities to convince them that ^' vicious habits precipitate men into ruin and. ra*' tional. (retheir ilation. th?.t in fuch a — *' ** ** ter number fome one. has' a natural right to com^^ mand. I guard my children *' approves. there is little danger of their being era*^ fed.AL SOCRATES. may afpire manner of living .. and the rcll mufc confent to be '' governed. ^* «' (^3» and when they have no farther wifhes.'' *' He who is the moil induflrious. what is true and jufl will be eafily diicerncd " by the mof^ limited underllandings And if any vi* *' cious inclinations ihould venture to appear. Where there are no irregular defii'es to in^* tcrfere. food and raiment . on the *^ contrary. When early impreiTions are fortifi*' cd by time. arc not very likely to abandon it for another they *' are unacquainted with^ and which their reafon difOn this principle. by having recourfe to ap. and knowing no other wants. as ''to flifle all inclination towards a more delicate man^' ner of living yet there m. luxury. that true happinefs is the conlequence of a ** regular and conflant attachment to the obligations of '-' '^ will take it for granted. — We — : ^^ nrove^ . and intelligent." the fuppofition is not very improbable.

they entertain their guefts nobly with wild fowl. which is in poffcffion of authentic letters of NohleCe. What is Hill more extraordinary. of candor and purity of manners. pigeons. without a thought of dividing their patrimony. Thofe tu'iult fnfeparable . and the diverfity of difpofitions.froni my common place-bonk. then in iintninent danger. fj ancieut in its origin. it is true . lible to knew chuc fuch a man as Kliyogg exifted. perhaps. When they have been advifed to avail themfehcs of the advantages annexed to a nobility. They are independent. and founded on fuchdiilinguilhed ferviccs. refpeftable for his age.^4 ** THE RURAL SOCRATES. apprehend. and information : He is related to the perfons of whom he {peaks. I (hall tranfcribe. I (hall relate one which I had from an ecclefiaftic."* '' Ifubmit to the wifdom of your arguments. He will have no other prerogative over the reft. excited their dillike lather than defire. and retting them an exemplary pattern. Thus I have great caufe to truft in the goodnefs of Providence that my poftcrity will long remain united and undifturbed. ^' " *' *' (concluded many rea(!ers *This but log I .jt laborious retirement. to psrfons of — Yet a benevolent tarn of mind it will be inrcreft- rational alTent to what Kliyogg advances. which is the extent of their wifhes and that the from rank and riches. who leave the family feat when they marryy are paid a thoufand French livers. Their alliances are wiih fimple peafants . at the time that he was Egypt for having (astjjie patent certifier) faved the King and his ar- This family lives in the mod obfcure kind of mediocrity . and contrary to what experience teaches as to the nature of the human It is not. Their happy abode is. the account I received from him. '' '' *' <' '^ *' proved and eftablidied regulations. but enjoy no other advantages above common peafants. impofproduce fa^s that as ftiongly corroborate the fyfteno of our riiral philofopher. they anfwer. contentedly in li. but by cultivating it with their own hands. and has vifited them frequently. upon their own eftare. manners. or a temptation to embrace any other profeffion. not (o eafily obtaineci.dants of this honorable lateil/ has ever deviated from the way cf thinking of his anceftori. in ieaii:y. as the ordinary courfeof things feems to oppofe it. converfation wilfuncloubteilly appear tedious to a .the feat of peace and innocence. The eldeft fon always fucceeds to the efEate . is. that they have always lived peaceably and ray. We are apt to confider the expe<f\ation of Kliyogg as chi- merical. and the younger branches. above a year heart. and game. before I — granted in to one of their anceftors . by Saint Louis. and it will only be when he aims at mere commandj that they will fubmit to his authority with patience. There is a family in Upper Provence.literalIy. and though their common way of life is in the ruftic ftile. but in work . however. not one of the defccr..

the Marqois tie Mirabeau's firft Letter . '' Sir.— Sec alfo i^ t^e fcquel. however pernicious. and th^ accounts iiktK\' 'i\ from the Count dc Treffan and the Journal (Xcpn^oai^^jce. and to treat as a dangerous innovator. and affection reign amongft your latcit de- " fcendants/' The brother of Kliyogg was laft year (1761) nominated by the village. as maflcr of the fchool kept in it 3 an event. who. which will be attacking the evil at the root 5 *' for good feed can never make any progrefs. He conceived an imnjediate hope of feci ng^^ reduced to a more extended pratlice . in *' a^lual poffeilion of a fpecies of authority. Heaven will crown your per* ** feverance with a bieding. This operation is eafy before L would fooner un^ *Vthey have acquired firm hold. which will add ^* weight to my remonftrances. his principles — '* ^' *> *' Habit teaches men to regard as a treafure. whofe tenor of life naay throw (ome probability on che opinion of Kliyogg. You cannot think what ** influence authority has in promoting public good. till the * weeds are extirpated.Kliyogg left to his brother the care of inflruding the children. which our country philofopher regarded as fortunate. '^concord. *< <« 6^ (concluded my friend . than attempt to *' communicate my principles to a (ingle grown perfon.— My firfl attempt (hail. they cannot fail to be attended with the moit *^ happy conlcqacnces. and you will beh'old peace. ventures to attack eflablilhed cuftoms. if *^ properly exercifsd." . and purfued himlelf the I more indcfatigably^ the Thofe wlio are dcfirous of more public and csore geceral exaniples. a people. fi«(i . ana of communicating to his countrymen a (hare of that fc-* llcity which he himfelf enjoyed. ^. ever flnce the introduc-^ He came to tion of good order in his domeflic affairs. him. the vice they have been long attached to . *^ dertake to educate a dozen children. be on the *' children. mzy them in Jofephus's account of ihc Efleoea .fHE RURAL SOCRATES.) remain fleady to your principlcs. (fays he) I am participate his joy with me.

on Saturdays. they did cot extend to the proprietors of eftates. has fomething folemn and harmonious.-— Vocal rtiufic has ever been his mofl delightful recreation . cuftoms are often preferred to common fenfe. for — —The French churches have by Beze and Mano extraordinary genius — The that in poetry.66 THE RURAL SOCRATES. explaining in clear and fimple terms. I (hall tranfcrihe a ftill more furprlftrg faft. A bjr «« German prince. adapted to the raufic of Goudimcl. by M. and remained unin» telligible to the hufbandman^ For the information of the laborer. the labors of the hnfbandman : referving to bimfelf the £nging-fchool . the attention employed in teaching the people. •• •* curate abridgments ought cal rules. ed writer^ •« if «« whom my country honors) ** would he an ufelefs acqoifition. recommended. particularly in country parifnes. though the former difplays fubftituted Conrart's verficn of the pfalms. without difcoveringany great fcience. (lill ufe mufic. ft ranger woyld be furprifed to hear pfalms in four parts. rot. than that of Marot and Beze to the French. Spring. profcffor of rhetoric at Bafie. though made to correfpond with Goudimers mufic. Lobwafferj publifhed foon after a German tranflation in the fame The greaterpartof thePromeafure.tary ajo. acto be complied . for experience proves its prafticability. as is cuftomary. and cannot be too often addreffed to the coniideration of government. Noi let it be regarded as chimerical. Tiuly gteat »«lii* . (who ww 3nurd€red at Lyons on St. that the vcrfion publifhed about twenty years ftnce. E/neft the pious. where he employed. related by the penetrating and ingenious author of ** EJfojs on variousfubjedSi inter^Jiing u politics ^* and morality^*' which perhaps will not be thought inapplicable to the ' The difcoveiies of the learned" (fays that diflinguiihprefent fub}?d. Duke of SaxeGotha. Ihould not yet be adopted in all thefe churches. and the beft praflical lo- ** *• ** •* Thefe abridgments (hould be introduced into fchoojs where a meihod that has been often . entirely changed • chc fac» of bis principality. to inforoi the mindo the children of the peifantp are educated — «* of the common people . thefirft elements of agriculture. Kliyogg * Claude Goud'meh a famous mufician of Franche Comte. ftill fing the words of LobwafTer . tcftant chorcbes. The canton of Zurich is re- Swifs and feme A — A markable forgooil finging. more than a cer. and fuperior even to the new French verjion. the hours after fupper. But on the other hand. and he has the notes of LobwafTer's pfalms by heart j* whilft his brother has much lefs (kill and tafte. of the Germans. is. Bartholomew's day) coirpofed the mufiC) for a poetical tranflation of the Pfalter by Clement Marot and Theodore de Beze. which. nclwithftanding his language is more obfoleie and unintellfjgible to proof that ancient them. fung with judgment in a village church. is worthy of obfervation. to fing with propriety.

or to call : a prohibition that raifed anew the cla- mor of the village againft him. in the canton of Zurich. which were put inio ihe hands of the peafants in all country fchooh . dependent on the bailiwick of Zilly. and there are two upon the violin. that at Wxdifchwcil. the inhabitants have eftsblifhed a weekly concert : The performers are tv. Though thefe inftituiions no longer exift iri their original rpirit. He (hut his fchooi againft all who were refra<Slory . if his admonition was flighted. capable of performing in concert the beft Italian corupoGtions/* —This is not an imaginary fa(fl k this author fpeaks from his own knowledge. to the inde-- — cent <* ** «' *' '' his civil virtues. andlhavefeenthe ii«S paffed by Duke Erncft.no fpecies of \ knowledge F. He was menaced on every fide ^ but his courage remained unconquerable. by threatening to lodge a complaint with the minifler of the parifh .THE RURAL SOCRATES. he extended his remonilrances to thofe in Advent . who meet on an appointed day . and. that the peafanis of the famous villagr of Stroepke. i: is yet amazing to obferve the difference of infornration in this and the adjacent circles. It is well known in Germanv. an- ticipating any intention of theirs. which the clafs of peafants arc not capable of coatprehcnding .'elve peafants.have been long acknowledged as the hcfl chefs players in Eu*' m rope. they have a concert-hall. Since writing the above note. for the firfl time. by de-"^ grces. in the country who did fo) walked quietly home from his fchooi every evening. of the ridiculous abfurdity of the diverfions at the carnival and on the eve at St. perhaps. Nicholas. " peafants. He made them fenfible. The villages have good mufic all their ** churches and there are few where it is not eafy to affemble a band of . to have recourfe to civil auHis endeavors here again were fuccefsthority. in the principality of Halberftadt. a very fmall village. another village in the fame canton. ful . and his fcholars (the only ones. where vocal and inftrumental pieces of Italian mnfic are performed. and at Huttinguen. At TscMlit-ken. whofe execution would be pronounced excellent in a concert of the firft mailers. Sec. He went farther . there is an harmonic focieiy . and put a flop. Kliyogg entered upon by ablblutely forbidding about the in at the tavern 6y his office at the fingiiig fchooi his mulical fcholars to ramble ftreets after they left fchooi at night. where ihey were taught even coufic and drawing. be had his people Inftrufted by compendlums of every kind of ufeful knowledge. I have been credibly inforo^ed. Thus indifputable is the h&y that there is.

who areentnifted with the execution of the laws. -^ (C'Jild he) rjc to be considered in t^he fame light as cai^ried ! : " hofpitals . v/hom jiaturai infirmities. he has had one of his weaving . in manufacbures of various kinds. ibever.nlatinus I'hey afford fubfiftence to many. capable of the toils of hulbandry. '^ (faid he) that weakens the influence of the wifell re'' gulations. a remarkable proof of the efficacy of fleady perfeverancc in thofe. but regards them as very advantageous when under proper r. and to others. and to refufe tlie fmallell: prelent v/hat'^ It is our frailty and venality in this article. . or the efTe^ls of difcafe. The too great encouragement of manufactures infenfibly deprives the land of proper culture. — With whatever this is necefTary for clothing. and confequently occafions the ruin cf agriculture He is not. cent diforcler that had hitherto profaned the eve that precedes the birth of cm Saviour . he determined to bound his expe<^ations of advantage within the very moderate faJary afiigned . where a foiall exertion of flrength is required . ar'id which. by maki'^g his eftate produce as far as is praiSlible. how^ever. The better to cnfure an obfervance of the ucv^ regulations which he introduced in the fchool.'^ Kliyogg has been peculiariy attentive to render bis family independent. as daughters. and diminifli their ftrength. thoie hands become jncapable of relilt'Mng the progrefs of corruption. from their (edentary nature.6$ THE RURAL SOCRATES. and has appropriated room to that employment. Yet he does not hold in high cflimation the works on by aikgreat nimiber of the peafants. Men oHer to their fiiperiors the flattering *-^ bait.ce. and from the rtiotnent thcfe extend their hands *' to receive it. inftrudled in view. relax their ardor for the rougher labors of the field. for rejeiTLIng manufa^lnrcs abfo•luteiy. well a as food. who have no land to cultivate . render in'' Manufa (Tories.

in general. we open *' a door to idlenels. debafe generous fentiments. which are almofl: always acquired to the injury of others. expredive of their inlatiable avidity after riches . — The uncommon fertility of the year T761. *'* 69 : Efbabliihnients of this fort are an iuvaluable refource to the fick and decrepid . that the poor laborer could eat his morfel of bread at a moderate price : he got rid of his corn at the current price. and are acceffary to the deflruc*' tion of cur country. and familiarize the mincj with fraud.THE RURAL SOCRATES. fo far from complaining. alarmed. than to hoard it up in a granary till a more lucrative opportunity. broke itito indecent and offenlive murmurs. Kliyogg. he fets very little value on the fiouriihing flate of commerce . is to be contented v/ith what we h?>ve earned by indufcrious : — — application. and are always repeating. who on every bargain they flrike. whether they may have overreached their neighbor or not . He often is {hocked at the hypocrify of thofe men. -# . but when *' we receive into them the healthy and robuft. The true manner of praifmg the Deity. as he apprehends its mod general effeds are to introduce an inordinate love of money. ^On this principle. -in the improvement of his lands. Thus an apparently great ad- hofpitals ** — if vantage would. convinced that it was better economy to employ immediately the fmall fum it amounted to. make a parade of the benediction of heaven in their favor. arc. The moft fubilantlal amongfl them refufed to Cdl^ and took meafures to preierve their corn till the markets liioujd rife. '' God be praifedl" The thanklgivings indeed witli which they aifront the fupreme Being. be a really great evil. confider* ably lowered the price of corn The farmers. at the time he had been accuftomed to fell it . relatively to the influence it may have upon the mind or manners. it tended to debauch the morals of the people. in his edimation. enjoyed a heartfelt fatisfa£lion." In general he weighs every qneilion.

is one of the moft frequent caufes of misfortune to families . when our inte'r^'^ ed happens to be in oppodtion to that of another. what he ought to do or avoid. than the ideas we ought to entertain of judice and honor. and it fcrves both of them for their journeys to ly./o application. ihefeveral taOts . is ** to inquire Vvathln. THE RURAL SOCRATES. without envying the poffefiions of an- cther. wi:h fo fe-v alfiflants. only. are v/hat he prefers. the mod exadb order and decorum prevail in every part of his houfe. As the grand St the purfuit in all his operations. and is. how we diould wiOi to be treated *^ in a iimilar fituation and to obferve during the . in fuch or fuch *^ cireumdances. Extravagance in clothes. and every utenfil will be mod — Nothing appears to him more clear and determinate. When bufinefs calls him to the city. can conceive how of order our cul- ii^vatorhas been able to accomplilo. in his opinion. His brother puts it on in turn. *' courfe of this proceeding. Kliyogg recommends to all the members of his famicondant attention to neatneis in their drefs . The flrongefi and leafl expenfive fluffs and linens. is placed in the very fpot \yhere it This principle is not only the convenient. and this is to be confidered as his holiday fuit. a the city. ''Every man (fays lie) may read in his own *^ bread. with Aeel clafps . but forbids every appearance of luxury. who have farihtatnj. he wears a coarfe grey furtout coat. fhorteil: is to arrive as his na- end propofed by the way . #>f all pafTions. All that is required. ^' but ferves as a guide to his moral condu6l. whether our heart is tran- — '' quil * Thofc. the mod ridiculous and irrational. as well 3s e -/pfjlencfd all how moch a fpicit nccekrata operations. and tive fagacity readily points that out . foundation of his economical fydem.

fo peace and ierenity of mind are the reward of virtuous from fuch convi<ftion.whofe frefhncfs of complexion denoted the vigor of his conftitution. iDernaan has been for many years firft phyfician to the Court of Hanorefa and enjoys a great reputation. and continued to difclofe air the beauties of his mind to a fkilful phyfiognomirt. ^' 71 quil and fatisfied. Zimto a Boerhaave. when I was jull fetting — out for Brugg.'* — . this bock. had recourie to my advice in illnefs. to pay a vifit to Dr. or a Van SwietenT. Even when he has I never fawKliyogg melancholy. F. snd man. N. Zimmerman like that great was » pupil of the celebrated Baron de Haller. bor. He came one day to my houfe. In the opin- would do honor ion of a very able man* who is a competent judge of the fubjei^. £. that according to condudt. lA. the recompenles or chal^ In the fame manner that tifements of Providence. Dr. Dr. — This th?c excel- lent writer has given large more deciftvc proofs of his uncomiuon talents in a work afterwards puhlifhed upon Uxperience in phjjic. hud always a gay and open appearance . B. He has a flrong propendty to friendfhip. turally attending our anions. . and a face.THE RURAL SOCRATES. whom the fatnoos King of Prulfia fenl for to attend him in his laft Wnefs. Zimmerman publiihed an account of what pa&d oa this occaiioH. he quits it with pleafure when it can oblige a friend. united to a confurnmate knowledge in phyfic. a Haller. His animated eyes. a phyfician* in that town. plenty is the recompenfe of a(Iiduous*and laborious toil. Zimmerman. Zimicerman was the phyfician. diftingitilhed talents in all branches He wrote an effay oa imtional pride and we have few compofitions difcover fuch depth of genius or elegance : in the German tongue of diftion. of whom I was infinitely fond. which he Whatever ardor he has for lacontradts with facility. \ifj of literature. ffcafcJ. He b hint>fs)f fiocc<J»-. I knew I flioald procure this worthy philanthropill peculiar •M. I have always found him perfecflly compofed. It is in it felf-approbation for hav- ing fulfilled our duty fulting is in inward complacency re- him true Hedifcerns in theconfequences nahappinefs confifts.

iiar fatisfadiion^ in furniQiing his eager curioiity w'uh an opportunity of noticing the excellence of the human character. he h he finds that he is not attended to with pleafure. I'hough hefpeaks yi^ith facility equally willing to be filent. However univerfal is mankind. and fatisfai^ion. where the fpeakers difcufs^ Never vvit'h . in a (late To nearly reiembling that of nature. he is often obliged to make ufe of The comparifons and metaphors. though he had ten leagues to travel back the next day. he makes rity. Kiiyogg was unwilling to rcfufe my entreaties. is Kiiyogg more happy. the the benevolence of Kiiyogg to all' their zeal for truth and their integ- ftandard of his afte^ftion . He felzes with avidity all truths at the firfl mo- ment. nothing intcrcds him more than to impart it toothers . converfation of Kiiyogg is eafy and unconflraincd. to favor me with his company . and he takes all imaginable pains to convince them of ita utility. In this ji^rticular he is diametrically oppofite to mod countrymen. To illuflrate his meaning. When Kiiyogg attains any beneficial difcovery.72 THE RURAL SOCRATES. whofe hereditary prejudices may be regarded as part of their elTence. and a fimplicity ofcxprellion peculiar to himfelf and which he cannot owe to imitation. than when he happens ^ofalUintoa conference. if . which have always the mofl cxacl relation to the thought he wiflies to exprcfs. He then devotes his whold and his fenfinotice to the difcouife of the company ble and judicious replies demonflrate that he fuffers nothing to eicape him. and rejeds nothing bccaufe of its novelty and before he has thoroughly examined its intrinfic merit. and his penetration in thefe refpev^s is altogether extraordinary. and to conquer their prepofTeffions. even from the firft moment of acquaintance ^ he has great eloquence.

and in hearing his fentiments on the duties^ of thofe who hold thlb reins of government. which will explain why feveral of the moil: intelligent and virtuous members of the republic. and examines the duties of every f^ation with fingiilar Judgment . the regard paid to his character is in proportion to the difcernment and integrity of the perfon who beftows it . — of probity. men have introduced him into many Companies. Curiofity . he delivers his thoughts with a noble franknefs. in ef^c^ and without intending it. On thefe occafions. K Limiting . after having employed their keeneft fatir^ in throwing Kiiyogg and his admirers intp ridicule. in general. that my recftal of his vi^rtues had infpircd them with cfceem for a man fo extraordinary but that beholding and converiing with him. offend him. matters relative to the public good. The diflindlion withj do not awaken and approbation which Kiiyogg meets in hiia the leaft fpark of vanity. were not flruck with amazement at his good lenfe . ftrengthening his arguments tacks' the errors that He atwith comparifons drawn from rural economy. had raifed that efleem to the higheft pitch. I who know how he conciliates the eilcem of all to value merit. Reiterated trials have convinced me that. but in a manner very remote from ruflicky.riergy which the rea! intercfl they take in tht queftion infpiics. whofe had been much excited by the delineations I had made of his condudl and converfationo Nor have I ever met with any peffl:>ns who. with great freedoip'. ^g with an e. the admired outline of their own way of thinking and ading for the public good.THE KVKkL SOCftAt£&. He traces before them. I have known fome perfons peculiarly lavifhln their encomiums. By this behavior. find infinite pleafure in talking with him. at the conclufion of his difcourfe. and did not confefs to m_e.

but whether men praife or blame me. or partake of any diverfion . tell me. is he guilty of ^' thefmallefl degree of injuflicd I Or. A near relation of mine. . his fimple and natural manners. fum^ ! . or fpeak ill of any man But he ^* tires you with the repetition of his methods of farm*' ing and is always particular in his way of thinking. of fpeaking fo fluently. *' and forces ail his family to bear him company! His '' whole difcourfe is about making people labor and do *^ good though they fay that he does not allow himfclf *' much time to pray !" " But. I was diverted one day Who — with hearing one of the mofl: rancorous of his neighbors exclaim. he preferves invariabl}^. it will in any refpC(^ be the better for it. *' '' moned him fair that lately before a magillrate. as on w^orking days. *' however. he will not fuffer his children to fet their '' feet in a tavern. on coming out of tl^e court. you are welcome . about an af- '^ had provoked him to the higheft pitch.—He has the art. with a natural fmil^. or of his Handering his '' neighbor ?" '' I cannot pretend that I do 5 it mufl '' even be granted. I alio do not recollecl ever to have " heard him fwcar.. faid he. . that there is no dif*' puting againfl him. do you hear ma'' ny reports of his fwearing. andimproving — : would believe that envy does not ceafe to perfeeute this worthy being ? Fortunately all its eiForts only furniih fredi fubjcvftfor praife. *^ This Kliyogg is no better than a beafl of *' burthen he is Ihortening his days by hard working. He confelFed to me. by frequent converlations with perfons of fuperior rank and knowledge . that he is punctual in keeping his ^* engagements. .74 JLimiting ail THE RURAL SOCRATES. ^' For inftance. ^ and makes them wear the fame clothes on Sundays *' and Feftivals. that he '' had . I fhall be neither better nor worfe. -When I acquainted him with my intention of communicating his character to the world If you think. prctenfion to the advantages of enlarging bis ideas of men and things.

and. I intended communicating thefe to the Philofophical Society . as well as afterwards. and could not forbear expreffing my anguifli in his prefence. a entirely divefled of prejudice as perfcil anden- dowed judgment as tliat of the moR- celebrated pbilorc])her . to acknowledge that Kliyogg was in the right in every article . He eacrerly fought to comfort my deprefled fpirits. the mofi: rational and induflrious cultivatois to put in pradlice fuch rules for the improvement of land. lims.— '' My dear doctor. my cheeks were with veneration inoidened with tears . iWid he to me (in the courfe of a converfation on the " nature ' . an4 f fancied myfelf tranfported into the company of one of the fages of ancient Greece^ : m One day he found me i in a deep melancholy .TflE . I rated my own abilmuch above the fimplicity of a peafant and meant to irvftrucl him . which at that period. his wcrds. that he was in the wrong ." Would to heaven (laid I inwardly) that all my enemies may have no worfc things of which to accuie me. and that furely he muft >*' have bewitched hisrcafon. piirpofed to excite by premi- my ities . Itemed always in p^iitcx harmony with each. I was ftrack whilfl I liftened. inprefence of the judge. his adlions. in this villager.' — But what was my man v/ith a c^flonifnmenr.*< RURAL SOCRATES. in. *' ^'' — I had no farther view r^nth Kliyogg. and the univerfai happinefs attendant on their obfervation. his fentiments and \vill being abfolutely fublervient to reafon 1 His turn of rejection. with all the zeal of fricnd(bip. ** though he was convinced then. other. as fhouid be acknowledged befb to anfwer that purpofe. by attacking and fubduing any prejudices he might have contracted to put him into the method of trying nev/ experiments in hufDandry. When he dwelt on twc duties of the various ranks in fociety. 75 had been forced. commencing an acquaintance than that of extending and improving knowledge in rural economy. to fird .

and grafi^ing the fhadow. as well as other people . and awaken in the ioul. How many are there who fancy they have done all that is required. who thinks to get it out by rubbing them . and that he thinks ferioufly of correcting his errors. felf reproach is continually increallng . Neither his knowledge. is the moft acceptable worfhip he can pay to the fupreme Being. In fuch TTiomcnts. I conclude he begins to be dlfiatisfied with the former part of his condu^ . and entering upon a new plan of life.. furnhhed him with fufficient motives of confolation. But when the miud is a prey to gloomy refiecllons. It is many years lince he fell into the (late which I have de(cribed. but the more he rubs. when the wind has blown duft in his eyes. Induftry and exercile will reftorc that tranquillity we have loft. nor irreproachable life. Loft to tlicmfelves and to lociely. the more they be^ come inflamed and painful. You vifited our friend lately on his death bed. and in reading pious authors j whilil: they have not refolution to do well in othei: refpet^s. youthful follies. piety. 1 N— — — — 1 — '' and . a man ought to recolle£l that he has fome duty to fullil . and that an attentive per» formance of it. like a man. there is great danger of our making an improper choice. and funk into a gloomy defpondency. The dcfire of reformation is unavailing. when they pour forth a profufion of groans and lamentable exclamations and who apprehend that religion conliils in conflantly praying. which made him burthenfome to himlelf and others. they remove farther and faither from the lubftance of virtue . unlefs accompanied with endeavors to be ufcful to mankind by fome exertion correfpondent t^ur ftation. I felt the pangs of remorfe.76' THE RURAL SOCRATES^ nature o'ijocial obligations) when I fee a man give evident to|cens of difquiet and agitation. I am no flrangcr to the fenfatfcns highly delightful 1 had my fir ft ft ate of mind I have been dejcribing. I grew feniible of my errors .

'^ From that inflaiu. by Providence. in hoursof relaxation. and I was then convinced of the inefficacy of "devout forms. " and when. fays. *' and to bring up my children to the lame bufinefs. : the ruin that threat'*ened our affairs. Yours is confift in manual exercife. *5 cceded. I was caljed upon to cultivate the earth . whilft *' before all feemed clouded with oblcurity. I refolved to appjy my whole at*' tention to my farm. 40. as i wiflied *' in fimilar circUmriances. 1 am obliged to my excejlent wife for leading me back to true religion It .! read a chapter of the ^' bible. what ever "chiefly in what " efforts * MatN xxii. mine contemplative .'Kliyogg was now filent. they fiiould a6l towards me . they give an extraord]'' nary force to the mind. but I grew flill more reftlefs and diflarbed. which this deje£tion " of ipiritsrenders me incapable of purlui'ng. I experienced the mod comforting fenfa*^tions. << On thefe two comrTsndirenfs ijot'e Gjd snd /5Xf cfourndghhor) hang aU tbe hvt and the prcohcts/' F cf . " I iikewife refolved to acfl towards all men. and perfuaded me again to fet my !^' band An immediate reflexion fucto the plough. In this {ItUt ation. and never to be a moment idle. I thus continued the con-^ veriatiQU have reafoned admirably.THE RURAL SOCRATES.^ After *' thefe refolutions my heart grew lighter every day . I fufFered mylelf to be feduced by thofe wht) ftyje themfelves. that being placed. includes all the law aftd the prop/iets. Whenever ^' I prayed. but your labors and fhe was who feprefented to me — '' ferent. wher^ practical duties are neglected . according to the words of our Sa*' viour. my" dear '' You "Kliyogg and I acknowledge the truth of all you ad*' vance mine are extremely dif^ . " though when theie are fulfilled. ff f* *' 77 *' *' *' *' *' and was overwhelmed with melancholy. every thing appeared clear and diflincl: . Pietifls or the Ele£l (being Herrenand 1 pafTed hiiters or the followers of Zin^endorf) all my hours in reading and praying . *' a maxim which. in the clafs ** of peaHints.

) f^ I will pay obedience co your advice.. whilfl meditation requires a more fedentary and tranquil life. and feize every "^ occafma of performing my duty. From this moment ^^ I will fet myfelf to the tafk . and on the molt eligible means of bringing *' the old to perfection.whigh whickens the blood'and occafions a languid pulfe. with far *^ greater facility than in your clofet. *^ Walking may alfo be made an inffru^tive as well as '• healthful recreation by enabling you to examine.:8 *' ^' *"' THK RURAL SOCRATESo « efforts I make. to quit ** with ilitisfaclion. ^^ *^ *' *'. that I may feel the fweet ^'' confcioufnefi of being a ufeful member of lociety. MiituaJ communication here in^^ forms every one.v. of Ibmething of which he was igno« ^' rant . ^^ with your own eyes. a life ipcnt in glorifying my Ci eater. Thus your occupation is calculated to banifli melancholy.MiVri'l f:o rviv f'U-. my dear Kliyogg. often to fly frora refie£tion. or however llrong a<fl:ivity fortifies is my inclination.* *' *' *^ *' the nerves .verfation of men of fenfe." '" You are in the right. I have alv^ays *' been greatly edified when you have been kind enough ^'' to introduce me into company. . mine to invite it. where the difcourfe " has turned upon the daily new difcoveries in various ^^ branches. f* 4^5. mental aiSlivity enfeebles them.v-creiturt-s/' # . and vv'hat ^' defe£ls (land mofl in need of a general correction. an agreement of fentimcnts. from the finidity being greater . and happy f" regular in the practice of all its obligations." — *' bv b/:"Mo. the circulation of the blood becomes more free. the company of my friends. By the conflant exercife of a farmev's life. I am therefore obliged. and Corporal feek diflipation in v/alking. and a man *^ can i^:>re:id tlic nfe of whatever he has difcovered. animates and iup^^ ports the execution of benevolence ichemes . be able. whenever it fhall pleafe heaven. In the coninto dlTqui*'. (I repljed. the culture of our farms . you may enter ^^ fitlons tending to the benefit of mankind. to dif'^ ccrnthe errors our huibandfiien commit . and '• Still you are purfu^' ingyour proper bufmcls (faid Kliyogg).

may be an inducement to men of fur pcrior fcience and abilities. there ?s a curious exiraft fioiB this work. and above the example of this worthy man. — — . 24.7. Let it not be thought an extravagance all. produced in me falatary effects. Annoal KegiSer. I apprehend the queftion debated by the philofophers of the prefent age. Tae Moral Philcfoph/rf by Mr. t 79 may fafely afiirni. whofe energetic pen could have made the world properly acof fancy. — compare his wifdom with that of Socrates would have been much more ftriking. 188. Having prefented to the Fiench tranflator the life of Ludwig in German. and true greatnefs of mind more certain and determined . imprefs on the mind of my readers only a part of thofe fenfations I have experienced in contemplating the original. F. K. nearly upon the fame plan. ibmetimes to turn their thoughts and obfervations upon the lower clafs of people. Rural Socrates is to aie a proof. lyj^.^ — whether fcience and literature have been more beneficial 6r injurious to fociety. Perhaps the defcription I have given. that the human mind is capable. Dre/dasJi A. and our ideas of happinef?. but had done little which wasorigisah ion of my friend appears juftified by the account given of Ludwig. if I I The parallel quainted with his charaiSter. in all llations. in the 3!rft volume of the EngUft. he remarked.THE RURAL SOCRATES. that Ludwig had inftrufled himfelf in various articleg The opinunder great difficoltie?. I am yet tempted to hope that this faint fivctch will not be abfolutely void of utility. Hoffrpan of Drcfden . p. Our knowledge of the various properties and faculties of the human foul might be rnore complete . with a copper-plate and this infcripiion : Johannes Ludeiuig^ agri ac 'vivea co-^ Cajfehud^s frope lonus^ Philofophnsy Maihematkasy Oratory Atttodida8us» In the Jourrml Etrangert for Auguft^ JEtatis 41. bting that for the year 125&. tigations. if the features I have endeavored to mark. might again be refumed with great benefit. and vh'tue would have gained the admiration and honor it deferves . that the admonitions.* nay. intiiled. 2758. of difplaying the — My whole This author is not the di^ philcfoplcr who has entered into fuch invefThere was a book pubiifried in 1756. See there p. had Kliyogg met with a Xenophon.

The flrongeft incitements to irdefatigable toil Cither the pecuniary adYanta2:es arifing from it ^ are or hon- * . the magiftrate^ every man accordi'ig to his occupation.8» THE RURAL SOCRATES. by degrees. a work atfirfl undertaken with the fole view of ftiniukting Tome of my countrymen to ofe their utmoft efforts for the re-eflabliihrnent of agriculture tive flatefmen. and inteHigent farmer may be. and of pointing out the fliortefl way for The inflancc the attainment of this laudable purpofe. the artifan. whole benevolent eye co nprehendi ^. the whole country w?ll reap t^e benefit of io excellent a moSuch happinefs cannot elcsipe the eyes of attendel. and in adling cpnfonhably to the faculties beftowed. and from thence be ipread ambngft thofe adjacent . good morals will prevail in the village to which he belongs. The hufbandnaij. that is to fay. till. the fecond depends upon experiments and obfer- "^ations. and the utility v/ill then become general. and lofl to fociety in whole extent of will render hitnfelf pleali ig to that Being. erate upon his neighbors ..tonce what is uiefultothe human race . will Mnd fufficient opportunities for the exertion of thefe faculties . The tirll: obje*i requires a general reformation in the moral conduct!: of the peafants . before us proves the pollibilitv of fucceeding \ and aC the fame time indicates the moil efficacious means . accordiiig ra his (laiion. the fch )lar. cj'mongfl: us . This confideration has induced me to confiply with the importunities of my friends-. 1 who are defirons to revTrify errors in gov* ernment . its powers . unremitting ardor and alfiduity in labor . that great talents are never whatlocver rank he who pofTefles them that the real grandeur oi man confifls . in communicating to the public. as injflrumental to the general pro peri cy. as the moft confummate legifThe influence of his example will infenfibly oplator. provided he makes a good ale of the taFent A' wile he has received.^s phced . with a more precife and comprehenfive knowledge of the belt methodic of irn pro vement.

in every age. the mofl important affairs are confided to bafe a^d iiiadive men. where honors are lavidied on idlenefs. and that titles of honor are often the reward of infamy and lewdnefs .— In republican governmenlSj to be chofen into the magiflracy is an honorable diftinction : and happy is that ftate where dignities are the affared recompcnfe of virtue and merit Thereall things flouriQi . when we behold men the mofl defpicable attaining it. that they ere not always circumlpe£b and juft. would animate every heart with glorious emulation. and a thoufand other vices All that is good becomes cxtindl . and become negleded . flatefmen of fuperior abilities. have conflantly availed themfelves of its efficacy. that probi- — ! ! talents. in obferving it ad fb univerrally on all men in all governments. to arrive at tiie fame diflinction by the fame path But on the contrary. in the diflribution of marks of honor . which feems flrongly to invite all legiflators to employ it ?— Indeed. -If nobility or knighthood always furnifhcd living teflimonials of fervices rendered to a country. which occafions the profligate and ignorant to confound the marks of honor with honor itfelf . 81 ofary rewards beflowed by the government and particuThe defire of public marks of din. fince that alone can render him an ol>jecl cf efteem. they infenfibly lofe their value. however unworthy the candidate. how is it pofUble to niidake the wife intention of the Creator. 1 L vanifhes . which alone will be fure to obtain the prize. The misfortune is. frequently ufurp them through intrigue. mofl powerful fprihgs that can influence of the one is human nature : and.THE RURAL SOCRATES. intemperarce. as ^vell as the mod eflimable . lar Ibcieties. and application.irid:ion. for fince thofe who have the leafl pretenfions.-^ But all is loft in a nation. and conduA to honors. emulation ty. There the firfl lefTon of infancy is. all the effed: will be to give rife to bafe intrigues. procure confideration. the appearance of a nobleman or a knight. and every citizen is animated with zeal for the public.

