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LATELY LIVING Xi» **SrATi^viJo^. OF^. J^ ^ 1*^ •: KLIYOG Seeft ihou a G. lie (hall ftand before kingi. Proverbs xxii. and (district op maine) States.. tHi: C>^ai^^£^/^^ l/'^^'i RURAL SOCRATES O^ AN ACCOUNT OF A CELEBRATED Philosophical farmer. fold by the bookfelkrs in the pnncip553 towns of the United .^ ^J4e >:^j> KNOWN BY THE NAME X_^^ is. SWl^ZERLd^ty ^*^' AN1> 0tu9^9 •M i'^ 1:. 29* man diligent in bufinefs. Spiritus unos Manila AfironMikon^ I. —— ?er cunilas habitat partes. IL y^^j^oit>p^^^rk^^ )m^ HAIiLOWELL ^pnted hy Pitbr Edes.-.

He I 115. 'Ji.'U im .

philofa. Pnjeiis for iha ad^anumertt of agriculture^ to nxhich Kli^ iural plaKSi HU enif&nce tfpen hhfarin.J him. His fecend marriage^ His laf iilnefs) Z40 J>hyt and family t PART Sp(5h T. His agflcuU pare i Seft. jogg gave rfe in she Ri^-^h >' '-' ^ '•->- - %z Si'ft. V v! vii y.vfe trgricKiltHrst . I. n. S. Scft« IV. Another fvagmiJiCt IV. ^ffiiie: ^'ffptai?!g hio: . Jxothert Vv. Se^.Veen Prince Louis Eu^eTtf of iVirtcmber^ and Kh\ ogg. ilL hift7i The cehhrrJed^^ynrtr to horjcr^ u^fcrih-s l6'J ttfpeclit^g Sedi. Pajticulars concermvg fhe add -ionil farm cf Kltyogg. Additional particulars in kis charatiet muf^icatcd hy a cotrefpondtKt^ and his patriarchal plan'st andfeniimcKts^ com' 74 .* nj^iih rheir 'infjierst ^j 1 1 St^. V\\\\o{oi. his 1 preference of oxen S^t\. I. liii-v^s cf his htr/handry. KtijsgP*s eriglfi^ i. Fragments from the tranfathn: cf tki Rural ^JCfdic^i omiiled i» the body of the ivorki 5 31 VJ. Ucxv 'vifis /. Mr. II. Ill.CONTENT PART ^i£i. til.l H<rKdrs paid to agricuhure in certain Eaftern countries^ VL 'Smf l>ari'(ul<irs ^^Jpf:^iing Chir. Arthur Yomtg's preface to the nmor}. Ffffj teftimonifs concerninz him.h\c &uel ^on-e^xo particulars in hu ckara^er^ 4s S£(f^. III.C9 No. il' I'urvietjo at the Helvetic Society b:tn. Dijcvfjflrjn. I. II. rartbfr accounts veftifdivg his family* Hii hthnvior at the nvtddin^ of his fccr nd Jon^ 1 2J AV-u.

adding the preface given in our appendix. The famed Livater.) however ftyie Hiiti Kleinjogg. a liberty in iavorof fimplicity ought perhaps to have been ufed in the prefent work in Englilh.Philofophical Society of Zurich. as ihofe fometimes arifing under erre- New too Franklin nothing of Shakcfpear and a the Scotch Fergufon. The Englilh franfl. was by office. for the exigence or for the nrierits of the fuHjeft of the prefent hiftory. and Klyogg. Hirzel. Count Treffan. TchifFelli (rhe chief inftimtor of the celebrated Economical Society of Berne.-nan for Liule James . a member of its Council. and the feveral hundred members of the Helvetic Society. with the rank of LieurenaritColoncI. a native of Bafie . are additional vouchers to the public. who firil made known this perfon to the public. Young's own work. The principal of thefe accounts were gradually tranfl. wiih the notes ftill icraiued in their places.i- German — ted into French by a friend of the prefent edicor. wrote in He . and Mr. M. and a /«?/ of the Englifh trannaiionip were reprinted in New-'erfey in America. Though furratned Gouycr. procured for it an EnghJ^y drefs . in 171^2. he was by his countrymen called Kleinjogg . fprang frum the loweli clafs of peafants 5 why (hall wc doubt the reality of a Kliyogg ? Unaflifted nature can produce perfonages as extraordinary. Kliyogg. in proportion as the life of Kliyogg furniilicd the materials. when defcribing him in a foreigt^ language. as if it had been iavented . if the fagacious The charafter then here reprefehted is not neous fyftcms of education.uon pu' lilhed under the liircdion of Mr. (the German for James being When writing in French they l>y turns taken from the Latin 'Jacohus. flruck with the firll part of the ' ' and . and the If the great . and lately made Secretary to the Englilh Board of Agricul- ture French publication. Young. h nonainally adopted liere for the pari to which it reb:e«. German Duval and Ludwig. THE editor of the prefent memoirs vifited Switzerland nine years af • icr the death of Kliyogg.PREFACE. atid anriexed it to one of his own works .. Arthur Young . Klyiogg. Dr. Mr. who had majority in a Swifs regiment in the pay of France. andchriftened Jame^. firfl: phyfician to the Republic of Zurich. and (to hy crowd of others) if the Engiifti Brindley. and occafionally Secretary to its Senate. by calling him Kliog or Klyog.^ fince honorably known by his a publications. and fa\y many whj had known him.) the feventy n^erobers oi the. eame from the clafs of fmall landed proprietors began by being a mechanic . It required^ . Arthur Young. and yet it is as proper for contemplation. with the father of rhe tv/o Mirabe.ius. As fuch ciiverfiry prevails among his countrymen.— Mr. feigned . which is ihe language of the largeft portion of Switzerland. for even the faults of Kliyogg arc inftrui^iveo — The only point artificial about Kliyogg is his name. which is Ger. His accounts were publifl-ied at difTerenr periods.

tisfaffiory. his perfonal feelings. of which feven regarded agriculture foleiy. The liberties taken uith the German and Frencii works. and at different periods. and twice as extenfi^^e in ifs effiutial parts as the — It has obtained thefe advant-iges by the privilege of rejeding or feledling from each at pleafure. A number of the clergy recommended its it from the * * * pulpit to their congregation?. a new rranflation would have been more fa. but the differences are made fufficienily diftinguiGiablc. fince he was the mafter of Plato. fLeSoerate Rujliqt/e^) by which Kliyogg has been characfierized. of hiftorical raafter as the German e<Htion. made fufHciently mcHiO'rxjble ir* Something mufl: now b^ faid refpe^ingthe title of the Rural Soerafe*. of an too internriixture Yet fince marr faults hav® and fome have even been introduced in confeqoenr« of ftyles . Hirzel confirms his pretenfians. that the Philofophical Society of to. Socrates pcfTesTed aifo « mode of inculcating his precept?. natural hiliory. befides a but it is as full . The notes tion . which appeared s? Angular to his cotemporaries as were his doLirines. its application to * Its firft romathematics.PREFACE. I can teftify (adds the writer who lived within twenty leagues of Zurich. Young alfo will not allow him to complain of the reform macle in the Englilb trar:{lation . laooe (fays the Swifs author of our French tranflation. natural philofophy. compilation here ^fFsred to notice. The editor indeed has fome where feen the appellation in Vcltaire. was criginaJty a ^atuary \ yet he improved the Athenians in their ideas of mor^Ury and divinity. but this author probably only borrowed it allofivcly trom the French tranflation. ftill fceen left in it. and far left digreilive . The work. have bten purfuant to a fpecial authority for the purpcfe. corre^ions in every line. Kliyogg — excellent efFefti. and cercainly more eafy but the couviciion of this occurred fensr late. and not by their refped^ive authors. prefent compilation offers only one original article. The amiable author of the French tranflation claims the merit of inventing this title . Dr.-— Among the varioa. and Dr. proper to Rate here. Socrates^ the antlenf Greek philofopher. It may be ." fmalleft par- As to the Helvetic Society. it will be the courfe of the following pages. Za- fJch fia Societe de phjjiqne) above referred which took great intereft in common * * < * had for its objedb. was founded in the moft perfect truth.) contained thirteen memoirs.i Interefling views of the life and ccsverfauon oi Socrates lo be foar. given by — The liberality of Mr. whofe difclples in the church of Chrift have been numerous and important. finee called Socratic. fines he is intere^ed iu it by his zeal for the public benefit alone. artid V has received. and medicine. Hirzel's firft account of Kliyogg formed one of thefe articles . it is con titter ably more cotrplete alfo ihan the French ediEngilih.) that the work even to ticulars. * * * and produced life. He may even be confidereJ as having it^fiuenced the faith of rrany Chritir-ians.i — . profeffes not to be an original It exhibits therefore (different fpealiers.