THE KU^AL SOCRATES. The * The firft part of this fc6iion 13 cxtraf^ed from a lelter written by Dr. in confequence of an invitation' from the Philoiophical Society. 176.3 . unaflifted by books or the converfatitm of the learned. than many of our magiflratcs. which tends to iiiflriicEl: and interefl . They maintained with vcliemcnce every where. edjilcn af the Rn- ral Socratest Et . What feems hitherto mofc to have diilinguifhed our country philofopher. Hirzrl to the French tranflatuFy Auguft i. from the hope of an opportunity of being able to de- My : tc£l errors in my relation concerning him. The lafb could neither comprehend nor rclifh the fa6l. by the folc force of his own genius and re fie dl ion . ferviie condudl fjcccfs* asSSBE is the only metV cd employed to obtain SECTION III. and wealthy merchants. the more difficult will it be to difliflgnidi in him what is his ovrn^ from what is borrowed. that a fimplc villager fhould be wifcr and better informed. Every «ne now wifhed to fee him. men of letters. defcriptionsof Kliyogg had put the finiQiingRrokc in Zurich.. to the intcrell taken in his characSler. and others. fff- THE following* is an account of what pafTcd at a meeting of peafants at Zurich. and a mean. I endeavor to catch every particular of the life of our good Kliyogg. and to hear him converfe fome. chofen from the beft farmers of the canton. clergy. Qif th& Projeds for the advancement of Agriculture^ uukich Kliyogg gaverije in the canton of Zurich. that fuck a charaifler could not ex- ift.for the purpofe of bciflg iafsricd in the Sijpplemect to the fecrtnd Frerich. is his riiiug Xjb the fublicic heights of philofophy. becaufe they felt warmly in his favor . though I fear that the more this v/orthy man mixes in our city. and the mere he frequents' a certain flile of company.g2 vahiflies .

envy itfelf was conflrain^ ed to do him jaliice. Kliyogg had pcafants of his it particuWIy at heart to perfaade the community to confent to inclofing their common paRure which is an extenfivetratft of land. to vanity. of fma)! ad-^ vantage . but. fvvampy and wet. that he might be ufeful. a»nd in his different conferences foon found whether tlie notice paid him was owing to curiofity.'T^He above pnrfued. lb material to good culttire. — them (Ifr. wiih the highefl: fatisfaiSlion. and men of fenfe and virtue gave him their friend(bif).THE RURAL SOCRATES. The wifeH: and belt infirudlcd cf our magiflratcs did not dlfdain to converfe with him reCpe£ling ths improyerncnt of agriculture and many fubjecls of cl vl\ orovernment. very . and whofe fituation enabled them to af- the plans for the public good. therefore. capable of furnifhtng every farmer with food for a rruich greater number of cattle. When it was found with what franknefs and good fcnfe he jfpoke. in his opinion. or to a turn for contradiction. Kliyc^g was fenilble that the Pbilofophical' Society was occupied with vievv^ congenial to his own. thsit his reaibnings did not fail to make imprciTion . to a love for truth. which he wiflied to fee executed. and in its prefent Hate. and how deeply he had advanced in the art of penetrating into characters He feized in a moment the diflindlive qualities of each perfon . 83 Tiie d^fire of meeting with Kliyogg. and that he gained fufiicient influence to induce him to hope. when inclofed. v/ith the fajne zeal. and of augmenting manure in the ^kme proportion. He cam« often to its aOcm- and communicated his ideas on the methods to be ifh. I Ixid now an opportuai* ty of admiiing his wonderful fagaclty. and ani- mated blies.in cafe they defired that agriculture (bould flourall recommended their extending their complaifance . be- came general. to relifiii. No other motive W2s now neceiTary to engage him to continue frequently to vifit thofe. whofe difpofitions inclined — — . He (aw at the fame time.

and afcertainthe caufes which *' have prevented their farther progrefs. if you mean to excite his *' emulation and incline him to feck inflrn<Slion. You fre*' quently reafcn upon what concerns our profeflion : ^' will you permit rae^ gentlemen. he advifed us to choofe fome fubje<^t proper for the invefligation of peafants. Thefe marks ^^ of confideration for their flation and underftanding. He recommended. complaifance fo far as to hear the opinion of the peafants their own mouths.hich concern him . when once they are perfuaded *' that it author ity. Society could not but applaud this propofltion But fome amongfl Ihem had too of orv philofopherc The — inditfercnt . By placing a confidence in ^' them^ you will gain theirs . conceiving many of them not only ufeliefs. but convi(rrion5 that is net from ^' you wifti them to purfue new tracks. and excite a fpirit of aiSli^* vity. and the laborer of a great deal of time which might be more pro- from — ''•' fitably employed. You (liould rather ^' flatter him . '^ It can only be by thefe conferences (laid he) ^' that you will ever' form jufl ideas of the flate of our *' agriculture determine the precife pofition our cuU . ^' tivators have reached . and you mufi: be careful not to oppoie this opinion. to make refiedlions and obfervations on the vari*' ous parts of hufbandry. " will engage their attention. and they wijl fall infen''^ fibly into your opinion.in matters v. the quellion concerning dry fences for inclojures^ which he apprehends to be carried to a hurtful excefs \n our cantons . and then to requcfl their thoughts upon it. and rcgularl}/ to confer with them." Perceiving us pleafed v/ith his difcourfe. but injurious to the fertility of land .84 THE RUHAL SOCIIA TES. and that the dead fences with paliTadcs rob the forefls of a great deal of wood. to bring fbme of my *' brethren to reafon in their turn before you upon fub*' je^ls with which they likewiie are acquainted. as a firil effay. The f farmer imagines thai he is better informed than your*^ felves. and leave him to fuppofe that you have a ^' high idea of his capacity.

neither iiiforn afion nor advantage .'iclcrilanding an opinion of the unpolifhed manners gind of countrymen." is a bandmen — Our himfelf indeed flrong proof of this. In what cafes are fences neceffary I and in what circumftances may ihey be omitted as fuperfiuous or detrimental ? 2. tions (hould be regularly circulated tv. It was flated in this manner. before the time limited. This way of thinking led to a refolution of requeiling the farmers to fend us their fentiments in writing upon particular queftions in agriculture . according to diiferent circumftances . perfpicuity. com- We mencing with that recommended by KViyogg concerning . '' This appears excellent to thofe who underfland good writing. fixteen different memorials the lolidity.THE RURAL SOCRATES.7^cefraiily included in one or other of theie characters. appealed to them that the modell part of the peasants would be too timid. fays he . and they thought that every pcaiant was . Where fences are agreed to be detrimental. whilft the bold would fall into rude and noily diiputes. in what man- they be rendered the mod ufeful. can land be protect- ed ner ? g. more eligible.fc-rence hefsdes cofifufion and diiorder. to ventnre to eKprefs their feniimcnts with treedam in a public affembiy .'ice a year. railed our utmoft ailoniQiment. and regularity of the arguments. fences or inclolurei Qiiery i. He prevailed. cfFording. but it often happens that our bcfl huf- philofopher returned at length therefore feverd ti:nes to the chargef'=--and are leaJl ikilful in flile. W^Lere fences are judged necefiary. to cx()e(fl any thir?g from It fuch a cop. may We : ^' " ^' Kliyogg only was not thoroughly fatisfied. or at leaU be attended with the fewefl ill coniequenccs \ received. and to excite ag eed that thele queftheir emulation by prizes. jndifFf* rent 8^ u. by what method. .

exhorted the peafants to anfwcr with manly frank- BcB and ingenuDufnefs. to point the relative they wvere difculllng.d from their own experience. without interruptnig each other. from different diflriiSts of the carton of Zuj-ich. and without the leafi: fymptom of animoGty or confufion. each in his turn. appeared in the alTembly. deP:ribc.U jWence THE RURAL wiiJi ajclcdi SOCRAT'ES. of his promoting every thing that tends to the good country. He . They gave Kliyoggan invkarioii in form for fach as and many of our tnenTybers undertook he pointed out . to invite. When their opinions were divided. when we heard the P^reater part of the peafants. on their part. I was appointed /ij/j" deputy. An unexpe«^ed affair requiring the attendance of the treafurer. prcvsllled with the Society to confent to a perfond connumber ufpeafa?its. a wife mag'ilrate. loon brought him back by a clofe red the bis fubje<n:. an abridgeT^l-c of incl'^^Vr*^' Kienv I 0iall not fay any tlhng as the Society has • . aftonifliment aud that of the Society in general (reveral of whom fl^cohdcd me with pleafure) was ex* My treme.' opened the coufereace by a difcourf^ truly pathetic. Heidegger. with order and precision. and fupported them by initances drawn from If any of them departe. the queflions to be propoled to them and corsfined his enquiries principally to the three queflions before dated. in Mr. queftion concerning X\\q memorials on the prize three ?'»'] i'lvrMids publiOiigo. they objedled with rnodefly. was the day appointed 5 aud fifteen pcafants. Gueftion . compute the advantages and the defevfls and propofe the methods he thought mofl likely to rectify the latter. --The 15th of March 1763. the courfe of hufbandry in his paii: of the canton . Hot onetranTgrefTed the bounds of decency prcfcribed they fpoke ahernately. : of tiic refult of this confergiven the public an abllra(5l of ence. the rnoft ienfi hie farmers of their acquaintance. The zealous t^reafurer.

c?ri lain rules for cultivating and i^n proving the fertility of the foil. in realitVj it is cii you tha': to inflruft Ta . — '-^ ! ''• ** *' them irs the niofl. raliko. and has indifputahly convinced nSj that a good unckr(landing and an upright heart ai e not excluded from any condition of life and that true dignity is no more foreign to fimplc villagers. I (hall content myfelf with declaring that wc were fingularly edified^ as much by the decent behaviour of thefe honed people. that this conference did honor to human nature . ir .is amazing with what facility. we read differtations from ?M *^ parts of the globe. It. when we confider how very rarely we meet with the like in men Vv^hofe genius has been cultivated from their cradle !— Upon the whole. you are animated with the fame zeaJ» *' and I expe<Si: the moft happy cffc£ls will attend your ^^ country from.' — clearnefs. my ''' good friends. when " I behoKd men of worth in the city and the coontiy '^ unite their common endeavors for the public bene^ iit And you my friends from the country mu(l now be convinced that all our views center in the difcov'• ery offuch methods as may tend to augment the prof" perity of our republic. in order to be more *• fure. Thofe ^'^ of us whofe fituation v/ill allow it. proper td icrve for inftrucTlion % other hul^ colledled at this interefling conto bandmen. mentof aii which was ference. I have never ifi *• my life experienced (faid I) a fatisfaclion equal to "^what I am fenfible of at this agreeable moment . by giving frefh vigor to the ^' indnflry and adlivity of our laborers^ and endeavorino- With I heard. cempofed by men of talents and " likely to inflrui^l us by their experience. and energy ihcyexprefTed their con- ceptions. I fee. ^^ procure intslhgence. for. I may venture to aflert. than to the mOfl elevated .THE RURAL SOCRATES. a heart affcifted with what I h^id feen and could not forbear exprcliing to the afTembiy the feelings with which 1 was agitated. as by their intelligence and zeal for the public good. confirm this by irials of their own.

88

THE RURAL

SOCR.ATES.

the fuccefs of all our enquiries depends. All our {peculations will be tVuilleis, if you are dilatory in performing your part ; and if, convinced as you are of the integrity of our intentions, you delay to execute the
plans

we recommend.

It

depends on your endeavors
fiouriihrng country.

to render this a
virtues,

happy and

Your

your candor, are lure guarantees of your acquielcence you will then ha\e a jufl right to the glorious title of benefactors to your country : you
:

will chea demonflrate that

the occupation ot a huf-

bandman, is, in its confequences, the mod: important and honorable of all that are exerciled in civil locicty ; and, at the fame time, the mod agreeable and
fulfil. What can be more .pleafing than a perpetual contemplation of the woiks of the Creator ; breathing a pure and fiee air; confirming the health of the body by exertife and labcr ; and beholding a happy fertility, the reward of care and diligence ? What employment can be more eafy to fulfil than tlut, where the greater past of the lucccis de-

fatisfa(Story to

a man'^s own condudl ? How much moie unfortunate in this refpev5l aie we, who fpend much time and care before we can rer^der our ideas acceptable to others I And what a number of efforts miif^ be made, and obihules be furmounlcd, before we can introduce thern into prad^ice, or reap the leaft advantage from our esei rions : Continue then, my give us friends, to fecond us with all your might your conficleiice and friendQup. You (hall fee us, in our turn, do every thing in our p6wer to convince yoti of our ftncere regard and to render of general u(e the maxims we have learned from books, from expeMay this riments, and from your converfation. nni4>n of interefts procure ojr country all thofe bleffmgs which there is reafon tocxpedl from it." I had the fatisfadlion m finiihing my difcourfe, to ohferve fomc emotions in the countenai^.ce of my auditors^ cxprcllivc of their approbation.

pends on

;

;

The

THE RURAL SOCRATES,
The
was
fo

2^'

Society, as a teflimony of regard and good will

to their gneds,

had provided a dinner ; where there general an appearance of cordiality and kind-, ncfs, that the conclufion of the day was not leis atieftif}g to a v/eil-v/i{her to mankind, than the beginning.

Z^/^iy-'"

Philofophical Society having difcovcrcd, that written by pcrfons/zc?.^ engaged in practical agriculture, had little comparative weight with the peaiantry ; propofed (as has been related) ^4nnual prize quejliom^ to which the pta(ants replied in writing.* At the end of tlieyear, the information contained in the papers of the peaiants was extraded ; and recommended with the more confidence to the inhabitants of the country, as
it

THE

had been fuggefiied by fome of their com-

rades.

The firfi objecl propofed for difcufilon regarded the care oi forejls. The increaflng confumption of wood from the progrefs of luxury and manufadlures and from an augmented population, joined to the decreafe of the
made this a neceifary fubjeift of attention ; and had wholly been neglected by the peafantry, who even thought it ridiculous in any cafe to plant wood. The prize queflions v/hich were iirit propofed in 1763, and continued in 1764, refpected the fowing5the care, the
forefbs,

yet

it

cutting,

volume of the French eJiiion of the Ksral ^sc^ate;^ % 24 Sept. 1774 ; and written by Dr. Hirzel, to the Baron de Tchoudi, an officc-r in the Krcnch fervlce, and author of an Efthe fecond
letter
is

*In

inferted dated

and of of her perfor.>.ance3. It chief! 5? Zurich which fefohed fron? the hiot furnifiied by the conference between the Philofophical Society of Zurich and certain peafants of the canton ; a conference, as we have feen, From this letter, the following part of the by Kiiyogg. iirft propofed above fedion of this work isextrn<^^ed and tianflated. Mr. Young's tranfiator from this period of our work will no isore be
trees

{zyoT\ReJinom and cone hearing
legards the improvemcns? in

rhc canton of

^card

of;

except in our Appendix,
IVI

E,

9!^:

THE RURAL SOCRATES.

and the employment of wood. The anfwerS ftftoniflied the propolers; and proved the important truth^ ;^hat found rcalbn well directed can never mifs the truth. Profeflor Ulleri, digefled the whole into a body of inilruftions, which uere approved even among the Germans, with whom the art of the Forefier has approachAmong thefe papers, ed the moil towards perfeftion. whoie bufinels often the bcfl was the work of a cooper It was fo well drawn up, that led him into the woods. it needed no alteration to fit it for the prels ; and the author of it in confeqiiente, was made the diiedlor of a At the fame time, commiflioners confiderable wood. The prinwere appointed to take care of the foreils ciples upon this fubjed thus becomipg more generally known, the Society was encouraged to proceed farcutting,
;

ther.
It

ral

was now determined to difcnfs every branch of rueconomy, in order to arrive at a fyflematic fet of

infl:ra£lions for the

country ; and the next topic propofed, regarded the means, of preparing, afTcmbling and multiplytng maiiures^ compoils, t&c. This was the more natural, as the pcafantry ^xrc already convinced of the necelfity of attention on this head, according to the maxim prevailing among them, that 7nanure is better than contrivance ; {_M[ft ijl v.her lift ; mieux vaut fum'er qne finefTe \\ and much had been done on this fabjccl, eipecially for the increafe of
liqoid

manure [mare.]

It

was

alfo neccfTary to attack

the cuilom of turning out beafls

into fallows, as alfo

into flubble, after harvefl ; a fort of commonage called /-/re*// de parcours ; which diminifhed the quan*

of the year, when it was bell when the fermentation was luoft favored by the heat of the feafon ; and injured a l-^ fo the turn for improvement, by checking the cultivator in the free difpofition of his land. This ew experiment was equally liiccefsful with the former many fyflematic thinkers were found among the pcafantry.
tity

of dung

in the feafon

in quantity and kind, and

)

;

THE RURAL SQCRATES.
ai>d tiic fpecies
-

9

of commonage above-mentioned was
fubjedi:

finally abolifhcd.

The

following year the

of the Society^s prize

was the employment of the manure of the far jn-yard ; for as it was eilablilhed in the difcuflions of the preceding year, that there were diffeient fpecies of manure, the examination now was, how bell to «pp1y each, of them ; both as to the objed of cuhure, and the fpecies of ibil. More inform atioo was obtained on this head than was ei;peded ; and the memoir of Captain Togguenburguer of Martelen, an experienced and intelli* gent cultivator, was printed without any change being made in it. In the reiult, the peafantry received here

It v/as even found profitable provided it v/as done upon a better fyflem ;for the manure ought to be fo laid, as to increale tlie future means of manuring, by augmenting the quantity both of forage for cattle and of itrav/. Thefe fucceffes led to another object ftill more difficult and almod unknown in the country ; namely, the rmxiure of differ era earths^ and the decifion of the ^<?it is true that in cieT of culture called for by each foil. a little diflri^l of the canton named Lagerberg, they had known from time immemorial, the ufe of a marley 'potters-clay S^glctije marreuje^ for im.proving clover, to Gravel alfo had been the great benefit of their cattle. applied to clay; though it v/as pretended that this was to enrich the fathers at the expence of the children. In \.\i^v'meyards alfo on the ildes of the hills, the cultivator when replacing the earth lofl by wafiiings from, the rain, incidentally found benefit from the new earth which he brought to his old foil.— But ftill the fubje<St was imperfectly handled and parfued ; and foils were not yet known by their oppofitions to each other ; though hence was to be drawn the grand rule for their being

again

much

inflrudtion.

to

manure

lefs laud,

mixed.

The

..;:plemc?2fs

Society had next to inquire into the ftate of the o{ agriculture u fed by the peafantry ; and here

In the two lail years.'as far more advanced than that of Zurich. Brunner^ fecretary tot. inflrudlions ^xcYcfe?if at the expence oftheSoci" civ to all the pari/kes in the canton. Every day plcafing proofs offered of the falutary fpirit which was excited by this means among cultivators. and in particular. the pick-axe. its hopes were equally gratified by the iiffue. that of the folen^n conferences which have been above defcribed. TheSociety had alfo the opportunity of informing the peafantry^ when they fhould cultivate with the plough. two branches. Thefe to get them placed in every jchool-room^ that young perfons might acquire right ideas as early as pojjible. and permitted the plougliing of heavy lands with light ma- A man chinery. in which the canton of Berne v. The abflrad of what was written on tliis iubje<Sl is to be fdsn in the paper of in[lru6iions drawn up by jMr.commifFion. ' It . and the obje*^ of exciting his own meditations miglit have been frufliated .92 hers sgain THE RURAL SOCRATES.». nnd if it \\zA jolloroedx\\t difcnliion of the prize queflion. — Rut the lecond plan for drawing the attention of th:^ cultivators to what concerned them. when with the fpade. Care however was taken to make the fubjed: of them diifer from that of the annual \ prize quedions.If the conference in this cale had preleded the prize queflion. was difcovercd who could prepare wood fop |)loughs. mortification and other incorvmlrnccs v^ciild have oc- cnrred to ^ manv of them.. or the hoe with two branches. the notice of the cultivators was UWutdtoXhtwatering and draining of lands . the peafant would have been anticipated in his own inquiries. was ftill purliied namely. which united duvability with iightnefs. and the clerpj were tiefired to promote attention to them .

fields for grain. Above each column ried males — — — a memorandum was placed. and the different means of lubfidence of the different villages. and female lervants . and goats . unmarried females. fowls. and fervants . . geele. paftures. with the profe'ffion or trade followed by each family. their value or produce . hearths. fheep. and colts . and woods. and lad of ail the lum total of the perlons compofing the family. ty in Yy\ . Five other columns were provided for arranging the land tinder one of the ^wc kinds of landed property . a comparifon was made eafy with thofe of tlieprefent time. -An extrad: of the marriages. hories. and pigeons . to the regiflcr of the hou- families. cows.THE RURAL SOCRATES. hives. and deatli from old rcgiflers being added. the diiicreut properties. ni'jrried men. namely meadows. unmar(whether above or below the age of puberty. it ' 93 ing the farther perceived.) abfent women. as alfo concerning the Ip rings rivers. Another column exhibited the profeflior. ali^-^ of the married women. mares. vineyards.1: knowledge of the adual circumdances of the country. inviting information in writing concerning the quality of the houfcs and land. and laftly another for bee-< Heiice an idea was obtained of the population. Different columns were appropriated fes. hogs. widows. (whetlier marri^^eble or otherwile.) abfent men. Afterw^ards came twelve columns for noticing refpedively the number of oxen. or Ipccies of manufaiflures w^hich the family purfued. and likewile refpectiug the precautions taken with refpe^l to fire and other objects of police. Hirze! therefore prefented to the Societ ihlcs 1761 a plan q\' for each village. as regarding rural was economy. and young cattle . Ey thefe means the Society has fmce obtained accurate intciligencc relpt^6ling the country. Wherever there were difficulties attending this intelligence the peafantrv v/cre called — upon to explain then:j% ConfC'rcpcc. births. that the views of promotagricuUure of the canton of Zurich could not •be fully attained without an exav. widowers. atid canals .

\v\\o Premiums have been inpcraddcd in favor of thofe have found out metliods for employing the poor^ to the advantage of the individual and of the c. of torrents. and the pealants were always Satisfied and lent away in loinc reipecr or other iiii' jproved. keeping in order the common woods. as by improving the common paflures. Whole communities joined i^ogethcr to gGt rid of the droll de parcours (or particu- commonage above noticed. perfons have alfo joined in fubfcrip- tions for aiiifting inch poor laborers as to be diiliibuted bailiifs ^nd the wanted capital^ committee of the Soci[or chiefs] of the villages and by a curates-were invited to give advice as to the diflriTwo pieces of land.94 THE RUPlAL SOCRATESc Conferences were alfo held with fotne of the cmii' vators. Many humane which was cty r. eoritain i3. merciiants. conference. in working np their turf . and making roads.ommunity . which hrive been dirc£led to objecls highly important. lar right of — many EcQ7iomical OT \AoriciiUurai SoQicfxes were formed in places . and more and more ?. the aiiiilants were more numerous than at ^he preceding ones . or in difcovcring ?}2arle pits^ or other matter proper for dreffing the land. the pea Hints became mor<? and more proud of their profcilion. converting ihem into meadows. or plantations of willow f which fays the French editor are fomctimes as profitable as the bcH: meadows.ogo v^'iarc feet (or not a fquare of 45* yards) — and . by many clergy.) Others agreed to divide tlieir common pailures in n^ardiy places. By thefe different mcsns. in countries where flraw is Others again advanced in the care of their fcarce. preventing the ravages &c.any talents called to }ight. which together did not bution. a!]d arriians. military perfons.l^ . on the fubjccl of the advantages and defe^^s of the rural ccouoaiy in their fevcrai neighborhoods* Thefe conferences were attended by fomc of tlie chiefs cf the government.] zvGods . At every new iiterary men.ttentive to its principles. and m.

Other inflances occurred of iervices equally confiderable ard" interefling. and with the help of a little work at a maniifaiSture. A pcafant who with great alFiduity had cultivated a fliVall property upon the old fyfteni. who were fhut out even from the w-ood.ere devoted to varied e?<periments upon grains and. Eighty beds often feet fquare each which were ranged in a line along a narrow flip of land v. The marfhy fpot of meadow was itfelf planted with willow . forage of different kinds. therefore to keep his cattle conflantly in the flabie.heap. his whole land became more fertile and w^as more eafiiy worked . whofe produce farther fenfibly augmented the dung.THE RURAL SOCRATES. though had it been otherwifi: his ether advantages would h-a. as a donation lo be applied to the objecl of e:>perimcii!:s. In the noil difl-anc field. a reier voir for liquid manure was placed. fomething w^as even faved. A few years flnce the Society received from the canton a landed property. liave been by help of this fort without the aid of any cattle. intc^ which v/atei* was led from a neighboring fpring. fertilized 95 snd which were deemed entirely barren.. The pafture vvas converte(': into fields. of which a third part w^as put into clover in fuccedion for the fummcr feed of the cattle. his wheat was doubled . in the fourth year was enabled to keep three . lb as to fupport a whole fafniiy . and put their manure on his wheat land aiid meadows y giving to his vines earth drawn from a m^r (by meadow and afterwards e^^pofed to the infiuerce of the weather. "I'he Society alio had recourfc to a new i^icthod of advancing cipriculiure. A . was engaged to work it under tlie circ:i5lions of He was ordered the Society upon the new fyilem'. -^ The proprietor who had before kept only tw^o head of crattle.ve richly compenfated for it. The agricultural experiments in the mean time gave knowledge to the canton as to' feveral articles of culture. and his vine^-^bad fuffered no detriment.

which ailing in like manner. and tiiC pre-eminence tf ihofe who had done rnnft in the year was decsdThe ptrifli of Cepsde. n {aid by this means lo h:!ve becooie ihe beft culdvaied of any iri its neighborhood. wha had c^iflinguilhe. Jin aiuient tmiflceteer of the King — ofFrar-ce. J. Ir is affir-ned in a French puViication. All thcfe dilFcrcnt operations. gave afeftival yearly.nan's gold) of the Germans and ftill Swifs. of which fome arc extremely rare . rrs. let it be repeated.''^ focietv Icli' * The French of Cciofnbel. an agreeable and produc- cive kind of bjct. of editor in a notCj informs us of a clergytnan of the name who tlie every year provided dliterent prizes for his parifhion- which Ihi^ relates olfo. M. The advantages of the roan- ^ oult (. are the conlequence of its fit^fl Thus the virtues of private CQ7incciion with Kliyo^g* lUe may extend their influeiace to the whole of human jnft as nn oak by its aQorns may furround it.ilj fucceed. THE . A tion of a botanical garden^ in part of this land has been devoted to the formawhich every year are feen 200D ditFerent plants. In many parts of uith the variorjs ufe? rn which they may be applied.i thedifclves by their exer(ions and fuccefs in zgriculture. with other oaks. Ag! jcjltural concerns foraic J the fuhj^ii^ of a conf^ji-ence upr>n this occafion. to whjcrt thcfe only were admitted. E.he northern worU. the original oak becomes attended by a majefUc foreil. whtre this fiant wo. de la Pt-rriere. Gardr-nin^ iind fruit trees fuinifii fubje(51s which might properly fail Premiunns lilfo may fie within (he ol j?rt9 of a le^urer in agriculture. vegetables as the companioiis of animal food are in rarioos inftances ff very modern date. <jiven to ihofe making known new fruits and ne^' garden vegetables. and this garden v^as placed under the care of Tii\ Locker. in the old duchy of Aguiljon. of the Philofophlcal Society. rd by a tribunal. are ut^heard of in diffVrcnt countries. th:t Agrtculiural Sncieiy of Alencor had the dillrihution. that in Alface they have fucceedcd in relfing fo'-nc of the fineft vegetables in Europe .96 THE RURAL SOCRATES. &c. owing to the magiiharcs at Strafburg giving a fmall gratification to thofc bringing ta market the fincft bcefj cjbb?ge.

Paftcr et An)ft«r<Jam. I': HiilQioff. I ' of his neighbors f If their attacks hav^ not excited in him anger and a defire of revenge I And in what manner he governs himfeif in this cafe ? It is not to be doubted. He has merit. more palpable is this fatire.THE RURAL SOCRATES PART THE SECOND*. v^ho travels in order to difcover the men of merit of different nations. Jf Kliyogg maligrzant jenloujy is mi the ohjed ofins . and what perfon with merit is free from this ? True merit is a perpetual fatire on thofe who are defiitutc of it .. Queries r£fpedl?7g ^I'^yogg^ ivith ihdr j^nfvjsr:"-: I AM afked. and — the I ported. — i Thefe are queries from Dr. SECTION i. and if afterv/ardshefeeks N i| the ^ This pirt of or? completion confiSg of materials ftfunJ in the J'rcnchi and not in the Englidi tranfiation. to frequent thofe places where the idle refort in order to fhew their talents by Griticifing their countrymen . that Kliyogg is orpofcd to the envy and malice of his brethren. the lefs eafily it is fupI would therefore recommend t6 every friend \ of mankind. to "Bh . It is roircellancoaj in its oature.

rich harvclls . Another pretends. and to lead them to favor the induflrious cultivator. that iie deflroys his woods. who infinuates himfelf into the favor of men in place.AL SOCRATES. the difputc^ between fcen him' Icfs I i':. and whofe obedience and alertnefij in their labors every day increafcs his happinefs 5 and laftly. in oider to diftrafl or injure him. the acquaintance of thofe who have been mod cenfiircd there. who always endeavors to be wifer than other perfons. neighbors of our philofupher feek to ridi<:ule man.. and leave nothing undone which envy and malice can fuggeO:. have ore' . by ufing a mixture of different foils or by exhauflinghis arable lands and depriving them of their juices. who are well brought up.UP. One exclaims. Others again make liim a flatterer.the figns of an interiial tranquillity and content. it v/ill be fingular. proceeds in his courfe . little occupied with his Creator. in order to augment his manure with the ipoils of his firs and pines. and oppofcs nothing to his enemies but the fruits of his labors . and on whofc countenances are to be obferved . I have never properly difcovercd him in anger mi>ch hina as a lingular The — : — . always tranquil in the midCt of their intrigues. : remarked in him the fhiallcfl difpcfition t6 I have rrientmcnt. to acquaint thciji with the true flate of what happens in the country. and trufling only to his own efforts though in fa61 he only regards labor as the furefl means of obtaining the divine blefirng. the diflingniflied favor of our governmen':. children. in order to dcprefs his neighbors . Others. if he docs i>ot find among ///^fWperfons the mofl remarkable for their merit and talents. in fhort^ laugh at all of his enlerprizes v/hich vary from the common courfe .98 THE P.^ He. Others wi(h to make him pafs for a vain and Vvorldly man. though the only ufe which he has made of the accefs which the fublime fimplicity of his cha'rai^ler procures him among the moll refpci^ted and beft intentioned membersof our government. lies been. that he luins Ills poflerity. on the other hand.

affembled My chiefs.oco fieriing. the * The French tranfl^tor cites here two meixoraWe excepiicns. and I *< ti.ieri(/es du Citojen for 1769. but that generofity and difintercfLcdnefs are of all their natural u^ualitiesj thofe v/hlch develope themfclves the leaft* . lie replied. that I may at lealr leave a wreck of my fortune to my children. in defigneu to his cftate. — . I have obferved him Seizing with a kind of enthuiiafm.e M. fimple. con-.g to regain their good will by marks of the moft unequivocal frieuddiip and by fcrv ices the Such proceedings are exceedingly mofi: important. the means of procuring accefs to his patrons for thofe. In th? year 76^. and more than once. replied the old mer. fully every occurrence which can make me acquainted with this clais of people and 1 am every day more and more confirmed in the pei faafion.n a pro^tt marithai they we know — ner.hf. that.vhat they had cffen. ^ftcr fomr thanking hiaa.i2. who envied and oppofed him feekir. who gives »he folloviing *• The farmers and vafTelation in the Ef.i providing fi>r their reiixburfement in forty years .-fed him.imsly.12. that genius is as common in this clafs. lifT. ds . K>ne parifli 9^ and another (where great vehemence is ufual) employing only a frauk. his lady might go to church . One isfaken Uom ilie Marqnis de Miraheau. of which the minute ftill fubfifls . in their own phrafe. leaving him half his income to fupporc him according to his r^nk. In effed. Your but 33 children. for ihey belong to us all ?— Your us. an. • The 1 M. The deputies rc.iry ^fom the defanged ftate of my affairs . faiJ he vviih e^TiOtion. . and molt accurate llatiemeiit of fails. in oppofilion to the lieat of the adverfe party . but lowe above X.000. the ncafure is nefeff. > fecond anecdote refpe^^a the generoGty and delicacy cfanold An': I' abaptiit of the country of Walc'tc'^f ' ^"'°n recited. I notice carerare in the inhabitants of the country.'* friends. as in any other whatfoevcr . I can no longer live in my ufual i^yle .elr France) learring and deputed to him (omt ct f:ll the-vi to any in the admins •* — .ired with this inrormaiion .THE RURAL SOCRATES. they prcfentcd him iviih eight catriage horfes. *' ** his of ihat h.^efcenJ to Introll: your rfFaJfi fo What iii the amount of your debts. to rf queft that he nuould mt ijhatkn of the faancfSy and ta kno-jj in n. de Kergroadez fell (io the diocefe of Leon. and 1 muft cf neccffiiy q-jit you. and to conclude all. and flgned a contra^ wiih hia-. cannot be in letter hands than ours ought not to owe their fuhfulence 10 us. and our only wifh is to reinPtaie the f.e ihey returned with ihe j^. and pfOiTiifirg him a fpeedy anfwer. kindnefs penecr/itcs trie. rnuli fell.

tot) THE RURAL SOCRATES. which can interefl humanity. When he afked the reafon. two SwediHi travellers of merit. with a degree of calmneG equal- }v removed from infrnence and from fear ilred but being conHrained. are each as natural to him. M — jrer.-ffij}(fi cgairH an Anahtipiiji^ . it was in vain that we ufcd every poflible intreaty to oblige hint to linifh his repaft. conciefcenfion. in one fhape or other. adds. vvhaia be enjoined to conduct him lo fuch fields. He rofe immediately to receive us . affiired hi:r». tthe who had been for fifty years at head of ihc magiftracy of Amfterdam. and.'efting the Anahaptifts. having orders to of grain where the horfes of his general rr. — 1 have lately made him avifitin company with Baron Rudbeck and the learned M. he fees and habitually meets in others fcarcely any thing befides attempts. ot vthich the Anabaptift had taken rio notic*. We found Kliyogg jufl returned from a fatiguing journey. he dej de Stadlcr to follow him. and that friendfliip.hlic 1 . but which manifcri: themfelvcs in the divine character of his countenance. fields of grain. and (hewed us the improvements which then occupied him. He entertained us with a thoufand intcredip. — The man endeavored to cxcufe himfelf. and thefe are the virtues which not only preferve him in a conflant ftate oftranquillity and content.(?Ier. At our f^e S£r. i!>c old man ftill advancing. which nothing can alter. bur this does .**"*. faid.abaptift. that a petfon. met ao jgood Ar. the p^afant being too feldom in a iituation to cxercifc Limitted generally to the fingle care of procuring bis fubfiftenre. and •"* tzW mc the quantity of forage yon want. *' the othe^ *» fields do not belong to me. to deprive him gf the fruits of his labor. as his allonhhingadlivity in his ruftic labors . having that moment taken his fe^t at the dinnertable. and forgivencfs of injuries. ^^ had never fcund one jerious accufation in the fii. whofe obfcrving eye fuffers nothing to cfcape them. them.g things. fend therefore mowers. But as to Kliyogg. M. conducted us into his fields. much as he Hood in need of reft and refrellunent. uhen M." The French iranflator. They had proceeded through a wood A confiderahle way. aiJ il-arcn for f»eldi (le camp to the count de Stainville. that during the vi-holc of that time. de Biornflal.ight forage . we know how capable he is of railing him4elf above his fellows . de Stadler found that they had pafled a Tuimber of.