(lru6tionsj and exatnples. ihe cfteds which his io. in fiith bad times. for their hensfit. (though in a manner very different from that fiao.. and on a raoft ma* Itcious piof'. and declares * that he ir.!cut!On brought to his trial . and appeals to their confcience . he? * HgniHes that it was free and voluntary in him. indeed. Itund vp to n.oith this auth'j/s Theory Religion. Hccraut lays cut all his time in going about to admoniOiand reform hh counfiyiaen . beJore h'j had done them any confikralle fcrvice. that he would * continue this eoaife. to exetcife and in* culcate his philofophy. arsJ occaGon.} and. even when he dearly forefawr * that the iofs of hJs lift v^oold certainly attend it : nay.eai thcfc.. mud have preripiiated hi3 .d gcrjcraily grounds hi'. He choofes a Hate of poverty . decHnas poils of authority * amongft ti'.'Kt by Go<i : with tlie uinioft fiffanefs. <lifciples . as * fs:c.i. to clear himfelf * fiom all Aifpiciou of pri^'ate inferefr.j (fays ihe l.h which the gofpels are recotded . as would be juft fufficient to aflert his * inr^ocence and (hew thitn the greatyfa of perfecuting and opprclling it. on all occafions . and took hi:f poifon <n)iib caltn'ifj'sy 'ij^ithQut re^Mmg h\^ ferjniiton far the ifjutj d&ne /* . had upon theiin.ity. and applying to the pafilons ol his judges . beca^ifc it was become * ieceir^ry for the world inftruments thereof with the 4 and meets the * ' 1 * orm'. ther. to which he was continual« ]y expofed on that accour. ^nd reafon. th?t \)\zy ought not to av5rrjit of any fuch application . There was a vvoudrous u^a. < Inftead cf ufing or permitting any ether means to avoid his death. bifliop of Carhfle.1 * * ' has often bicen coTiparetl to Chrifi^ confiticred as a kinti of /j»^* of him to ihe heathen . none oi his philofophy in writing. " Sec ihe rrfl^rtlons on of tije iilt' atid thaTa«ner of bi/?Jop Chiiit. * he infoi.! fceiag a great rereiubbncc bstvt-een them ia fome rerrarkable particula/s.vi r tl'C K E F A C E- among * jninds. to whom he * furpofcs \X\\jXt\\ gyvtn ot/. He avoiils * fTjeddling H'iiii the aftai rs oi the public. He pcrfsveres in filling and examining them.Tis their reafon. iRiie?. though lit were to die ever fo often Jor it. difLOurfes on what occurs there 5 * tn^jking ule of ^\try place. but it tovok to imprint deeply \\\ the hearts ot hi'. beat* ing ail the injuiiea and defpifing theaitront?. in oidei to dctfft their ignorance and * prefurr^piion and to morjjf/ thgir pride. than the following modetna. were protligiuui*. thcai. ar.' Such left He and fercr.r. which lie siTures ihcm * was a miniflry enjoinedXAa^hy the Deity.ovi perfcvveie i the farvje couyfe.d of having rccourfe to * the ufua! wp!y cf fuppijcation. and proceeds * ordy (b ht in his o vn defence. ihnt Socratts rt-jt^ed an cpparlunity ef ejcaping ftcm prijon . as he which fome of thea) delivered down to us . When " merely out o^ cni->j he h delivered np to Vh eiieroies.— ^''^e? has omitted mention. * he proves to. and Hii^ proptiety. wi. by (he'AJng that I:c pradifed vvliat he taught. pcihaps none will appear more ftiiking (o ferioas by ihe refpdtable Pr. and mai:e his charaftcr more unex* ccprionablc.il calnrjncfs ' ^ frilui ' * * * good care.illiop) among the Greeks^ w ho a. Law. !i< ity. He conftaatly reforts to places of public * concoijrfe.

but many will thirlk it equally nervous and corredi. H-jdied the influfincc and bearings of every incident upon the human mhid. domeftic. mended the diligent. and the otl.er. if he is difpofed to fulSI it wcllj he may profit by the hiftozy of a KHyogg. and ferene before his judges.ricOiate neighborhood. had for his adnrsirers. utilitjj-.-r the human lacc. But in juftifying the analogy eflablivhed ber>veen the charasf^ers of So« crates and KHyogg. for cur time and for ilie many.nu verfal . other. the of. a felf-taUght ruf>v% The one gave precept and eKatnple . till by habit he had rendered is pleafanr. and ira. pecritical forms and from fanaticifoi. chieSy exarripl?. Socrates nfcued him J Xenophcn ivas di/mounted avdfutigued hi a rtlreaty Socrates c/irried him off upon his Jhouldcrs. KHyogg poffefled. The one labored for the hiunan race. and many of the learned and jx)litr.:-jKliyogg was the author of feveralnew pradicc?. culiar talents for difcQurfe . If Socrates was the inventor of various new opiiiioi. like Socrates. various perfons high in the conduct of affairs. but Kliyogg being fatisfied with hh own benevolence and being more than dubious 2I to the advantage of reading. esori0n:.hcr for himfelf. The underftanding of KHyogg was indeed lefs tl^jvated and diverfified than that of Socrates. but Kiiycgg equalled kina in an atlection to man in his fecial. magoanimooa as raodcls. and it may be afked. but refalotely furroounted almofi Socrates comevery internal infirmity and every external diScuIcy. but eve?y one has a private ftatioB to fulfil . hia family.explicitly and pointedly iaRruifled by the one. But each in bis turn may be ufefol . Socrates fought to render benevolence and kaowledgs v. fi:>3y even be the moft ufefuU It cannot belong to every one to legillate f. wherein Kliyogg ycfembles him ?-~Their charaifleis certainly diiTcr much 5 yet in much do they coirer^oRd. For indqjen" dencc of mtnd and for infleKlLility of character. We We * fFfjea ^Vihen Alcihiades tuaf ivounded and a prifoner. like a Socrates or a Confucius . and individual chara^ers. Socratea alone of the tvvo c on tefii plated the political intcreRs of man . and. and Kh'yogg. KHyogg nM only refiflcd popular clamors which fo often mi»ke the brave rrernblc. and ih. The one \v. nl Such IS the p^clurc of Socrates . with his perfecutors.i3 an enlightened teacher of philofophers .y. and Kliyogg preferved it difentang!«d from hypa. are.P R E F A C £. we miift not be thought to piace ihem upon an equality. Secretes hifiorian^ hgd hih theft ir€. Each fhunned public olTicesfrorn motives alike j'j ft iHable. Esch according to the extent ci his views. ?. Socrates attCinpted to purgR jhe notion of a Deity from pagan groffnefs .nd we muft ga« thcr ioftru^ion for ourfelvea from the other.iirahti rmifor hii ^upiU^ find the hji for hi: .. prcfeat and future . and order. and practifed generofity towards his iLmdercrs . which was all that his fjtuatioa demanded . bat KHyogg prad^iced hitijfelf a fevcre diligeace. was content with tnforcing a love of induui}'. and like hiro. each raay be confidcred Socrates was heroic in cle fiel-l of battle".

— He did not diftinguilh. and their nuiiber to be increafed. bleifing : labcripg hand. and the ambitious may think. wade an occafiona! ufe of books. In fhorr. had his rrind too much fixed on fi igle points. when he firft planted his own He might alfo have borne with more refignation and dignity vineyard. Let us employ the inftance of Kllyogg againft himfelf. fome are ferviceable. whatever the rich e8» which does not carry an intereft with it. He fergot that education. If his prejudices againft books were juft. that where outward circumllat:ce9 do not trouble. even the account of his own life would be fupprefTcd. lU8 la{^ iHnefb . Kliyogg perhaps had no opportunity to fee good books 3 and therefore of books. an antient and very Ori^i^ fe6^ prevails 5 which has encouraged many to affed great zeal for the outward forms ot for explanation. and the benefit of his own example thus be loft to the world. daily an^i . it does not follow that fets of family fermons. intercfting hy their matter and couched in forcible houfhold languagCi fo as to fuit at once both children and domeftics. like other men of limited families. lather than too gre^t. for experience (hews. fome noxious . and a feeling heart. obfervation wijl afcertsin. Among vegetable?. between knowledge and learning. he Had Kliyogg might perhaps have fnunned the dan- ger of drinking . have been primed in diSerent countries. and through ^ge. and requiring as little inilru^lion j that if bad books are ihe vvritten fpeech of the foclith. it feems. itiighc have been excufed. than religion and reading. than books. idle hour? neceHariiy occur through ieifure. have intlfnated th.it KHyogg was little friendly lo learning. which is indeed one of the mofl im- — Whoever truly pofTefTes this. fermoos for exannpie. yogg iTiight exclaim. and to a domeftic and a Wd — fobar life. and that there is no better tie to our homes.fiii r R E F A C r. that all farmers have not a mind as original as his own. good books are the written fpeech of the wife. who read at Vfa(t one ^o^i. is in effe^ among the reft to arraign attention to a knowledge of nature . a thinking head. becaufe of this mixture in In viewing an extenfive library. as well as the heads of Kllyogg. would not be ferviceable. fame indifferent. but Kli>oggi as a farruer. as well at ccnfured the ititewpaate ufe of reading. certainly would not have rejeded the ufe of the gifts ot nature. had he condsmned the majority or had he reproved tlw dearth of good books for perfons in inferior iitua* But to arraign lions. attention to all written knowledge. he is the happieft of men who has a portant branchi^s of fcience. which req^jirc to be filled up . ** how many of thefe things do I not want !" but even a cafe like this leads to no ©ther conclufion. of which unfortunately the number is too fmall. through ficknefs. Kliyogg's aveifnn to hypocricy and oftentation in religion. between books ufefol and not ufeful. than that good books reThough many quire to be ftlefted. a pious wan. that no better fupport is to be found on thefe occdfions. has ftored tip a ( Ttlix qui potuit rerum cegnofeere cevjui :) for nothing then paff. which all perfons are tlius permitted to read and to confider at Ieifure . comes next lo Zurich. Kliyogg. his bible. — itligion. which are of little ufe in faniilics .into which he for a time fell. a better inftruGed man than Klithem.

be < * * Uy them on but they therafclves will not But all their works they do for to rr.) yet at leaft the powers of thi'j cieaiive quality have become fufiiciently raanifeft in his hands. that I am not as *' other men arc extortioners. friendly to thofe who debafed and made a mall. conceived that a Pharlfce under Chrif^. fees of old. — who thus attacked the Phari-* to * Do not ye after the works of the Scribes and Pharifees. It was the piecife iliuftraiion of Virgil's * Labor * om7iia*vi»cJt Im/>rohus. — ** * < can : I fall twice in the Publican. Ihall enter into the kingdom of heaven . name have — indudry of Ktiyogg rofe peihaps beyond the necefiary ftandard few can propofe to themfelves to purfue only one occupaipn or to poflefs only one amufement. unjuft.ove them with one of their fingers. the one a Pharifee and the other a Publican. * I never knew ye s * depart from me. in every particular. in ailing under imprellions like thefe. 3— «: . Kliyogg's thirft for fuch labor was incelTant and implacable. but fmote upon his bread. of it. and operated through a long period of time.-. to make ftrenuous and Heady exertions appear in the light of a profitable duty. and For they bind heavy burdens and grievous men's (boulders . < Two men went up into the temple to htfeen of men* < pray The Pharifee flood . * and prayed thus with himfelf : "God I thank thee. And again. Lordy have call out devils we not prophefied in thy name ? and and in thy name done many wonder-: <• ful works V* And then will I profefs unto ihem. Kliyogg.*-"But if everyone cannot attain to Kliyogg'a paffion for fuch induftry. or even as this Publi. faying. that the induftry of Kliyogg was accompanied with judgn^enr. let it be obferved once for all. Luie xviii. form likewife a new xeafoDj fot leaving the chiet^ b * Set Matthc-jj xxiii. deferved the thanks of the clergy . Many will fay to roe * *' day : ** Lord.** And the would not fo mnch as his eyes unto hea- « < < * * God be merciful unto me a fin you.— The variety which occurs in the fituationa of mankind. this raaa went down to his houfe juftified. borne. and ifsefftfls bore down every thing before it." I tell week ofF. I give tithes of lift all I poflefs. (yi.PREFACE. — doeth the will of in that in thy my father which ? is in heaven. and economy . fot they Jay and do nor. for it the authority of his mailer Jefus. that it is neither pretended here to recommend his example. but he that yen. finee The Without going through the whole of Kliyogg's perfuafions in the conduct of his lifeand of his family. ye thatwcr^ iniquity*'^. and Phaiifce under Mofes. rather ihan^ And again more pointedly : * Not every one ihat/zi//) unthe other. without being received them. It muft be obfetved here. (of which however he fucceeded in infufing a portion into his family . tern. namely that of bodily labor. nor even to vindicate him from cenfure. had < ife and much . 19—13 . and we find that he It was tn(y to be a friend to religion. Handing afar ner.* to me. . was fiill woife than a He oppofed then ihcfe modern Pharifees . Lardi Lord. tt^JMaithcrQ v^^ . adulterous .

ot which he gave a third part with the el>leil daughter is luarii. more impraflicable to prote<^ it from robbery and inroads . der cultivation.5 P R E F A C F« of his fyftems to ihe quiet comment of the reader. ihe country will be found Tcfs populous within the fame extent . large fences.ake a it each cultivator has to provide for refcrvc of growioa family. flial! Inge a woodland for fuel.j a particular relation to the fituation of agriculture in the United States. th«t in the TJniied States as well as to ir. that the principal cuUvvatien of the farmer GDght to he extended beyoml a fiiiall portion of this very land. comparatively large pofTeffion . but the conchifion does not follow.— Kiiyorig thought that a fmall farm well cultivated. A m«n had two daughters. and with fmall tra(5t» aic thofe which raoft readily command z proTnpt pr. has a fenfible note in his edition of Virgil.Columella relates a iloiy from Groccinua.yment and when the fanner has become thriving. and a large vineyard. for \{ contratis are eafily made for large trails of land.igc and yet lie gathered as much fruit. mud each in cfFt«f\ bo thrown at a gjeatcr diftaoce . and more feed % when it becomes likewife the common fyllem of others in the counfry. was right by the force of his reajon . but \\viX } ou had better cultivate a fmall one . not prcpofed here to prefent a complete farming fyftem. proprietor. or by his teams . with another third for her pur: » and flill fonnd that his remaining third part produced as much as the whclc had done N'vhich could arife iiiio^ no ether caufe. by his laborers. : . than a large farm ill cultivated. under fuch a fydcm . is more proiUifiive and more profitable. the church. The elder PrufcflTor Martyn of Cambridge in England. but only to rehte the proceedings of an individual farmer. fuch a property is not eafily travelled over by th.) < : maxim as applied to vines. and (he artifan's (hop. the plea be allowed.ahU in all things* The for it is faraereferve will be applied to the chief of Kliyogg's farming ideas. nnd negligent habits will too certainly prevail in every ihir. Whatever was rightl'T' thefe. it demands more attendants. Hit be a faid. Afterwards he married the younger daughter."« The monopoljH will not the lefs readily convert his lands into cafih. it will be found.— He appears A large landed property kept unin this to hare formed ajull decifion.p:. Exiguum colito : (Praife large farms. that the roafter cannot extend his care of a very Inge fpot of ground. but we rauft not conceire that be was therefore reaJov.. as he did before. it is more diflfhxih to infpei^ it from the farmhoufe by the eye. large taxes. which utli in time f«^Jze even the moral character of the cultivator. becaufe the labor of cultivating tines isfo great. in confirmation of «his. frocn the Kirgc fize of each farm. he can then eafily extend his purchdfes to the fatisf-^^ion of the proprietor. implies a large inveftment oi capital in the foil. This is an imitation of a verie of Hefiod. rauft thence be kept in worfe repair . but cultivate fmall ' » « * * * < * He obferves. the neighbor. that ycu may admire the fplendor of a large vineyard. upon the data ingsvtia rura ones. and large ploughing* . roads alfo becoming longer. of Law. ihaa that h*3 tion. The meaning of the poet feems to be. that the rr^irkct. One of the agricultural ideas of Kliyogg will alone be noticed as bear3 .