THE RURAL SOCRATES. in which providence has placed him. and in making this his true happinefs. and cufloms of mankind. point cordiality and courtefy have become ingrafted inwith difficulty that to his chara<Slcr. The ufe which he makes cf the fruit of his induflry refls upon grounds no lefs judicious . he fees the Hence his origin of poverty. The philofophy of Kiiyogg is entirely bcunded to that fphere. all the faculties of his mind are employed. in fupporting himlelf and family out of the produce of his labor. every thing all this I To tending to delicacy or luxury. as alfo the occupations and amufements of other cialTc^s in life befides his ov/n. and his anMiety to keen them out of the way of . and fom-ctimes from tlie inflructions of others. No. I am . well-founded complaints againfl drunken nefs and the diifolute during the week merriment prevailing on feafl days. vines. he thinks that his only vocation lies in cultivating his land. and to the prefervation and (if poifible) the increafe of his health and flrength. fraud. ?. as to the jnanner in ivhlck Klh yogg employs his Ivn^ evenings in vointer f Whether he reads and particularly wlaether lie reads the bTble^pialms. and catechifm ? whether he is given to philolbphical meditations \ whether the events. manners. and every vice. His lands arc worked upon principles derived from his experience or his fagacity. Every other employment of the produce of his fields. interefi him \ anfwer plainly and ^im^^Xy in one word. i^ur return. and cattle. \\\ the abufes of the good things of this life. loi he gave us a country collation.^hich he gives to the education dren. to what a ing us to Zurich. bounding itfelf to the nourifnment of his body. next queflioned. excites his' indignation.) In this. and even and hence above ail. the fcrupnious . (which is no other than content.nd tl was we prevented him from re conduiS^This trait will fliew you. of his chil- attention v. Deftined to be a hufbandman.

frequenting alehoufcs on fcaft-days. *' It *' (laid he) that it co(h me njuch to fit flill. to what purpofe ^ " "'' • • • '' feems was from riis ncigliborhood) ? The evil ought to the firif errors of this have been ftifiedin its origin girl ihould have been prevented. but is not if you. and lent himfelf to it purely out of friendlhip. the eyes ^ccame extinguifned. foi you know ^' that I do not underhand thefe matters/' M. perceive any. Meckel ':Quid not ceafe to admire the heavenly fparks of fire. the haracterifiic traits of the countenance fuddenly difappear^d ^ the mufcles v/cre no longer rounded. (who : ' ' the cruel fpet^lacie which is a'bbut to take place. It is now too late .telf up to corrupting diverfions. It is then that authority ought to have intevfci'Ci] a^d ihevv^n its ieverity. dc Meckel cf Baik"^-. concerning Kiiyogg whicli pafled in my own hoiire.a(Iions. though commonly regarded cent.- . as innc hcie recreations. and the face offered nothing but vrinkles. They had jufl: given the melancholy fignal for the approaching execution of an unfortunate v. " Gracious heaven. I confent very readily..o- — lajn."^*"'% The celebrated M.fi* Is Sviiz^rland. of force of underflanding. 'i'heie imprclfsons in Kliyogg are the his cfakof never having quitted the circle of occupa• tion? '. philanthropy. faid he.and It to behead this miferable creature. howevI do not fee to what good this tends '^r. But in the midfl: of the operation. Kliyogg laughed at my having defired this. and nward content. '"' : -vhich came from his eyes 3 a llriking (Ign to a pliyfiognomiii. 1 cannot avoid upon this occafion relatirsg an anecdot. will " be without elfedl. having ieatcd lumfelF for the purpofe cf drawing the portrait of my country friend.ia2 THE RUilAL SOCPtATES.^'-^^-^^. and giving her.ngrsretaaJ prinr f=l!er at B. when (lie was fecn abandoning hcrfelf to idicncfs. af /or/g as youth are permitted to ' con/ider the firjl ftcps towards vice as innocent amale^ ments. who had dellroyf^d the unhappy fruit of her it illicit is .

He wai — more inclined to . The bible then is the only book which he reads. at the moment. But tlie children of Kliycgg fometimes looked into the books of their uncle . the pains I had taken of which he could not perceive the ufe. as this worthv veteran died foon afrer of a confumption. even read my publication rcfpcfling himfeif. hew dilUnt Kliyogg is from all fort ^' t^ f c r u d k on ^' ^^ The . and the pitch fork. v/hich flattered their curioli. which it was proper to root out : he therefore . and liIs being ^ccuilomed never to think of any thing of which lie ought not to think. fold the whole " 'i his ridicucolled:ion Vv'ithout delay at a lov/ price. and. had made him perceive the abiurdity of the doctrines of-thefe myflics. and way of — . *' Ions trafii (faid he) was near ipoiling all mv children : ^' the pick axe. Kliyogg Vvithout the help of erudition." may judge froxii this. One of liis brothers. living of different nations. was very fond of reading and had fornied a tolerable colledlion of books in geography . they diretled their thoughts to diflant objects. than to applaud. which injured their atteiitionto what Vv'as before tiiem. the plough. as alfo ofmyftical works. with our philofepher.made liis children fenfable of it. begged cf his brother to lock up his^pbifon . nor to do -any thing but that which it was his duty to do.fHE tions wliich liuKkLr SOCRATES. therefore. away from work. This reading. deride. I have Tome reafon to doubt whether he ha?. — ty. 103 concern his flntion in life . apj)carcd to him as weeds in the mind. never liaving been in a fituation to condder the infiuence of fcience upon the happinefs of men. or returned in fliort. and this always in the manner which I have formerly mentioned. who had for a number of yeais been a foldicr in Holland. ' .Our philofopl)er found that they fometimes ifole their rd to it hter than ufu-. in which they found accounts of the manners. thei'e are ^' the books wii^ch they ought to have in har.d.. for which he was a very great cnHaving pafTed the latter years of his life thufiaft. aits. that — Ws "^ i .

but the flipulation of living with the father-in-law made it impollible for him to accept an offer . ?. — — — Onr philofophcr therethe places where they prevail. and the bell opinion is always foihnved . nor docs any thing occur to excite in any one the rmalleft jeaKliyogg loves. v^hat is ht{i for the profperity of the family. under all circumilances . . and conlults them all loufy. and with tb© harfhnefs and leverity common to a perion bred in the country and whether his children are free from ambiI anfvver. that harmonious friendtion and jealonfy ? iliip and an amiable gaiety. vyithout any mixture of reftraint. and treats. with equal care from their earlieft infancy. find this painted in the contented air of thnfe who compofe it. beino (but up . Things indeed cannot be otherwife with the mode of living i have deicribed. than that of feeing them contend who (halt fnggell. An have been kept. eqiially. fore fees bis own chara£ler mnkiplied in each of tlis His principles indeed have become fo habitchildren. Kvery one may iatisfy his appetite . that no temptation of fortune can engage His eldeft fon might have mar:!iem to quit his roof. — .Q^s^ next inquiry refpe^Its the treatment of Kliyo^9 fa chearfnlneis. led \QVY advantageouily . neither vi^luais nor money as 1 have mentioned. reign in this happy famdy . or it he governs his family by fear. which. openI am afked whether and a proper degree of liberty prevail in his honi'holci . for all areaccurtonied to feek for truth without prejudice or partiality. The v.104 ^'HE RURAL SOCRATES. in all domeftic concerns. and thole vvho enter Irito it.5 it was a^lvantageons. every one of this fimily has liberty to give his opinion . ont of the reach of the dangerous pleafures of gaming and drinking . ual in them. havii-ig never approached even hit children. and has no greater pleafure. Kliyogg knows fo well how to banilh e^ry fpecies of ::^ jf aUnify from his houfl:\oId5 thst his fons have rec^eived lDt» . without this. and to govern thenifeives by good fenfe. would have been agreeable.

W^. and working and partaking in every thing with his children. his opinion of this fmgular character .from a reunion of their labors. who were diiTatisfied. upon condition of ving with our philofopher. when the latter had jull cftablifhed himfelf ri the farm which the republic had confided to his care^ he came to fecehim : but by no means fo much with a view to inflrndlhimrelf. . into it lo^ great cordiality the hufband of their has not only lived with them for many . to quit him. but has even joined his mother to their fociety. . and whom he wifhed to turn into ridicule by means of fads to which he fhould him^'-^Ifbe a witnefs. demanded ""ler in marriage .inperron. but their -father reprefented with energy the happy effeds reiliino. and thinking himfelf in confeqiience the bapplefl. and obtained her.— with Mer who . and found all that '/as fingular in him. built upon folid reafoning. : jed increafe of profits in a family in proportion to the while divided families creafe of its a6live members and properties led to a decline of every thing though 'fie concluded his remonftrances with leaving full lib! : • erty to thofe have fince found by experience.-. with the conti- yogg . is to be felt in all its extent. The mother is equally charmed at being able to clofe her career in the midll of a family-. This man had been fingularly prepofieiTed againft Kliand. fav/ himfelf obliged to refped the man at whom he had pretended to fcolF. of men. where peace and concord reign without interruption and are the delightful recompenfe of honcft labor 5 and where thf: beauty of the 133d pfalm. He became attached to one of his daughters . Having folid good fenfe however^ uth and worth could not efcape him he bluihed a^ his projed . His fon in law has become in all refpeas a feconci Kliyogg. of whom he had conceived a very difadvantageous idea. having adopted all the father's principles.THE RURAL SOCRATES. They how much their father was in the right. Ac firfl indeed there was a flight difcontent among his Tons . as toform. years.

cither in labor. It is here that we to experience the like. of value the feels he country the inhr^bitar.^** able are be happy.ts of the f to deigned has Providence which the blelfings with obtaia may others that prays he and crown his labor? . fo that his time is never a burthen to him. royal the animated which fpirit the fame fatisfadion.lo6 THE nURAL SOCRATES'. or in examining It is again afl^ed. ^hc fame. of degree a fuch exercife pious this tade in that few even with the moft refined affiftance of art. if Kliyogg is ' condition of everything. or in confidering the work or improvement which is required . he often goes from one to This walk. it is eafily perceivable from the manner in which with thefe pfalms are executed. that notwithfland- ingthe great diftance which ieparates his own property from that v^diich he farms. the other.— He confidcrs rJf? the mnny topics fuggeft- ed . ing» he fits among the pialms of befides houfe the in fung allowed to be David. of contemplation ? Whenever Kliyogg goes into his fields. often alone in Ku fields f tf his 4ime never hangs heavy upon him . he occupies of welfare general the and* profperity of his houlhold. on the reflexions with himfelf his journey. or if he guards againfl tlvrs by the pleaiin-'. think however. though nothing i? and fing to them . whicii lafts him four hours. inftead of running after the phantoms pinefs and grandeur which he never ceafes to prelent to himfelf. at his arrival. ferves as a recreation. which he often takes after other work . time. that the children ©f When Kliyogg are wholly without recreation. that Urongly penetrated they prophet. if he to man is for it eafy how proof the find of iceks only to procure true center* t in the fiilfilment of haphis duty. and it docs not prevent his forwarding the During bufmefs which he finds offerinc:. he alivays the finds employment. Add too. harvefl in fields the into go for example We mufl not they he has On the Sunday evena violin to precede them.

and this isthe fum of it. or The lead into general obfervations relative to natural philofophy.x\di lar bors impoled upon you by your profedion in lifco Do always what your confcience directs in the moments when you confult it. that you may be able to allure yourfelf that youare beloved of God. therefore. Beware of eating any bread befidcs that. a traveller. after a manner of his own. which you haVe earned v/ith your own hands. and I will explain it to you.hylical refieiTtions . gives into metap. he conceives that all thofe v/ho are not huibanduaen by profefTion. that at tendency of the prefent query leads me to con* it is conceived. or the civil relations in w^hich he ilands placed ^s a member of fociety.URAL SOCRATES. as he never goes out of his province. and the benefit to arife it from it to every country which makes a ferious objecl. Fulfil with fidelity and affiduity all the duties ?.THE P. It mufl not be expeftrd. jedlure. that Kliyogg. Kliyogg is Co dcf• of what is called fcience.' His theology is very brief . '' you un'^ derdand nothing of this. either natural or revealed- " ^^ '' '' *' *• *' ^^ ^'' .'' He is himfeif then an example how little wifdom is dependent upon learning. I underfland nothing of thele things. Look for no other blef^ fing from Providence. he anfwers. that he fays. Act towards others as you wifh they (hould a6l towards you. always turns upon the improvement of agriculture. 207 If he finds id by the properties over which he pafTes. he enters into converfation with him . This opinion requires corre^ion. fo that it ofiens happens in the heat of converfation. But in return. that whenever he is upon objcv^s which do not r€(pe<3: his profeflion. cannot be thoroughly acquainted v/ith the fubjecft with which he himfelf is occupied . and maOo ** Gofitemplate .'. which. that I can have much to fay re{j^e<n:ing his difcovtitute queffcioned — cries v/ith regard to religion. than that which belongs to confiderate and continual exertions.

— this head. Contcinplate death without terror. When he hears much talk of religion and the ufes of public worfhip. when praying and going to church is thought to repair every thing. — him It as thefe perfuafjons.all religion which refides only in profeinons arid is contradicted by actions. of which he is more anxious to fulfil the precepts. coming from men devoted to idlenefs.Tv. than to underlland the dodrines . he anfv/ers. a palpable lie^t}<j which they leek to abufe God and man. and the prayers of fuch perfons. that he par- in company with two of the leading men he had jiill alfifled in pacifying a warm diipute between two neighbors . fo in his happened one day. which yet he admits as <:ert2in. *^ Do *' only what is right. '^ Such aie his ideas of religion. he anfwers with afojt of difpleafure . '^ I do not.• — . and be tranquil about the reft.•^. Nothing therefore fo cures hlm^ much agitates common was ifh. and he has known how to '' provide for the reft. becaufc it feeds and multiplies all the others .n^ ^t.*'*** If he 11 whai he thinks of original fin. for we mull owe this to oiir Saviour. pleafureand debauchery." If any teli him^ that he leflens the merits of our Saviour by fuppollng that he can deierve heaven by his good works. On the other hand. he calls the religion the Ciiurch-going. ^' which I confider as a point decided but our Sa*' viour himfelf requires tn return^ that I fhould ad *' well this is my duty. and In which they permit alfo their children to iiuiulge 5 or from men who feek to inrich themfclvcs by tricks and cheating . This deceit he conceives as the worft of vices. *•' pretend this .' — The infernal tranquillity which when he feels that religion pro- he has done his duty. in the country. One of them r^rjr/.r? Vmc ^^Q^. never having conceived the ifmalleft doubt on aflced . rr. whom wheat .^. he defpifes . and of the necelFity and efficacy of prayer .^j^^ great amount of his . is to him the ftrongeil demonftration of its truth.2oB '^ IHE ilUIlAL ^OCIIATES. when the converfation turned upon the fertility of his fields. flnce the confcience becomes deadened.

'*• . iince you make ^' To little account of divine v/orfliip. but unlefs there are good v/orks. and pious books arc v/holly ufelefs. faid ^' Kllyogg. to edify '• myfelf . that yt>u have worked on the afternoon of holy ^'Thuriday. to be ready ^^ for your v. know more than one of thefe books witii *' which it would be better to warm the body.jufl adr. and that on a Sunday you have carried ^'your plough from one field to another. when the other. replied the critic. with a fury like that whicli '' belongs to the orthodox theologian. — know. is without doubt proper but read*' iiig and praying mull. prayer.THE RURAL SOCRATES- lo^ ' ^vHeat harveft . and they think to difpenfe themfelvesfrom "" paying any attention. — ! — ^'' . 1 maintaia '^' that all public worfliip. interrupted him by faying. replied Khyogg . that God blefles all honed and and loves thofe who eat no bread which ^^ their own hands have not provided.ork on the Monday morning/'' ^^ — '*' ^•^ . (anfwcred the other . for ali thefe pious readings render " prejkming.*^—-^'^ Woik. when pronoun'^ cing upon the writings ofaphilofophical theologian :) ^' It is plain that you have no religion. be added. his prayers are io mafor ho v/ can he in effecl lenoufly ^d« . than the '' imagination men . when he defigns a^n unjufl a<Sl. when duty and good works arc '' called for/' ^^ Heavens what fcandal can exceed "^ this. after having taken the facrament in the " morning. who was always talking of the importance of going to church. drefs himfelf to God and afl^ his bleffing. '' and this without prayino much to Gud'^ / "• This is more than you can know. and ufes fraud and artifice to proi'eeks to falilioods ^' cure his living ? If this is religion. If any one meditates an ur. or of what ufe would ^^ And *' be ali our good books of devotion r'* I. and of prayer !" '' I love religion (laid Kiiyogg) from the bottom of my heart ?^nd I go very willingly to church. is it not better to be without it ?'" What horrors. •^^ ^' or " ny *' '' cheat his neighbor. '• but on my fide I *' diligent labor. (returned his an^' tagonilinow believe what I have heard. to be !) | true .

tliat he fcarcely knows any book befides his bible and catechifm. which have fucceeded the troubled mind with which the myflical opinions he had adopted." Yoa may judge from the fir. — The Sunday chiefly defigncd adds Hu» philanthropic j anil the preparation for the ciihcr have t. bat npnn cattle. that Kliyogg for he not of number of j igid Chriftians he to a true believer. than in the application of thefe precepts to the improvement of manrjers. reft. 1 agree alfo that I have carried my plough from one field to another. true (faid ^^^ '^ KHyogg . that the eflence in — far from boriovv^ing his mode of confidering reli- gion from our philofophical or moral clergymen . it many ^^ ^' ^' would be very eafy to be a Chriflian. I made a frefh j *' '' ^' *' *' prpmifc to God to fulfil all my duties I thought it no lirLon that afternoon to attend to my calling.no */ THE RURAL SOCRATES. than in playing at Piineas_)/<?z^ '^ *' •'^ pins on that day. when I took the f'acramci^l. with ^' Does not the clergyman carry his books from one place to anotlicr. that he has arrived at that internal calm and that fvvcet content. without giving the cxairple of premeditated la»>or 07. But he has been believe. . on {h. this. : * Jefos feetrec! to allow that woiks «lay. and would is luit the fancy of many^'. on the Sunday 5 but fo is there more ? evil in this.) but as to the holy Thurfday^ the magillrate did not order me to refrain from v/ork j and fince. for I repeat. every Sunday . which may not only fali up-. that he owes every thing it is by attending to its fuggeftions alone. ?ihe S'jndsy.iken place on the Saturday right o*" Monday morning. a day of *vIonday's work might ' . are accuflomed to do. which is the mod important of the duties which God has impofed upon me. if for this would not even purpoie it were neceffary more vevy of Chriftianity lay much precepts.nnian. and what aie thefe but the inftruments of his vocation I others If the elTcnce of Cbriftisnity confiRs in idlenefs.u — Bot a divitje may has do with oor crdinnry wQik. of real exigence may be done on that this tbc Snnday. It is to the fnperiority of his reason. when he fpoke pit of the afa being led away to watering or takfay. is en out of the tjothlng to n<.

Pray yourfelf to receive God in filence. The youngcft cf his children died not long iince. while your Y'^zy-. and in his r?imblings he ahvays conceived himfelf to be in the fields at v»^ork. (faid Kliyogg. what people will '* fay. (faid tb.. I repeat. " you would be contented. he took l. of a malignant fever. will only difturb this tranqaillity. . things which he cannot comprehend. in the eighth year of his act. ' tti adopted. He is now fo well confirmed in his principles that nothing can fliake them. *"' when the poor child is not in a condition to compre*' Jiend any of thefe things Pray for yourfelf only .) the occafion. at prefenr.THE RURAL SOCRATES.er book and (hut it . all his plays being only fo many imitations of ploughing." — . becaufe from his infancy he had (hewn a very peculiar tafle for agriculture . with recom^' mending him to God 'divA his divine providence. by reading the forms of prayer adapted to . '' Of what ufe is this. '^ fmce (lowering his tone of voice. — The diforder had thrown the child into a delirium v^hich never quitted him . (faid Kliyogg.e mothwithout our. when the quefiion is only what is right snd I *' fee no u(e in repeating to a child who is out of his '' mind. that he will deign to is *' ^' people fay.) reading aloud can *' have no other effed: than to diflurb our dear pa: '' '^ But what if he (liould die. adhering thuif a I v/ ays But him what into his favor." er.) he will die in his calling.. I am " perfuaded on tlie contrary. formerly overwhelmed him. " and fee how tranquil he is wilh it . His mother thought thefe not the proper objc6ls of contemplation for a dying perfon and wifhed to prepare him for death.) '^ '-''• — *' '^ ing aloud. if fuch v/ill his will. manuring. having prayed v.'"' Saying this.re . '* fince his whole thoughts are bent upon agricultj. if we neglccr thefe *' things r"— '' It does not concern us. that it would be unpar'^ donable to rifque diilurbing the fcienitv of our *' child in the lalh n^oments of his life antl I defiie . tient.'ith him :'* \^ '« he dies. KliyojTg had a fingnlar affevflion for him. and other agricultural v^orks.

but it is more by the animated and heavenly movements of his countenance. the whole of which is in harwovy ivitk itjelf.) but his imagination is always kept in fubordination to his reafon. I do not recolleft his having difcovered a Neverthelefs he feizes and feels with force.. could they h?. in coniequeilce of the feeble portrait by which I have made him known. £o forcible in any other man .and renders him worthy of the feelings which certain' refpec^able perfons have for him. whatever is beautiful in nature or in morals . lee We may ciEGTIOM . nation. and only ferves to furnifh him Vv'ith figures As to poetic to render his difcoiirfe more impretiive. eye-witneffes to a life. than by any choice of words. (of which my narrative reipeiSling him farnifhes more than one example . always to his grand principle.— PF'hat redly renders him an extraordinary man^ is the pcrfcH and mfeparahle a^^recment of his thoughts^ his This agreement I never fiiw ivords^ and his aClions. and it is this which attaches to him the admiration and good-will of thofe who know him . iingle one.ATE5. and whatever he feels.u^ THE RUilAL S0GR. as we may jndge from the illnftrations he employs to give clearnefs to his ideas. Their elleeni for him I am perfuaded would increnfe. he perfe^lly knows how to cxprefs . that the exlericr of reli-^ gion is only good when reaibn avows it and the heart participates in itt from hence that very found and very vigorous good fenfe properly forms the diftinguifhing Not that he wants imagiquality of our philofopher. thoughts .

while another of bis fifters is (A. and finally at Ataa» P . at the baths of. it^ SECTION Qfths it Tniervievj between Prince Louis Eugene of PVir^ temberg and Kliyogg^ at the Helvetic Society* IT was in the year 1765. Schintznatch was the firft place of the meeting^. Gibbon. who m«t annu- ally to hear a dlfcourfe from the prefident of the year. He confirras me more aiid more in*the opinion which ^*. aftually the wife of Paul . having for its members many enlightened perfons Switzerland.*** He had written me a letter of which the following are extra(Si:. He was fucceeded by his brother. but bigoited prince. * The account in this feftion. ties " with zeal and exa(n:nefs our dutowards our country and our fellow creatures J fulfil when we . (See the pofturoous publications of that gentleman. who — at it firft . 1797. affembly continued.tfHE llUPiAL SdcrtATES. in^. but after fume fufpenfion. a celebrated German in + This was a worthy. that the man who is the *' happiefl:. ?« extracted from a letter written by Dr^ poet. He died before he couid conclude any. The reigning Duke of Wirtcmberg. Schintznatch and in the midft of the Helvetic Society y that his Serene Highnefs prince Eugene of Wirtembcrg% defired to fee Kliyogg. the annua! afiecnbly was next held at Olicn.) The Helvetic Society here alluded to was inftituted in iti 1761. perfifted in the plan of negotiating. It was held in the month of May. prefent emperor of /J^^/T^. and to enjoy ths benefit of each other* conveifation for the three days during which the. who finiflied this projefted negotiation by a leniporary peace/ afterwards osariied the princefs royal of England.3* -r— *V I have often v/ept over the ravifhing and affecting V pi6lure you have drawn of this philolophical peafant* ". Gleim canon of Halberftadt. my defcription of whom had been fo fortunate as to excite in him fomc interefl. to Mr. are We *' great. Hirzel.} He Joined the coalition of fovereigns againft France with great zeal .I have long entertained. a but afterwards departed froax change of fyftem from appear^. not ipuch favor with Mr. but ac laft was obliged to think of negotiation uith that country. is at the fame time the greatefl. One of his frfters would Iiave been at this time emprefs o£ — though fudden death prevented this Aujiritti but for the death of her confort the . D.

whom Kliyogg had fo often admired . He then gave his heartfelt praifes to *' ** *' '^ ^' this king of PruiTia ''who (he faid) would never have performed miracles had he not always been the fir Jl at work. there appeared a vivacity and a ferenity upon his countenance which won every heart. and with a draught of frefh water taken from a neighboring ipring. — — ' : The burgravc of Donha had alfo come to Brugg • to meet Kliyogg. ** who wifh to fubmit every thing to their ambition . how much comparative efiimate lowers thofe proud mortals. elevate fublime minds.**^ I am thoroughly fenfible. very early in the morning. and his relationfhip to Frederic of PrufTia. He had walked ail the night. well affured that he would' not fail to come immediatelyj nothing being fo natural to him as to give {^cafure to his friends . -My friend Kliyogg appeared' the day after. When I explained to Kliyogg the rank of this young nobleman. it mufl. except to refrefli himielf under a tree with a' bit of bread which he had brought in his pocket. (continued he. with a movement of his head which in him always announces a peculiar emotion. *' but on the other hand. and the fatisfadtion which an honed man feels when he finds tliat he can refped: himfeif for his duties we which it condudl. and I went the following day to Brugg to wait for him at the houfe of my dear Zimmerman.114 *' '' *' ** '^HE are happy. when we love our condition and the impofcs. RURAL SOCRATES. of bringingmy *' '' this peafant phiiofopher to Schintznatch. and enjoy the delightful convid:ion of it. The example of this prince. having travelled feven leagues without flopping . he looked at the burgrave with the piercing eye of an obferver. ^^Ifenc with fpeed a mefTenger to Kliyogg . — has not a little cojitributed to raifc my own courage. *< when .) . He had on him a peafant drefs of ticking [coutij which was very clean and if his habit wa!s not impoUng. *' which is exadly v/hat is ufeful for humanity/' You may eafily believe that I very willingly accepted the propofal which hishighnefs made me.

Without this. and fails to fhew to others by ^' his example the manner in v/hich every thing is to be ^' performed. firs. as of a proper preparation of the earth. and the lall: at night. as to hold converfe with peafants . <&c. the quantity of which latter mufi: *^ be increafed with the greateft care thefe new pro. things *' could not go on for believe me. all is undone. it was all in vain. and how to obtain the bed pay " the molt perquifites/^ It was thus that our philofopher diiplayed his wifdom from the firfl moment of this interviev/v— When I endeavored to alarm him. queflioning him about different new forts of grain. I " *' ^' difficulties have been upon the point of (Inking under in the adminiftration of my own liour1 Ah faid I to myfelf. if the mafter is . by telling him that he was about to receive the honor of being prefented to a prince.chapter of agriculture. and artificial graffes. and to be always there. fol*' lows his own plcafiire in it. .^HE RURAL SOCRATES/?< ny when hold.***. now mounted an open carriage to go to Schintz. Kliyogg condemned nothing I but only maintained. which will never lead him '' to waile his (Irength in increafing the wealth of one *' whom he defpifes but he will rather think of his. rcauiriog as much preparation of the earthy s** duftioDS We . (faid he) if there is a neglect of tillage *' and of manuring. The fervant who knows *' and who can dp a thing better than his maflcr.over the earth. *' where the labor Is moft feverc j the firfl in the morn« " ing. *' own advantage and . *'A11 *' thefe liew fpecies of grain and artificial graffes v/ill *' fervenopurpofe. the burgrave took occafion to bring Kliyogg upon the . >' not always foreniofl.natch. fince in this condefcenfion he »faw the furefl means of Ipreading plenty and happinefs — . that agriculture did not fail fo much from the want of ufeful plants. He only exprelTed his joy at finding that fuch great perfonages could carry their love of mankind fo far.—x\s the road crofTed various cultivated fields. it is neccfTary to work without being difheartcned .

to janient want of that manure. i'ov you have leifure to ** — — *"'' We ''^ *' /^^ examine and wcigii well what is mofl uleful to a country and it afterwards belongs to us peafants. ^' with the am glad to fee you. '^ are both good. I took Kliyogg by the hand to condudi: him towards the prince. have condefccnfion for us poor peafants !'' '» It '^ is no condefcenfion in your caje. '^I have great joy Kliyogg in feeing you. that v^e found ourfplvjLJS near the entrance of the houfe at the baths. (faid he fmiling. which beipg left the f' ^^ we give wholly to the juicfs of the grape. to receive our country philofopher. (anfv^ercd the villager. '' which we aheady poiTcfso have neverthelefs (he added) feen fome perfons who f have devoted ail their care and their befl manure to *' thefe new articles. but foon recovering himfelf.. lo pbcy. bqt. faying. with which Kliyogg was wholly unacquainted . Kiiyogg. i^rince Louis Kugene of Wirtemberg had already come out with all the members of the Society. and to work with zeal and integrity . after all the good I have heard of you. while they have neglected every thing •^^ elle upon their farms/' The converfation afterwards jturned upon the cultivation of madder. my as the ordinary produdlions *^ 1 — .''— '^ And I alfo. when he learned that it injured other articles of culture. was for a moment di (concerted . You princes *' and great men fhould tell us what ought to be done and the manner of doing it . . replied the generous *' prince feekto raife myfelf to your flandard. mod marked fatisfadlon paipted in his « eyes :) How charming is it. fori ^' fince you are more elevated than I am." It was in the midll of difcourfe of this kind. it foon ceafed to Our vines. he faid. if ^^ each of us does what he ought to do. do injury J"' *' enough in this way poor fields and meadows our . .*' and her^ the eyes of our philanthropic prince gliftened with tears.) excite his curiohty. which we for have fo much ^ffedion. whole firft meafurc v/as to embrace hini with i^nuch emotion .U6 ^•' XHe RURAL SOCRATES. and thus : ^ ' '' together . ''* ^ ''^ '^^ prince. when great perfons lik^ ^' you.

my which he a fecond time embraced Kliyogg f prince. and it isprecifely becaufc " you reprefent fo well your half of theintire man." Kliyogg. if you *' did not keep us in order. My labors will become doubly " dear to me. " You have *^ju(l uttered a heavenly truth . and the good is not yet realized. if you were not accuflomcd to do the fame to Indeed you are not aware of all the good f' others. together we form the entire man* Howevever advantagcous for thecountry may be the tendency of your "' wilefl: deliberations. and *' fulfil ybur duty with fo much integrity. that I could affirm as ^^ much myfelf. he waf flill more io at the interior content which he read in his eyes. *' that the man appears as a v/hole. your work is bat half proceeded *' in.'' faying '* I fee. with a ton^ «f fenfibility which madq: — : : — — ." '* I oughtrather to take your place (faid the ^* incomparable prince. and that the work 'Succeeds/' If our philofophic prince was afloniflied at the jullnefs of the ideas of our villager and at the luminous manner in which he difplayed them . yon. fince I perceive that they pleafe fo good *' a prince would not proceed thus towards . as well as I can do thofe of mine you . and " cannot believe to what a degree my heart feels elated ^' at your behaviour. (replied the villager) by the manner in which *' you fpeak to me. who was now much affeiSled. that you fulfil the duties of your ^^ fituation. I wifh to heaven. anfwered. Thus the peafant is but *' half of a man^ and ths great lord alfo is but the other *' half of a man.THE RURAL SOCRATES* .) '' for it is you. till the fubjed:.¥ *' ji.with his heart again penetrated . and the good would be ftill undone. who are ^' better than myfelf. who encourage well doing . and it is only when they both join. and with the fame confidence . he faw the whole value of Kliyogg He therefore replied. '* the peafant. puts his hand to the bufinefs : but v»^c *' fhould crofs each other in our exertions and bring on *' confufion. and you ** me. that I love and ''honor you. *' which will be produced by your condqfcenfion and fa> *^ miliarity. while he was fpeaking : in fhort.

born to love one another : and i had the happinefs to feel that I myfelf was beloved by them both. how two fouls. for when we fall into contrary to juftice. the full means of examining him. fituation. each fo noble. He v/as quedioned much about his agriculture. I received at^fird many flattering compliments on the fubjedl of my philofopher . palled one into the other . and his leligious principles . who were ftruck to liear fuch important truths delivered with fuch frankThe prince nefs and noble fimplicity by a peafant. and when I approached afterwards to hear the opinions that were given.— — Many . to give thofe who had hitherto known Kliyogg bymy defcriptiononly. and alas *^ for us to govern ourfelves/*—-The prince anfwered no otherwife than by fhewing a lilcnt admiration. you are at hand to fet us right or to punilh us . I fometimes kept at a diftance. whicli gained him more and more the affections of his auditory. his manner of educating his children. : WichouC doubt. you have no fuperior to do the you are abandoned to yourfelves fame to you a^St . the deepefl: fenHitions.SOCRATES. and he anfwered thcfe queftions with a noble freedom.-*' THE KUKAL itnpreflion it: . The whole of the afternoon and a great part of the day following. m'an in all his grandeur : the pri»nce and the peafant alike dit appeared .ii3 a ftrong . As formyfelf. and to ! — iiDw putting his arm into that of Kliyogg. Kliyogg was the obje<9: of the moft curious attention of all the members of the Society who were prefent. I perceived only two of the mod excellent of men. led him into his own apartment to converfe with'him in private. which ipread itfelf over the v/hole company . and cfpecially that of his iilluflrious friend. how difficult is it your confciences. During all this time f had continued fllently to obI faw with ferve the countenances of thefc tv/o a^^ors. but when perfons in your fphere do wrong. is upon the hi^arts of all pr^Ient more difficult to do good in your ^' *' *' *' error or ^' .*' than for a fabje«5i: . my hero being thought happy in having fo good an hiftorian. I admired in them.

and a natural good fenfe which he applied happily to every cafe which prefented itfelf in the narrow fphere in which Providence . had placed him €xa<Slly as it a quality which lefs creates furprize. the aflonifhing" fenfc of our fage. Kliyogg took leave of us by expreiling his thanks marks of friendfhip which had been lliewn to him 5 and after adding his nun behiit euch Gott (may God now keep you). was fuppofed owirg to the coloring of the painter. without finding it . and fceking only by obftinate labor to perfe£l what he had in view. with a natural flyle .*** and knowing nothing beyond the culture ufed in his own part of the country. (faid Klivogg.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and which by the manner in which he parted from us was carried to its utraofi height. not being at all famiJiar.) with the fmilc of contented' fhortly and naturally. when the prince Aid into it a piece of gold. with the new difcoveries . -—It: was then that I found every one agreeing with me. in the manner I have defciibed. ' ity indeed. infpired an eflcem which increafcd continually . infdmuch that in the end he left the greateft part of his auditory in an^ admiration bordering upon enthufiafm. as yet. which is then only when it is equally intelligible to all the worlds' and when each thinks it is that which himfelf and every one elfe would have employed upon tbe. n^ Mfiny however had. approaches perfedlion. What does this '^ mean. But infenfibly. for all the — -''^ *' eafe I'' . and a great part of the interefl which bis chara£lcr had excited.of it a great fund of found reafon. that my portrait had fallen very fhort of the beauty cf the original. he prefented his hand to the prince and was going. for inflance. but they perceived inflead. only heard a fitnplc laborer^ with great fenfc it is true j but he had faid nothing but what was common about agricuhure .ranae occaricn-— •^**Thus Kliyogg was at iirft thought only to be a common peafant. It is with this qual. Others looked for learning in him. and his judgment which was true and' never at a fault. as perfe6?:.

and he has lincc acknowledged to me. I fhould be have o'ccafioned you expcncame here upon a morfel of '^ bread you have kept me free of expence. loaded with our bencdidions^t *' ces. Oixr philofophic peafant.'' ^' your — : debtor. my I */ *' and fince crtions.iio tMe rural To SCJCRATES. that wasoia^ by which he wifhed Kliyogg td *' keep himielf reminded of the pleafure he had given *' him. have feen from you. fince I ** wifii for none but that which I acquire by the labor *^ of my hands fo^. that great lords can " *' *' *' love induftrious peafants .) *' you have iurely gained this trifie. at which ilfd Kliyogg aflil^id. that the prince placed Kli« yogg by his fide at the two meals which our philofopher maJe at Schintznatch. he is undone. and if I were to pay for the pleafure which I have my ft If juft felt. engaged the prince to take back his money . pleafure has not been Iefs than yours . ** having enough arifing from my own labor. So keep your money. while I " have been with you . * Our author has neglefted :o obferve here. He put bim in the fame pofition at the pubHc meeting of the Society. that he never in his life felt himfelf fopoor as at this moment.bor to give us pleafure «" '' But. and another morfel of bread *^ will carry me back. llnce you have *' quitted your l?.*' "• Kliyogg then looking at the piece. (now acknowledged as fiich) here returned towards hisf home. " Keep it (faid his highnefs . — — *' Kliyogg. You cannot fufficiently give credit to the degree of fatiffaction I have received . faid ly a little prefent. ''—The aufterc air with which thefelaft words were accompained. ^* It " *' eale V* v/hich the prince replied. the whole company always dining at the fame tabic. though I ** am not the iefs obliged for your politenefs .as foon as any one feeks to acquire *' it by other metiiods. F SECTION .'"' '^ — '' But I By no means : 1 . of which I have no need.'' and he attempted to return it. 1 fhall fo redouble my exthat I lliall regain what I have loft. faid *' But it is only money.

and an attachment of the proprietor to his foil .^^'y^gg ^^^^ lives* 5 and though a fenfible change has occurred in his favor. the fuccefs of it having been fo manifefl. The efFe£i: of thefe fine reafonings was. and that its produce diminiOied to fuch a degree. His example had created a blaze of emula- neighborhood . His paternal property by conPcant improvements had continually inci^afed in much — limits. He not only cultivates his own property after the principles he originally l:iid dovi^n. HirSsel so %h. at four leagues from the former. as well as ccnfiderably raifed its price.illE RURAL SOCRATES. JULY 2 2. of Kliyognrl Particulars concerjiing the additional Farm Farther j^ccoimts rejpeding his Fatnily. This led Kliyogg to think of renting a farm of a certain extent . and he had neglcdted no occafion to add to its But additions to it had become every day more difficult. where his manner of cultivato be pradifed. His Bcfm^ viour at ihelVedding of his Jecond Son. and it h2ppe*"ied fr)rtunately that one of this nature became vacant exaftly in the neighborhood of Zurich. but another bis diilance more confiderabie. 1774. taxes Included tion in his tion was begun — — fcarcely * This f^aion is extraded from a letter wntteo by Dr. His predecelTors in it had followed ma:\ims diametrically oppofite to his own* Naturally idle. which rendered the fales of land lefs frequent. value. that their arable land. From hence aroie eafe. it appeaired to them peculiarly irkfome to improve a property" which wgs not their own and which belonged even to a corporate body t fothat tliefe fenfelefs people were anxious to obtain the produce of the farm with the lead: poffible trouble. i^l SECTION m. he hinifelf is always the fame. tliat the farm became every year worfe .—.t .