Cut if a large fdf. as h. that if. that a field ought to be ^weaker than the hujlandman. i.bound with the means of making manure. not only as he was hun[>an.ored by powetr ci his rcafon who the rich . with little or no attention . as it often is in the United States. and never did a thing which was not founded on fome well-deliberated principle .upon being divided . Martja's Edition of the Georgicsi book 2. bequeathing tc the latelf pofterity. but as he wanted the help of exa-rples. /. perfonal worth. rennaincd to the lafl what he was in the beginning. liuh and modern*. and to public imprcvements . United States fufFers from the high is well known. being uncorrupted by fLztitxy and profpeiif}'. A few work particulats ftill remain to be told to the reader refpefling the - before him. as likewife been ufed by many Little fartners.i fays it was taken (rom a faying of * one of the feven wife roen. and was hof. feven acres was ihe * allowance to each perfon. If he bad fau!j?. undaunted perfeverance.'iron orijion'] .-i? be fdid here of Kliyogg. as . lea'vei The * That ist end tnjulgSj eaten by ths cattle drj\ t^ See Mfa Teung* AnmVs of /Igriculture^^KA.the parts will not profper for being feparated . and often uncommon. important.-*-The reafoning in this note applies to other farms. who examined the tendency of every acfion.s ta which the proverb applies. antient with a fubftltute for comnion fodder. the virtues largely predominated who raifed his forfune by the merit of his condo(^ . an. and cf book . It will be chiefly important however to think of his exto perfedl hira. civic viiiue.*— -5^? Dr. And i"urely we may pardon much to a man. and it the parts are treated in like raanner. abounding in chari ty and good works j and finally died at a good old age. [m. as well as to vineyards . That cultivation indeed certain that it is that the in the half is better than the 'whole. * Columella adds. * * *gil with great commenJatlon. and this will net be found one of the caf<. ICliyogg . who was a Chriftian after the manner of Jefus. and hitfffelf candid to the faults cf others . The woods toa i. . aher the expulficn of :he kings. who prcfcribed nothing to others. and a religion copied from ihe words - ofChrift. 41 2---4i3. who formed his charadier by the to more remains — well as virtues. 207. 2s well as by the freedom of the governmerir. than they * did in his time from large plantations. but it is equally favored by the land being cheap and by the taxes being low. after the mannei fuggeficd by prices of labor and other circumftances. an example of profeffional n^ill.n is kept.E ' F Jvi <W39 able to cultivate a third p«rt belter than ihe v^hole vineyard Columella mentions this precept ofViibefore it was divided. that. to which he did not firit hixfelf fabinitj who h vedthe poor. given. provided the labor on the farm is increafed at the fame time that the farm is divided. of advifers. and his faults werefojreThe latter may however be fortiroes even occafioned by his virtues. and ir was a proverb of the < Carth«>ginians. iiom which they derived more profit. who was a difmteiefted friend to the public . cellencies J which were numerous.

This * manner of rendering the narrative more rapid.iftiticaaon of the method. and Marn-ontel in the preface to his Moral Tales. not cafily be removedi and happily it will not be found a very important one. by the letter F. The latlon . . are Mr. and perhaps it has the fjme origin in point ol etymology. Various paffages in the following hiftory are in efFedl given in the form of dialogue. to bar^* ifli \\\zfaid he and jaiJ //jey from lively and animated dialogue. (or fterling) j j»nd the amounts exprelTed are generally copied from the Englilh tranlla. is troublefome only at * < fiift : As foon as we are accuftomed to it. T he word hoijeau has been traollated hujhel . I have * f»ad« the experimeuf in thefe Tales. and I think it has fucceeded. are new ones added to the prefent edition. without any examination. it makes the talent of readm^ w^//. Young's from the French trani^and thofc by ihe lettet E. . lion published by Mr. arc taken letter Y. in this refped^. The denominations of money ufed. though the change of the Speaker is often marked only by The editor had to copy what was before the ufe of iyroertecl comtnau him.xu R notes tcrminatfd ihofe by the E F A . In truth. gives the foUo^ving j. but no dependence can be placed on itsTcprefenting the fame nieafure as the Wincheftcr bulhel of England. the meaning of the word boijfeau differs exceedingly in variou? Tnis is an. Young.embarrafTtnent vhich canparts oi the continent of Europe. are generally Englifh. under the article Dialogue in the [French] Encyclopedia.— *• I propofed fome years * fmce." . appear to greater advantage.

read. as he proceeds. for end of the malters:|: — iefs p. b. beginning with the words. By reft^ this adl cf Kliycgg. His animated ejesf &c. the printer will be fcuni'i to have to anfvver for little ref- pef^ing The reader who detef^s the exiftence of others ftiU paff^d over in theyf. Kliyogg at lafl: became a ftrorg advocate for clover. 64. Page r^". and in !. for raw. the unwinnowed 22 and for the hft line. add. 172. Roman letters. that \ht root of the potatoe remains p. read. 1 The comparifjn is no unfavorable are net to fpelt fince an acre produces but four maLers of fpelt. expunge from 1.—-.) n. 123. b. ffons the bottonn. grain. no. Botte is a French word for a bundle (of hay or ftraw. 71.) St the end of the firft note F. corn^ in the countries cize^ from Great Britain. the weight of which labor ra^y not fall upon raan. 8. for the lad fentence in the note fubflftute what follows. . 8. p. laft line of the note. printp. read. ernta only ai aitefl the fenfe in the following pages. as a day of arc violated in which view the Sunday is valuable in the eyes of the mere Sure!/ then the preparation for the Monday's work might either have taken place on the Saturday night or on the Monday morning. without giving the example of premedirated bhor on the Sunday . as ten to fix : a \ziy cfTential difference . The occurrence cf the chief of thcfs errata being explain- ed in the preface. the n. to an acre of wheat. 25. for the third fentence in the ing the paffage in p. n. 89. read. laft line. which 1. His eyes . and coaiiiionly more of philanthrapift. 23 to 1.R R A T A. beginning thus. and confequently the comparative value of an acre of potatoes. in the note after j^Z/ooy and before the femicolon. read. in the fecond fe6\icn of the third p^rf. refifting the adionof fire and of the chetrical acids. fecond paragraph. confirmed his p. to thist read. is. infert. more in value than fix rauids cf wheat. We may likewife add. ar* here noticed. Iefs tranfparent p. after feafonf read. . with full thirty bortcs (or bundles.//^i will refiifyand allow for them. and p. three I. and twelve bufnels of unwinnowed grain. I. but upon cattle. 1. fubftitute what will be found in the fentence towards (the bottom 'of p. 27. 28. 20. facilitates his work by permitting p. b. after *whfat . p. 30. after except^ infert. 5. for hi him. E. 28 . the purpofes alfo of the Sunday. 22. 129. N. meaning in general Indian corn or maize. E. This corcolo- reftion mut^ he made throughout work . line 23 of the note. SUCH thcT. impatience.