. They had refcarcely replaced the feed it called for. promifed a Iccond advantage from Ibch an employment of it . and a Thefituation of this prefs. looked out for a perfon who had capacity and courage to reflore a farm thus redu^ ced. The chamber of finances. republic. and twelve acres of com^ mon wood (that is. enthey life. which joined to a granary. He was adviied to propofchimfclf tberefv)re as a tenant . its fltuation. robufl. which. by in fo doing. where the parties are which is very different healthy. m . and laborious from the weak. being placed between two villages where agriculture was in a very low ftate. and was accepted vrith univerfal ap- — ^^It We : plaufe. debts exceed its ac^to greatly it expences cumulatcd. and reflore eafe and an ufeful population* call that an ufeful population. focceeded from able management.li22 -THE RURAL SOCRATSS. Heidegguer at its heiad. doriiain * Journeaux arc quantities of Isnd capable oi b^ing each worked one day. and idle race fo often produced by an ill underftood zeal for manufactures. awaken a zeal for agriculture. tavern of a keeping to therefore the courfe . a wood not confiding of pines and firs. debauched. E. and the abandonment of the farm was quickly the refult oftheir bad conduvSl. not to fay If the farm which belonged to the entirely negle«3:cd.) It had the advantage of being all connected . one hundred and fifty acres of arable land. the force of the example might produce a happy ferment among the inhabitants of the neighborhood. four journeaux of vines. two barns. When things were viewed under this afped.having a vaft houfe in the middle. having his Excellency Mr. The property confifted of (ixty-five journeaux* of tneado'v land. fuffercd idle in more an flill them couraging their profits. the merit of Klivogg could fcarcely efcapc the vigilant eye of the government. and who at the feme time fhpuld find his account happened likewife that this farm.

he knows how to profit. and others where clay and gravel are mixed. found in fand. profperity of his increafing family. foil. . and which in the time of his predecefFors had readered a part abfolutely wafte. being of a heavy. Thus Kliyogg received a farm. ^23 domain is very agreeable. till he fhould double it. . or at leafh having a clayey though there are fome fpots which are dry and gravelly. he finds a fandy earth. which both required and was capable of much improvement . Above his fields. and is rendered marfhy by means of the adjoining hills which command it on every fide . Hance. without being in the leaf! difcouraged by an apparent flerility. 3ppe9r? like fmall bits 0^ E. he gaily undertook every labor which thefe improvements called for. which is a ftream formed by the overflowing of the Katzenfee i(6r lake of cats. His penetrating eye had already detected the caufe of what had hitherto happened. that he wifhed to enter into an engagement to increafe his tythe every year to a certain amount. . giiftening fab. fincc it gave him the pleafing profped: of exertions which would be followed by the AfFured of fuccefs. being upon the fide of a hill which has a gentle defcent to the Katzenbatch . The land of the farm is of a different quitlity from that almoll all the fields of the farm of his own property . Different * The mica. frequently yellow which at firft fight.)*** But what gives the mod plealure to Kliyogg is. that he difcovers from it his paternal v^here he goes from property. mixed with mica (or talk*) from which as we fhall fee hereafter.THE RURAL SOCRATES. The greater part of the meadow land confifts of the bottom which lies along the fide of the Katzenbatch. and he was fo confident of his fuccefs. in the want of labor and contrivance . is a thin. or jzlnglafa. four leagues diftant time to time to direct what is neceffary to be done. clayey bottom . ssutalllc leavesr talk. and even his fields have many fwampy places in them^ owing to fprings which are very injurious to arable lands. and this was exactly what he wanted .

than to the laborer. ' the fields at their former home according to the very perni"iliey cious practice generally feen in our countries. at left therefore his brother par: of the family. as he had already made great advances in the ontfct of this new. But this. -' " ' even . ftraw. undertaking . and to feek But even this courfe prefor every thing on thefpot. The iirft and Different plans prefented themfelves. to have colieded money fufficknt to purchaie at once the cattle. overcome everything. apparently the ihorteil would have been. mud be at a difadvantage. for children arc He to lione more a real bleifing. new lands. Kliyogg rejected . and he knew that envy is never more adive in attacking a man of merit. to undertake thefe improvements with the hands with which Providence had fo liberally blefled his family . v/hich if fold. and with the other part. brilliant profpeds. he thought it danA bad year might gerous to borrow upon intereft. overfet him and ruin his credit. Kliyogg animated himfelf with the hght of his children who were already arrived at their flrength . ploughing the in his aHiiled him fons ihat the length feeing plcafure at v/ith were tranfportcd they of their farrows . one with Wcrmctfwcii. to coHtinae^ ihe management of their paternal property upon the plan which he had laid down . and whofe numb^er might be doubled after a time by productive marriages . A flower. fented very great difficulties. but Itill a certain method was. fmce it would appear as aA ad: of riccelfuy. he proceeded to take poflellion of the farm wirh a manly courage and with a The fir fl time tirni confidence in the divine alliflance. for all were ' in fmali divifions. which the exhaiifled flatc of the land fcemed to demand . for as he had not himfelf the capital required. than when fortune opens to him. As firmnefs and conllancy however. and provender requifite for making the manure. as he required thefe fame hands for working his paternal property . and to hirp laborers enough to execute the mod preifing improvements.j>4 "^^^E RURAL SOCRATES.

Kliyogg alone refifled the impreflion. The fields were poor. The vineyard looked like fallow land . the greater part being covered with water.ent fucceeding. he fpread a confiderablc part of this mould upon his fields. and from which he pruned or rooted out whatever was ufclels . There was very little dung . and the hedges had encroached fo much upon it. as a compofh for drefling his lands.. and no provifioa for liquid manure. and kliyogg had no firs or pines to furnill) him with a fubftitute. and. %vas where to begin the improvements . was thejupcrfluity of the hedges^ which had run wild . and there was much danger of diicouragem.eadows. that one of the befl portions of it was rendered ufeiefs. were drained from his arable lands. The waters at the lame time finding a freer paflage through his hedg- es. and inilead of itfpreadupon his m.-^ The fiill refource wiiich offered itfelftohis penetrating eye. and looked around him for the means of fupplying himfelfwith ^nanure. and then. He began with his arable lands . The queflion that was next to be dircufled. promifed but a fhiall quantity of draw .— This flate of things had much lelTened the firft effervefcence of joy felt by his family. and this noify gaiety feemed to influence and to gi/e new flrength to the cattle who drew it along. ^liis t/'/^o^j offered him a fecond fource for manure. . The little grain which was growing. as time had produced an excellent mould on the i'pot. the former refer voir s for' making it beicg few and decayed. as he took from tliem all their ufclefs hiiJJics and brawbles^ which be reduced to — adies. He thus re* gained fome of his bed foil . reckoning more than ever upon his adivity and the aid of Providence. burning it upon the fpot^ made an excellent manure of the afhes.THE RURAr SOCRATE: 125! even fhouted with joy in following the plough . the whole of the farm be- The meadows gave> very lltt]« ing in a flate of ruin. as vyehave Cccn^ in many places marfhy. and.*** and the rell exhaulicd for want of manure. grais and of bad quality.

126 THE RURAL SOCRATES. By thefe different methods. By a very deep ditch therefore. and then by larger acjuedu^ls which were led acrofs his lower fields. from the marlliy fpots contained iti thefe fields . Atjihe fame time he had recourfe to his former pradice of mixing foils of a different nature. cfpecially when the fiiort period and few hands employed in effecting them wer^ coniidered. fince it has improved the adjoining field. by fpreading it upon the lower part of the field containing it. ^o as to make it yield an equal produce with thofe — which were the bed manured. He had difcovered in the piece of ground oppoflte to his houfe a little mount of gravel. he reapfa 1769. and laft year he difcovered the land mixed with mica (or talk. he reaped 4000 (heaves . his meadows being thus fertilized with water very proper for the purpofe. he received the water obtained through a number of fmall covered drains. and which is a real treafurc to him. afhcs. carried through the middle of his fields. which enabled him afterwards to arrive at more mould. and places hitherto the mofl incapable of culture. became as fufceptible of it as any of thereih The enormous quantity of thefe cuts was of a nature to flartle every one . the courfe of four years in doubling his crops of grain. which confifled of a heavy clay . ed . whofe waters were drained in like manner into the aqueduds. By thefe methods he lupplied in his firft year the w^ant of manure from his liables. and formed new ones . his fields by degrees became entirely dry . Kliyogg has fucceeded in. In confequence of thefe mcafures. his next care was to amend the nature cfhis J oil.) of which we have already fpoken . which he neverthelefs fought to augment by all poiiiblc means . having for that pur- — pofe carefully repaired the old refervoirs deflined for preparing liquid rr^anurc. After having provided for manure. formed by the fuccellion of dead leaves. which he undertook to remove. he conveyed the whole body of water into his meadows . and in 1773. in v/hich he was aflifled by the generofity of the republic.

'fHE
sd 8000
;

RURAL

S0CR/\TE3.

127

though in general the latter year was lefs faThis crop was fufficient to enable him to fell one hundred muids, after paying his tythes and other taxes, and providing for the fubfiflence of his family.— His llables are well furnifhed alfo with cattle ; for while liis predecefTors had only eight horfes and four head of horned cattle ; he has five horfes and twentytwo head of horned cattle ; and he propofcs augmenting the number, fince he fees a variety of improvement!
vorable.
ftill

^

to be accomplifhed. His abundant harvefts produced

by

his

improvements^

naturally furnifhed a ftill farther means of augmenting them, by an increafe in his quantity of flraw, fo precious for his dung-heap ; his crops and his dung-heaps thus mutually increafing ; each of them powerfully resiEVing upon the other* This fuecefs, the reward of zeal the moft active and intelligent, charmed the republic of which he was the tenant ; and the governm.ent in coniequence favored him in his plan for eretSling new acd large refer voirs, wherein to prepare his liquid ma-

nure.

The attention bf Kliyogg to his fields did not prevent his giving attention to his meadows; which in like manner he endeavored as much as poffible to improve, in order to be able gradually to increafe the number of his live flock. -Thcle meadows were of two kinds ; the dry^ which could only be aided by tlie manure from bis cattle, efpecially in the form cf liquid manure and the moi/Iy which were by much the moft numerous, and ^hich he defigned to affift by managing the water with judgment. For this latter purpofe, he began by digging drain-sto carry away the flagnant water ; and, aa he obferved that the river, though it fiowly wandered along his meadows, had ftill fall enough to allow hint to take up its water where it entered his grounds, ht' profited by the circumftance to make regular cuts from it ; though the water was not proper for producing grafs

',

of

i-S

THE PtURAL SOCRATES.
bell quality''^.

pf the

— He

is

nowetnploycd

in eonflruct-

ing the trenches in his cow-hcufe, which are fo urcfu! for multiplying the quantity of liquid manure ; a contrivance freqnenc in the neighborhood oFour city, and which turns to great account, efpecially for field-vegeHe forms all along behind his cattle a trough, tables. afoot or a foot and an half in iis width and in its depth, lined and covered with planlis ; the trough havThus placed, it receives ing its ilTue without doors. the urine and dung of his cattle ; and being always kept half full of water, it forms a thick mixture ; and ferves as a ferment, Vv'ith which a very great quantity

of water may in a very fhort time bfe converted into liOne portion of this ferment being mixquid manure. ed \w\Xi\ jevenpOii\Q\\% of the freihefl fpring- water, foon makes the whole become corrupt ; eipecially if the relervoir in v«;hich the mixture is made, is of wood and
placed
in a

warm

fituation

;

or

if

fnbflituted, in cafe a natural heat is of this fermentation, an excellent ma?mre

an artificial heat is wanting. By means
is

produced

j

which proves the befl ailiflant which can be given to fuch meadow and arable lands as are naturally dry. The gypfum [or coarfe- alabafler} of which Kliyogg
has lately begun rom.ake ufe, iupplieshis induflry with Our country a new means of augmenting his forage. the gypfum important ufe of owes the knowledge of this Kiipferzellt of to the difcoverics of Mr. Meyer,-pa(lor 5

who
* The
niot3r;.-tainaus

firurtare

of Sw-itzeiiaad

makes

It

abound wiih

fprings and Ilreams,

mnnyrf which
;

are fuiTicienily elevated to be condtid^

(fi/wulicarc over the foil

ten {ervc to

wi»t«:r

them in

and water wheels turned by the lireams may ofoijier c&fes, and are fometifoes fo employed. E.

f This refpcf^iable c'ergyman, eager to puMilh his important difcovery, has given a very detailed accounr it the msionef of ufing the gypfum. He fpreads the gypfum in its natural ftate, but reduced to powder, upon mcadland 0';vs containing both the common and artificial graffes ; 2s ylfa upon
fovi^n

with peafc, vctcheF,
efFtfdl is

lentils, oats, rye,
;

jnifing

upon clover

and

this, in foils the
it

does not

fait niarfhy places,

where

But its moft furIt moft dry and arid. iiuks too deep, its a^vity on!y feewor lobacco.

THE RURAL SOCRATES.
fcrvice.

12^

v/ho has herein rendered agriculture the raofl eiTential
this fort of means, then, that our fkilful cultienabled annually to increafe his number of cattle, and confequcntly his manure ; which promifcs him in future a circle of fertility and blelling always enlarging itfelf. He gradually applies cattle of his own breeding for this purpofe, which yields him a confiderable profit ; as he is able to fell every year a certain number of fat oxen.
It is

by

vator

is

Thus our Kliyogg remains true to his principles and thus thefe principles are always juftified by a compleat fuccefs. I have never fcen io happy an ifTae fo flriking]y refulting from a judicious plan, as in the cafe of our All wife cultivator.

ing to exert

gypfum

on the furface. Mr. Muller limits the quznticj' of upon a rasafure of land [journal, joorneaux] of i8c< perches freckoiiirg the perch at 12 f^er of the Rhine,) to 8 iirnri ; of which each contains 16 pots. A larger quantity would become rather
icfelf

to be fpread

hurtful,

than falutary.
tlie

— The

greateft

care muft be taken to fpread this

powder befors

grafs or grain begins to (hoot.

Upon meadows

there-

melting of the fnow ; that hj at the end of February or beginning of March and upon fields of grain as fobn a-s thefs are fown. A laborer having ignorr-nily ihrown ic upon his meadows after thefhooring of the grafs, loft four of his oxen; a gypfc:oa8Correftion,which obftruf^ed digeftiort, being found in their inteftines. I: muft be beaten io. the firlt inftance in a great trough, with iron hammers, into pieces not exceeding the fize of 9n egg. It ij then reduced to powder in the fa me manner that apples are prtfled to make cyder, and by the very fame pppararus. It ia no! rpqoi(iie that the powder {hould be made very fine j f.ieces of gypfum of the Ciii of a pea o: bean being quickly difTulvedp when fpread on the ground, Such is the fubftance of the mpmcir of Mr, Meyer. The Abbe Rozler hag placed another nnemoir on this fubjes^ in his Journal deFhyJiqm {u IV, July.) This lad tueraoir confirms that of this clergyman of Kiipfore, it rauil be fpread at the

;

icrrell.

F.

This manure Is no where perhaps better known at prefent, thao in foroe of the United States ; as will be found on confulting what has been faid by Judge Peters, Mr. Robert Morris, Dr. Mitchill, Mr, B^rdley, ani others, OQ the fubjeu^, E»

R

I

JO

THE RUPvAL SOCRATES.

All the children of Kliyogg as well as thofe of hh brother, have turned out well. They are all healthy, robuft and laborious; all intelligentjand virtuous. Their occupations have to all, without exception, become real pleafures ; for labor in this family is acceptable merely as labor ; the only queftion being v/ho (hall lurpnTs the other ; and they know no other jealoufy than, the laudable emulation of excelling in their undertakings, whethThe er the obje^Tt confiils in dire£ting or in executing.

tendency to luxury and fenfuality, fo common elfewhere, is here confined within its jafl bounds. Even the fervants employed under them acquire an increafing attachment to their work ; in which never; helefs they all agree, that they arc furpalTed by their mader and his There is alfo a beautiful order always prechildren. vailing in this happy family. The Sunday is employed and in dei^in reading the bible and in finging hymns canting upon the blellings of the hulbandman, and the inward peace and content following upon the certainty of enjoying the fruits of their labor. They know the ronfidence with which each may fay tohimfelf '' This *' is what God has given me in recompenfe for my exNothing here has cofl the fmallefl figh to erlions '' any of my fellow creatures I have never taken ad*' vantage of tlie want of information in any perfon " My fatisfat^ion is therefore built in no refpeifl upon ** the fufferings of others." When the occafion offers for fpeaking of luxury and the ordinai-y diverfions of the young people of the village, w^ho are fcarcely acquainted with any thing elfe befides the tavern ; Kliyogg fliews to his children how ienfelefs are fuch amufements.^ He gives a crowd of examples within his own obfervation, of perfons whom this bad habit has by degrees turned from their occupafrom whence have arifen family derangements, tions which he has detailed, befides a multiplicity of debts followed by the moft cruel anxieties, and by over- reaching and bad faith, as the only means left for ]>rocuring

;

'*'

:

:

:

;

fubiidence

;

eating according to his apfor it is a rnaxim with Kliyogg. Herepreienls on the other hand. mufl: not be weighed. and in fpeaking to him. that the food of petite At the end the man who works. any more than to their work . that we gain our bread v. he ry than that of prayer. we cannot help loving him and when we love . every one applies himfelf terruption. *' fays. fpared upon this occafion . " Whoever (iie affirms) prays with fuch views. ^^ ediflions which leave nothing on our fide to be done. that he fpeaks of the happinefs of a virtuous hufbaiKiman from his own experi- ence. for they always coaimencc the day with this pious exercife . every one yields to a refloring and tranquil fleep . after having prayed . knovvS • not the fliould Supreme Being . and the mind unopprefTed with rorroding . though they are not conih ained to it. whofc defign it is. ^' and in imploring his benedictions but not thofeben. '' and who confequently renders the -earth fertile only ^' in proportion to thepains we take in cultivating it. and in fliort." When they are come to the place Vv'here they are to '^ work. 131 {"libfiftence . Kli* yogg maintaining that no ad ought to be more voh. fuch as never is vi^anting when the body is fatigued. he accompanies the whole v/ith an amiable gaiety . we *' ought to feel a high fatisfaclion in occupying our'' felves with the idea of him. .THE RURAL SOCRATES.inta" When we know God. and convinces them. how their own iiabits of labor render thcni happy j and how precious . every one from the mafler to the loweft fervant. by the ruin both of body and of mind. On the working days of this happy family.3 a quiet conrcience.ith the fweat of our brov/ . of their concluding repafl. '' him and regard him as the fource of every good.—-Far from mixing anything difagreeable in his inftrnctions. which wins every one who hears him . till to his part without in- when ing is the hours fixed for refting themfelves j Noththey are refreQied with wholefome food. Kliyogg puts himfelf at their head to go into the fields at daybreak.

'' jivo . to encourage mancellar flored v^^ith kind. Ko.^hen ieconded by indullry. his fons haveperfeclly joined him in opinion . his barns and wine of his own growth. and he is able every year. to keep all his children and grandchildren united in one family . His ior\i may choole the richefl young women in the neighboring country . he acquires frefh perfonal confideration. and in this. wine. whofe care in eduIt fcems as if cating them has fo vifibly profpered. never did the bieffing which follows up-^ on induflry and good morals. from a youth whom Kliyogghad taken into it at my recommendation . who has adopted with joy the manner of thinking bis . andy^ou may judge that I did not hear it without being moved. v. that Providence has deiigned that this fa-mily (hould becomvC one of the mod marked examples. no fortune being able to induce them to quit a father. and cattle.. and to incrcafe his property. and his houfaold is furnidied with every necefTary . I have lately corroding cares and gloomy difcontent. learned thefe h^s refped:ing the admirable order obfervcd in this family. Providence deiigned to recompenfe them for continuing in fuch difpofitions his fecond fon having juft married one of the richell young women of the neighborkocd. although he is more and more firm in his principle. 1 repeat . having found by his own experience.132 THE RURAL SOCRATES. as we have feen. and I do not fear to conclude. how many things may thus be done. this interior profperity is joined that The of the exteof granaries Kliyogg are full. to fell grain. He has refufed in confcquence themofl advantageous offers. offer itfelf tomy eyes in a manner fo palpable . due .. In propartlon as Kliyogg increafes the profperity of family. and his flaflrong and healthy cattle of his own with provided bles His rent is always paid on the day when it is raifing. — To rior. if implying the feparation of either of his fons from the fam/ily .

at confLantly afiiiied him in his works at Wermetchv/eii. form the chiradler of this man . however different in many from thofe to which fhe has been accuflomed irX the family which (he has quitted. with that open air which is peculiar to him. to take part in the family-joy. for having followed the counfels of his brother ^ how well all his children had turned out . in particular. Icfi goodnefs. faying that in working. that of purchaHe v/as in his ordinary drefs.*''^*.--— I expreffed to him the (hare I took in the happinefs of his fiimily. and that they I ding. The brother of Kliyogg had jufl arrived from the Art-family-property. for it was in the month of May laft .r THE RURAL SOCRATES. Notwithftanding the folemnity of the day and though his fon was married in the city. fpoke in high commendation of his daughter . which continued upon the fame footing as when the two families were united. The conRant defire which I have to witnefs the feelings of Kliyogg in all the important conjun£i:ures of his life. cannot here refrain from a defcription of this wedwhich I did not fail to affid:. '^^'^ Having reached the farm of my friend. and are forcibly imprinted upon his countenance. with franknefs and kindnefs. hSltv thanking me with confiderable cordiality. joined to the beauty of thefeafon. he was now in the purfuit of bufinefs . how he himfelf had been bleiTed by Providence. refpecls 133 and ading of the family . he told me that he had found himfelf in a condlticn to equip his for| as . every one being at his ufual work. He. When he v/as informed of my intentions. ilie had not her fellow in the country. To give me a proof of the increafe of his circumdances. he vvifhed to return with me to his houfc 3 but I refifted and obliged him to purfae his journey. determined me to furprife my country friend. fing a beafl at the fair. he related with a tone of great ienfibility. I found every thing in compleat tranquillity .*'*^ But what was my own furprife in meeting Kliyogg alone on the road to Zurich.

) ^' you iill mc with an adonifhment. that you appear {o little fcnfible '^ of it ?" f^I am perfeftly impreiled as I ought to be. could '^^ fcarcely even periuadc him to let his fons put on the ^' new clothes which they at this moment wear.gave them a lelTon of idlencfs . from '^ which he will never in the lead depart." '^ dear Hans. jiow took me out upon the nev/ farm of his lia'other. in which one is fometimesinclined '' to indulge onefelf. Have you not more than once — — — ' • We — My ' ' ' • tedifed' . that when peafants kept horfes. we fliouid have been the 'laughing-flock of the neighborhood. When we returned from our excurfion. till noon .that he laughs at ^' all the amuicments. ^' (I anfwered^ flill more adonifned . and not to indulge Inch idlenefs. ^' (faid he. He would not be drefTed to day differently from his mode on other days 5 he infifled on all the family working as in common. mufl *' conduct the bride to town to be married . *' How happens it.^' fes in the dable.) in that refpeft . (I anfwcred. from which I canjiot recover myfelf. not without much expencd injuring himfclf. made or projedled. (faid I) that ^'' upon a day v/hen Providence fo manifeilly fiiev^sits *' favor to the family. All decorum upon this occafion ^^ he treated as a folly. wlio to my great adonifhment. . The bride^^ groom forfooth. And fo *^' occupied is he with his idea of working. though we had two hor.) for your father *' was vei-y gay when I met him r" '' Of that there is ^' no doubt. it was for "' woik. we found the /bn-in laz'j oi'KWyogg . and if we had confented to his own method In everything. without He . but it is always in his own way. and they '^^ mud even go on foot. alone and without attendants. wiiich called others from ^' their work and . '^ adding.t '5 * THE RURAL SOCRATES. to Ihew me all his improvements. but our father on his fide. *•' ought not to be fo fingularas he is/'-—'* How is that. appeared to fliew Tome coolnefs in his manner of receivas a dragoon in the militia however though ftill — ing the compliment which I addrefTed to him upon the ceremony ot the day.

THE RURAL SOCRATES.
tcflified to

13

mc yoar happinefs at having entered a where abundance reigns, and along with it, joy and quiet ; which, at the lame time you allowed, was the rcfult of the great order eftabliftied in thi^ family, and of the conllant zeal (hewn in it for work.'^ I confefs it, (he replied,) but one mull take care
family,

not to

become the ridicule of one's neighbors j and the wedding day of a Ton is a proper time to (hew one'sfelf, and to indulge in fome expence^ efpeciaily if one '' True has the means." but if we judge by com;

mon

opinion, a holiday and the day of a fair or of n

which admit of more expence and amufsment than other days :'*— But not fo much (he replied) as a wedding day/^ There are few people however, (faid I,) who m.ake this difference and the zeal with which your father always prevented his children from participating 1:2 the diforders of the more ordinary holidays, ones
village feaft, are alfo privileged days,
;

as ridiculous, as his prefent feverity in retrenching whatever feems to him ufelefs in the prefent wedding. Yet it is to this fame zeal which is fo much cenfured, that you in a great meafure owe the ^* Certainly (here exprofperity which you enjoy.''' claimed the honeft: Felix, the brother of Kliyogg, witii. a deep figh) our people revolted, like you, at the finguiarities of my brother ; and even attempted to make me go myfelf into debauch ; bur hov/ often do refifted them, and yielded to I not blefs God, that I my brother. Do we not fee the favor of Providence '' I grant, (returned attending us on ail fides?''

Teemed

Hans) that this was perfectly right, when you were poor, and your children not of an age to help you ; but, at prefent, when our means are increafed, thefe things ought not to be lb narrov/ly attended to." But do you want any thing (I faid :) are not you well fed and well clothed and are you not befides healthy '^ This is all very true (v/as the aniand merry r" wer but it Ao^-^ not prevent our being fneered at,

:

'^

when

S36
'f *^

THE RURAL SOCRATES.

when we do not liv^ like all the reft of the world.''— Bat v/ho are theie fneerers ?" " All our neighbors!

never ceafe to obferve, that we are very fingu*' lar people." V* But fay (in return) is it not very '' honorable for your father, that he has a free accefs to '^ perfons at the head of the republic that he receives ; " vlfus from perfons of all ranks, who think it an hopor *' to know him ; that Rrangers from all countries often *' come tojiim; that even princes treat him as their *' friend and that his fons can have the bell matches ; *' in the country ? What peafant was ever honored like *' your father : Yet it is from thefc very fingularities, of *' which you complain, from his unalterable afliduity in his labor, and from his care to inculcate the like ardor in his children in their early youth, in order to ^' preferve them from the diforder which is feen reign*-' ing every where elfe ; that all thefe marks o»r diflinc" tion ariic, and that his family fo eminently profpers. *-' Without thefe qualities, he v/ould have remained a "' poor peafant, confounded in the crowd ; and God '^ knows v/hat would have been the lot of iiis children : ^' they would probably have been diiperfed, and "forced *-' " There is to feek their bread among ilrangers.'^ ^"^ no difputing this ; but IbJl things may be puflied too " far.'' '' Butpray, (my dear Hans) when you delcend ^^ a fleep hill v»^ith your waggon, why do you put a drag ^' to your wheels V' i^ Certainly that the waggon, pref"' fed on by its weight,- may not rufli with violence, and
''

who

'-'

^''

•'

crufti the cattle

^^ ^'

do you put a leaving him entirely

which are yoked to it." >' And why clog on the feet of your colt, inftead of
at liberty :''-—''•

That he may

*'
'^ ^^
"^
^'
'''

^^

not hurt himfelf in his ramblings and may learn a fleady pace." And yet, my friend, you are angry with your father, becaufe he puts a drag upon you; and prevents you from being hurried on by bad example.s towards the luxury, debauch and idlenefs, which may drive you into perdition. Alas, my poor HanSj let your father proceed : the manners of our *^ days

THE RURAL SOCRATES.
^^
^'

23^

"
*'
*^

"
''

days arc fo feducing^that all which he can do, will not prevent your yielding to them a little. You may thank God therefore, that he holds a tight rein to *^ Well, hinder you from falling/' I agree (faid Hans,) that I am wrong in this particular; but he at leafh ought to count us for fomething, when thequef-

for he will alhave now for a long '' time defired that the cow-houfe might be properly ^' arranged, to enable us to make liquid manure, which ** is fo proper for our meadow land ; but he will never " yield to me ; and our whole attention has been ^^ given to the carrying oiFfand and gravel to improve " our arable land." '^ But have your meadows been ^' negle^fted ?''— I do not fay that they have ; but our '' improvements might as well firfc have been there." Agreed ; but would you recommend one to under'' take one thing, and another to undertake another." *^ That is not a point which I can maintain ; for an union " of forces is what is mofj: eifential to work, if we wifb *' things to go well ; iince as foon as th^fc forces bction
is
*•

how

to diflribute our

work;

ways go on

in his

own way,

I

''*

^^

come feparatcd, for different objects, nothing great is " any where done." '' Thus then, according to your own opinion, it is nece(fary when opinions differ, that

''•

one fliould take the lead and in this cafe, ought than of the father or the children to be preferred f"— Hans had too good a heart to anfwer me any otherw*ife.. than by the blufhes which covered his countenance. He
^^
;

''

fought only to excufe himfclf urging that ''a willactive workman could not be blamed, if he ** fometimes pretended to give his opinion upon the *' manner in which his work fhoald be condu'^ed."— This I alTared him wouid never be taken ill by his father-in-law ; but that we fathers were ofter obliged-to appear outwardly more fevere towards our children, than we really were and that he would foon have to make the proof in the cafe cf children of hii
*

now
**

ing and

;

own-

f

138
I

THE
now
defircd

RUllAL SOCRATES.
let

Hans to

me

Tee their cattle,

and

tc^

carry me into the parts of the farm which we had not before inrpe(n:€d. The parts which had been improved

were ihofe which he fiiewed me by preference. The good fcnfe of his obfervations, and the content which gliflened in his eyes whenever he could fliew me proofs of his ability ; confirmed me in my perafter his

own

hints,

fuafion that he was a Ton- in- law worthy of Kliyogg ; although little pallions and certain prejudices, too deeply rooted in him, led him at times to revolt againfl maxims divftated by reaibn.

^^

How

*'
**
''
^'

^'
^'

^'

Kliyogg at lair returned home. I afked- him fmiHng, he came to be fo avaritious, as to make his peopie work thus upon a wedding-day ; and why he did not appear in a new coat, made after the manner in *' All ufe among country people at their eafe ;" thc^e follies, (he anfv/ered with a fmiie,) have given much thread to be tv/ifted over again. They are alVv^ays preaching to me here, that wc are much too fingular, and*bbtain the laugh of every one ; and yoir

my dear do;Sh)r, how much trouble keeping down" thefe follies. Bad examples *' however are too numerous ; and thefe young people " would be run away with by them, if I did not daily ^' combat them.''"—'' You ought however to relax your'' fflf a little more.''—'' I ought to relax Why I do-' *' fo but too often and if 1 went but a little fl:ep far; *'ther, all would be loft. I have already proofs how '* necefl'ary it Vv^as to (land ftiif againfl the firfl com*' mencements of mifchief in their tender youth ; and *' if my good folks were not as well fixed in good habits " as they are, I fiiould no icnger be able to keep them in ^' orderV" When the wedding party came in, I found the fons' and daughters of Kliyogg much better clothed and more in ftifuion, than in truth 1 had expeded. None belideftKliyogg and his brother Felix appeared- in their ordkiary
*'

will not believe,
in

^'Ihave

1

habits

;.

and to partake in whatever was ferved.TIIE liablts . to be learned 139 from their countenancomes from a caufe very different from exterior ornament. He turned into ridicule both parade and fenfuality . in v/hich mofl: perfons place their felicity. for which fome (lull was requifite. for the trouble they had given him to diffuade them from going to work that evening . During the entertainment Kliyogg enlivened the whok. and confequently that one may pieale by other means befides that of ornament in drefs. replied he ly of all the v/omen of his village. though j4ain and modefl . is a proof in point. the field. —What now (Irtick me the mofl was the familiarity of the fervants who were -not diftinguilliabie from Companions in labors of the children of the family. without its fpoiling ivork^ the fervants are hovv'evcr the flrong good fenfe guiflies which conilanlly diflin- him. The only difference to be found between them is. icA" a3 v/e have before fcen. and the rell: of the day was conrecrate-d to joy. in bringing home in pomp the clothes and other paraphernalia of the bride [braut-fuder. encouragements which ttie gov^n:uje. every one in this ^houfe endeavors to fiirj^fs the other in his exertions. No time was lofl: by the family in placing themfelves at table. that at always out-done by the maders . but it was ces.it and Phiiofopbicai — . thougli they are in cfTcd vices leadinj^ to unhappinefs and want. that even a (lately woman will not difdain a laborious man.ated that the drefs of the bride was by no means conformed to principles. —He then began to praife his fervants. and yet had for his wife the mofl: flate'I'hat. I never faw in him fo much of what is called brilliancy. in an agreeable irony. company by his converfation. RURAL SOCRATES. It was cbjecled to him that lie declaimed continually againfl fnevr and vanity . and to lament the fatigue put upon them.] lie afterwards led the converiation to the iubje<51 of '\'^. they are permitted to ufe every liberty at the table. imiling. Without offending any one. lie intim. that true interior fatisfaL^ion .

' b. S ECT I O N JV. I quitted him after w idling him a thoafand blcf^ &ngs. and I was particularly gratified to fee •Kliyogg the fame in all circumftances . His Jecond Marriage. and He an acquaintance with agriculture. to der The time pafled thus in fenfible or bcneficiaK &c. froai might refulc a which general union. and determined myfelf to profit by the example of this. to whatever was. (hevviiig the niif-^ chief arifmg from tlie country people not being fenfible of the value of their aid . \% in particular an admirer of German agriculture. this who in Switzerland licies fedion through a minifter of the gofpel and who to the quahis vocation. and difcover. that happinefs neccffarily flows from a conduct founded on iblid principles Filled with this happy perfuafion fteadily purfued. New Philofbphy^ and Fa?mly* laft llinejs and Death. feeling difHe dilated upon the fefident towaids thefe perions. Fiews of his Hujhajidry^ New Vifits to Kliyogg. . fophical Society give to agriculture — fage. joins which become general zeal confidcrable learning. materials friend. His [n. and thence to prove more evidently than ever. with alfo great and induftry.I40 THE RURAL SOCRATES. The lation Editor of the prefent compihas fortunately obtained the for is . . in orlicity give vigor adopt. joyous difcourfc .but on the contrary.

agriculture.'* PAGES . by the . and arc now * Tbe ^* la with. 141 which with others he finds to be more advanced in many ficuacions.** firft tranflated into Englifh.ony and nobility of charai^cr in different claffes of raen. than the difference between this land. title given to in French is. a Ger^nan work originally pubiifhed . fo improved a piece of neglected land given to him this refpeclable perfon had of blue marie found on the fpot that he foon fold it for a very remarkable price. and the unhis by parifhioners. by Dr.THE RURAL SOCRATES. The materials in queftion this were exr tra&ed 01 abridged by perfon froni. Nothing could be more pointed to the moft fuperficial obferver. . Hirzelf They were prefented to the Editor in a French drefs. fome farther abridgment £. d' oeil fa^ . * Un coup T harmonic & noblefle dans lesdifferentes clafles dcs homnnes or " A ficetch corti ^ ccrning lijrrr. than the average of that of the Engliih eftimating the latter as it is exhibited in the accounts pubiifhed by the AgriBritain. cultural Society of Great As a proof of his own fkili in agriculture. ufe improved land ftill fuifered to remaift in its neighborhood.

p. Drefs fometimes conreals the de. Various perfons who had confidcrcd the pic^cure of Kliyogg by the author as a poetical fidlion. virand tue and hapincfs are the i.s marks of diflintlliun. and felt their own imperfec-tions. 7—9. that wifdom. 6.:nic in every condition . finiih by being his attentive hearers . Pvlore than once he has had the fatisfac^ion alio to obferve learned men. that the external circiimflances of tlie prince. p.level with the compreJienfion of this peafant. Dr. 4. when they have become acquainted with this admirnblc man. tl\e learned man. — p. when they recognized in the countenance of the peaiant Kliyogg the nobienefs of the iuiman character. and eyen of the (lave. it in this living example the great truth. In hearing the friendly tliicourres between this peaiant ^nd people of quality and merit.J4£ THE RURAL SOCRA-^ES. Kliyogg was a means of furnilliing many occa^ons of obferving other men and weighing their merits. &c. and after having horrowed hints from his good Ct^nie. compared with the finer qualities f>f the 'he 7c^>s human chnradrer than drefs hns with regard to human body. who at firil: uied great efforts to put their talents upon a. of the body and in -i furniQie. iiappincis of being a man. the author felt all the He faw as it were embodied. the peaiant. IMAGES g 4» Contain only compliments to the fenafor Angelo Q^ririni of Venice. devote with ^nthiifiafni their abilities to ufcfnl things. have no more value. bi]t T^ever can give us beauty or flrengt)]. TU^: l^ril- uthor ROt being fituation to tiTiVcl or to m^ike lianl .. 5. Rirzel repeatedly affirms. the artifl. that he has feen icars of princes flowing. to whom this fl^etchis addi-efled — p.have found falling Ihort of the original.