B. 158. 129. not is author its where note. 102. 141* already pointed oot. fopply an K. colleftion ftrikc out. 100. In the p. In the note. 97.ERRATA. 140. In the p. 1. 198. and death. p. 44. In p. mUt title. an outnuard i54> an<i 184. 1. >o« fo>f correaion. 113. 1. for i»as not^ read. each at the end of % ^HWnawsp . for «. had not been be p. ftrike out. 184. 14 and 15. read. may application p. 8. read.

whilft others arrived at affluence. Thofe on the contrary. who have been didingaiQicd for undejllanding and prudence. as they went ' along. Socrates the antient Greek philofopher) the charadlers AVE * * ' ^ men of every profeflion. A . L upG72 his His Entrance Farm. The caufe of this of ^ ' ' ^ ' ' leemed worthy of particular fearch and examination . in the appendix. HIrzcl is the fpeakfr. aiiicles ' parr. 1 perceived that thofc who formed no regular plan^ and worked only from day to day. that among thofe engaged in the fame occnpations. and fo)lowed prudent and fixed plans 5 joining. ArtbuT jTeccn:! publication coicpiized this parr. this part of ihe prefent containing the tranflaiion of his/'r/? account of Kiiyogg. and two py ihrce Iboii uiih Seft. difference — + Dr. in the S. had only themfelves to blame for their want of fuccefs. li. SECTION Kliyogg^s Origin. who availed themfelves of fleady and well fettled maxims. I had oblerved with lurprife. and the pains which I employed in invefliij gating it were at length faccefsful. fome remained in poverty.THE RURAL SOCRATES PART THE FIRST. "^iuutig's compilaJion Mr. His j^oricultural Plans t * * ' ^ fladied with much attention (faid *Ih.

will be called in it Kliyogg (or Utile allies f) the only appellation by which he has been acters ! y known him. may at lead: aifure them. that whenever they fulfil the duties oftheii' flation with intelligence and affiduity . in the perfon of yames Gouyer . to the country. * Th\s pafTogc of it xs tranfiatcJ from the French tranfl. rendered their taflc eafier and Ihorter. offers a portrait. Whoever will iKidy in the fchool of the latter. if my efforts can excite a correfponding emulation among our farmers The jull praife bellowed on the man whom I have felevTted for a model. with the univerfal approbation and eilecm of mankind. exalted faculties of the human m/md. .Vcequeli. like him they will obtain the bledings of Providence. James Gouyer prefented to my admiring eye. and the honors paid to his fmgular talents. Every thing refpecfHn^ perceptible trace of his chaiacfler.THE RURAL SOCRATES. * * ^ ^ ' along. and irifinitely more lucrative. the moH. comprifes. The circumflantialdefciiption which I have colled:ed of his management. is moft important to be known for the improvement of hulbandry. Happy (hall I be. Ufter lies in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland. E. He was pointed out tome by M. void of pretenfion and ofcentation. will increale his fortune with conilant fa- tisfadion to kimjclj and in cbfiaiice oj every thingJ^ I had the good fortune to meet with one of the charwhich Socrates thus defcribes. though othfr fsfli- gcs cited by Dr. every thing which. The extraordinary perlbn who is the fubjecH: of the following work. the combirration of whofc parts is ^o admirain his leafl: own — ble. and order to exachicfs . in the parifh of Uiter'r.. a native of Wermetfchweil.-' in my opinion.nlon . Hirzel have been difcovereii there. aflidaity to attention. upon the plan of Socrates. and inch in fhort as they come out of the hands of nature. tlic oiiglnaj not being found as yet in the works of Xenophon. ^- E. in a (late of noble and interefling fiinplicity .

for Contentall that he poiGTefTes. and our afTociates remained joint heirs to a tra£i: of land of about ninety-fom' acreSj* ^yhicli was thus divided : large.coo. that I | fhculd feel much diflatisfied were the fmaliadded to the original. Kliyogg has fix children. or a fuperiicial knowledge of books.] The Engliih acre contains 43. who are all. * Acres. j . It liad a mortgage upon it for half that amount at the time The of canton of Zarich. the proportion between the Zurich and Engliih will be. {"uppofing the Zurich acre be to 33'. and owes nothing to art. the two next preferred money . The charader of Kliyogg is not that of a man corrupted by frequent converfe with the inhabitants of fome neighboring city . as 10 to 14.560 Englilh feet : therefore. At the death of their /ather. vary from 30. He. If the Englifh foot be divided into looo pa/ts. except one daughter. and to be defpifed for affuming. — — Meadow Arable Pafture g.000 royal F. and his brother five . Y. the family inheritance was divided amongft five fons* The eldefl chofe an cftate for his fliare . His brother lives with him 2 their families. and who has been led to afPame. though form but one houfhold. manners ill-fuited to the fituation of a peafant : much lefs is it that of one. The proportion betwcei^ the Paris roy'sfl foot and the EngHfh foot 1$ this . the Paris one wJU be 106S [that is nearly as 15 to 16. fqii^Tc feet. has made a pretender to learning* Kliyogg is obliged to nature and his own reflexions.roun-d Acres Wood Total 94 value of this farm might be ^75^* fleriing.000 to 36. whom the fociety of men of letters. ed with his lot. mere infants.THE RURAL SOCRATES. in the I'lhe differei^ce of the feet makes it lefs ihao a» ^ is to ^j^ E. he refufes every office^ even in the vileft particle lage where he refides.

Heaven beheld his perfevcrance with a fmile of complacency . Punduality in payment keeps his mind at eafe. where there were confumption. united produced partoftlie country. the health and vigor of their conftitution incrcafes . He reflcded on the bed manner of improving the property. many to feed and few circumftanced. without the aid of flrangers or contratSling frefh debts. confiderably to augment his fortune. His children arc abundantly fupplied with food atid raiment . that our prudent cconomifV contrived. Eefidcs this. whole produce znuft previoufly raife an annual rent-charge for the payment of intcreft . be able to afTiil in rendering his labors ftill more fuccefsful. produce : They animated him with rcfolution to redouble his zeal and application to furmount them. how could they fee any other prof- of their •w^ith the — ped hazardous fituation ? burthcned. with the management of a farm.'/^ THE RURAL SOCRATES. Indeed. and returned them a part but by adding a payment to be made to the youngeft icn. but rarely do. muft occafion cultivation of the a farm of fmall alliflance towards hiring laborers alfo apneceffity of fuch extent.—-This undoubtedly appeared a heavy incumbrance on fo fmall an eftate . the debt flill amounted to 547l» 6s. unlefs at an immoderate expence. and purfued it with alacrity and checrfulnefs. father's death. that it feemed impoHiblc to bring it into conA family fo dition. it was charged payment of the younger brothers' fortunes. and envy itfelf was forced t6 acknowledge. and the carried in on that manufadlures ly advanced from the obflacles. in their — — • 9sA the overplus which * • \ih economy Aipplie*^ enables him . and the land To impovcridied and negledted. The fuch were greatwages of peared indifpenfable. and he has all imaginable reaion to hope that they wilL in a few years. One of thefe died foon after. that our two brotTiers muft loon fink under it. and the neighboring farmers judged with great probability. as they were.. Such that efFe<a on the mind of KHyogg which they ought. and afford great to work.

The firft price of thefe is commonly 4I. they are in good plight. 6d. 6s. the fecond at 2I. and the two fmallefl at 2I. but from an article more to be depended on. and yield plenty of milk. He requires the fame quantity of hay as an ox befides oats and flioeing. his cows annually eat each two loads of hay. 3d. he fays. His oxen arc large and well made. I2S. ys. 6d. pd. ss they fall in his way.THE RURAL SOCRATJES. fmall as it is. / /I ' 4 I i2 ^ ^y^ U-I Hogs In all lo according to the breed his diflridl . f fiim to extend his improvements. 4d. and. JEIis cows are middle fized. and the allowance to each a load of hay. and lay out the money in oxen. According to his calculation. m — ' — not from grazing therefore that Kliyogg expc^lg advantage. . 3d. depends on the conftitu-» tion of the animal j and the rife and fall of the market. the increajc of dung for manure. and fatten them during two months and an half for the market. bat well fed . 9s. Kliyogg finds it anfwer to buy two or three lean bullocks every year. It is • able. which may be eflimated at il. 6d. in reality. The profits of the dairy are confumed in the family. Their allowance is three loads of hay per ox. fevcral new pieces of ground. is. and even to purchafe. a beaff. Kliyogg finds his horfe more expenfive than fervicc* and feems determined to fell him. A horfe. 3s. Kliyogg's live ftock confided of Oxen Cows Horfe 3 ' . exclufive of grafs in the fuminer months. fo that his profit. is a very expenfive animal. The felling price of a fat bullock is 61. whereat .— The finefl cow he values at 3I. to the amount of a piflole yearly. The value of a horfe dccrcafes with years . and cod about Though they are hard worked^ 5I. 2s. is no more than a piftole .

snd has fo well fucceeded. that.i-y5. fecondly. for family ufes .rd« Tte pjve. when old and pafl labor. office He worked theon. . which is the lofs of fo much to the The — : — — f-* farc. may be In a fatten- word. work .f nji^iereas . a pi'odigious fuperiority to oxen." fays he. that two oxen may be maintained for one horfe . he colle& yearly. He very rationally confiders ^le lafi article (or manure) as the bafis of the improvement of the foil confequently he has applied the whole force of his care and indullry towards its accumulation . manure. milk and butter. advantages which Kllyogg derives from his catfirfl:. 'Ms overflocked. thirdly. them. and almofl tempted me to believe my philofopher a man of paradox and fxngularity. the ** farmer is forced to fend his cows. But his explication of this aenigma. as the dang of horned cattle. from his fmail number of beafls. '' When a farm. THE RURAL SOCRATES. arid perform'- relative to How particularly judiciout therefore cnuft be his idea* of the matter !—The proportion of tivo to on. to graze on commons at a diftance from 5* their ihcds . ihat horfedung ^ by no raeans fo beneficial to land. '' This conclufion appeared to me at firfl very extraordinary . about a hundred tumbrel This is double the quantity he gathered the Ioads»t firfl year of his farmmg (which yet was equal to what Lad been done by any hufbandman in the village) and kd him to conclude. abfolutely dccifivc that it is the difcoverf was greatly wajiied in hulbandryt and fhould be kept ^k fneau/f^ as a poiiU of knowledgeY ©fa proporiion ^ Tofl»iHre2a. he computes. . it may be added. fed them. himfrif. an ox. '' that the generality of farmers *' have too great a proportion of live ftock to their *' ground. in the fummer ** months.commons rc- " duces determination of our cultivator is very remarkable. ed aiid fold for his mailer's tle are. fatisfied and undeceived me.* and.rty pf ^hefe . who have an opportunitj^ of making a choice between horfcs and oxen for the works of huibandry» *aFhi» peafant attended to the minutiae of the comparifon with an accuracy l>e ^Thk attended to by ^ every M onattainable in his fuperiors. and ihouU all Englidi farmers and others. benefit.

7 ^' '' ^' *' ^' ' duces ence. liuer — The writer : oi this v. but winter food knew Large Tock? of fhould certainly for be provided.— but how a rcan Ihculd in general overnock hiaifelf in winter. If therefore hay is ths orilv food. and ufed only fa6V^ that many of our farmers keep more ! * Tfils pnrt of Kltyo£g*s econorriy is very particular ! The S^ifs firmers muft manage very differently from the Britifh ones. Young re flefi that turnips in countnes where (he accompanied w^ih fnow which remains till fprir. cattle are the {oul of good hiffnandry . but fj very fi'tghtly. The misforiune in England is. I not. bad food is the fouice of an infinite variety of diilempers/^ In tlui maiiner the judicious Kliyogg pointed cut a principal caule of the decline of agricukuje in this country. the overflocking is explained j but the hufbandry is wretched.one can difcover nothing of their management. Y. The cattle being enfeebled for want ofwhoiefomiC nourlfhment. deprived of part of the manme they require.^ 7^HE IIUHAL S0CIIATE5. and frequently die of difeafes eahly accounted for Thefe are melancholy tiuths which e^^perience too \\ cll evinces !* 'Oar fagacious hufbandman keeps no more live frock than he can amply fupport with grafs and hay Irom his own fields. to be (o overflocked wiih caule. J cold fetsin caib. (particularly towards the fpring) lofe their milk.. have not the firre advantages 'a hicb they pofTvfa in England* of which the climate is mild : E. or tlicir laboring flrength.g. It is a ccitain — cattle than they can conveniently fapport in winter. the rot keepinj. which ought to have been entirely appropriated to the life of the dunghill. and to remedy tliis inconvenithe manger mufl be filled with freHi grais they are biouplit home at nigiit . . Doc3 Mr. without fuppofii g the moil egregious folly. thai.x»iv turnips sre mentioned. 'i he arable and miCadow lands are. * '' '^ '' Scarcity of hay mvifl imply a call for flraw . The (traw is carefully prefer ved. . by this bad management. when their miik . which occviilons a necelTai ily diminution of winter riores. [Qnery.ork does not it fiifficiently : explain ths is article of winter food : I apprehend is hay alone all ihe ^. — enough . as without it no improvement of foil can beexpcded : befides which.

tliat can ferve fojThe finall dead boughs and pointed leaves of litter. hours. afford plentiful materials for this . Utter. and efpecially in long winter evenings. he prean empares thefe faggots for the purJDofes intended ployment fo little difagreeable or fatiguing. to procure fifty loads more of marnre. Kiiyogg goes into his wood wM*i:h a liCuge bill to prune the fupernuracrary branches of fa* even of thofe which he thinks it ufeful jiud j>ine trees boldly venturing to cut the lower dioots of to leave clofe to the trunk. oani a phnty of liucr» p'sfikcs^-v . and waits as a fmgular bleding. in autumn. trees Thefc he binds into young faggots and carries home . v^ithout increafing the number of his cattle* 2n profecution of this defign. fir trees in particular. laying them. of all branches of labor. mofs^ and rnfhes from his ground. while the Inrger and tougher boughs arc rcfervqd for fuel. he regrets the want of allidants in this the mod . during thp rncoTi's increafe. . It is^ sirriBzing qoantity of »ht» a a^^'^ can coar> manufc th''(«T>aybe raifed by fjch Y. By this method he amadcs many proper materials for good manure.* He is attentive alio to gather all the dried leaves. imail boughs away from the larger ones . of which he it is fo liberal in his liallS. and he employs in this occupation the greater purpofe part of the tia:ie he can ipare from his other work. that it He begins wiih cutting the ferves him for recreation. which is fo much real •' A moil excellent praiPore I'lft tliat r?nnot he too much aihnireJ. tcj be ufed for litter . that are commonly — : . placing them under a died At Icifure till a proper feafon for piofccuting his work. in little heaps. that. that the beads are baried ia up to the knees. compoil: dunghill appears to him an objrvft of fo great importance to the imprcvement of laiid. — : iuffsred to rot ufelefsly in the woods. the time when his children d^all be capable of contributing tiieir So thoroughly is he jjerfuaded that he wants onihare ly laboring hands. with the pointed leaves of thefe trees.8 onl}^ for THE RURAL SOCRATES.

. It is known that the refinous and aromatic juices contained in the prickly leaves of pines are powerful enemies to putrefa£lion : but what obfl:acles are not to be furmounted by reafon feconded by induftry ? Kliyogg fubdued them all. who had experienced how defc^ive this method was. he feldom removes the litter under a week. muft be prejudicial to But Kliyogg afTured me. f js To Kliyogg^ this difcovery an ineftimable treafure. which I my felf could namely. experience contradicted this . It is placed in leparate layers upon the dunghill . The opinion is farther verified in Zellweguer's defcription of the mode of hufoandry iifcd in the canton of Appenzell. . and are converted But into manure though of a very indifferent quality. and thanked God that his beads had always been remarkably healthfni and vigorous. They fcatter there dead branches of fir and pine-trees in great roads to be tram- pled by cattle and paiTengers . if a day mal . real lofstohufbandry.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and of the different flrata of his dunghilL In regard to the firfl article. has fucceeded in what at firft feemed-hard to namaly. that thofe where the fermentation is fooncft to be CKPeiHied. fo methodized. that the health of the cattle. at the is attended to fame time. by obferving certain rules in the preparation of litter for his cattle. Kliyogg. firewing frefh upon the top once a t — by which means it becomes impregnated with aniand acquires a very evident degree of fermentation before it is removed to th^ dunghill. This exa£i:nefs is equally confpjcuous in the management of the litter when taken away. by which means they acquire a beginning of putrefa£lion.— An obje£lion may arife to this pra£lice. comfortaand ble. Nor does this method prevent cleanlinefs. falts. : conftant fupply of frefh litter cattle are. more warm and the . that the flrong effluvia arinot avoid making fing from the fermented litter. of which we were either ignorant or forgetful. converting thefe very materials accomplifh into excellent manure.