' '' ff'liy (faid they oft" en) are we not equally with them to enjoy the fruits cf *' our labor y and t(^ repair i-a this 7^. labors of a refpedlable peafimt vvhx)ni Providence had deilined to fervc as a proof and example. Hirzel i^ys th^t it was long. that this treafme had lain hid under cultivation and that it was at length allowed to Kiiyogg to marle-pit . fure. Dr. tliat they murmured againfc ml ' at firlf. The in yogg made company with Dr. or in ufelefs talk. give to his other lands a to rccornpenfe the thus .THE RURAL SOCRATES. p. finds this made up to him by the crowd of Grangers who have addrefTed themfclves ta bim in order to fee Kiiyogg. He fa id' with the mofl: lively emotion of joy ^ I owe to this marls * not only abundant hai veils. p. . p.3^7yiirv our j atignei - . This was the fpot chcfen for the conference.*^' ^' KHyogg ftruck off with \m hoc'a piece of this marie.g gold. but the chara<fler of my children. 15. 20. for employing them in hard labor eVen ditrm:' ^ ths winter^ which otlier peafants pafTed in idlenefs and * ale-houies. They met Kiiyogg that which has enabled him To to . that nothino. and v/hich had been fo much neglected. that they bear different forts of wheat for three fucceffive years vvithoiu iheaid of any other manure* He was loading a waggon with maris to be carried into a field juft obtained by an exchange . 143 fent acqiiaintnnce. perhaps' for ages. mine of improve the heavieft of hir. 14. tmd thole perfons who had inllruded him in the* ule of a mixture of different forts of earth. that the didifcover and vine benediclion accompanies the cultivator make ufe of it to sew degree of fertility and who is la- bar ions and indaftrious. was to be icen upon it except here and there a fe\w pines. bleding the hour ni which he had difcovered this trea-. in author gives an account of a vifit to Kiithis Venetian lenator and Seflari.hi*s his fellow-traveller farmir. It is true. fands.

((aid Kliyogg. the from fummcr f— * M/ children could little com- prehcnd that conPcant labor gives health and force. ' I pro^ cure for them. which they held not only as ufelefs. But what particularly increafed their diP content w^as. * and that want of occupation and indolence deprives us ' of thefe. 23. and by frequenting church or reading books of devotion/ Tlie author's companions reprcfent'ed toKliyogg. (p. 24. who amufes us while we arc at w^ork. and ^ ravillied with the ' This is goodneis of our Creator. *- in '^ going to hear a icrr. But Khyogg replied. expcd: in that flate the divine blefling madly flattering themfelves that they fliall dcferve it folely by prayers which * they do not underftand. joyous as Kings. in particular. (p.ion. when they fulfil the-duties of their flation. who after crofTing their hands.) But at length the rich ' harvefts with which Providence biefled us. the tone of raillery v/ith which our neigh" Of what ufs (exclaimed * bors fpoke of our work *' thefe people) are iheje heaps cf /and: is he ^oing to *'^ turn his fields into defarts*^ f and fo on. that it was nevertheiefs proper to allov/ to his children fome lei Cure and recreation. ourielves. on feflival-days they require to be amuied with their companions.144 ^^ ' THE RUPvAL SOCRATES.) we employ them hymns. the joy which ac* companies the view of the blcilings fnowered upon us * byProvidence.' * As all — to fcfUval days. * but even mifchievous. * *- — •^ — ^ ^ ^ * well (laid they . They acknowledge that * they do their duty to God. and with ^ whom we often fing with enthufiafm one of the pfaims ^ of king David. forced * them to confefs. in finging in talking upon .) but young people demand other recreations : and. that I had faid nothing which was not * both trufe and ufefuL They now enjoy the bed health * and remarkable ftrength.* *• : * '• . feeling. and when they work with zeal and ^ judgment. as often as poUIble. They defpife the hypocritical difcourfes * of the idle.) Every hai'veft I hire a violinplayer. Hence I * had need of all my paternal authority to keep my * children to labors.

This encourages me in my exertions . it 13 enough for me \x\ to know that it will certainly doit.nd Religion. My heart is content and tranquil and I red "^affured that i^rovidence does and will do every thing for me. But may God preferve me (P. I educate my * * ^ fuccoiir us in our n:^. gnd I ei^joy the divine aid Vw'ith gratitude and praifes for his bounty. to feel the truth of the ' cxiQence of a creating Gvjd. 25the bible that God created and prefervcs the woi Id . and preferve our confciences pure and fpotlefs. * * explained himfelf as follows.rUK RURAL SOCRATES. if we * oblerve his commandments and imitate the virtues of ' our Saviour. and that he ' will make us happy in this and the other world. or into dancing houfes ? in ' ' ' * * fuch indjlgence would only lerve to Ipoil them. and Co on. that his mercy has engaged him to M read — and to pardon our fins through Jefus Chrift. I have only to open my eyes. The company now He eft to learn defircd with much interwhat Kliyogg thought on the fubje^: of God in c. I do not know in what form it will judge it wife to acccmplifh the latter point but . I labor. and the fertility . * and to regard by turns the flars of heaven.25) from ever permitting my children to go into noily company. lis order to ibund Kliyogg and learn whether heart was free from religious rancor. I acknowledge none to be true pleafnres. In cffed:. as Jikewife to alTif]: us * by his Spirit in the pradice of virtue . the moun^ tains. which do not encourage us in our work. 26. that God gracioufly bleffesihofe who obferve his commandments. into taverns.' precipitate p. and theinnume' rable produaions of the earth . p. * * * ^ '• ' of my fields and the aid given me by my children. the plains. the animal creation.' p. which can render me happy in t/iis life and in that which IS to follow. I fulfil as much as poffible all my duties". 27. Hirzel k . and them into the depths of corruption and misfortune.tural corruptionj children. 25. Dr. convince me. * * ' ' 14^ upon every fubjed which prefcnts itfelf in walking our fields.

I ^ know that thefe. fmiling. yielding ta ways drive them from vour fervicc But ^ ^ — : — '- — " '' . : I (hould efteem a Turk or a Pagan^ were virtuous I Ihould even love him bethe provided ^ ter. It is not their fault that they arc not of the reformed religion. like my own fervants. 28-29. and i find in my condition.Hirze! a^cd him '' whether he would exchanoe his fituation ^ for that of a nobleman not rather . (laid he) 1 would rather an ^ hundred ^ And times be a peasant than a lord. fince it his harder for thefe to pradicc virtue.146 faid. that a good fath. v/ould be very capa* '^ God ble of condu£ling a much larger fociety. their . fiuce though flrangerSjthey fhewme affe^lion. I alfo fliould be a catholic. '' ' ^ THE RURAL SOCRATES^* Do you know ?'' catholics — He anfwered. is the obftinacy of my fervants y * whom yet I have the power of difmifiing whenever ^ they ceale to obey me. but it is a fatiguing ^ employment . that thcfe pcrfons arc * And what . who ruled his houfiiold ^ with fo much zeal and tirmnefs. For you gentlemen. are fometimes ^ fufficiently ignorant and obliinate to oppofe the moll ^ ufeful of your enterprizes cannot al* and yet you . To difcover whether Kliyogg was contented with his condilion." what is yourreafon. judging from the friendly manner in which they aredilpofed to converfe with pealants and to inform thcmfelves of their occupations. when it is fo pleafant and praiie^ worthy to render men happy by good law^s ?' ' I have nothhig to objetft to this . the companions of JDr. and if he would ^ command than obey afTuring him. ' than for Chriftians to do fo. Kliyogg. much fewer ^ obftacles to doing what is good and ufeful. had I been born of catholic parents. provided they are virtuous does and of this I * ^ ^ * * ^ do not doubt. lefleem them the more. than you ^ do in yours. ^ er of a family like himfelf." ^ preferve me from this. who alio * have need of perlbns to aflill and work for you .* p. thatfignify. Whiit occafionsi me mofl: vexation and ^ trouble in my labors.

199 — 202. and Dr. Pierre in the Black forefl (oppofite to Alface. in proportion as they gained an infight into his charadler. to be exhibited to public \iew at Venice. ^ good you had deligised to could give fatisfadlion to any.TliE ' RURAL SOCRATES. if they thought it their ob{linacy. He felt indeed much gratification in feeing pcrfons. and refpe»^ed and loved * — yogg had no him asfuch. by feveral vifits which had been made to him by princes. or be of ufe. Kliyogg anfwered with a fmile. it fays not a word of Kliyogg or of sgricuU A new Examination cf the philofophy of Kliyogg follows . Bail iff (or civil chief) of St. The next obje£l of the oarty was to learn whether Kliyogg was inlenfible to vanity . Hirzel was therefore defired to inform him. difcovered in him the Rural Socrates. andexprefTed this in his compliments to them . 29-30.) H—rt-rra^gSaBEnswr^ p. Dro Hirzel was convinced of this. but ture. Hence thefe princes. Mercy. 89 to 178) regards the /^(^^^(/f ofknoiv-ledge in modern times ^ and the manner of cnli^^htening a people. fo elevated. condefcend thus in his favor . but he never (hewed any marks of being proud in confequence. I47 you arc often forced to renounce the perform/ p. that they had brought with them a condderable painter to take his portrait. ."= ButKliidea of the flattery arifing from glory. but that * iefs he would not oppofe their wifh. addreffed to Mr. The fccond article in the original of this work by Drc Hirzel (from p. that '' this would nei* ther render him better nor happier neverthe* .

in order to examine liis did this whh the more eagerHe philofophy anew. and piomilcd to corred himfelf. in which he aKvays in purfnit of lornctlsing new which called for much labor.efs. 199 THE RURAL SOCRATES. ccnvintcd Uw Hirzei. and thought themlclves privileged to oppole him . that . he left him time to anfwer at his But all the'anfwers of Kiiyogg ferved onjeifare. feduced by enthufiafm^ — 'Sic* i . and.etimrs loved wine too mucl) . that he fteadily entcrtsired jly to perfuade the and followed old ideas liis his old principles and that in fpite of the lufrrcof Ins fame. pretending ignorance of ail which had pjifTed fince their lafl interview. — anger. Hirzel. 202 with addreiPiDg to Kiiyogg diiierent fhort queAioiis . ai'd the love of wine. obflinacy. to deride our philofophcr and to attribute his vivacity to the power of wine. but he blulhed at hearing tie exhortations which the author ^ddreflcd to liim on this fiibjetft:. Uiat ivhich he made on this fubjefc. The efioi t5 fion. . he was always the fame. • 204. Dr of the fpring tea vifit "tvas they controxert his plans of agriculture. &c. that he himlclf confeiled.'— Klivogg family of had its peace difturbcd r. and wos often inexplicable . — 202. he fom. regarding his ideas of propriety and economy (for he was frugal in fpitc of the increale of his fortune) as fingularOften did ilies which expofed his family to derifion. Hirzel devotes one of the fine days to Kliyogg. jealouiy. magnified their quarrels.?48 p. or that he had drauri too favorable pidure of him. author. as the niartiaoe. it is true. that fuch a matifhould fuffer himfelf lo be ltd away by pal. and fame. This rnnde it the more incredible to Dr. The family began as ufnal. To difcover the truth the author bcgaa p. which Was laid to be his great enjoy m en tv fin ce he had planted a vineyard of his ownc The author himlclf indeed feared either thatKliyogg was deferted by his philofophy . His Jecond children often complainiincth'is ed of the iianhnefs and obliinacy of their father.

and many * elTential things will cafdy be omitted.— His fons blufhed at the fight of their vifitant . prepared for clover. without puffing them up which is not to be aitirmed of the common clover. and that reafbn (till controlled his palFions. If I my attention and luxury in drefs : they v/irhdraw a part of his attention from his work. for it. ^The field deflined for clover had now in it flax feed (grains d'huile) .]— An experience of four years had conquered all horles — . and lonnc hundred paces in length in order He to drain av/ay its water into an adjoining river. * my dear (iodlor. will be you but . quantity of his hay had confidcrably increafed. '* ^ the manner the * ' * a part of clothes. . 205. to work in — . in order to fludy his ch^ratfler with redoubled attention. were better dreffed. an ed drefs. is more hurtcafe requires. but Kliyogg after welcoming him. Sec' 207 2JO. At hir> an ival Di-. tatterold and workipg all in was with his might. it is exadly thus that I ought to be dieifed. of tiie depth of 5 feet. *' you find me. What had pafTcd npon the preceding p. 205 cccMpicd in digging a ditch near his cellar. would be beftowed upoamy and my undertaking would fare ^11 the wei le Nothing faid he with vivacity. ^ihat his tiis 14^ heart had not changed vs fenthnents. hi« . namely the 11 April 1777» 23>6.THE RUFlAL SOCRATES. . in the worfl of my clothes at which ' thcfe gentlemen bluili that fenhble. by the fide of the ditch v/as a iield of about an acre. 204 occaiion. fmcc this artificial grafs (as it is called) had enabled him to fpare his natural grafs. than pride — — The length ftiezvn io Kliyogg all the vje of this Jor ape. He had in particular found that the Spani/Ji clover agreed fingukrly well with fattening them and keeping them in heart. which * will only be done fuperficially in this cafe. Experience had ai * * ful to a peafant.Hirzel found Kliycgg p. laid. and ail the manure which he gave to it was gypfum [or plaiflerof Paris. engaged the author to devote another day to — Kliyogg.

Here alfo he fowed clover with fbccefs. The lower part. 212. Near this field of clover was the Langwiefc. From hence Kliyogg led the author to a field containing about an acre . p. that he ought not to be difcouragcd by the failure of a firfl: attempt. on account of what had happened. which had injured his other meadows and fields . as his clover lucceeded lb well. the winter before he lowed thclafl mentioned acres. but ihould rather take the hint to fpread his gypfiim during or after rain . and that he ought: not to plough the field immediately. but which improved from day to day by a mixture of water and mud. but fhould wait for a more favorable feafon. . A little higher up were about £fty p. Kliyogg had no reafon to repent the having followed this advice . 218. of which the foil \vas a dry gravel. Thcfc prcjadices arofe from an auempt which he had made in the year 1774 . which he contrived to conducTl: there. when he h «d recommended fo worthlefs a thing to him. after fowing a field with clover and then ftjewing it withgypfum. Of the 42 remaining acres. his prejudices with re/ped to this gypjmi. a meadow. that he came the next ipring to confefs his obligations for it. and yet in nothing fell fhort of the former. that he came running to town to reproach our author for having fulFered himftlf to be mifled by books. — — — Kliyogg. as he propofed. Dr. and bore the beft of wheal. a drought of four weeks fucceedcd. confiding of 8 acres had been manured . Hirzel appeafed him by repicienting. 211.tSO THE RURAL SOCRATES. 21 g acres of grain. His difguft was fuch. 25 had been dreffed only with mjirle . It was eafy at a diftance to remark a difference of goodnels in the crop. covered with a very (lender coat of black mould. and the crop entirely failed. ought not to have negleded to remark the drynefs of the (eafon. w'len. that a man like him. which Kliyogg had found quire neglet^ed . p. The upper and lower parts formed a green carpet 5 but the middle was yellow throughout.

five of uhich he fpcnt in — buying a little negleftcd field of half an acre. which by this drcfiing and his labors v». The reil of his money he employed in bringing marie upon it . having fewer weeds with a lighter foil. two fucceflive ploughings perfedly united it with the natural foil. were lb little producflix e. that in the firit year it yielded 50 ftieaves of wheat.THE RURAL SOCKATES. What adoniflied our author was the duration of the effects of the marie. in which arc petrified plants. the young grain was finer than any where elfe. The marie in general has a ^yrcy color. acres. but. p. Kliyogg went to his marie pit. Kliyogg had a field of wheat \cry finely conditioned. The Society mace him a prefent of 20 liorins. in whom he had remarked a great palTion for agriculture . ---The countenar. p. that they fcarccly repaid their pofFelTors for their expence. as . On the other hand. it contains particles ivhich gliden in the fun . we mull fpeak of an amiable aft of our philofopher. a poor peafant. In another field which he had already twice marled. Mere and thei-e hard pieces prefent themfelves. being without means."as fo improved. but at other times it is covered with a mixed foil of a few inches. 222 224. and it yields a very fmall quantity of feleneticfalt. 15X had carried upon the ground 600 waggon loads of marlc (drawn by f jur horfes each) . and that now they even exceeded the 8 firft mentioned. From his fields. the fields of his next neighbors. 2ig— 221. it ferments with acids . Before quitting the marie pit. and having fprcad this marie every where evenly. this peafani could undertake nothing important. that thefc acres were originally the worfl of the whole 50 . It mud be added. He recommended 10 the Agricultural Society of Watt. under which the marie fometimes defcends ten feet. but it is fornetimes — — — blue. A marle-pit fornetimes makes itfelf knowr^ at the furface . which had na marie. w^hich neverthelefs had received no other drcfiing than marie four years before.ee of Kliyogg brightened with iov.

: — . -This was a freQiinftance of indefatigable labor of Kliyojrg in recurring toeverypollible meThe meadow in thod of mannung his lards queftion confiiled of eight acres . which formerly by the little trees or fhrubs with which it was covered. and its low fituation gendered it moid and marlliy. and felicitated himfelf with having contributed to the relief of a p >or and indiiflrious man. belonging to the peaThis village. v. 225'-226. 226—250. He pointed out as he went aU^ng. for many years. which encouraging and ledoubling their induftry.• *• enough 7S little lucrative to facrince agriculture to this occupation. ^ by many examples of peafants^ who have been adilled ' by the Ecojiomic Society. a fleep bank. Thefe he rooted up.and the leaves which had rotted on this foot during many years. — . and extending to his fields. and is mad '" . did much harm to the neighboring wheat. Khyogg began by car- years.^hich it fcarcely tills once in thiec Kliyogg rents three acres of thefe. upon hisfields. they buy (out of their favings ' or upon loan. They begin fometimes by ' buying a cow with the money they receive which * not only furnifnes the fanriiJy with the necefTary milk^ * but gives them at the lame time manure to tertilize * their little piece of land . Bat to return toKliyogg. fields in queftion." To the weH: p. which and in particular it lacrifices to it the . of his farm are condderabie fields. THE KUPcAL SOCRATES. of which they know ^ how greatly to augment the value in a few years.) neglecfled fields. to ena1 co\dd prove this ble him to make a little fortune. '^ You cannot believe (faid he) how fmall an ' aid is requidte to be given to an indigent man. p. merely to But hitherto In(lru(5l this village in its true interefls his example has produced no citeTr. except to engage one (ingle peafant to make an ellablidiment there. employed itielf in ipinniiig (lockings . he pointed to this field.152. and burned Ipreadingthe a{lics. Kliyogg now led his guefls into a meadow behind his woods. which perfecHv fucceeds. has fants of I^umlingen.

The drielV part of this meadow Kliyogg had fpread over with gypium . of mofs. . like made it appear. 234 235. which he attributed to the moifiure of the marie. application. that there are different forts of marle^ all of which have not the fame efficacy . we may obferye before we attend no bees. the meadow being covered with red clover. as with a carpeti Twenty fmall meafures of gypfum at the cofl of three florins. — thorns. without being. 232. firmnefs. he maJntalr-:?. In palling by the woods of^ KHyOgg The abfence of their neatncis appeared aflonifhing. and to confult experiment. and one barrel fufficed for a whole acre . and of heaps of leaves. Klitry dinner. there to make a counBut as they palTed a particular field. producing as nuich effect as ten loads of dung. and that it is abfolutely necfeffary to ftudy the land. and thence his dung. It is here therefore proper to obfervc. he was enabled to increafe But all this required his cattle. before employing the marie in any quantity j the bcfl theory being contradicted often by pratSlice. the patience. it having been taken from a pit entirely filled with v/ater. whfch the difcovery of his marie rendered fo pradlicable.THE RURAL SOCRATES. the befl manure for his vines p. fubjedlt to any of the inconveniences of which fome accufe it. fhady alleys.— But we ihall find that this neatnefs arofe from Kliyogg having found in hii walking in woods. that he has ^' ' him cof?. — — p. and reflexion of Kliyogg. 15^ Tying to it confiderable quantities of manure. In order to give an idea of the inf^exi^ bility of Kliyogg. fill a falt-barrcl . 231 author turned towards the hpufe. yogg remarked that it had been marled without the lead benefit . the p. in avoiding every thing which could turn away his attention from his principal occupation — or introduce idlenefs. — — . This manure increafing his grafs. 233 234. and the iflue anfwered his expeiflations. Without denying the utihty of their honey and the inftrudlion to be derived from their focial labors. Khat the^ into his houfe. After running over half the farm.

and that wc flop too often id' obfervc them. efpc* cially as they require mod attention in the hay ieafon. p. diflies of boiled biyley.too much trouble. and afforded a lively example of the happy refult of a wife domeflic government. * when it was equally diilributed betvv'cen his children '* and the domed ics. Thefamiiy of our philofopher was found at table. fat the fervants . Two Tons." p. and who had an air of profpcrity . to be paid by their honey and wax . for which * purpofe a quantity was always carried into the fields * at ten in the morning and at four in the afternoon. coft. wi:h ft»me oihrj fat fubftancc hea. huf od. had their feats at the upper end of the table. formed the dinner. two others of pears which had been baked and dried^. llie fird was a man advanced in ye^rs. good bread made of wheat and The rye. which communicated to the converfation a like equality. the fervants rot being obliged to wait with impatience till the mafl:er and family were fatisfiedy before they fat down to mifcr. At their fide. on accoimt of pains which had attacked his knees during a very long periSuch a man feemed little fit for hard labor . Two of the latter particularly attracflcd our author's notice. 236-239. with two daughters^ who perfe^lly refembled their brothers . and a pitcher of water. * companions when fatigued with their work .IS4 THE RURAL SOCRATES. well made and healthy. who walked with ditficulty. In ibort.ears baked dry. author obferved at the end of their meal. Uiere was equality between ablc remnants. wine to refrefh his the that he referved '' anfwcrcd.cd up vvhh ir^ . 239 243. the niafler and fervant both at taWle and at work. fl:out. all their eafe ierved themfelves with the fame freedom . that there* were large remains. Two Why — — Kliyogg •Many hid cjT of the Swifs n^ake a very good dlfh of f. which proved that avarice was not When it was afked with' the vice of Kliyogg '* at table ?" Kliyogg' wine no there was furprife. who appeared much at for the table being fpread for all alike.

. and amuled it as well as a nurfe could have done y looking at it very affedlionatcly. after iiril quieting the repugnance of his children to the match. bread. . As the wife during the entertainment was Tometimes abfcnt to attend . care. «.—The other domeflic was an orphan from a neighboring village. as common in fjmc E. and with the prefence of two grand fons of Kliyogg. and laftly wine from the vineyards of Kliyogg.. giving him in his family a good education. upon feeiDg him forced to beg 5 and that he gave him only fmail wages and the ufe of his tabic. [In the fequel. Kliyogg in this interval took her young child upon his knees.) parts E.her kitchen. Hirzel was boiled milk and breadt. which his work nearly repaid...THE RURAL SGCRA. and induced him to marry her. His children and fervants remonftrated at firft: againfl this. The rcfrefliment offered to Dr. and holding it in a more dexterous his upon p. notwithflanding the youth was not without his faults. who by the fpirit and prudence which fiie had fhcwn during her widowhood.TE&. of Svvitzcrlandj 8S t« % This France. had attached Kliyogg. gg^ l^liypgg fald that he hsd taken him into his houfc from compalBon.. (fou} is au Jait. and of a little boy which Kliyogg had by his fecond wife ^ being the youngefl perTon in the houfe. in defiance of the patience. and whom Kliyogg took to his home . 244 — — o •f The French houilli call this m'tlk joup. The repaft was feafoned with friendly difcourfe . New difcoveries v^ere now made His fecond wife of the chara6ler of our phiiofopher appeared at table : a good antd laborious woman. and firmnels of Kliyogg.J 247. the latter even rcfufing to work with iuch a vagabond i but our phiiofopher was refolute. and the manner in which (he had educated her children from a little property whicii was in debt . a piece of beef from which fdup had been madel. this young man eloped with a new fuit of clothes back. who begged from houie to houfe.

ed that they were too fond of riches. Work muft be dorte from a love for it. * well on account of their delicate conflitutions. My * ' workmen. an occupation which they preon w^hich fubjeft their father adferred to all others to them Come advice. * who avoid. and imitate him ^ by doing nothing whence the harveds diminiQi. Some geographical and myfllca] books |[before mentioned. There * * * * who are no true riches but thofe enjoyed without remorfc and with true contentment. ' fields become neglcv^ed. is always afking for a rich wife . diforder creeps into the houf* hold. all hard and dirty work ^ and fjniih by becoming the mere inipeftors of their — . in their turn. ^' '* faid he. as from ^ the fear of dirtying their clothes. or from duty . who in truth had a fickly countenance.' little by little. 250 . " that y^ there is nothing more hurtful for a peafant than 2 paffion for books . after the return of his brother. his brother had been drawn afide by fanachildren of *• *"' — - ' is^' • ' tics .When the Tons were retiredjKliyogg complaineldeft fon. and by degrees all the 'wealth vanifties. gave our philofopher occafion to [renew his] remark. and objedl to work as . 'drcffed p. but rich wives * love luxury and good living. Their workmen laugh at an idle niafter turns his back upon his bufinefs. that his own chil* dren. that he had often found caufe to re* gret. He neverthelcfs faid that he did not long expevSb to prefer ve this child. . will a paf always pofTefs the divine ^blefTing.I5« (dexterous THE RURAL SOCRATES. that the . to their hufbands . grown manner than could be expefted from a man old in the hardefl work. had been led to forget their * occupations that he lamented in particular." p.' -^ He who works from * fion for his duty. and] which Kliyogg inherited from a brother who had ferved in Dutch regiments . 252 254. the . 248 249. p. by means of reading. Thefe impreffions * are dommuuTcated. and not with a dcfire to' become doing enriched. The fons of Kliyogg had this day been working in the vines .

directed. At the bottom of this meadow. and had great trouble to recover them from their * millake. particularly where he is obliged to execute the principal things himfelf and finds trouble in procuring proper workmen to aflift him . by means of little canals. and to mix it afterwards with the filth from the flables. upon a foiid and fteady plan. 157 patrimony greatly fuffered by it . ?>lvv'ay. was placed another refervoir. 256 — the — tcr . . ^ tics * . Difcourfe like this. dow. When he difcovered that the mixture had become fuf£ciently putrid.i does the peafant harm . ^ he continued. which iurrounded the houfe but it is difficult for a peal ant to do all at once. And we certainly found parts which had not yet attained the perfection of which they were ca- — We pable . and iofiietimes he is ^ of mind and ends by forgetting his true deftination as that their that tie *- p.Kliydgg had dug a pit four feet deep and as many wide. which is the cafe with our Kliyogg. clofed our philofopher's dinner.THE RURAL SOCRATES. It is indefatigable labor only. 258. and to convince them that labor is our firfl * duty and the bed means of obtaining the blefling of * the Creator . he ftirred it all through . and particularly the orchard.. which can conquer all : difficulties. which colk<5led the remains of this wa-^ p. 255 256. the door of which he could clofe and open at pleafure. into a refervoir in the court . troubles * his reafon a jd confcience . and that books are for the learned. and carried upon a neighoring meait. and ' the plough Fanaticijm in religion^ for the p^:^r?int. But in fpite of fome imperfecllons of orchard. rofe to vifit the reft of KliTogg's farm. I with much plcafure law pains taken lo colled the rain-water^ falling from the houfc and barn. and takes away much of * the time which ought only to be confecrated to work^ Often the party expofes himfelf to the tricks of cth^ ers led into a melancholy h#bit .

of about 20 acres ftud of a moift temperament . Near the orchard arc fields containing about 50 acres. conquered their prejudices and repugnancc—Foiiowing here his ufual maxim. but experience here. ferves when diflrjbuted. as in other cafes. which afforded a new proof of the refblu?:k)n and patience. the rain and fnow. border upon this meadow. penetrating and even the manure has more acinto it more eafily cefs to the land. bat rifes on the lides to form a hill towards the center . in rendering the land lefs heavy^ renders it at the fame time more open to the adion of the feafons . to colledlthe water running from them.i^e THE RUPvAL SOCRATES. was not to the tafte of the children of Kliyogg* who could not comprehend the ufe of fuch a mixture of foils . and to condu<fb it flom time to time upon difl^^rent parts of the meadow. He had rooted out of it a tliick licdo-e . after keeping it _ur refl for fome weeks. 61 the Katzenbach.nd to quicken this work Kliyogg fcparates with gunpowder great pieces from his hill* The gravel. which being compofed of gravel. The land is heavy. 253. and the air. the cold r=nd heat. p. Kliyogg dug his.? jneadow. into his hill at two different places^tobc able todrefs the faller with it. tcv . thus to fee his harvefts in a train of increafing year after year Fifty loads of this gravel are carried upon each acre y ?. to render the refl of Tliis was an objedl however which the land lighter. and after having burned it. when mixed with gravel 5 and weeds sre thus alfo more eafily drawn from it. always to go to work the fliortefl way. he had thrown the Below his Jic/ds^ which afiies over the whole meadow. But what more particularly fcrved to water this meaclow. v/as the river Katzenbach . from whence Kliyogg conda<Sls it to anothe. from which Kliyogg 50 acres fo much — 1 : — . which our philofopber employed in improving his lands. p. What a perfpeclive was it for a laborious man. VVe now approached a meadow upon 267. He had fiill 100 acres to be treated in the fame manner. he had dug a deep ditch.

provs of — — : the contrary. This operation was conducftcd with a degree of precifion which was even mathematical. is excellent for vines . Sec. His children.THE KUKAL SOCRATES. fhewed the — bleinno: MS . p. From p. though efFedccl the common without any mathematical inflrument fenfe and jiifl eye of Kliyogg alone directing him. 275 — 276. and the vtvy afp^eci of his woods. obfervations follow on ['n. and much reflexion as to what regarded agriculture.] Kliyogg now condudcd the author from the Katzcnbach to his vines.-— The fcite of a hedge among other circumflances offered to Kliyogg a fat earth. In returning by tlie rye. 271 274. The manner in which Kliyogg cultivates his vines will prcbabh/ (fays our it is Swifs clergyman. with little branches of trees and leaves and mofs .^y (ids thorns and bufiies and hedges entirely rooted up. and mixed with the earth and mud from ditches. the true eye pofTefTed by peaiants Alfo on the rage for law-luits which ruins £0 many . feeing on evc.-^ occupied in his vineyard. p. Here. with his (lock of ivhcat and v/inCj every thing in fhcrt. he covered the roads which led from his houfe and from thofc of fome of his neighbors to the neighboring mill. 359 had made a trench with infinite trouble and difncalty. his domei^ tics. of which a part could be carried among his vines» But to increafe his means of drelling his lands.— It is true that Kliyogg is reproached with doing much hurt to his woods by the great number of leaves which he ahvays collefe from them . p. which being trodden upon by horfes and cattle. 268 271. B. All the family of Kliyogg wa. — : this clafs of people. the increafmg fertility of his lands. every thing manifefled indefati- gable application and care. and amounted to one hundred loads a year. but the precautions which he ufes on this occaiion.fields of Kli- yogg to lee his cattle. as every v/hereelfc the author difcovered important improvements.) not be interefling to America therefore not given for tranilatlon. 272 274.

277 — been faid to prove that Kliyogg is flill the fame. upon making a tavern of the houfe to fell their wine to the beft advantage . whilft cattle which are brought from diftaut places grow lean and even die. that the (Iriking examples of intemperance and other vices. p. himfelf having procured for him a farm in another part of the country. Already his fon. remarks the author here. 280. that the pliilofopluc dream which he had till now entcrtaiiycd. 4 cows. 4 calves of one year old. It hence appears. with fwearing and loofe converfation. Hans infjRed likevvife. Kliyogg preferves his cattle from contagious dileafcs. Knough. folely from a change of their food . and always deferves the name of a country philofopher But the author adds. to which in thefe fitnations his family would neceffarily be witncfsj was contrary would efface front th-: minds of his children the good . but he loved alfo tliofe pleafures of fociety which Kliyogg detefted. that conformable to maxims which many others alfo confider as economical.\L SOCRATES- blsfung with which Providence had favored a man fulfilling with cxadnefs the duty of his ftation. he raifes his own cattle. reafon. 9 oxen.in-law.in-law loved work. with which flrange cattle often infe(5t a whole flable. He pofTeflT^d 4 horfes. the faith- — companion of Ills labors. he had found himfelf obliged to abandon. and by the fame means alfo. The fon. of having all the family of Kliyogg united in patriarchal concord in the fame houfe. Difference of fentimenthad given caufe for this reparation.l6o THE RUR. Hans alfo thought it innocent for the rich to difHnguifli theralelvcs by their fine clothes. had quitted him . By this means he accuftoms them to the food of his — farm . has p. Tiie cattle of Kliyogg were well fed and attended. which — to the mode of thinking prevailing in Kliyogg. and the father-in-law thought a tavern would be ti fource of corruption for the family conceiving with . Kliyogg : hirafelf ful was indeed the firft to perceive the impoflibility to execute the idea. 276 277. and as many of two years.

" In this opinion he was coriHrmed.~~It was after her death that the fon-in-Iaw tnoiignt himfelf more privileged to meddle in the family and oppofe the fingalarities of his father-in-hw par. was defirous of a like match. rep-arded a^> aangeroiis. In effcdl: he foughl: no profit. ticularly when they brought upon himfelf either the envy or fneers of his neighbors. by the cafe of the rich wife winch his fon had obtained . gave newteRimonies of the pleafure which Trie had always taken conforming heiiclf to tlie will of her hufbano. the luxuries of life . well as as for wrm prefervc the tamily-peace .^This was a new reafoii for Khyogg to take a feconJ wife \Knie This dlffenfion was increjifed by the death of the ofKliyogg. that riches ibfren the charaaer and infpire a tafte for exceites in drefs. but from iiis^nd and for this purpofe. which is the fource of every miichief. and he faw befides with much chagrin. who was fiill a bachelor. fliefcrvcd to prove. It ivas oy the fame means only. for notwithflanding her .— Kliyogg for the fan>e reafon. and often fiew out^mto cruel ironies againfl his father in law. that the happinefs of it couiu be preferved. i6i good difpofitions. and who on her death-bed.*** Kliyogg now fet himfelf anew to convince his fons that poverty diaionorsnoone. efpccially on the part of the fon.— Such a maxim conitantiy led to new labors and ferved to d'ive from the family that idknefs. p. that labor and good morals had alone ad^ yanccd and given true happinefs to his family and that . he employed all his money to mcreafc its quantity and its produce. who was of a choleric temper. AJi this often gave room to di(putes.rvr well fitted to aflid: him in governii^g his houiliokrco'Ii" forniably to his antient princioles. all riches acquired without labor.THE RURAL SOCRATES. who had always contributed to firfl m . of whom mention already been made. that his eldefl fon. and who appeared to Kliyo.in law of Kli'« yogg . 280—284. good examples and good lefTons which he had always given to them. His fons gradually yielded to his rias ^'^^ reafoninrrs .

285* difpates. Kliyogg had eilablinied his firfl fon-in-law apart from him» But the farm which he had procured for him not being ofthe beft quality and being otherwifemudi neglccled. ' he fl^ould come into his houfe again w iienevcr he * pltafcd. By this means he helped him to overcome his obllaclcs. but on the other hand he had afFi fled him in ' his work with a fidelity and zeal worthy of praife . — We — .new wife (hewed the bell difpofltions .i62 THE RUKAL SOCRATES./. reafoningSj and bluQied at having put fo many obflaclcs to this fecond marriage . ' and that if he could not otherwife gain his livelihood. His — . knew how to gain the compleat affe<Slion of his children . infomuch that the eldeft fon of Kliyogg married her daughter. than all his other children . a^Stlng with a gencrofity which could not have been {urpafTed even if Hans had ^. and there is every appearance that one day he will become a fecond KHyogg. have already faid. it is true. that Kliyogg entirely obtained his end. his refpeift for his father increafed with years . the undertaking fell particularly heavy upon him. This fon (by name John Gafper) remained more faithfully attached to the principles of our philofopher. he joined to this the mofl tender attachment to his younger brother . Kliyogg had the happinefs to fee all his chi!drcrv well provided for ^?vci7 thofc cf b's fecond wife. and to obtain the entire aps robatioR of his landlord. and envy had the mortification to find. treated him ^ very ill . p.. '' that v/hile he lived. his Hans (liould never be ru' ined . and wine . and lent him all his credit. and while (he followed the will of her hnfband.'* It was thus that our philofophcr returned good for ill. and thus laid the foundation of a folid and durable peace. Nothing could fave him but the affiftance of his father in law : and his father-in-law was jiot backv/ard in granting it. He gave him cattle.r ys treated him wlih the mofl tender affeclion. corn. Such virtue was not without its reward. Kliyogg even declared. that to avoid 287. that Hans had f^metimcs. to lay upfomething.

they fay their prayers in his prefcnce. without being affected.THE RURAL SOCRATES. it mull: be obferved that Kliyogg teaches them to break in and manage the cattle and often occupies them in other agricultural works which do not exceed thch^ He keepr> by preference. 287. — . He therefore cats *. night and morning . He fpirc in them the maxims. that he thought it would difgrace them to accept it. p. as a hen colleds her chickens . for which he could now tranquilly wait. and they love him fufficicntly to fiy to him upon a iingle lock. He collcifts them about him. felf to the little ones. That which affords the mofl plcafurc to our old man. 288. had he not made a //^7//. who are likely to purfue his niaxhus. He thus faw his houfe folidly founded upon two ions. when he gives himfeif a little rcpofe. thinking that he daily acquires a new refcmbiancc to them by the decline of his own flrength. The prudence oF Kliyogg would not have been complete. and he alfo teaches them to flng.vith them at a fcparate table. the great devotion which he (hews on his fide communicating it- does not forget ^fo to inthat they ought to defpijc what they d) not gain by their exertions^ and to regard When the author f ride as the greatejl ofhuman follies heard the children ling for the firft time. the company of theiit age. obferve them affembled about his knees. He makes them read. p. 289. 16? p. to prevent all difpute and diibrder after his death. and finging one of the pfalms of David with him . *Yo complete the account of thefe little children. and learn parts of their catechifm or of the pfalms . llie ions of his fecond marriage will always find in their eldefl: brother a Ibpport cemented by double ties. but the children perceiving from the looks ef the grandfather. . 290. p. children . returned it immediately. he was defiroas of marking his fatisfadlion by offering them a piece of money . M. is the education of his txvo new Tons and of his grandchildren. One cannot.

This fcnt them av/ay confounded to their work. V\'l:en fpeaking of (IriL^ncfs in fulfilling the duties of O'^ir flal'ion !)en: mode uf wo: Hiipping the Deity — : ^ h- . that he v»' as ^ /r:^^ /?^/ri^ri*/.and faid fmiling.AL SOCP. lb the indiiftry and vigor of his married children makes his glory. . 294. . 291 293. he faidto the butcher who bought it Yoii fee theie rich lords. dent of this fort to efcape his notice. p.ATES. which Kiiyogg oppofed with all his might but vvithoqt efledl. 295. rill he told tiiem with firmnefs. The author often remarked that Kliyogg dctcflcd pride. go to them 5 without f'oubt tliey have more fat oxen to fell than 1 have. What our philofopher hated no Icfs than pride. One night his repeating. that the Iicaft c^^' ''''"f f7:ntdd always bcin uui- — : ' . with Vv'ife ufcd the 6th pfalm as a prayer Davidj '' all the night I make my bed to fwim . At another time. that if they went into town on horfeback. and c-rpecially prayers la which fie never fuffered an incithe heart has no concern. >ils THE RUP.'* He interrupted her. to afKalms for them. he v^ould put on his worlt coat. Tiie foiiowii-. and run by their fide vvithhis cep..g anecdote may fiicw ths p. made a viijr to Kliyogg in 1783 . The marquis conclnded his vifit by fiyingof Kliyogg. p. p. : fan with each other. At the wedding of his cldcji'iow^ his Tons infjftcd upon going into town on horfeback . Vv^ith m:y tears.fiblc of it«" But he did not en this ache only recount the lefs fervently rclpev^ religion quired. 296 node of thinking of Kiiyogg in matters of religion. wns hypocrify . " and yet n'>y wife I iet nothing of this ^^ 1 am not fer-.x64 p. and three pages are accordingly introduced to /Tiakc flattering cornplin"ients to the rnarquis and his — (on. The inarcjuis o^ Baden Durlach^ \y\\\\ the princes of his family.*•' ter my couch. 297. having fold a fattened o>i. little As the education afihefe children formj pleafurc. I wa. 290. while his fons and fervanls Rood around much better drcffcd than himfelf.

and for luxury. money flies ' away and diforder and confulion following in their . ' By this means the fertility of their lands diminifhes . as a contagion. The mifery ' here becomes the greater. Work ' then mud be pnrfued for the iake of work. Add. and as the refult of a renCt of duty. who imitating their example. There are many pcafants. if wc feek the divine blsfling. ' and become proud and voluptuous like themfelves.d wine. a general derangement occurs. and in order to give pleafure ^ to the beneficent God who prefcribes it to us . and alfo proud and expenfive. and^tlie means of gaining the clergy ' and their judges. and a moralifl but our Swifs clergyman omits the ' The author then conparticular^. for pleafure.it \v^ niuflfearch after. Sec. Here Kliyogg fpcaks by turns as an p. and at ' the fame time every effort mull: be ufed to combat the ^ paffion for money. efpecially as this money procures ' them influence. ' the expences of their family increafe .THE RURAL SOCRATES. 298 egotiH:." 300. lie ' *• 16/ laid once to our author. It is true. ' family. ' mit to themfelvcs fome injuRice. will hats ' and defpife vi^ork and give themfelves up to idlenefs. in oider to fell their ' articles at a high price .heologian. but ' work foon becomes a burthen to them ihey even per. Mil order to traffic in thefe articles. ^' It is not prof. that * they often fucceed in aniaHing confiderable fums . to fucceed. * they buy wheat ar. from other pcafants. a4. ^ our confciences pure and free of reproach. ^ merce to the labor of their hands. to their children and domellics .t th. who have no other objecl' than to ^ enrich thcmielves and who. ^Such ' conduct willfecure the divine blefllng and maintala . prefer com. ' ' elude:: A . that the defire of enjoying ' their fortune renders them lovers of the table and otii' cr pleafures . which does not fail to ccr' i-upt their minds . and the tafte for good wines and fi 5r dcjicate meats becomes a fecond nature. '- ' ^' — — . This conir ' municatcs itfelf. Not content with * felUng the fifperfiulty of their own v/lieat and oxen. becaufe indolence weakens ^ the bodily flrength.

and the P^lements o^' politics are here introduced. He encouraged them therefore to low a great quantity of Uimmer. Having fuifered alfo much from the complaint.1 66 THE RURAL SOCRATES. that period. WAthout fuifering his mind . 304. and his digelling facuhies becom. he felt his bodily powers and the vigor of his mind daily diminifhing dangerous humors colleftinginhis body . faying. cesthe portrait of a good prince refembling Kliyogg. —From cold ing deranged. that in moments like thcfe. 320— 3:23. to his crops: In the in his TheypariySi was difaftrous autiunn v/orms had made great in the rye : and following fpring during the month of his vines May. Such was Kliyogg as long as Godprc- ferved his healih and flrength . Seme pad'iges from Seneca. and announced his approachjng death. a froit dedroyed the profpe^ from . be has thought hloiielf in the company of Socrates and Epi<^etas. i^->u No niisfortun.wheat. the author dctermi once . D'AIemp. Hirzel tra-. 302 bert. and trees which v»'as very promiling. p. to be troubled. . that is. that p^ ^ig_2i9. traits all In thefe thirteen pages Dr. His bit he called their affli£lion Tons were deeply afRicted ingratitude towards God as they had fullicient blefring3 remaining to them from the preceding :iF)d even from that very year.c dcjedeJ Kliyogg or drew from havoc hisTi con:ij>lai»*ts. p. obliged him^ finally to remain in ills bed. mmed —At the ^:^(lne^vs of his Hcknefs. to Qiew that Kliypgg merited ilic name of a philofo-^ — pher.to the age of 74. and God would flili be bountiful to them. of the preceding which increafed from day to day. dropfical a winter (1784-5). 305— 318. found of them be diflinguifii p. ^llb iu Kliyogg. eludes with faying. The author tinilhes by whatever they vi^ill any man held as excellent.

The rcnicmbrance of his ler The — — — long ilinefs was however fufRcient rr"-^-'^-:? to it ^'*'*'^:^ — throw him into ::hogfnher . and the return of his flrength for working. who has loaded me v/ith his kindnefs . propofed himielf for the party. companions of his old age . 323. on the Ji Jane (17 85 ) It was on that fame day that Mr-vSclnimacker^chamber]ain to the king of Denmark. He difcovercd little fear at death . were moiflened with the tears which conflantly fcU as he fpoke. Our philofophcr was found reduced to a condition which drew tears from the feeling Schumacker." Kliyogg neverthelefs wiihcd and always expe£led the re-eRabliihment of his health. this travellearning the author's intentions. The v^eaknefs of his bodv had made much impreilion upon his fpirits . he was greatly funk and in bad humor . he faid. with tears of joy. paid the author a vi[it. in a (late of great debility Dpon a bench .THE RURAL SOCRATES. and the too great avaiice of others. for I have known him through all my life as a * God of mere}*. in order to fpenL to his vifitors . more to fee him . but from which neverthelefs he hoped to recover. Let then the will of God be ^ done. furroundcd every where with pillows^ He raifed himfelf with much trouble. It is true that he ilill repeated liis wife ma::ims on the fubjecfl of the too great luxury of fome of his ch'ldren. by dwelling with tendernefs on his httle ones. " 1 have a good confcience . courfe from time to time. — difcourfe Toon turning upon Kliyogg. and when the author fpoke of ft. the mofi: intereRini}. ^ and he will alfo grant m. nnmciy. I have always * 'loved equity and juftice. /^3 to medicine he {o- having' . and have truly fulfilled the ' duties of my fiation. and his eycs^ which formerly fparkled with joy in his converfations. He was flretched. p. OI3CC 16. bet all in He interrupted however this diia lasPientablc tone. and to tell the fufferings which he had undergone during many weeks.e his favors in the ether * world. touching upon their characler and talents and other circumftanccs.

. who has fo often encouraged me to do good . is the end of my oblervations on who. and who has given me the opportunity by a defcription of his charader. as the author and his companion were :iiFe£l:ed. they obtained fome confolation from the converiation of the eideft fon of Khyogg . — THE . Sec. he abandoned himfelf folely to nature ufing only a few ipoonfuls of brandy. of conclufion.i68 THE RURAL SOCRATES. — . night and morning. . without cffc<^. having taken fome from the medical perfons in the village at the beginning of his malady. becaufe he thought they gave him fome relief. 327. that he had often obferved that the fpirits of adive perfons fuiTer mofl from the fentiment of their declining flrength. The author remarks here. p.. Sec. that the complaints of the father againft his fons. of contributing to the general benefit. p. Mnch hov/ever. 326. who led them through the farm^ and gave an account of every thing with a clcarnefs which made them recognize in him the worthy fon of Kliyogg and at the fame time convinced them. were too much the refult of his difeafe. during a longcourfe of time. byway Here fays the author to his correfpondent. the Rural Socrates has occafioned me fo much pleafure .

'' If Mr. ' There are few men whom I have examined fb rigoroufly and whom I have obferved on fo many fides and in fo many different fituations as Kliyogg . his deferts would have been never \\c Kliyogg. who was high. man. being originally ext:ra^^ed from the feventeenih of the '-^ Pbyfiognomic Frao-ments*' of that writer. SECTION T'/ie r. and I can truly fay that I have not found one. amorg hia-caantryfr. a (ingle one. without returning new thanks to Mr.THE RURAL SOCRATES. the S'^ifii.Jf fo much in all points . fmsm PART THE THIRD. Hirzel for having drawn him from fo really a 1 Hence his obfcurity. or rather of fmgling out and manifefting this. Hirzel (fays the noted Lavater) had no other merit than that of writing his peafmt-philofopher. ^ one X * Oiort The a in the fecond fyllable of Mr.en. It is tranflated from a French tranflation. Lavater's n?me is pionounceil . man. who refembled hi77ile. celebrated Lavater defer Ihes Kliyogg^ X HE following account of Kliyogg is hy Ihe famous phyfiognomift Lavater^ ^ a clergyman of thd canton of Zurich in which Kliyogg refided.

. but for the whole of the pictupe. u. All the fl^etchcs were eafily known. tltat Kliyogg Ir. -. Whatever Mr."d eve. . one vvh9 was incQrriiptibly.: How often have I not perruadcd him to for mc ^ to be painted lents Three of ihe bell: portrait drawers and ^ *- the moil: happy in their likeneffes. fubilantialJy. raufl equally happen to thofe who iindertake to trace his chara(f^er.%r>fe-his^nturci with the'" fit ^pencil. Gan there be need of excufe infpeaking with warmth of fuch a man ? None of all thofe w^ho know Kliyogg. certainly. wasabfoand defigned to be . •*' ' with the ' "^^n^ as it is to re^i:c. ' I have this moment read the new edition of his life . Hirzel has faid is exacflly true this and the other feparate feature ftand covreclly . evidently.a-o •fthc rfa! f^ocrarei?. have tried their ta- ^ * ' ' ' ' ^ * * * * * } ' upon him. and could not but finile at the palTagcs where the Xenophon^ of our Socrates has CKprefled a feariof being miflcd by an exceflive chthufiafm. * What is thus faid of the portrait-painters of KHyogg. as this manj who is in ' * ' ' ^ t * * * incomparable. and I fiiall be pardoned by thofe who know him. purefy. _ I . by himfelf . I have \:x^c<^ every effort to have him properly exhibited and taken. it is only Kliyogg when it is not placed near hiTS>* Upon the comparifon. and handed down ilsch as it really is to the univerfe and to poilerity. in his defcription of fome of thofe fine fituations in which he has feen him. truth to me — * ^ for aflerting that it is as difficult to defcribe K4iyogg. can venture to affirm that too much has bv::en faid of him .s c''r"'. in was fo lingular in his kind. all hitcly nothing but iliort wliat he is. but not one was a perfe<ft refemblance* All appeared.ijo * ' ^ ' THE RURAL SOCRATESc fo Readily. who mufl not have been '"-::^d to acknowledge.to msraorc or lefs Vv^antingin eKpreflioit and mind fothat I have at length ablblutely rcnounall ced hope of feeing this Inblime countenance reprelented.

a confidence in himfelf which is en^ l\r^^ but without pride.THE RURAt SOCRATES. * The true model of man. ^^o difficult to be ^xpreffed. The totality of man the cultivator . conilraints. I mufl at tlis lame time confefs. without any prcfumptuous egotifm . 1 perceive tlie fame traits. the fame exprefliocs occurring io myfelf . ry kind of pencil ? and as little the hiitorian. Hirzel has defircd to be an kijlorian^ a-dd by no 77icans a panegyrljl. I endeavor to make a like fketch. in no degree inquifilivc : but fo found. without hsving his prefence. of man difcngagcd froni cares. fo delicate. — — — : : — ^For . or rather a copy of fach an original is impoflible. 17 x I nothing blame then the painter . fuch as my heart never experienced at the fight cf any other man. * I never found my-felfnear Kliyogg. incorrupt human nature which penetrated me delicionfly with its prefence.n miliead it. that it v^as neither refpec>. and afTuredly none have read liis book with mere pleafure. that it will be difficult for any to feci more profoundly the truth of his defcriptions: And yet I mull alfo add that in my eyes the original is above the copy . if on my fide. A light without dazzling . I felt gently riling there an emotion i'o fingle. nor tenderncfs. and nevcrtkelcrs I venture upon tlie fame attempt. the totality of the cultivator. a v/armth without effervclccncc ^ a full fentiment of what he is. ^o f<rm -jain^ fedu'filonj ihat no -gbyrinth c?. io inaceeflible to the corrupting breath of prejudice. Few can more highly citeem the talents and merits of the Istter than myielf . I may even add. It was not a fentiment which partook of the wai-mth of enthufiafm it v/ss as if a faint image cf/V'/ii'^/ man fought to acquire life and diftinctnefs in my bofom. produc-irig in me a kind of fentiment. that Mr. in all its fimple unity before me. as to this relpe(ri:3blc biographer . An inteile<fi: in no degree brilliant. noi' even friendlhip it was a (oft expanfiori of the foal . and fubiervience to a plan. \m efj'ergy.

Full of a noble ^ '- tranquil fee ' impatience for action. a body without a foul . — His franknel^ and freedom from reftraint.ill wliich I have related after him. and all flowing back to it. to exprefs the things which with ! ! : 1 : him are fo naturally original. For amidri: the p. *Vithont perceiving or iufpe(fling that he does it. nothing flowing except from this whole . . an ordinary prattle. the n? fire^ arc not precifely'the hgn of a line mind Caidjull of au:lior n. the deputy of crfntinp divinity I VVhat praife more true. How ^ him a(:l ! 1 * * ' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ' ' ' * Always all that he fays goes ilraight to its objeiSl gold mixed with clay .17 2 * ^ THE ev(^i' PvUilAJL SOCRHTES. that his eyes portrait.ould certainly mucl) vatber h. Hirzel informs his — ^ ' "- fcdl ojftrc^and his countenance of which the jrefmicjs color announce his good conftitutio7i^ have always a and ' ' gay and open air^which dtjplays to the phyfiopnovinft the whole Eyes which are merely full beauties of his character.gilation fin^ thPcalni of work. . and nevcrtheicf} more entire and complete can be beflowed upon Kliyogg or any other man. always diamonds frrez/ed upon Ht* olfers conftanrly one and the the coaj fcfl fluifs fame whole . *' how noble How he abandons to you his whole foul. to my certainly How ^ ' eyes. than to fay. 'A word * '*' or two more as to his phyfiognomy and his reader. and yet poiTefbelonging to rcpoie. How the niofl trivial things How they which he fays are in him and from him carry the imprefiions of his individual chara^^er How fpife of all my . in elforts to exhibit it truly. a fnre thermometer oftjie dlfccrnment^prohiiw andfund of humanity ofthofe^ who frcGueiii his company ! How properly is he. fo little is borrowed ! ^ ' ^ he for nje. joined to a polition the nioft and conflantiy confined to his fpherc as the How delighifni to fun of his own vortex and fyliem. dias never been what 1 have has only been froth taken from the widied to relate furface of a powerful fpring ." — Mr. that 'iions *-"• * ' his mode of thinkings his words a?2d his ac- * are always in the viofl petfeCi harmony :" a defcription which is here as correv^ as it is maflerly.\vc : ' Ihht .

' * But it is his chin particularly. and whatever pleafant^ ry it may excite. it is not the lefs demondrable. ^ that he had tlie nofr. Kiiyogg can only'gain^ he can never lofe. fo worthy of the auguft rank derived from their * birth. as the painter ^ ceeds in copying The original always feemed to have ^ it more pointed and delicate.THE liURAL 50CRATES. . ^ His black eye-brows. prominent. * nor very open not fo open as in the print of hira. . fb refined without fub- * tlety * ' * having no veftigc cither of effeminacy or deli. of their illuftrious mother . The princelfes of Darm* Itadt. had a fyftern of which he divided into about twcRtjr had another re fpe^ing eye brows. . benignity. and who were lingularly affected with the ierene. nor too much round* ed. notwithftandlng the ' it tone. —The celebrated I'ln-seus and tranflator. and it is the fa£l with regard toKli^ yogg* They are neither funk. nor oblique. nor too low become hini * wonderfully. ' ' repofc of his inimitable mouth . that the ^ Nofe^ confideredjingly ajzd independently of all the other light. ^ ^ 173 luminous . and is always made too thick. * open and natural air of this dear man . Whatever may be faid. the fcriptare nofei? critic . which bend b2ck upon a forehead * which is neither flat. GeJ<1e9. alfured me. far too hard which is given to his portrait. in cacy being examined by the eye of a true phyfiognomifl> All the indents. and reibl ution. denotes calm innocence. all the (hades of his cheeks. diffufc over — 'his * Dr. prudence. : — ^ "• features^ is the 7770ft important^ decifive^ ccnjpicuoiis and incapable of difgitije^ of all the features which belong to * human phyjiogyioiny^ ' How expreflive is the noble I return to Kiiyogg. 'His nofe has an extremely {lender out* line pro. nor too mucli elevated. which I admire : an * air fo manly without ! groifneis. and I Vknow not whetherthis excellent princefs or Kiiyogg is ' moft honored by th?s conformity. phyfiognomy founded upon •lafies. %. half-formed. I here inform my ^ readers of a fa6t colleded from an infinity of obfcrva* tions.

ftronjrly marked. of ihe principal fupportcfs of the E^hemeriitt du Citi^tn a Frensb pc£. Paris. Dijcufjions re-Oxen to Hor/es^ and his pa^ The Marquis d^ Mir ah eau"^^ to the French Ti an/later. TIjc Ma'O'Jis de iVJiribepn ucs f aher of the famous Cont^re t^e MiraKau. i . and it>dlt:h greatly defervcs tlie ar- leniion of this country. frippery works How roore deferring a tratiilatioi). . llic h is an aimirablc ^f)rmance. bat which h different from that given in the French edition of the Rural Socrates. [The fiiend of men. His car. lenliments relate at Let have -only one the mofi: you. arid likewife ot ihe Viconrire de Mird^ea^ . sjodicaj work on political ec-'^nor.'* here introduces iome obfcrvatlons on the defe^fls in the print of Kliyoj^jr. with it«' roundings and outlines. temperance^firninefs. J^re//i 7^e/7imof2ies fpeClin^ his preference of trial chal Plans* concerning Kliyoj^^. ihaa we are fot'itj>?r to copy ! Y. or a treaiiff on popubtioc] . his countenance the moft h^rmcrnizing exprefiion ef ^ * * gravity.174 ^ "^^^^ RUR^L SOCRATES.any pirrsr of Europe.!^. who were ftrenuouc The Mirqnis was one aftors 00 dift'ercnt fides in the French rcvoluiion. which he prefents to his readers . and inward tranquillity. finQ-ularly ?r^'<'C5 with thr reft. * Tl. a fuhlimc The reputation my own pre-eminence. Unfortunately the prcfent compila-tioa lias no print to accompanv [The author it.l S EC TXON 11.is noHerran is ih? celebrated author of that excellent work Vamz iti Hotttmfs^ OH H'raUe de la ptpulation .. Noveoiiber 8. 1762. * ^ I HAVE been charmed with the Rural SocrAtes^ of this work : is cflablilhed at Paris but I to prefent. which has btea read vviih amazing avidity in n. confider as of that I it kfTure ine thi^i tifeful books which has ever been piiblidied .

Omer iu *rnnce . u often donar o: c in Norfolk. had in it reality and life. fmce onV of mv plough boys with two hoVTes wilL turn over regularly *wo acres in a day. for the mind muil be interellcd before it can receive iolid inflriKftion. It contains an example of the theory and practice of the moR: perfet^ and rational kind of hufbandfy.. --If it diould be faid.**^ "With a view to what was agreeable in agricnllure. i3e Mirabeau : v^iil allcvs^ me to aC.. Y. . lyf ^re-cminencc. which more than arifwerefi my expectations. wflo follows no ether than the lavrs diiTcated by the Supreme Being ^ It my firustion permitted'me to travel. in which to fpread themfelves . and *^* who. lince the clans of Scotland are in effed of this" defcriptiou. u ho occupy a fubarb in a great city . and of the moil:' noble philo^>phy and moil elevated piety. I ihould eagejlyleek the advantages and pleafure to bs derived from coHverfing with ibch a charat^er Perhaps too 1 might convince him of the benefit (did his foil 3] d extent of cultivation admit it) of ploughingwith horfcs^ rather thap with oxen .ural Socrates.!! that this a moft rersiarlcaIt ble rircomftancc It is a piiy he did not add the fjjl. I found the R.— Kliyogg is How do all our petty prejuin every thing r^y hero. I bad eniouragec! But a tranflation into French.THE RURAL SOCRATES. 3icesiliik before him What innate dignity I exhibited too in a man. that thefe clans founcV an uninhabited country. : ! ! i *v "^ Many who : toink re]I|ion rldlcuhus:^ of cob rTe" conceive at inconfidenr i:h dignity and lo die teelings ot fuch the writcyr aliades. v/hile he requires tv/6 men and four . of Thomfbn's Seafons this work contained mere pictures and fcenes of imagiWhile I was fearching for lomething which nation. I w^ould then inftance the Haut-p^nigis of St.>en to do only the half of this in the fame timef I would inform him that there is nothing chimerical irs his idea of a tribe [or ilheme of extenlive famih/ union] . i M. but only in the very light fcils^ and by no nneans equals acse in hsavisr lands. and which neceffarily includes the quality of being agreeable . is E.

of community of property. more than a century ago . I wifh to inform him. and yet never heard . palled within eight leagues of this remarkable eftablhhment. without knov. I am of that country. and of integrity. he enjoined them to form themfelves into a tribe. I fhould however have turned back in order to fee it. and even handfome apartments ^ov flrangers of the very firll quality but many villages of which they are foie inhabitants . profperity is founded. Thefe ai'e p^irticulars which I learn only by report . lawyers. v» ith hofpitality. and other correfpo iCiing charoders. have preferved their language and manners. though living by commerce. where are to be found all the conveniences of life. yet i>y their rule of noc marrying out of their family. that the Pincous have not only a principal feat of refidencc in the mountains. that Pincou a cultivator in Auvergne. what is raifed beyond being fold at markets and fairs. and to obtain the whole particulars . and a prudent turn on which their more approaching the plan and courfc of life of the worthy Kliyogg.'ing it. where every thing coming from them carries with it its own credentials. which I made this fnmmer. and that having married his four children. foas to permit my doing it at a future time. had not my eftates in Limoufm been only thirty leagues from the fpot.* With relpe6t to the family which you mention in the Upper Provence t. for the fupply of their own community in the firfi infhince. . The necefiary arts of life are exercifed in this tribe. having in a journey. which necefl^rlly mixes them. wbo.YlS THE RURAL SOCRATES. and to whic. had the fame idea with himlelf on this llibje^l. and to maintain inviolably the facred band of family imion. 'hey furnifli the curates. But as an example Hill • More will be faiJoftlils family ^ See p. ^. wit!i the world. This worthy inflitution has lb much profpered.

that Kiiyogg fecks to found an order of monaftic hufbandmen^\ but nature would be. the bafis of it . 1763. perfons who lead but rrix in a feleft fociety of their own V rf!Jarions. In his project. — The wiifer in view. without the aid of fanatic mortifications. If you will allow me to include your interefting letter. — * The original fays common. and perhaps not fuited to the conllitution of a large empire.* * * * * * It feems that you itientibn only one point of difagreement with Kiiyogg [namely rcfpe<£ting his ox* ^ * Your plough-boy goes through two acres en. finding the firll edition nearly fold.] each day v/ith a pair of horfes. or other violent means.THE RURAL SOCRATES. which are always fcducing to warm and fuperftitious minds. *' M )nk8 are properly however had Cemhites Agrirulteurs** or cuhivators llvirg /« peifons living u?:married in retirement. a new one . . a family life. It is true. that four oxen coil lefs than two horfes . i know that an ral Socrates. the latter bordering on milery . and confequently great . it v/ill be a valuable accellion to the work. * ^ ^ TJIE bookfellers who had the copy of the Rupropole and I wi(h to make fome additions by way of Supplement. every thing is fimple. and the quantity and quality of their dung. — Beiides. with their cheaper keeping. including the profit upon the carcafes of the oxen when flaughtercd . advantages which are not to be overbalanced by their flownefs. than after a mere The Afifwer of the French Tranflator to the Marquis dated Bafie^ Jcmuary 4. . . with which the former fcheme has no relation. . ignorant of their real duties. heard it 177 rather named. it fcems that we have to inquire refpedling the of interefis in inflitiuions perfeverance in a retired life . But is the foil as laborious a§ that of Kiiyogg ? Kiiyogg you know alfo tellii •as. ** * but the projefi is at the fame time fmgular. community of property and of this kind.

I obferved that the Swifs horfes in our regiment fuifered much more from the hard die? to which tlicy were reduced. if they go through a fecond edition linly. I admit alio that the fa6b on your fide may be incontefiable in a great part of Yet may not there be a difference in SwitzerFrance.refly conti'adifted what 1 had afTcrted as a fundajnentaj orinciple in the firfi: work . •* - — : U '•^ f. '' that pop* I was fenujpt^ion was the conjeqiteme of riches/' . than in France. that a feccnd edition has occafion for : any augmentations to give it equal fuccefs. I have alvays been fcrupnlous of making alterations in the effays though \ puWiih. nor do I apprehend. and that your opinion adds great weight to this decilion. efpecially oats.c oiigtn:4l French E^ic^^J^^^'^f*^ .f. an article in the Encyclopedie"^ gives a decided prefer ence to hories . Perhaps laflly. The heft of them being drivbear a much better price en as far as Paris. namely. there are very eifential corre£iions wanting 3 Ami des Hormnes^ I have 'xample. and have fince advanced that *' population was the origin *' of wealth.ns. none but the cattle of Auvergne equaU ling ihem.irS THE RURAL SOaiATES. our oxen ieeni much more powerful andwhere land . On the other hand. our horfes require extra food at Icafl:^ in our late camp:iij>. 1763. * * * I AM much pleafed. that the fale ofthc P^^ural Socrates anfvvers fo well . for the fake of the public." The method was fimple and eafy to — have- * S9« Cnlftrr 4t( tetrth In il. and our herbage better fuited to their conftitutions ? Our caulc alio. in the fequel oi t.* -^^^ Reply of tJiQ Marquis to the Fre?ich Tra?iflaicr . than thofe of other coun- — : . tries. the food of horfes is dearer in Switzerland. and in time of war many being fold to the armies . active than in France.ble of my ei-or in milL^king the caufe for the ei?e6i:.. when fattened. dated Pans^'J'aruiary 25.

and w ill do equal w^ork. Sir.*' The following extracts only thexefore aie added from the conchifion of the letter. I (hould be glad ifthc letter I didmyfelf the honor to addrefs to you. never to print any thing for the future . whofe exiPcence be confijuis. e. feems to be vvlnt you intend.] I am yet of opinion that ic would not be of advantage ':o Kliyogg to ufe horfes upon a fmall farm. could be of any weight or utiilty. de Mirabeau here proceeds again to fpeak of the family of Pincous or Pignous in Auvergne . a pirellel which Mr.*** Thur» the refult of all our rcafoning Ml is. *** Agricultural queflions however arc of the greateil: confequence to the profperity of a (late 5 and ofcourfe to the multiplication and happinefs of the hum-in i'pecies. which it certainly did not pofTefs when it quitted my hands. and I ought to adhere to it.. inflead of work itfelf. M. the book to the firfl purchafers . After feme remarks on the fubjecl:. I have felt it my dut}'-. Experiment and calculation are the grand iiails of true agricultural (cieiicc . you are to condder it as your own 2)roperty-. not mine.THE RURAL SOCRATES. Such as it is. [n. but it would give me fatisfadion to write any thing for the benerit of mankind . a fcicnce of which the ^' . Arthur Young pronounlatter The inferting notes in the — — ces unfatisfac^ory . that the Rural Socrates according to the circumftances of his fituation its an excellent farmer and a very praife-worthy citizen. that two oxen are maintained mncl^i cheaper tlian "two horfes. he refumes his parallel betvveen oxen and Iiorfes . afferting from his own ^' attentive " experience. ijf :tave eftabliilied this latter opinion by feme Higlit chanbut I made a point of not leflening the vahie of ges . and that fo wortjiy a trullee as yourfelf fiiould fiamp a value upon it. and which you are defirous of printing in the fupplement. and have invai iably perlided in not changing the leafl fentcnce in vvoiks once piiblifliedj but to do what v/as requifite by way — of appendix.

Their exertions and the pleafures they derive from tiiem have a foundation independent of their fondnefs for life. This then is the bed temper of mind to recommend to beings who are gifted with thought and feeling. k ftndy which renders you To ufeful to mankind. Advcrti/einenl . as not to rcfign the fcene quieliy when called away from it. continue. but are formed to perifii.. You. their labors. It is felf love which defcending into the ton^b with its An^Ttim. I'hofe charita^vhlchis perhaps greater than I merit. who have fowed in the paft. wrapped up in the profpecl: of future enjoyment frorr> — — . to recommend you . regrets the pafl which is over. I experience on my fide a iatisfa^tion in the profpec^. and I am perhaps aiithorized. for to them the But for thofe who are occupied with paft is nothing. and to hope for This does not imply that they will be fo longer life. to live. it is dawn jPe6l day to be and of which the perhoped will ultimately illuminate our Till that period fhall arrive. — to perfid in it. -Arid this is true for men who' are folely occupied with their pleafures. at prefent manifefts itfclf. this from (and in which generally fpeaking they are right) . which fueh a fentiment has infpired and we blefs our neighbors when we quit them. the good of others . Sir. that it is the fame at bur iafl hour. Sir. but certainly intcrefled. recommend our detaching who ourfelve^ perfons ble to view v/Ith becoming world a more perfetil. or their own little contradled advantages . reaped in the prefent. and are confoled that we die fingle and leave others to furvive us. and fee new fruits dill forming it is highly important to have lived. as well as the future which flies from' it : But the love of others leads us to dwell with delight on the recollecT:ion of the virtuous ajfls. are in the habit of pofielling this temper . tell ua. poflcrity.iSo THE RURAL S0CRATE5. whether we have lived many or few years.

at \^z9i with reipedt to Switzerland.-. which is one of the fineft inflitutions in Switzerland * * owes its cxiflence and active principles. Secretary of the Supreme Council and Vice-Prefident of the Economical Society of Berne.griculture. — : . the ^rfl genius. and I am under rjo apprehenfions of offending him by differing in opin1 ion on a capital point of ?. or particular eflate. i8i leave nothing omitted (fays the I might Tranflator) capable of clearing up the important queftion refpedling oxen and horfes. perhaps. which deferves a thorough examination in every country. and under all poflible circumflances. This friend of mankind THAT and excellent citizen M. Tfchiffeli. I know him under the title.erit have eredcated flatues in their hearts. The autbxjrity of Monfieur de Mirabeau. Tfchiffeli to the French Tranjla- tor. to a perfon to whom antient Greece v/ould have erected flatues. fojudly acquired^ oi l^ami des hommes [the friend of men :] but we are each of us in fearch of truth . and to whom thofe of his countrymen capable of eflimating his m. is undoubtedly of confiderable weight nor can any perfon have a more exalted reipe£t for that nobleman's knowledge and zeal ioT the good of mankind. of the age in comprehending the true principles of agriculture. l^etier addrcjjed by M. I addrefTed my inquiries to one of the Swifs mofl worthy to contend with M. ALL the obiervations of the Marquis de Mirabeau on the contracted and difadvantageous fcale cf hufbandry purfucd by our Kliyogg. de IVlirabeaii .** It is to his excellent views and indefatigable exertions. diflrid:. that the latter. Advertifement by the French I'ranfiator.^ *j i.THE RUKAL SOCRATES. may be reduced to this general queftion Is it more profitable to plough with horfes or with oxen ? a very material inquiry.

The only fenfible advantage of horfes over oxeug cither in drawing or ploughing. will be immaterial. account for this. cbnfifts in the greater Tigor and fpecd.jS2 THE IIUKAL SOCilATES. But other 'kings being equal. perhaps. in all f^ums. I ellablifli it as a fundamental rule. and fome laborers of good judgment. forward as much biifirefs as four horfes indifferently maintained without pats*.juf oil* ! What are w« X(y undesfland bj' . wherever th-2 roads are not exceflively fliony. Our fortunes are too contrad:ed. are too fmall to employ a team of horfes thronghont the year. where the trade in horfes is conliderable. and pailurage in proportion. for experierce evinces. Nay. that is. ac<:ordingto the cuftom of Ciar peaf-ints. and ieldom or never met with remarks will be chiefly confined in Switzerland. may You will pleafe to obferve. our corn-countries too populous. and our eftates too dear. whom I have confulted. the fame quantity of meadow. with iome exceptions. nor the eftatc extremo ly deep. The general prcpofleflion here in favor of oxen. with which horfes extcute their work. that like ours general. I allow four liorfes to do the fame work as fix oxen . k is found by experience. to admit of making cxtenfive purchafes.^ : — My acas the only one I am fufficiently quainted with. vvill ftarcely admit one fifth diifcrence. however. Sir. — — m number Horfes maintained uith. however great it appears. other things being cqtial . that four very robufl oxen. Fifty acres of arable land. than horfes . which is all I can poflibly grant. and that in horned cattle fcarcely opened at all a cafe rare in moH parts of the world. that it is of more general advantage to ufe oxen for draught. I will fet ac one third the fuperior fwiftnefs and vigor of horles. that aneflate of that fize feldom produces ir^orc than of half wliat is made of the lame to that country. are with us confidered as large farms : there are very few of greater dimenfions. that this advantage.