by h«i fcd^ion ^» of that . -a ftate of putrefcence .ilarity that appears in the prad^ical hufbandiy of our iudirious peafijnf. as to keep his dunghill in a conftant flate of humidity. The celebrated M. he has nothing to do but to preferve a conTo facilitate ilant fermentation by frequent waterings. or more flow.-. could not be attainable in two months. de Reaumur. what Is here related incomparable work of Dto Francis Hoire%> in'itled. he pours in a pretty confiderable quantity of boiling "Water . he has funk near his dunghill feven large fquarc pits. in his treatife on hatching eggs in ovens or hot houfes.*— But as the expence and labor o£ fuch a — work • Were with part 1 the encourtgert of agriculture to compare 1. tbcy would certainly beftruck with the exaO fiir. that when the heat of the hot.bed decreafes. without boiling water. he is afliduoufly attentive to the prefervation of a certain degree of moifture. Home. the Principles of Agrkulirne and Vegetation. gn ay accelerate it U autumn he litters hia the next two cattle with flraw during two months months he litters them with twigs and fpines (or pointed leaves) from fir and pine trees then flraw again. putting fome thoroughly fermented cow. The fagacity of our philofopher has explained to him. this. efiential to £0 anany operations. that to obtain a manure thoroughly rotten. K^liy^gg <3ircover9d ihfrri by the light ©f oiaiOfe . ruflies and dried leaves 5 then twigs and fpines y and £0 as fol- on alternately.a# THE RURAL SOCRATESk the putrefaction of others where .. as well for the purpofes of vegetation.dung at the bottom of his wooden boxes. and then fills up the pit with frefh water from his wells : this brings on. obicrves. in three weeks. which. which are planked with wood in the form of boxes* In thefe pits he keeps the prolific water. it fnould be watered to increafe fermentation. and the Dolor's precepts given as new obfer« vstioct. The regulation of his compofl dunghill is lows—Left the fermentation fhould be totally fuppreC* fed or even checked by drought. Firll:. He has thus a perpetual fupply of corrupted water.-In the beginning of .

The fuccefs of this method of watering his dunghill. that he believes all foils. it will. page 6r. work ihight far exceed the profit that." fays he.e h^^ isiMtation. and covered with earth. at a pro* adjoining orchard an convey whatever to quantity of water he has height. "foma praflical obfcrvations with regard to tke this is ' " ** *' *' in affair of confidera'islc msBagement of dunghills . fot importance. he dug a well in his proceedings. which gi\es an cafy opportunity of moiftening the dunghill frequently. and there allowed to thtowiion th« duoghill.vtxt (eem to be very ignorant. There is likewife a trough at the declivity of the dunghill to receive the water that drains from it .** If the urine of Jiorfe* uation. with the fame view to conveuiency. to prevent evaporation . in a great it : Kliyogg has thought meafure. reduces both s '' going in his language. preffed down. and are themfelves raif»d to a confiderablc height. and pours flagnated water on them everyday. is the beff-. without robbing the foil of its fhare of the ftagnant water.'' which a is fundamental maxim in all way to work In purfuance of it. Dry vegetables require a comfiderablc degree of moifture before they can be brought to putrefy. He Jays them in clofe heaps. very mijclj quickfs tl'. This may be prevented by having hollow places with **clay bottoms at the fide of the dunghill. I think donghills are genaraliy kept too dry. without ufing them for litter. ** Hence Slahl. heat in accelerating putrefaction. and from whence it may be rcftored ** again by pumps to the dunghill at pleafure. *• A hollow fitnsoch moifture •* is likewife bad. the (horteft . till converted into rich mould. to his bleaching. fbggefted an idea of putrefying finall twigs of fir or pine. Too ——And «nd tarn ftall-fed cattle is carried into ftale. F.ground. Sec. "there *• are ferments for the potrefa^ive fermentaiion as well as the Tinoas. and in which hf. as they are commonly placed on a high fitwhich will retain the raoifture. this he calls. Corpus in pjitredine exi^enSi Sec. per occafion for by a wooden pipe dire^Slly into the copper* His refervoirs of flagnant water arc funk below his flails and ftables. Kliyogg is Co perfectly convinced of the efEcacy of of a means. into which the foperfluoag «* iroirTorc may be allowed to run.THE RURAL SOCRATES. fceowlejge ** in cbymitlry !— ** Let us make. . if proper refervoirs. uation." again.

The fertility inpatficular didric^s of Peru. Thus far the French tranflator. than can be ac- much warmer than counted for from difTerence of foil or labor. ers gather is ftill — greater i There all are fields where the reap- tour or five hundred for one. ^gypt. • which to obfervcthar where the foil fs irrpregnated with on the contrary.e. and fon^c particular provinces of India and Perfia j— and we fnail be convinced at leaft. The never failing harveits of Sicily. Herodotus allures us that the lands of Babylon produced fro»ii two to three hundred ears of corn for one. that all things confuiercdj.erland which is frniiful : it is the fucceeding or. if we extend our refiexions to thofe countries where the climatep without being excclTively hot. But it is not the hot furhmer in Swit? — sr. that in Lybia. dry fummer will be fucceeded by that an ex^ a remarka- ^' Heat. ivhere h yet we (hall find a nmch nacre our own . the proportion was one hundred and fifty i Chili produces from fixty to eighty and a hundred. about yield three (heaves inflcad of two : would harvefl fuing The event confirmed the prediction. *' putreliest bly fruitful one. and therefore gives room for fuccelTive crops in the farrte year. Piioy fays. ca. which it would be well to perfed. increafe its fterility.vegetation. Lt^ng continued — .which favors the fucceeding crops i but it is at the cxpencfi of the firft crop. hfallo'w occurs during the h?!af. The fatmer cannot be too careful in examining the quality of his lands by the u{yal expeiiF." fays Kliyogg. ibau they do in the colder clinsates o{ iha r:i:'th» E. warmthv — may be rendered ferlile by iremely hot Upon this principle * he infers. He informs us. Let us call a look towards China. that the enmiddle the me. and vigorous. He repeated the lime thing inamed lately after the drought of lad year. F. as in our own. joined to a njoifl: foil or air. For the fame rcafon inferior foils in hot countries. as well as the ancient fertility ofCorfica and Spain. jnents. Mr. long to great and growing weather ia equivalent to two or three fummers in the courfe of one and the fame ^'ear . attributes theextraori^inary frcitfulnefs ihefands of Senegal to the efl'efts of heat. Let us recolle(5l the former teriiliiy and populatioji of the Holy Lind. are there canr. confequence of this opinion he told In and enriches.is foilsj THE RURAL SOCRATES^ even the moft barren. if feconded by moifiurfp yield more i\\ a ^ivcn crop. prolific vegetation The of cerfln hot countries is ovviiig heate. or of iflclefatigablc laboring hands in thofe countries. and part of northern Afri- welikoown .ot be fo great a proportion of manure. fife will." of the winter I75'9. of kinds «f giain. that he fowed ieveral forts of leguminous (t<td^t which afforded twelve crops in a year. i We (hall be fenHble of the truth of this obfcrvation of our judiciou* pcafant. Adof amfonj an ingenious naturalill. It * may be neceffary troo.