M. the plough man becomes a drunken carrier^ habits very improp*ind is quarreUbme and diflipated er for a hufbandman. :: . as can be performed with the befl horfes. that the expence (hould firfl of all be dedudled from the clear prciic of what he calls the great culture .]|^ I very much doulDt if this be carried much farther in France . where mifcrable teams of hor(es perifh with faThe manure is lofl tigue and hunger in road waggons. fuggeft the impofTibility that fuch luxuriant crops can be the eife<fr m.TFIE RURAL SOCRATES. number of acr<*5 divided between two or three occupiIf there is not fufficient employment for draught — horfes upon the farm all the year. that in France. beftow three. and. after the: deduftions made for t^ic expence of horfes. :o the land . to the nature of the draught ufed in the plough. they muft either be turned upon the flubble. deep and equal^ furrows. and ibmetlmes four ploughings upon fallow lands. and is in the fecond. plough-man become waggoner — We . th^ bafis of whofe art is temperance and application. the clearproduce is ten to one greater. the cheap means of fattening sattle mud be a* dill fartber additional projit to the graa . the on the road to ruin * as is fatally exemplified in fonie parts of the Pai's de Vaud. 183 ers. or ufed iu the carriage of goods for others : in the firfl cafe their keeping is more expenfive than that of oxen . bai: to the foil and climate that w^e mull attribute the caufe and if the fa£b is certain. . It does not feem to h^. which. computes the maintenance of horfes to be three times dearer than that of oxen but fays at the i^ime time. after fuch deduiftionSp he ilili makes amount to more than ten times the moBut he will permit me to ney that has been expended. With our draught-oxen we certainly cut as. de Mirabeau. perhaps. in Mis letter.erely of ploughing with horfes. and ycry often two [for cur fpring fowings. there is not any country in Europe where the (oil is more carefully cultivated than in Switzerland yet our harv^fls are vaflly inferior to thofe the Marquis fpeaks of.

an article that gains tv/o hours daily . according to the languages prevailing in its fcveral parts. ih tlia'c the latter are every thing decides in favor of oxen . in Switzerland is thus oxen. more than that of four draught Tliis has Lories*. at As our land is. and fells them again at four.84 THE RURAL SOCRATE<J. fit or 7!. hot and gravelly. been tried and verified by a thoufand inftances. Whoever paflursgc. the expenccsot certain pra(^iccs. 17s. does not cofi. 6d. French. the manure of oxen is greatly The manure of horpreferable to that of horfes. in lead. including the expence of forage. — fpeedily than that of oxen . and can breed his own cattle. may annually make of every team of four oxen. . is labor. as it is upon a feled^ion of fuch that thefe difputable points can alone be reconciled. and we are convinced that the value of the manure of cattle exceeds. a clear pro- more — . one of which. and fbmctimes one Thefe are no inconliderable advantages but that half. tjppofition to their labor. has been informed. that every cultivator who has the leafl: degree of underftanding. and arc much more regular in Eating their food much quicker than horfes. infinitely lefs delicate than horfes. is i\ * This In SufFwlk.° Our manner of calculating fubfiflence of fix The : are lefs liable to diftempers and accidents. and field. t. or two louis a head. fetting their food in if he buys his beafls at three years old. This advantage may be extended much farther when the peafant has a right in any pub- of 61. — — general. there is altrtoil: an abfolute certainty of his gaining a louis and half. in general. that in the greatefl part of Switzerland. particularly in the German divifion t of the canton lic of valuable fad\ : now if their oxen are equal to thofe I ufed what an amazing fuperiority'for the ox culture I Thefe points <)f propoftion. &c. Y. that of horfes a fourth pa?. are very important circumUances. IIS. l SuiJzcrland at large ian diftritls and Italis divided into the German. fes wafbes and evaporates in the farm yard. may be employed in working. which far farpaffes them all is. 3d. at about three or four 5Tars old.

All thefe confiderations induce our mod judicious cultivators to rate the advantage of drawing with oxen inflead of horfes at 81. a pair of oxen of three years old. they are extren^ely fenfible. . on this — — of that work on the fubjeft of agricuhure ." will not ced. but to the article Ferm:(^ . commonly fell from ten to fifteen be furprifed at what I have advaniouis. 185 of Benie. and is reduced to nothing at the end of a few years. Befides that their with horfes. ijs. which. contain an elabor^ite comparifon between horfes and oxen 3 decided in faThis comparifon abounds with many circumrtances vor of the former. this comparifon of horfes and oxen highly deferves farther attention. The Marquis de Mirabeau. in a good meafurc. indead of proving beneficial^ waftes every day.Z . if the farmer ploughs with horfes in their full vigor. and at the fame tim?. one year with anotherto It is far otherwife price is iabje^Sl to : Farther and as it coincides with cur experience is fenfible . The arguments here ufed. quotes the Encyclopedic on this fuhjedi : I have read the rDemoira X "^I'i^is re.-t{jn. N. both of xh^m in th? E. riclc y. The Marquis de Mirabeau not only refers in hi^ letters to the arCulture des terres.THE RURAL SOCRATES. Upon the whole. comparifon. Add to all this. and throws much light on the fubjed^. are the iswi^ as we hear uhere oxen ar^ itioft commonly ufed among ourfelves in thofe counties 3'et worked. very curious. Among oiher articles. The ilightcft accident to a draught liorfe may be a very fenfible lofs to. the leafon why the French prefer horfe* fa» And call aloud for much.conftant labor. whilPc a lame ox is not at all the vv. explains. the farmer. paper.ng in England. there is the greater reafun to acknowledge its juftnefs. very great and frequent variations^ there is great danger in ufing young horfes for heavy. that have been in good paflure. in a preceding. B. and . old French Encyclopedia. they a travjlatkn into Englijh.orfe when fatted for market. he has no other advantage to expect than during the time they can work He finks a large capital.

if. Such a mark of confideration is a ' proof of the virtuous regulations that then fubfifled ' amongfl thefe honed: people . fuch as he had exercifed. a perpetual difpenfation from the pope to marry * within certain degrees where marriages are otherwise * deemed unlawful. IN the ymirnal Economique for Detcmber 1755. as was cuftomary. mentioned by the Marquis de Mirabeaii^ collected by ths French Tranjlator. be greatly diminiihed. if they were defirous . which carries their origin * much higher . at the fame to this day. ^^'^ two memoirs on the origin of the Pincou family. the feat of a * fmall barony. that eleven hundred years ago. *' At fome leagues diflance from the town of Thiers * in Auvergne. the * privation of an authority. after his death.lU THE RURAL SOCRATES. Farther Anecdotes concerning the Family q/^Pincou. * one of their anceflors. *' — . and like wife of their ' apprebenfions of relaxing their difcipline and man* ners. . About four hundred called Saudon. * years fince it was purchafed by a numerous family of * peafants. namely. * ' ''to be wifer than the generality of men. jQiould they marry out of their own family* ' They have a tradition. in whole polTeliion it has continued heredita* ry This family obtained. The fa «Sls related are too analogous — to the hifiory of Kliyogg for me to fear impropriety in placing them together. divide his fortune in*' to feparate portions and that. *^ they (hould. ^ time. is a very habitable caflle .*' They did not fail to raife many objcdlious * to tljis propofal and the mod: weighty one was. 1 conceive that an abftra£t of them may be agreeable to thofe readers who have not had an opportunity of meeting with the journal. gave his children to underftand : '* That their way of *' living mufi. and advanced in years. the fa- — — ther of a numerous progeny. and * which his fuperior wifdom rendered fo refpcdable. a man of great wealth. they mufl live in the fame united flate as under his parental *' roof.

follow the plough with their laborers. that good inftitutions. and ever fmce have religioufly obferved. but he is reilrained to the difpofal often piJioles 3 beyond which fum the alfembly mud determine. This afTembly difcuITes their various interefis. ii Pincou F. by a woman intruded with the care of them to a certain age. Their great maxim. and lodging. She has alfo the fuperintcndanceofthe dairy. which they mofi cordially accepted. The father compofed a code for the ufe of his children. — — — : — * M. and of the fervants belonging to it. which is inftiiled in infancy. Thus thePi^nous. and decides what meafures are moR eligi' bJe. This principle is characterized in many anecdotes. ^ itj ' ^ * ' ^ ' ' ' ' ^ ' * ' ' ^ ^ ^ * * * * ' ^ ^ ' ' ^ ' ' ' * ^ He had forefeen and guarded againil all the difficulties they feared . nor have they ever repented this fingular confidence. and the foundation of all their rules. de Mi rabeau calls it. bat I fnppofe Pignou • is the pJO™ vtoclal way of founding . is. who are to be prefent at morning and evening prayers. firmly adhered to. They are called by their chriftian name. Their fecond maxim is. and to be ' If regular in the praclice of all Chridian duties. an implicit reverence for their own family . would defend them from all inconvcniencies capable of fruflrating their fchemc. never to foar above their original rank. ' The children are educated in common without any di{lin<ftion. A man is not admitted to thefe deliberations till he is twenty ye-ars of age. and replied. . ' The family rules extend to domedics. have never varied from other peafants in the articles of drefs. food. The afTembly appoints a prefident to take care of the money. to fign refolutions^ and to condudl: affairs in o^eneral . applies remedies to their grievances. ' They never require of the prefident an account of his adminiflration .THE RURAL SOCRATE?. ^ By thefe laws ^he whole parental authority devolves to a general afT^bly of the family. which is the fami]y name*. All they call hiin Mader Pignou. The prefident alone has the title of Mr.

Louis afla'd him fevcral qucilions. qualities. It generally happens 'that thcfe repent." Thefc . ' ficknefs for fome years pa fl. Many noble families. ^ have unfuccefsfully attempted to imitate their rule of ^ life. who prefchtcd him to the King.i88 ' THfe If RURAL SOCRATES. ' . and the latter have found it impradicable to ^ arrive at that point of union and profperity which dif* tinguiflics the family of Pignou. in piety.— Undoubtedly none * of thefe have laid the fame permanent foundation for * the happinefs they were in icarth of. The former have turned the fchcme into parties of ' pleafiire . and admired". but ^ this is a hopeJefs wi(h. he paid his compliments to M. and againfl the rules of the So* ciety. that he ordcied that the tax of the Pignous fhould never exceed fix hundred livres . and made hifn n prcfcT/i to defray ihc crspcncc? of his journey. ' " ^ ' * ^ * ' * ^ war. refpetSled. and attachment " to buiincG . bene^ volence. Blanc. tliere yet remain eight ^ heads of families. difmtereflcdnefs.tcd with their manners and cuitoms. they receive a proper ' dividend of the public money. le Blanc. any of the younger branches of the family happen from it. which allov/s no re-adniiffion to thofe vv-ho once * abandon NotwithRanding a great dccreafe by it. fimplicity. was honorand infilled on Mafter Pignou's prcTiding at t?bic. fince fecretar y at ably entertaicv^d. The Pignous make the niofi: laudable ufe of wealth. without which it is impoffibre * to form a happy fuciety^ or procure peace and comp^^ to detach themlelves — — ^ * '^ — : * tence. Several intendaiits of the province have gratified le ^ ' their curiohty in vifiting the Pignous. Some time after Mafler Pignou being obliged to go to Paris on various butlnefs . Deligh. dined at the caflle. as well as thofe of peafants. he made a recital of them to Louis XIV. * They are charitable to the poor and hofpitable to ^ firarigers they are beloved. and are defirons to return. and was fo charmed with his replies. — M.

vineyards. They are maintained in a convent at the general expence. 17s. It is true they were written in different years .prop:etors of Saudon. Kow much is it to be wifhed that the Marquis de IVIirabeau. ' This family has branched into four divifions. till they are of ^ an age to become fettled. nor lefs for they keep in the family only ' thofe who are defigned to intermarry and fucceed their parents . * But they have no lordfliips or manors. In expelling that pleafure. There is particular care beflowed on the education of thele. J 89 Thefc are the mod interefting particulars in ihcfirjl memoir. who is con. . ' The maRer is the only man amongfl them who wears ' leathern fhoes. fuch as peafants rc* quire the Pignous not being in outward appearance. or Tome other friend to human nature. and the fccond being a recent acdoes not lufficientjy explain the variation. * — *" ' V fcquently . 6d. arable land. of ail that relates to this extraordinary family The public would cfteem it nn invaluable prefent. excepting the ^ fief of Saudon. who ^ live together within There are the fame buildings.ree hundred years. If it happens that one ^ branch of the family has only a daughter. ' dows. would take the trouble of receiving exa<5l and circumflantial information on the fpot. I (liall give the purport of ihtjecond inemoir. ' The daugliters have alfo a cheft of linen. and fome * houfhold furniture of fmall value. The /^rc.THE RURAL SOCRATES. which is of fmall value. The women wear them. Their common eftate brings in more ^ than two hundred thoufand franks confifting of mea. have lived there near th. and other heritages. about half a league from Thiers in Auvergne.?. being dated count .-/ differs from it in ieveral articles. * different from their laborers. hut in — this 1 — ' ' ^ ThcPignous. ' never more. becaufethey ^ never work in tTie field. the lirft — 1739. whilil: the refl of the children are fettled in ' the adjacent villages with a fortune of 21I.

who ^ had an only daughter. and that when once they made a diflin6tion in apartments. demonflratcd to them that fimplicity was effential to fuch an efiablidmient . About * forty years ago. finall as it is. in a manner fuitable to her large fortune. This * worthy vvoman anfwered in her provincial diale*^. as v/ifer ^ in . Some of his company were for advifing the mailer to furniili at leail one apartment elcniilied in the — la Granville. ' that flie never could confent to put fuch an indignity ' on the family and cufloms of ihe Pignous — * I * ^ equally divided amongd the four chiefs. providing the bell entertainmeut in their power. it would foon be follov>'ed by other innovations which would interrupt the happinefs of this little republic. they 'marry her to the fon of another branch. who is chofen from the other chiefs. according to their rank . fed^ and even lodged. the principal authority refts with the mafler. than they. flopped at Mailer Pignou's. nor of any of the * fons or daughters. vvlio have left the cafile. the widow of one of their chiefs. ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ' * ' ' * ' ' a mark of diilinction .190 * THE RURAL SOCRATES. was folicited to marry fome gentleman herfclf. M. The cafile is large. if they chance to be benighted. which makes them excerdingly honored and elleemed decides Aiwl what rvl-iflcr Pignou in the province j " gantly. They alfo receive well all vifitants. but the apartments are fur' Though property is *• * * ' ^' moll plain and humble manner. de who was travelling that way. defiring * any addition to their fortune. but the intendant. to keep fequently heirefs to one fourth part of the eflate. ' the number of their chiefs. as a means of eflablifhing herdaugh' ter. ' ' up They take a . ' The Pignou family are remarkably bountiful to poor travellers. care early to imprefs their children v/ith fiich reipecl for their family and for its * ' inflitutions that there has never been an inftance of any of the chiefs entertaining the nioft diflant idea of / feparating from the commnniry . who are cordially received.

THE RURAL SOCRATES. Surely we have better motives than the terrible confequences of a revolution. the concord it maintains. " if we " '' '' " ^^ obfervation. equality reiWhat extraordinary bleflings may we not tored ! recommend to efFc(ri:3 of economy and order neglected to 1 hope from it." I cannot (fays the French Tranflatoi) forbear communicating the judicious reflexions of my journaliftjWith which *' I (hall conclude. and to fly from the immoderate ufe of *' what we pofTefs. Children educated in thefe max" ims. \yhU{t the *' earth cultivated by their innocent hands. back to nature i'*' Anecdotes . jealonfy extinguifned. —" We (liould accufe our- felves/' fays he. would renew that purity of manners. ' * 191 in fants.! would no ^* indufliry. the daughter of ^' 1 ! : would treafure the riches thus acquired . thefe folid : fuch as the plenty it procures. in intelligent and enlightened perfons -'united upon the fame principles 3 prodiu^ive of fo ^' much good even amongfi fimple peafants What an ^' acceflion of opulence and flrenglh to a :Rate. to have '* a colleclion of thefe fmall republics formed wittiiw ^* itfelf A manly and fublime fimplicity would fucceed *' to effeminate luxury moderation. to bring vv. with the peaan infallible decree. labor h foftened. of whicl! *' the lofs is more to be regretted every day . for any controverfy. *' *' ^' ^^ longer difappoint chimerical expeiTcations by its (icrility. *' and mankind would at lafi: be convinced. pafTes in general. the tranquillity it beftows By its influence. that the *' mod infallible means to defy poverty is to renounce ^' opulence.

: + Lieutenant. The Count dc at Treff^n. which borders on Franche Comte a pretty extenfive valley is formed by feveral openings betwixt the hills. and are incef^ fantly employed in ailifling the public. THE piece before us is by the Count de TrefTant. and fliews and alTiduity of the cultivators. palliated the imperfections of my — . lord chanmberlain of the houdiold to the Polilh Stlniflans. which has a chearful appearance. with ^ * ' nor did he difdain to oblige me in the fola parallel to the Rural Socrates. and member of the academies F. of feiences at Parisi Berlin. who occupy four ' or five houfes they are brought up in the flime prin' are governed by a chief chofen out of ciples they ' their body for his age and wifdom . as philofophical. in that part of ' ' the Voiges. Edinburgh. from a dedre of gaining a peifec^t information concerning a family. afid whofe character and inftitutions peculiarly aife6led the ienfibilHe not only paid due deference ity of M. E. .— In reading the Rural Socrates. of peafants.J92 THE RURAL SOCRATES. King Londied don. ' This the ' {kill Thefc . W2J a friend of Voltalre'fi and a poet. tj. &c. knoiun in Lor" raine by the Name of Valdajon . in educating ^ their children.General in the French fervlce. He an advanced ogf. Metz. de TrefTan. A league and a half from Plombieres.aif{lation . Governor of Bitche nnd German Lorraine. with an hUroduciion and Remarks by the French Tranjlator. Hirzel which he honors me. by the Count de TrejQTan . but the friendQiip with to the work of M. Nantz. conlill of a fingle family. lowing memoir. in comforting the diftrelTed. he recoliedVed the feveral particulars of a journey he took feme years iince. Anecdotes of the Family of Fleuriot. and in ^ tilling the ground. and perhaps even yet more to be refpe6led than Kliyogg .

and the heads of them were * unanimous to return their grateful thanks to their ^overeign for the honor he intended them. . 'Xht \%\t Qreen of France fprang froti? ibe united hcufes. E. * contra(^ foreign alliances. (laid they. are confpicuous in the manners of this happy family . touched with admiration ' * ^ for the virtues inherent in the Fleuriots. deof their eflate . but ^ that. but declined ' the acceptance of it. *^ fee objedcs in a different light from ourfelves intox^ *- . whofe name is Fleuriot^ is better dil^ tinguifhed by that of Valdajon^ given to the country and village which it inhabits. perhaps. . they fpife the cultivation may difpenfe themfelves from the duty of relieving the poor .ne famtly : a family (ince united to the AuQrUn Toval faini?y. has always remained indel-= ** — . and fenfible that every part of their condud merited a Civic Crov/n. " Our poflerity. was defirous to ^ ennoble them. traced in thsir fouls. * * 193 ^ This family. the bleffing of ^^ heaven will no longer profper their undertakings 5 *^ difcord will divide them and ihey will ceafe to be '' happy. to their ' Repeated cures have added reputation knowledge whild remarkable piety and exemplary charity havejuRly acquired them the character of virtuous men. the fincerefl: fraternal tcndernefs. and that they had proved the greatnefs of their fouls by the mod difintereflcd beneficence . ' The families aflembled . *^ '' icated with the pride of nobility. ' For many years paf>. which is nov/ fufficiently numerous and remote from ' ' its common ftock not to be obliged to . in *' an addrefs equally wife and dutiful) may. The late Duke Leopold^." They refufed a patent of nobility . •• ' ' The moft peculiar iriodcfty. the chiefs have principally (ludied that part of furgery v/hich refpeds fradures and ' * ^ ' d'tjlocations . ' * iblc ! ' The * One ri \\\t Lorra'.THE RURAL SOCRATES.

with the obliging manners of the inhabitants. I had no fooner refrefhed myfelf. who. and noticed with admiration whatever refpedled their rural economy and domeflic government . talked ofthe Fleuriots * ^ * ' * * ' * * with as much regard. who under a ruAic form ' pofleiFed . I flopped at one of the fird: houfes. by a rdpe(^able oldman. on my entrance.— It is with difficulty I refrain from defcribing the neatneis and regularity of each article. ' As at leifure hours. as admiration . I underftood enough of it to dii*tinguidi real fcience ' from impoflure. ^ My objetTt being to know the degree of information ofthe more flcilful among them. every thing I faw edified and affecfted me. and have often excited envy. in an art founded on afccrtained and corre<^ principles .y^ I have always. in a plain drefs brought to their habitations. * The curejf performed by the Fleuriots are alntoft ^incredible. that their principal books were depofited in a neighboring houfc.194 THE RURAL SOCRATES. feemed-^defn-ous to varniOi with fuperftition and ignorance the procefs of the Fleuri^ Truth appeared to ots in their furgical operations. occupied by an aged chief of Being condniiled thither. i informed my* felf particularly of what related to them . I went to Valdajon privately. True hofpitaliry Hiewed itfelf in its mod: natural and touching forms. I thought. me cleareft in the mod favorable reports : I regarded it then as an honorable duty to examine fadi^s with my own eyes. with only one attend- * * ' * ' * * * * ' ' * * * * * * as a fir anger whom chance had ant. . whilfi: a very fmall number. made anatom. one of my ftudies . They anfwered. ' The firfttime I was at Plombieres. * Some with whom I converfed. and as I * ccfmmanded in that part of Lorraine. I was received the family. it was eafy for * me to invefligate the truth of all I wanted to know. ought to have underftood the fubjci^t heft. than 1 a(ked if thv?y had any books. and to take pi-oper precautions not to — * ' be deceived. and.

and to cheriflithem under their futferings . As found no beginning my convcriation. of four or five different ages other fKeletons . '' children are taught early alfo to j<. * in furgery. Our with tickets to mark them.THE RURAL SOCRATES. '' Here (faid he. (he replied) were the only *' mailers of my anceftors I have no other .c teach . and' the .) we teach what is nccelTary for the inllrucfl *^ relief of our fellow creatures. in order to be united by an exercifc of fkill ' and laftly. and *^ they foon learn to heal their wounds*. E. plain in itfelf. *' nature. I aiked him what * principles he had lludied in his art. " ing and even our dogs are made the vic^tims. — for . and experience." different " " prefs filled with bandages and ligatures proper cafes. know thefe bones " and mufcles before they are ten years old . '-^•pofreiTed foft ' 195 I and poliflied manners. but rich by the * furniture I found in it the befl: books it contained. We our chil- " dren to read and to underhand what they read. male and ' female. "where it is probable good eiibcr to ncen or the brute creaEKperitnenta here without an ohjed. Thofc " of them who have the turn for it. The '' very a^^s of cruelty exercifed on thefe victims extin" guiihes however the prujciple of cruelty ." * opened a large cabinet. or iradc more dilhcflang inflidled will lead to a fuperior Csa is needful : ate crimes againft the God of nature. the goats yon ice feed. curious models to fl^ew the mufcular fyfdifficulty in ' tern. and ihc '• bleiTing of God has attended our endeavors. it on aniirals. Such are the ^' leiTons I received fuch are thofe w. in practice to *' theory and on mis occafion. Such pain (hoold only ht vhat tion. *' fame fyfteni He then will pafs to our children. Here is a large can join them again. and after '^ feparating. antient and modern ^ fkeietons. ' taken to pieces and the parts thrown indilcriminately ' together. for we en*' courage oar children to feel for the cries of thefe ani" mals. '' Good book^. .

*^ Fleuriots will always endeavor to be ufeful to the *' diflrefTed. I could furnilh not ^ only one. who was fupported hy the Rii(lian. . de St.'^ The profpedt before ^^ you (faid he) fupplies our wants and Providence . I em^ braced the virtuous old man. for which I could * vouch upon the evidence of my own eye-fight. But. XII.ig6 * THE RURAL SOCRATES. of France. that they may be ranked among the bed ^' fubjecls of the mofl beneficent of all monarchs*. by ex*' citing inordinate defirts in our children. but afterwards gave way to the beaer fojtunes of King Auguftus II. ''" having blelTed our labors. ^' you have the happincfs to be in liigh office near our ^' dear and auguft fovereign Deign to tell him. but ornamenied it with /everal buildings. By her influence but had Lcrraine given to him he was not only allowed to retain his tills to govern for iife. ^ whofe fo univerfally abilities and information are *- : : ' known. * Stanifiaus. fields of grain. I made myiclfknovv^n if he intreated. but many accounts . Every thing be*' yond what is needful for our fmall expences. and addHe was the oflenfihle author of the CEui^res d^un ed one to the number. * fure. ' He pointed to the houfes. E. that he would acquaint me how 1 could be of ^ life to hiiTirdf or to lonie one of his family. which lurrounded us. which Chhile. Sir. we have even Tome means *' left for comfoiting the wretched. phiiojophe hievfaifimfy puhiifhed in 4 volumes 8vo. are well known lo iravelkrs.«. ' The Marquis dc Voyer and M. ^ I aril unable to cxprefs the tendernefs and refpedk with which I was penetrated at this moment. of Sweden was in power . defigned and to give me plcato him .'' ^ If a relation were required of multiplied compound ^ fra(n:ures cured in the fame patient. His daughter wa$ married to Louis XV. that *' all our fcveral families lift their prayers to heaven '' for the continuance of his precious life and that the . would " be ufelefs it might even become pernicious.-i . and gar* dens.ucfsgood in Lorraine. and not only did n-. Lambert. lit kept his throne while then Ex-King of Poland. He fucceedcd fome of tlie melt popular piioces in that country that have been known any ivhere in modern times.

and with the fame eyes. if we have need of tedimony after that of the Count de Treifan. and their drefs. that this celebrated phyfician did not fee all which was viewed bymy illuflrious friend \ but he faw the mofl ejGTential parts. * ' ' ' * * * * * ^ * known. in fhort. and will \ ' • never- . and who does not feel interefted in every particular which concerns the Fleuriots I In the Journal Economique for December. by an interefting letter written by M. Perfons of reflexion and fenfibility. have the fame fundamental principles with the able and induflrious Kliyogg. one or other of them.) and was alike llruck and enchanted with their fimplicity of manners. but whofe example requires ib much to be imitated/ Remarks by the French Tranjlator. dodlor regent of the faculty of medicine at Paris. p. pcrfons lo prudent and well inftrucled. they confine them' felves to pure neceffaries. we have the means of gratifying perfons of this defcription. At home they live like (imple peafants . ' As to the agriculture of the Fleuriots. will alvvaj's with eagernefs p^y a jufl tribute to men as yet fo rare. They arc always. de Morand. ' Content (fays he) with their lot. He renders confequently the fame juflice to the fkill of the Valdajons (cr Fleuriots . Who whom poffcffed of the leafl fentiment. A parallel betw^een them would nevertheIcfs do honor to humanity. 1755. I give no de It will eafily be prefumed that. have had the fame curiofity refpcctifig: this family with myfelf. ^ abroad but never go out on horfe-back.THE RURAL SOCRATES. their ftyle of life. and furnifli excellent leffons. and ufing water for theh^ only * drink. eating ' rye-bread and bacon. It is true. and rejetft whatever is ufe' lefs. tails on the fubjed. His teflimony alone would be decifive on the fubjed:. 76. ou is there the above charming relation does not make a deep impreflion. and will certify the fame faTcs. their food.

abjecfl. Gold and wealth in general. that Dr. and confhnlly remains attach^sd to . They affirm that * the receipt of this belongs to their family it is an * outward application. a unknown for true . This remedy is in much eile-em in Lorraine . being relolvent and good for the nerves. which * is their fok fecret and treafure. let h\m follow theiu into their obfcurity. flrains.es they fup* ply their patients with money to enable them to rettarn * home. as a pay too ample taking . Ofrentim. Hirzel had theflrongthat the clafs of peafants as inuch delcrves the attention of the philofopher. He will there certainly find a "V^aidajon. and the Valda30ns. * there : — We Tranflator. and into the claffo which to the boalfed world of faihion feem the mofl €i\ reafon for nfiirming. at prcfcnt Pignou. * from theiTi only one or two crowns at the moft. They give them alfo their ointment . as any ^ther whatever. known by the name of the Val: — . They have often refufed two or three * 'louis-d'ors from the rich. or without .' now return to our French £Thus far M. * regarding whv^t is paid to them.virtue fhuns inTpet^ion. and alfo for wounds where danger of mortification It gives eafe likewife * in the pains of gout and of rheumatifm* It is fimply ^ fpread on linen. It is prefcribed by the family in cafes of bruifcs. can retain a doubt. vain phantoms of happinefs. have no effe(St on * their minds. never return hom^ in a carriage. ^ ^K^j^Let the true fage who is friendly to humanity feck after men who are truly virtuous . and many a Kliyogg.1^8 * * • THE RURAL SOCRATES.] "Who (fays the French Tranfiator) after feeing the example of the Kliyoggs. Moraud. diflocations. with traftures and * maims gratis. without being foftened with heat. Ev' ery Tnefday they attend at Kcmiremont. and on other * days at Plombieres and other places having fomc* times forty poor patients in one ipot. having qualities at once foftening and corroborating. is and fractures. whom they vifit and drefs. the Pignous. * * ^ ^ * dajon ointment. .

in the fitflinn^nrf. where the Kliyoggt.— It will appear that he was lirtle fatisficd with the antient conftimtion of his canton . AJMtiGftal Particulars in the Character and Seni'vme fit's of Kliyoggy communicated by a CorreJpo7ident^. author of ihe letter is a citizen of Zurich. or like' Dr. that he attributed to Kliycgg fomc of his own feelings ia more than one refpea. not in order to flatter their felf-love. '''• SINCE I it know what ufe you defign to make of ^ * * * * * * * feems necefTary to ftate certain points i. which can never {^v\'q for imitation in Zurich. but Avill not the lefs do him credit. man has veica. no more than the mere portion which cannot be ravifhcd from him . Inc.i Ms chara(^€r. for the purpofe of being inferted in this place. well known for his taand who has been noticed on this account hy naoie than one fove- Europe. ' population' * Thefe particulars are contained in a letter written in 1795". The original being in German. refpe^Ing himp in t^« E. Hirzel to feek them at their plough. ry Haiited enjoyments . compilation reign power in + Namely. 199 to that ftate of fimplicity which fomc difdain to exam* But a difcerning man will negle<fl nothing to draw f uch charadlers from their retreat he will go like the Count de Treflan to vifit them in their cottages. the tranllation is here given horn a French franflation. a portion^ n^cefTarily (lender in a country like Zuirich. for fame in their eyes is no bleffing . : SECTION III. but in the hope that * * if examples of vice make fo many guilty and unhappy. ** or prevent his ferviug as a model for the cultivators ofAmerIn all the civilized parts of Europe. . E. The lents. He will be eager to make known their virtues and their good actions . and it may be fufpefled. to tfe editor of this compilation.to paMifh the prefent tJnited States of America.THE RURAL SOCRATES. a contrary effed will be produ<:ed by inRances of virtue.

he clafTed under one dercc nidation. that when three perfons are together. ^ * * * ing that in thing which was elTential to them. — ir. namely. and affirmed that men grew worfe whenc er they remained in each other's company without In this view. but. He was alarmed at the meeting together of perfons who were Grangers to each other. and even by the clergy of Zurich. there is not a fecond With refpetH: to Kliyogg. without yielding to companions or neighbors. * We have j)eafants as himfelf for as much by hundreds./«/. in all our country. *- ^ He carried to great leDgtlis the maxim. and at the cxpence too of his charader of a church. they will fay an hundred.foo ' THE RURAL SOCRATES. and he * ftrnggled againfl with all the warmth and finccrity of his nature. ' It feems that Kliyogg has been extolled too much ^% a fiirmcr. -He confidered morality and human happinefs as founded not only upon an indefatigable zeal for bullnefs. that man * * ought to fband upon his own bafis. we mufl confider him ' as independent of circumftances. other things had a right to examine what fermcns the E^Xt^gy had preacbct! inihe courf? af every lix months preceding. *** for he difliked ' much of what was taught in the fchools. purified from ufelefs and foreign dodrines . is and the government To do juflice * then to the merits of Kliyogg. population fuper-abundant.doors. There was even an ccclefiaftica. true a charge. ' meddles in the mofl minute concerns'^. who have done the improvement of their * farms. * This was hut too who among . f::ription all afTemblies at * kets.. I recolle<fl diftin^i'ly one of his ren^arks . but upon fmiple truths. town-halls. * the offirer. and if there are an hundred of them. they will certainly fay three things which are improper . confidered as a ?. taverns. faythefe cafes men wei^e fure lo unlearn fome- man. marand military reviews . ' The civil and ecclefiaftical conflitution of his vil* lage was entirely contrary to his principles . fchools.

and the difftpation of it. ' Having a deep penetration into man. except to fupport his houfhold and pay — . In ours. atHra(Slcd his notice . * and a refolute and forcible oppofition to thefe ' _ * fources .) . ' He ceafe with the . the nfeceffary refult of our complicated relations. led to his ruin and that the peafant had no' ufe for cafn. ^ feared alfo that thehappinefsof his family would' firft piece of filk which entered it . and on this account an altar may be erected to him. * ^ * * ^ * *" * in all thefe particulars. that c6in in the hands of the peafant. he calculated ' the influence of each fenfual enjoyment in its moffc * diftant confeouences. we do not and cannot give to the people all which they aflc. but in Euit: ^ ^ rope. and ' he even dreaded theefFed of Sunday cloihest. * but its cffed: upon the tranquillity of the mind and up' on the liberty and free exercife of our faculties. an intimate knowledge of the human charad:er^ ' and of the primary fources of its errors and its ' vices. provided be in the WeRern world. ^oi^ the his management of his fupport of our natural rights. he excelled more than he did as a Swifs cultivator . There b alfo a time when one may begin to wear our is tio new Ev clothes which fDsy well happen on the day when there work."***". Bb . 'The + It isfarely ufeful to obferve the rule» to be clean once a . * his taxes. . The whole of the people ought in troth to be refpedled .7^HE ^ * ' RURAL SOCRATES. It was not its effedb however * upon the finances or the flate *^ * * which interefled * him (for with thefe he did not cjoncern himfelf . Kliyogg however conceived. as we think a man refpe^flablc only in proportion he differs from the people. family. week.. ' * ^ ' ' ' The acquifitiori of fpecie is with us the finglc flandard of internal profperity . and thele are obje<fls which (I * maintain) need not be provided for in Europe.

He thought that they ought not to be awakened too early. than in villages . were little adapted to the leading circum- fion for premature enjoyment its * ^ * *" but owes rife to — * * ^ * * — * * * '' * fiances of ^ common I life. Perhaps have too flrongly expreiTed my fenfe of ^ *- Kliyogg's fupcriority as a fell (hort man. but Kliyogg was no friend to that over-done population. and he conceived that our prefent inftitutlons of police. but that defires are commonly excited by the folly of idle company. renders marriage Ibmewhat lefs eafy. and before the mind is fufiicient**^' Our Kliyogg in iy matured to content them. ' as much as poftible by the labor of his family. their ignorance of this clafs of gratifications : — * * * and he maintained that there is no difficulty in effeeling this. He faid. His fyflem war? partly the fame for the defires and paflions of the underftanding. that is to fay. that men fhould be brought to a difcreet enjoymer. fhort was firmly cbnvinced. by preventing the young from going to bed till they are well fatigued. are of the high- eft * ^ * * ^ * '- It is true. but I am lure that he in his charadl'er of a cultivator. that nature is content to poflpone thefe feelings? for a longtime.t of life by a courie of voluntary a<Slivity and exertion . difficult intercourfe between thefe detached farms. and ' all •^as little as pofTible by hired hands . as feen ijpon many retired farms in Switzerland. the corruptions of fociety. where Cimpld manners are preferved fome centuries longer than in our villages . that the importance.• ' as much as pofTible ' as little as poflible . ' Kliyogg maintained that the innocence of the fexes' ought to be preferved longer than is cuftomary . of education and of religion. which is fcen in fome parts of our canton. * * * * * * The fupcriority of the moral charafter. is a confirmation that the ideas of Kliyogg refpecTting the union of families.^oar THE RURAL SOCRATES. — His fixed ^ principle to do by woi k^ by money . He affirmed that the pafis not natural to man .

and where he commonly obtains the means of paying it by fpin ning . and where the farms are generally thrown into divifions (or fields) of one eighth of an acre each . ^ ^ 2©2 ail ' ' * * was worthy of a great legiflator [who has command. Many farming praBkes had are alfo equally admijjihie in .voods. and that he Jhoiild ne<ver njoriter * Tke 'vie'Txed his fubje^ — defpair. Manj of Khjogg s farming maxims opplj even in Zurich : fuch as that a farmer Jhouldfet the example of nxiork" ing .. there the farmer can rarely keep as many hands all the year round. Zurich.]-— But with a nation whole turn is become contracted by the practice of counting. ir. as the great objed of his labors. — Ccnfequently Kiiyogg of Europe.ay be vfful e*ven in Zu" vichi and fill more in the n]} APPENDIX* .'* - ^ — . meafuring and v/eighing . the principle cannot apply. and part ia!!y. and which. on account of this things at his ^ ^ ^ its clofe population. Thefe however are circumilances to which Kiiyogg paid little attention . meafuring. E. . Nor is the reji of Europe in general in the fame circumfiances in nvhich the ivhich Kiiyogg the merit of firfi exhibit} ftg there — fvoriter paints Zurich.THE RURAL SOCRATES. as he will want at particular moments. cannot fubfifl: without counting. and the mortgages with which it is burthened. where (I repeat) many in this view have exceeded him. or fail to conHder a return in caft. that he Jhould go to nvork the fkorfef ^way . for which reafbn he cannot be exhibited as a model for the cultivators of Zurich.Jje of this eriicht though ingenhnst ^vjs not a farmer . with * ^ ^ * ' ' * * * * * Where fuch a nation. the high price of its land. fuch as that of mixi»o topeiher foils rtmarkahU merely for differing from eech other^ that of chtaining the ad'vantage deri'ved Jrom furroivs in moiji land ixithout the iofs cf any landy and that of deriving manure from the trees in cur n. and weighing . the peafant is obliged to pay a high intereft.

cf condudi. 33 not only to gain enough todifcharge his incumbrances j but to purchafc more land.. furprifecl that fo uncommon a relation fhould bothave attra^ed the attention of ihofe gentlemen. entitled I ttp work in the effays*'. c^rew ibe preceding SOME lime fmce P'rench language. indiiftry.— I ihouM think * Intitled. a ffoaU \ peruf- e3 it with great pleafure . which generally decide this negle^l of foreign books. with a view to difcover thofe that promife beft for tranCbut by not feeing this ruftic phiiofopher in an Englifh drefs. is The work pieculiarly conne^ed with the general caft of the preced- ing fuhjeOs. The Preface given by Arthur 7'oung^ Efqiiire^ to that part of the Rural Socrates^ tranjlated and publifhcdtn Englijh^ under hn^ direClhn. from the concurrence of thofe comoion circumftances. which I haVe omitted. I ajr. fobriety. pradiiling fo animated an agriculture. lation The merit and unprebend the work is not included in that number. No. doubted utility cf it have detei'mir^ed r/ie to procure a tranflation ./>7^. w. vis. not only of economy.APPENDIX. and'prefsnts other ideas of indifputabl« ufc. that the public iDight not be depcived of the k)fs of fuch an example. and to cultivate i \\\t whole with unremitted diligence and reatiiefs. It is the hiffory 6f his pradrce . Rural Economy or EJfsjt on the practical ^^ (•arts of hnfi^andr^i . ./and diiplays an example. coming to a fmall farm overwhelmed wirh mortgages. fuch as an impro: — per tafte (relauve to up J in tranilaiors. are here enlarged upon . Itdifplays a poor peafant. and the whole ts the rearrr^anagenfient of a Swifs farmer »(3ay //'z. I wet vvlili te Socrate Ruflijue. I.hcn deferving of attention . and every domefiic virtue but alfo of rooft fpirited hulbandfy. the ecoiiorKical manageerent of a farm : it enlarges on Several parts fojneof therp. uiuch more corred and accurate than moft of our Britifli farmers can boaft. vyho read the modern French aathors. or the ideas of bookfellers con- Cerning their profit.

but to the farming reader. a Socrates. R. are marked at the end. The country therefore is the beft fchool for acquiring a for more intimate I knowledge of human nature. • Refieflions in new is inflrud^ed njc in this great truth. and a Luciani Nor ought I to conceal that the marks of vice were slfo to be met with. or to thofe who can be inferefted with the memoirs of an honert iiiduftry. among the cultivators of the earth a Lycurgus. The diftiniftion between the ruftics and the falhionable part of the world confifts in the objecis.*** No. it >hink myfelf very unhappy. a Homer. 11. the fenfe of the progrefs we make in doing good. not the degree^ of the powers ble of rank . And fviajie itsfnveetnejs on the defart air. This trartjlation is from thi + Some 'Village Hampden^ that nxiith dauntfefs The little tyrant of his fields ivith/iood . . Hirzel^) have been refervcd for infer tion in this appendix^ as not direCily relating to Kliyogg. are every where the The different gradations and defcriptions of gefteady reward of virtue. Some tnute% inglorious MilloTt) here may refi . Fragments from the EnglifiLor French tranflatwn of the Rural Socrates . 'which \though origirtally written by Dr. I could trace nius are equally difcernible in the cottage and the palace. were I to trouble the public with a trifling or a worthlefs hook .— I wa? likewife convinunconfined to — ! of reafoning. capajemployed to the general good. in Getman. written in a Country Church Yard. Some Cromnjoelly guilt lefs hreojl of his country s bloods Full many a gemof purefl ray ferene The dark unfathom'd ca'ves of ocean htar Full many a flo-Lver IS hern to hlu/h nnfesny . and for true greatnefs of raan. a Plato. and the pure and tranquil joy which is the conftant refuU of it . Here learned to defpifc * // nuas njorttten originally French one *^* Y.APPENDIX. Graj*s Elegy. The notes I have added. difccrning what conflitutcs the forming juft ideas of happinefy. the confciouinefs of a rational application of our talents. and that the rceaneft condiinflancea ot exalted fentiment and underftanding. It has been received with uncommon pleafure in Switzerland and France. that real grandeur tion man furnifhes being ced that in all fifuarions. I flatter myfelf this liillc work will not be unacceptable*.

Snce it is btcome a part of n>y duty to examine foils. who fancy that fuperior ortier of beings. of 'which his father caimcrjed ^ifh Here he ^vent through a complete coufe of hufoandry and 'with opportunities of o.ilofophers.he wifdom and We (hould find that Creator in the order and difpofijion of his creatures. it is the paffiona .redy for epidemical dfftempers among cattle. agriculture. . capabk of inveftigating nature in her uncultivated contemplating cf and heart. * Dr. n^ d'ijeafis hh Jlxteenth year reftdei in the Abbey bit en a ant for the Kif^g of Prufta.1 A P P E N D I X.^ 1 Philohphical Society of luricb . letort the appelhtion N is now confirmed pleafore ari{^. ''•Jhe memi>irs referred 'tOy are thofe of the tn the /rrchfr^ed been has It tfrwhirh the author had been fecrctary. renders apparent to ' ihecyes ola iniephilcfopher. ilofil for Baflej ea^nh foilcfwed the . ridiculous vanity of thofe literary geniufea. who after firft opportanuy of she rrsnners and fciences of the Europeans. chofe nations.es the fecret receffes of irivxiling pi. lo'v: a acquiring for thus farmers. and furnilli the good ne fa of the turewiih mareriais for gratitude to .ual faculty.. feize the leturning to the firnple and rational li-fe of their countrymen.— with much propriety. might. face. of Znrich. manners and genius of ihofc we call /alamented our deficienry in relations I and rrr^w fufpefted . when fheir extenfivc erudition places them in a is frequenrly clouded with prejudiaoderftaDding their ihat evident. rules the force b/ Unii.. and is a part fr. defrous to gite thefe magijiracy cf canton. as it fllmoft always meadow and paflure origin of thefe epidemici. of the AH the diladvanta- defcriptions on their polite gueds. m^os ofCapel. The appointment of firft phyfician to the republic of Zurich^ health of her ci«^aking it incumbent on n>e ro watch over the to the different modes :izen<>. Xap. <^eou3 My feBtiracnis now became more enlarged. alfo being flrongly re- commenced f:irv to my care. fome kuowleogc of agriculture feemed a recei- happens that the preliminary to fuch an office. and 'vvhlch their v&nlty.. a flavery their will. oifspring in a j^jdicious and inquiries into the theoremarks would throw new light on our triends of human nary of the intelJee. F. whom ws brand as favage. ihe excrefcence of their learning.—Ths their throughout authority hy fuhlijhed ihem eyavjpie. Sodety. that the liural Socmtes %va: rea^ kefart th + The go-vernmcvt ^ • iiz memoir:. Hirz^lfrc-1 his ninth to fer'vi/jg mankind in ajfate of fettrement* L. a Have to the dominion cf defpifc the ces.1 diOempers fpiings from the prevention of epiiemtcGi rules-\ (inferted in our v^.ng from the fi^dy of hufoandry the nature of m&*.t^toui) for 3anci?. I ara oblig-d to pay peculiar attention confideration of a redifferent racks of pc^opK%-The The in of living of the . human of the I am perfuaded fuch itDpartial manner. who feek forcibly to difpofhave any remaining )r (houU we liberty I and fcfstheraof wealth participating in dcubtj whether thofe among them a«ed wifely.

nature of with cultivation as are praQifed by the moft induftrious farmers. Some who flatter themfclvcs with being con- fidercd as the great improvers of agriculture. unknown in our clfmate . and infinitely Jlaxver in it? progrefs. who have appropriated a confiderablc parr of the fjpefp.s before ihcj?were rendered public. fro. ihat the Biethods hitherto purfaed. with f^vera! for^s of grain and grafs-f^edsj trees and fhrubs.) and of turf (or peat) for manure. &:c. with all pofiiole precifion.— Yet this plan for the improvcaienc of agriculture. irsent xvi — aiDongft thofc. which makes this interefting fuhjed the principal and conflant end ol rts conferences and inquiries. I hsve no defire to depreciate the a'. E.oity of their it%co. The olje^s ot * h» A farmer can feldom •Ifernje the is do better^ ivhen moming into a nt^o) J nation i thaispraBices of the moffuccefsful of hii neiv neighbors . cf whcfs good effet^ta we have already reaped much advantage. of v/h'ich they have made trials on their ^^i^'Ci cttatf. dG> not appear to me» the beft calculated to anfwcr the purpofes of improveAn eager purfuit after new experiments. may be comprifed in the number. tutkey-corn (or maize.s are attended with acrowd of dii?tculiics. whilft a« a third fort hope to acquire by untried objefis of attention to fel our upen. &c. unmolifted by any obftacle 3 whiUt new in7ea:ior.erit of thofe generous chlzensv. — appears more uncertain. we ought a know- kdgeof the competent infighi into fuch methods of by which the^ with their reareft nejghboTb'„ often double their produccp compared What remains is to procure a free communication of thefe roethods . than that which I have ventured to recommend. The moft circumforibed genias may follow pradicai rules. to excite a laudable ecnulation in farmers. and to endeavor by all pofllble means. whofe knowledge of the ancient huib-indry there are is fupeificiaJ and incompetent.n the introduflionoi foroc unknown fpecies of corn or artiScial grafs : others expt-d fame from the : invention of Tome new innplement it or different me(hod of tillage . It is more uncertain^ becaufe mert fiie too apt . difenjes ir in eatile% hy correPJng the injahhrity of the fail^ furRifh proof of what I advance. This double motive infpired me with an ardent defire of exploring and explaining. This I (hould think the rapft eligible plan for re^orin^ agriculture ffmong us..APPENDIX. prevail* farming. ejpec tally if It 'Txillhe i^fj tf/^ obliged to employ laborers obtained upon ihefpzt. . with its imperfcftions and capability of improvemento In this purfuit I again repeat niy happinefs in being meniber of a fociety. I muft nevertheJcfs acknowjrdge. uodoubredly merit our comThe introduction of potatoes and loendation and acknowledgement. — in oppofiticn to is a perfevSl I apprehend the £rft principle foils . to refart tQ his f iernMarJi gradually Qivn idr^s.o embellifii a favorite theory in their writings.re to the procuring of new-invented impleetisnts of hu^indry . the prefent ftate of rural economy in Zurich . Thefe fpirited attentions. fuch this the culture of mulberry-trees for filk-worms.

. 1774)) " inserted in the French tranflation . and they i\low too much to fancy in their defcriptions. and change the habits received — froaj his forefathers for new ones. find with wifdora amd Ikill in prefumption rn favor and that it is rare to afliduity thefc virtues. bat when extended. that new inventions are vtiyjlsxv in their effed^s. but es having had no effef^ among thofc who culti' The French tranilatof adds curious accounts of dialed the earth for food. that every feldier draixn from the feofantry a good JQldier " mpropQvthn sa ht has been a go^d peajc:n\** No. Count of Rfotlicnwart and Piefidcnt of the College of the Norjh [du Nord]. It muft be a long courfe of otpericnents which alone can determine whether this or that grain or grafe ma^ be naturalized with real benefit to a country . of Liniz. and can be of no It is a work of time to real benefit till they become habitual or general. convince a psafant that the alterations you propofe are eligible . be an advantageous compenfaiion for abandoning an old one. * Columella allied (fays Df. manufactures. the utility is found abforbed in the expence of labor. the diminution of Qiarriages and births among the former. 5 « ^ ^ •s Hirzel) affures us. or whether the adoption of a new fyftem of hu{bandry.V A P P E N D I Xa of which they arc fand. and many of our oldeft (hat they have conflantly it — officers in foreign fervice have informed me. that agriculture is int2rnat?yy and I can affirm from my own experience. in addition to' yhe insreafed A The « « • number of deaths. Another y^rticle from Dr. It is worthy of notice however. except in is cultivator foon turned into a company with each other. and to perfuade him to renounce his prejudices. though it contains ufetul remarks lefpefiing the merits of agriculture. that the agriculrcre of our villages always affords a certain of iiieir attachment to religion and gocd mollis . that famine is reprefented as having caafed grent mortality among roanufs^urers and other purchafen of the earth's prodo(f^ions . (dated 4 Oclober." <• A good good foldier . IV. with its attendant cxpence. are often extolled beyond reality. &c. defpotifm. NOe III. Hirzel to the Abbe Sigifmond. armies. HirzeL Letter from Dr. but as it h^as no relation to Kliyogg. and the injuiy iont to it by luxury. it was omined in its place . following paffages alfo merit 3 place h'er*. Experiments ofterE' fucceed to admiration in a well-cultivated garden .— I have alfo obferrcd. «' cbferved.

for it is neeeiury that thofe who are to confer efteem. HirzeFs ftr/i worky the Engli/fi tranjlaiion* chiefly taken from If the magiilratcs of Zurich think it an objeft of national utilitr toencourage agriculture by premiums and marks of diftinif^ion. The members of this Society fhould' therefore make themfelves acquainted with the nature of the different pTsdiiccs ufed throughout the canton . The Society fhould alfo from tiaie to time make cxcurlions. as well as on the borders of the Rhine . and the Thcefs. t— Thus by a judicious dilhibution of applaufe and of recompenfes to the bcfl of cultivators.. re-cotnroending them as modeli to ethers j and in teftimony of the public approbation. An - cxaft journal fhould be . taking allin rotation. i . On an appointed day thefe ftiould be invited to appear before the Society . »»d afterwards if fuccefsfu! of every experinrient .A P ?^ E N D I X. the date of the country . itfelf. from thofe on the Limmath. The names of the perfons molt tfleemcd and moft fuccefsful in hufhandry fhould alfo be obtained . Society formed of men of charader . . Careful trials niight be made under the immediwithftanding our fmall extent of territory. and Regenfper. '. and made the propofe an annual felet^ion-of the bell farmers iiom a certain number of villages. .ethods of condud^ing and ioiproving their farms. and Thcefb . whofe integrity and knowledge of z\t\y thing relative to hufbandxy. e . fhould themfelves pofTsfs it. differs VI idely from both. IV. Men of this defcription will think theajfelves under the ftrongeft obligation to ftudy. djfcoveries. the Thour. leprefenting a laborer driving his plough. . according to the nature of thefe foilso The grapes on the Lake of Zurich feem to require another treatment.s the piincipai branch of rurrd econoaiy : but this culture is difF.. of improvement. require the eftablilhrrent of a . an emulation might be awakened in the peafants fo as jto bring agriculture to a general ftaie. in the . hear an elogiu^n pronounced.1 No. a t^ik not cafy to be accoraplilhed. . though the vineyards are feparated only by the city .-rent. . Conclujlon oj Dr. Thour. receive the deftined prize! J would h^vc this a medal. C c Such . -Thofe parts which border upon the Alps arc appropriated to the grazing and breeding of cattle^ and Kttie gnsin is to be feenthere . whilft in the loivci and lefs confined dillrif^s of Greificnfee. ihe harvsfi makes a glorious appearance. fince not- we have an uncommon variety of cultivation. and When the Society fhall have fufficiently qualified it may when furrounf^ed by their countrymen. to^ leilify miflakes by perfonal inquiries. might fecure univexfal conttdence . meceffary arrangements. — — ate infpeftion of the Society of all new open :. the culture of the vine fonr. in the vales watered by the Liinmath. with their own relations of their ir. their whole This would attention fhould be applied to having thei^ juftly conferred. firlHn nuifery-groundst field. with accura- cy. YJu bourg. Along the two banks of t!»e Lake oi Zurich. and the culture of thofe planted on the fides of the R-hine.

which perfe(^ly ag. The faint.rces with ihe plan here cfTered. He remained a labor er^ fjuiih the title cf riandarin : He enjoyed the prl'^j^ ** ihJge vf being next ihe goxierjior cf the prsvinccy and eating at his table • *' and his name food in letters It is f aid that thh ofgold in the public hall.are flow and remote in their contquence&f. ** c'^^ funci ^^^JiiU "4! Dr. Jifgtefltd l. • I cannot better conclude than with a remark from the Hicro of Xeno-* ** ^Agriculture phon.i'7i.c common nneans of purchafing the divine favor. ^ would make great profits . My method condufts to its end dired\ly . Vollaire. m AFtrfanhg^faton . — the bert gifts of Provj<lence. than rhe coftora of ofFtting premiums for the heft diflertatiou en fixed quefiion?. Of the honors paid to agriculture in certain eaflern countries. Such rewards wculd infinitely more promote ioiprcvements ia hut'^ hBndty. as a criminal rejedtioR hfippir. to deRroy noxious ani- + Yonichitigi Emperor ofChhiay ivho died in ihe year 1 724. But as it it does net agree 'with Jyme * particulars^ has been. " raifed to the: " rank of a mandarin of the eighth cJafs^ that laborer. V. « whicU though one of the mofl lucrative eaAployrnents has never yet been * attempted to be for-varded by ejrulation. :t cbligtd to bt'gel ehUJrcn . he condemns with abhorrence . Giolon when fpeaking which Zoroaiter* lays afide the prophet. in the Magian religion. afid nvas re^ narhabie for hts jujiice end ohfer-vatioii of the tanjos. to plant uftfui trees. ** cttjhmy fo repugnant to our manners^ and fo firong a fitire upon them^ ^ Jlill fubfp:* See Addiri-ous to ihe Hfoty of all Nations. are There of Perjza in antient times) in fome reaiarkable inibnces (fays Mr. modern inaniijtn and E. The citizei)8 thus encouraged to excrilon?.es the leglflator.efs. would greatly flourifti.** No. < fides known that criaies arc lefis common among the induftriousj. by M. t!. F. of i}i fiiperrtition. M premh * urns were cftablifhed in the country and in the villages for thofe who heft * cultivated the earth. in cverj pro<vinc£t ** ivhoi by the united 'VCiice of the mandarins of his canton^ ivas decreed the ** niojl diligent^ induftriousy kcnef man ! Not that the laborer trvas campeUed ** to quit his original pro fJJtQn^ ix^here he had made fo good a figure^ to exer1371 s cfjudicature ivith <which he ivas utterly tinacquainted.m A ? P E N D I :^:. af- fua. Ilirzelin hisix'otk cites a celebrated encomium on the fifth agriculture^ hy the an! lent Socrates% extraSfed from book of the Memorabilia of religion Xevophon. the revenues of the ftate would augment * and a raodeft temperance would be joined to It is bea love of labor. and difcovers a liberal concern for private and public feldom to be found among the gioveling or vifionary fchemes Fafting and celibacy. whilft iagenious fpecuiaiions .

They coiilider agriculture not only as an agreeable and innocent profeffion." feflival rnuft indecvl have degenerated.] The monarch grievances. agriculture . and the prefent conn"e^ion. E.nging their vain porr. which compcr. excb^. This creed (ior it has become fuch^ peculiarly inclines them to culiivation their priefts teaching them.A P P E N D 1 Xo ^ vii. when I have ccnicmplaccd on one fide the dryuefs and prcfent barrennefs of Perfi. . The (lately kin^s cf PerTia.oJer?: limes : name being gi'ven to them by the Mohammedans^ in reproach. compared with the imn enfc fize cf this country . than he could gain by the repetition of ten thocfand prayers. — p. p^ardening and vineyards. in a wealthy and defpotic empire. ife be negleCled. cenined to renrefent the primitive equality.^ in P^ifia (relates Sir Jchn Chardin) are all cultivator?. Such a Itt us live together in concord and lover.. (See the Hiftory of the Decline a-nd Kail cf the Rnmpn Empire. admitted without di{lir. Kliyoggs E. ixals. or to plant a tree ufcful for bearing fruit or for other purpofee. I have an hundred times refle«fled on ihis fuhjf6}. ^or workers in leather. nor yet any one of ihem who Their great profeflion is applied to the liberal arts or to commerce. and which might fometimes ift^print a falutary leffon on the mind of a young prince. to the table of the king and his fatr:?ps val [or nobility. inquired into their *' From the moft equal terms.nd f Honx) clojely does this corrcffcnd iviih Louis Eugftie of IVirttJnhtrg^! iSce /. and on the other hand."— In the fpring of every year a fefliwas celebrated. and one which both the fovereign God and the inferior gods (as they phrafe it] hold mod in confideration. cr fullers.) TheGuebres. yet that the next is to cultivate lands which would o. They are defcendants ofihs M^^if or/oU(. 1 1 6 fhe — H 7. cc- " ** quires a greater ftock of religious merit.hcrv. difcourfe to Prince \ l^he Gucbres are the ivor/Jjippers offire orofth^ftt?:^ 17: Tr. but it was at leaft a comedy well worthy erf a royal audience.eft.p for more genuine greatr. or artificers. (and to fay with truth fincezity) . Zenifavefta a wife zcA benevolent maxim. Thefg vuorjhippers are nonv very feto in number.-^j::rs rf Zorr^jter. of mankind. freely mingled with the humbJefl but moft ufeful of their fubje^s. and converfed wiih them on * accepted their petitions.e dry lands of Peifia.<^ion. They even believe it the firft of vocations . 8. fertility. and moft reward. as well as ti!l2ge. and to work cat Ms CaU iray quote from the vatien by purfuing cll tht labors of agriculture. have recclkded what is f^id in antient hiftory of its numbers. icjto a theatrical reprtfentation . to coni'fy Wbicx to il.fates for aian/ We an abfurdity : " Ht who fjws the ground with care and diligence. that though the mn!t virtuous of all afts is thst of having a family. I never faw one among them who Hved without doing fomsthing. If not wish from your labors KA:e receive our fubfiftenre : jon derive your tranquillity from our 'vigilance : fince therefore we are mutually iieceffa• ty to each other. wiih its f:2nty population and llender productions. chap. including in this term.*. G^bbf'T. On that day the hufbandrnen wxr:. jnj} ^r-i'iofied fr-Qrt Mr. ^joTir ichors was hs accuPiOrred to fav. but «s meritorious and no'ole.

ue(l efForts of hum^n wifdom. march of us that a it Turhj?o st- fry from Conflantinople. without caring for futuri'y. and attached to hafinefs . and that the proceiFton continued ox. v. that while it lyfis.e fhould act asTnen doiti a conquered country or in winter quarters . Thefe maxims and regulalions* of. was a plough drawn by painted en with gilded hori«. tho traveller. Before the original inftitctions of I^idla were fubverted by foreign inthe indulhy of the hufbandx-aii on which every mcinber of the his lands comir. uncertain. . E. one of the gre. the aniient Perfians made cultivation a branch of their religion . according tO' which they cojitend that the government of nations Ihould be conduced." See his recond'volurae.- jrourdays. 267—268. . Under a form of govcrnnr.] that while tv^o uncommo<i.'C. than a fcvereign ruling over inferiors. — change. as 1 have been informed by petfons well acquaintcy. for they maintain that life is fo fnorr. Robertfon's H'tjlorkal Difquijuiotis concetnwg the /ixavIf (/re mb. and that the moll intelligent modern obfervera fnould celebrate the equity. b.b ihe antiaits had of India* p. of the cafs fiionld be true .—-The [modern defcendants of the] antient Perfians have gentle and fimple nnanners. his property. was to ferve God : while the prefentinhabitants of Perfia have principles which lead them to defpife work . Thifj paragraph is tranllated from an extn(\ given in the preface to the French iraorAation of Kliyogg.ent which paid. that is to fay. " "Wit fujl in procel]ion.] on this flrange caufes. ir not wonderful that the aniicnts fnould defcribe the Indians as a raoft •happy race of men. and thought that to labor.ih. p. files and power both rcflc(Sed (for nothing can at firft feem more improbable than that . the Peifian government confirming riiem in their office. ed with ihe Hate of Ir. as the tenure by which he held was equitable.unify depended for funhftence v/as as fecure. vaders.car. . fuch art attention to all ihe diiTerent orders of — wliich the fociety is ia compofed. and lUe very tranquilly under their el^ers^ whom they choofe as msgiftr^res . volupiuoii". 414. the humanity. and the miidnefs oi Indian poliHindoo R?j."' obtain whatever %'. and fpecul^tive.dia.>t I have an hundred rimes if appeared to me owing to two were rohul^ laboriou?. the antient legiilators of India have a near refembhnte ro the fyftem of rhofe modern fpeculatois on political economy. and Fir(l. : Even war did not interrupt liis labors 0? etidanger. ih. particularly fhe cultivators of the earth. and changing .) I fay. the It vpas not reafanis were ploughing or re. See A — Appc'uiiK to Dr. who was prefent at the . we are informed [by armies were fighting a battle in one iidd. while the modern inhabitanTs are idle. the aniient Perfians ' ' Mf. headed by the Sultan all tells was atterid- the different trades and artifans. Strabo.iping in the next field in perfetl tranquillity. refcmbles more a father prcfiding in a numerous family of children .who teprefentthe produce of land as the fole fourcs of wea!u*^ in z\txy country j and who confide? the difcoTery of this principle. [n. as. td by ** BciH. Next.:< APPENDIX.

Jf any man has made an important difcovery which may influence the improvement of agriculture. Emperor of China. * * Some time afi^r. when the laws of the great Creator were ftill held in remembrance. The Chineie hidory has carefully prefejved an anecdote of generoflh^ jn twoof the ahtient Emperors. in. always accompanied with ceremony. * * The Chinefe agriculture has at the fame time other encoursgements. bv the viceroys. the extent and quality of his Jands . who confers honorary titles on them above their fellow laborers. diftinguifl-ied by honorable titles ?nd loaded with benefits and favors. in prefence of the E. to diftinguifh Pekin. the. Every year the viceroys of the provinces fend to court the names of fuch laborer? as have~ diftinguifhed themfelves in their employments. takes hold of the handle of the plough. ar?d the cuU ture of the earth confidcred as the nobleft of all employments. named as their fucccflbrs two fimple ij ftill laborers. h uhnec^iTarr"' - . (who was the firfl: chief of the nation * *) all the Emperors without exceptiooa even to this day. . advanced jeigns : the Thefe 'aborers. and attended by the la- borers of ihe province. in perIbn performs the ceremony of opening the grounds. The fame departments. \fi\\tv\ they have fuSciently labored and manured their grounds. and never remember to have beheld any of the ceremonies invented by mtn with half the pleafure. the Sfteeiuh day of the firft moon in every yearj. and begins the fowing ef the fields. and (urns up feveral the field : then. who not perceinng arnong their chilJrcEi any one to mount a throne which virtue alone ought to inherit. glory in being the firf^ laborers of their empire. afilfled^by prefence of a great number the magiftrates of their of the laborers of their refpecall tive provrinces. according lo the happinefs of jcankind durit^g very long Ir their memory held ia th« higheS vesei^tloi. * * * The Emperor laying afide his joyal robes. and an infinite number of mandarins accompany him. . defraying his journey with dignity at the expence of his empire % he receives him into his palace . I have feen this opening of the grounds at Canton . Thefe names Emperor. wfth a complaifant air hav-ing delivered the plough to the mandarins.whole length of ample. then difmilTes him to his plough. interrogates him with regard to his abilities. * * * The ceremony concludes vs^iih the diftribution of money and pieces of ftufFamong the laborers there prefent . ihey fucceflively follow 1iis ex- fuHOws the. * * * This empire was founded by lahorgrs in thcfe happy times.A ®n P ? S N D I X. . the Emperor invites hiaj to are prefeuted to the the parties. Frora Fouhi.?iperor. which generally iearrcfponds with the beginning of March. . Chinefe annals. and the general occupation of all. his age. . porap proceeds to the field appointed for the ceremony : the princes of the ir^geri-al family. . the prefidents of the five great tribunals. the moft ad^ive of whom * liDifh the remaining labor. ihe EiTsperor repairs again in proceflion . ceremonies are performed on the fame days in all the provin- ces of the empire. the nusiber of his children. This prince in great. . or Ihould he in any manner deferve more diftinguifhed mar^ks of regard than the reft.

have produced o{ too in plentiful (eafons.r:h produce fubfiftr. with A>me through all their operaworlJ. and affable. appears This fyftem of culture.. generally lay out rive the preference to fuch grounds as we licuated with refped to water. thst as bv far the moft important. 'lurgst.fides hay . among a Che #9(1 aaeniive to their inlerell. fpare can thefuWnanceof m. article excepted. h confenuently by f. nourifhment of cattle.mply in to a conftderable depth. lands in a ftate of nature. turning to advantage every to every other fpecics produce the raoft inconaderable crop.of which. long re^mavua le '. A'^r.eadow.-Such is the fyftecn natural nor artificial ^ that the Chinefe h. and sr. of which they adhered to irorri UzW portion for the animal creation.APPENDIX.ed "^ •^- . for additional the b.^. njucre finally ^a. le Chincfc.n rc!u!cd upon memory. ineadows . the laO. ploughing thew their fecret conhfts f. le Pol'-jre ./.fM.rfement. Vf.ions of the rpanunng their fowing them in inch of ground which can the proper fcafun. eafv. (hare of learning atul knowgeneral. Nothe JjU of France u. denomination.pire to the other..ve no meado^^. . are properly being and low tihich lying They affirm that a field fown w.t the f^JIy and net the been Jinced'Jperfed through ha've n^hich Seas.] for fuch numhcrs ? Do the * * ?--To fulve my clou >Ts I traprovinor.Indies. as it would grain will yield as much p-a^. I introduce jnyfeU amcrg the hborers . Enftern the ^ants of 7/. and ohferve that i5elds jadicioufly. le Poi.o for the advantage of the grain. /• recommended in all it our belt authors* inforrr.v what art (fays the fame xM. the Ufe.refrj} dcpojtted in exchange h. f. never allowlnp their lands the flighteft repofe. f dijcharged during the odrninifiration of E-. cf every They fow all their lands with graw . .lh the of that nee coicernin. unpaid . our common laborers ^^t acciiainted with •{urprifed. Thej ^. polite.n . . The Chin?fe laborer would coidider n.r the molt fertile. Vi ihe prcleni work puhlifhed a new ediiion'i'n 1797+* No. cf cnlture that 0^ yrain.and dra^n for his reimbv. is to he the farre . i \ .imfl. . m I'nd coi>firmed by the experi-one ey'tremity of their e<. have not the Icaft conception o\ falloiving. of all nalions in the world people cncecffouT thoufand yearp.^fayt. I examine and purfuc them k^f e ...-but how much muR our European are tarmers be when thty and . ^ ^^ tbu amiable man. polfefs any fecret fnce fin Chin. cf Ihe EnglKh tranflation.* nnd gnin for multiplying who are in xzTh thefielHs.'l ii i^}i)crlont coIfeHory of letiji Pol'vre v:a. So?72e pariicnlars rrfped'mg Chlne/e agriculture* Poivre) can the er.r. and preferring . cefury toobferve hew muc^sxamples fach as thcfc honor and animate agncuhure. 3 Deautitul and the panier brated little pcribrmancs. . celeSee Travfls of a Philofophr hy M.

or the fountain. the Chinefe maintain a number of horfes.APPENDIX." or the drfc^nt biiovj t!. The tDoU reeky hjil?. and flints every where predominate. by means of a funpie portable raachii^e which two men vviih eafe. At Csntcn and froni one extremity of the empire to another. the caaa].e J:r/a<t »f 'hi partidss ofchs(k sm^lojed far maums^ E^ . enriched wlih she juices of that which defcends in its roomf Without ixeidows. Every one oi thsfe terraces yields anni:aily a crop of fome kind of grain. you obferve mountains cus info terraces j reprefenting at a diftance iramenfe pyramids divided into dilTerent ^--igts. and for manure. * * * alfo coraiTiOn fait. which feem to reai their heads to heaven. lime. others with roots. and other aninals of every fpecies for labor. the reft bad . are there compelled by dint of induRry io produce grain. others nriiddling. yield annually two crops . tiaaSoQii and put iii mQ" * lion. which in France and other places they turn in- to vineyards or totally negled. others light . buSalofj. ** him time. whica here and there they plant in arbors . All thefe grounds even in gravel. whiift from the want of that grain which this vineyard might have produced. : . you informed that — The Chinefe foils (Irong. but above all they make great that [namely human] which we throw into our rivers ofe of urine. they fupply the deficisncy by tutning up the ground with the fpade to a great depth which brings up to the furface * * a new foil. and you cannot with-hold your admiration. during ihs there a? with us. fome individual perhaps might be in danger of perifhing with hunger.— The Chinefe perpetually their grounds thofe falts and juices fame manures as we do. occafiin k)rrepofeat a certain fixed period cf lands in general are not fuperior to ours : Ycu fee fome excel lent grounds. fome ' ihoufands of years that they have been converted to the ufes of agriculofe the ture. and grain of every kind. They with marl : they en:iploy and all forts of animal dung. and in thofe towards the fouthj'five in two years. xa if A Chfncfe the earth laborer has cculd not but fmile. afhes. in order to reftore t3 which an unremitting produftion is are acquainted confuining. which is carefully preferved in evt^iy houfe and fold to the beS: advantage : in a word. The fteepell mountains even are rendered accefUlIe. When their manures are at any time fcarc?. which glides by the foot of the mounlainj raifed from terrace to terrace even to the fumn>it. for fuftenance. bean^. without one fingle fallow feafon. The Chmcfcare acqaainred indeed with the vine. the northern provinces. Thefe animals are fed fome with ftraw . lands where clay. every thing produced by the earth is rcconveyed to it with the greateft care into whatever (hape the operations of nature or art may have transformed if. but they * * would imagioG it a fia againft humanity to enc'eavcr to procure by cultivation an agreeable li* qjor. * * '9^ The i This ii like the method Jo much talked of in ths Enghjh Mofeum Rufli<um. even of rice . and lands where fand. when you behold the water of the river. to cure the ** fubfidence of chalk.

Every day ihc year is working day. X. except the firft.3fcU /. It iKuft chiefly be derived froo) their mode of governinet)i.e and the plenty confcquent on it to be attributed. of every Chirefe j and with this people fo open to reafon. obferved that if in one corner of ine empire there was a man who did noth'>ng> there muft in another quarter be fome ons This wife noaxim is fixed in the brcaft deprived of the necelTaiies of l. he vi^ho pro.eBtber. and from iheis J. point of labor I oever obferved their equals in the woiU. it Is not to ihe (nrm of their plough.Tpt. dilated by nature to the firft of the human race and facrcdly preferved from generation to generation. a paralytic ed with the moft fovcrcigti cente. i ^ ' i F I N I . which is confecrated lo the ceremoniai An idile rnan would be treatduties they pay to tl>eir anceftors. » . and the laft. and regarde*! as a n. le Foivre's woik as above 1 people. in a public inftrudion ex- horting the people tolabor. engraved in the hearts of a grg^' [Sec M.h. ir. cefs peculiar to their labor. than in sny other country in the world. the immoveab4e fi>nndations of which have been laid deep by !he haad reafon alone. i i The Chlcde naticn is capaLIe of the moll ftupendous worki. liounces a wife oiaxinm pronounces a law. * * * An ancient Emperor of-China. coeval almoft with the beginning of time.iws. From thefe obfervations u is obvious that agriculture flourifhes in ChiYet it is not lo any prona mcT!. deftineJ for paying reciprocal vifics . . or their method of fjwiag. that this happy ftt . 1 ? E U 1j 1.