for rich manure. 1761. It will even appear that the earth has been more lavilh in her produtStions this year than the preceding. cut from the jRirface of the paflurc or fallow land where the grafs is very luxuriant. l j Vfhlch is veriiied in the prefent year of plenty. which come He finds the eife£l of to about 2S. if allowances arc made for the north winds.-— What a pity that this examiner of nature ftiould be a ftranger to the ufe of the boring inftriiment in thefe inquiries I ^ — x\s a fubflitute for marie.— He like* wife found in turf. ydTheie he mixes with fix tons of peat afhes. The preparation confifts in expofing the turf for two years in open air. from a fmall gravel . proper materials. this fpecies of improvement appeared to him fo defirable. — — Not fatisfied with this. he turned his attention to othWith this view he er methods of enriching his land. Kliyogg never fuffers prejudice of any kind to lead him to the rejection of new experiments/ — . the twenty bufhels. of which I Ihall give a circumflantial detail when I defcribe Kliyogg*s manner of preparing his land for corn. his induflry dii- covered a method of improving land that anfwered very near the fame purpofes. took a journey into the bailiwick of Regenfperg. which cofl him il. it being found in — abundance below Laguerberg. He buys every yearTeven tumbrel loads of dung from hi^ neighbors. v/here they ufe marie with great fuccefs . that at his return he made many unfuccefsful attempts to difcover marie in his own neighborhood.till it is entirely decayed . thefe two kinds of manure anfwerable to the price. Having made flriiSfc inquiry into its properties and the manner of ufing it. when it may be fpread with fuccefs on meadows-or corn-fields. when well prepared.THE RUR^L SOCRATES.to all the influence of the learons. which prevailed in the beginning of ApriL indefatigable cultivator does not bound his improvements within the circle of that quantity of ma-* nure which his induflry procures from a fmall num- Our ber of cattle. los.

vjih that of the beft hufbandmeo from the beginning of the world to thi^ ^ay J and have found it true from ihe proof of foms hendredi of parti"^ |M^ar «xptrijncnts on bsth grarelly ar. than * by frequent ploughing or digging . them all deferving of attention^ and He apprehends. Thus a light foil.. from a fermentation excited : Is not this effed more likely to be produced from the facility with which it penetrates according to its nature. in fuch cafes. be deterrnin^id by opinioni Kliyugg's teftimony In this aCair coincide* totally unbinffed by />/^r/»j. lands are more improved. by proper manure. and he has no doubt of a field f moderate expence. Let it be granted to Tull^ that manure has no other effed than to heat and render the earth more porous. — teilifie* U contributes to fertility . It would be for the advantage of every farmer. that all mixture of earths^ "where their nature Sffirent. I - . in gratitude to the communicator. than from afimple divifionof thefe particles by an operation merely mech:^nical ? It may likewifc be added. he can conto it of a different quality. an Jinglifti writer. Jby a red clay. attempts to prove the fufficieney of the latter alone.14 biat thinks liis THK RURAL SOCRATES. and with lefs trouble. the fundamental bafis of agriculture confiils. even where the diitin^ion lies only in color . according to him. notwithlianding Tuil. It is tiiefe different modes of procuring manure^ it. that the oily and faline parts contained in manure are and in the continual pains to obtain — extremely conducive to the nouri(hment of plants Nor js it lefs certain that an union of tliefe two methods of improvement. in <S:c. is the uUimate perfection of hulbandry. that in the opin^ ion of our judicious cultivator. In truth. nay.d clayry bani». if he : had • Thofe parts of rural economlca which have iVivided the opinion df *hc fuperior clafa of cultivators. will by them be very feldom determined i Their ingenuity Is (oo great to admit of eniifc conviiJJon . tlic fmalled particles of earth when in contact with them . The unprejodiccd part of th« world ftioiild. general. is improved by a a f sndy foil by a clayey one \ a blue clay heavy one improving if. at a trive to carry refli mould .

and the example has fince been happily copied in rcany other univeifities of Gerrrany. is an an exccJIcnt financier In manf defail of praf^ice. and the heattis and moralfes of Pruflla. [Without entering into a wide detail of tae caufes which have farored This monarch profefforfhip of Rural ^l?e improved ftate of ggricultore feen in obferve that fome cf the^i fiSTtgation in may have arifen fome parts of Germany.ds ai« made I^HI «* richer. Vol.his down by Tull and imitators. the farmer?. hi» foB. tbs economy which bad been feea in Europe". 18O. and th» the fo •yidatiorr^ the opuUnre . reigning Tonne years^ the fands of the Marche of Brandenburg.— The king. pafs thrcbgh any of the provinces.p." feld.^ which has fubfi'^cd jn confequence of which the latter has furnished to the Auftrian domsnlocjt not only many improvements in agiiculture. covered with a plentiful harvcft of the fineft corn in the \7^:Id. yrar 1727. E. of which the wifdom was unperctived till after mairjr •• years. Ihould manure them fulHciently. after ** *• tended to the very gates of Berlin. thatesover the would produce t'^ — the fatistat^ion fee. according to the rnles after having iirft well dreffcd them with proper manure. This monarch had underftand•* ing to know (and all finartciers ought to be proud of receiving inftrtic « tioos fror« a mafter) that the «roft ftubborn and infrnile foils are roeliJV «• rated by manuring and ploughibg . ed from the covneclio. money by prircJpal portion of Germany. that agriculture cfiate. reacftaijlinied principle cf his politicaf and ptofperity of a'. thought they could not pay their ceuri better. converted into excellent land by « (Political Inllitutes.id made reguUencouraged it in the ftrongeft mamc **tion8 in its fivotw. 15 Icifure to plough his lands .] Another a'ifohas proceedbetweenAufuia and Flanders j . «< «* Pruffia. F. and who applied ooanj greai ideas to the it foncd very jaftly in making fyftem. by Baron Bidkin'! of economical enchantment. ** He — <• «» «* •* proprietors of eflatcs in lands. Another fourc-is to be found in the impofubility of gaining •'. He therefore infifted that the farm«rs of his demefnes.T^E RURAL bid laid SOC!lAT£!l. that thefe dunghills fpread fields <* ** *' ' -' He accordirgly ha^ a c?op of doc^tts. and that rich lar. but feme capital in monera When improvements were efiahl-fhed ia fotKC diilil^^iSj tbey gradually <si-» f«flded thsoifclve* to o?bpr?.the gentlemen. founded in the nnlveffuy of Halle. than in placing — A <• *^* a large dunghill before ibsu doors <' powdered courtier might freer! ingly deny to this economical attention a place amorgft the royal vjrtae* I but the fagacioas monarch was fenfible. King of •^'refprfts. in the ii\%. The conftant attention he paid to the ohfervance of thcfc regu«* iations completed their' falutary efFcOs.* W« *"Fredctic William. i. fapplicd all that was wanting to bring this nobie plan to perfection j and we have feen in a very (hort fpace of time. the fandy def^rr. we may from the fources here m^tiocj- ed. and When the king was expefted to plough them deeply and frequently. nay evefithe peafaots.

* moreover in a village adjacent. that the hay was commonly double the quantity of the after-grafs. a meadow acres for 4I. will require. asibey cannot be overflowed. Aqku An orchard (of v/hich the grafs is mowed and given to the beads in the (table during the fummer. according lo Kliyogg's computation. foils he His meadow land is all flat. E. per ann. which is already greatly improved. and he thinks the latter fort of manure anfwers by far the bell: for meadows which cannot be overflowed. though their dimenfions were exaiSlly the fame ? He imputed this deficiency to negled of manuring and labor. and divided into the following pieces. and (hould engage all fafwho have the opportunity of getting peat. An acre of land. fiiall now take a view of the confequences of the Kliyogg and their agreement with the various of labors cultivated. i6s. yielding as under : We Loads.) meadow at the bottom. which is almofl He of three — I was curious to know why the long meanot funiifli fo much hay by a load as that in the Winikin. . as he had wanted time to finifli them properly. excellent a manure. The hires tv/o lall require manure. foers + This proportion u a point of confe^aence. _ divided into be watered ^ Q I A five pieces.i6 THE RURAL SOCRATES. producing in the Another Wlnikin^ producing 4 4 IS m 27 R. for two years. or 20 tons of peat afliest . 3d. one third. this is nearly two loads per acre. to make the full ufe of (« Y. producing in which may all hay and after-grafs 12 8 7 6 A long meadow. It ought to be obferved. ten loads of dung. His indullry has enabled him to augment his crop of hay eight loads. improved to the height. — dow did — — Laying * Only 4 acres being cufr.

is. and the method of condu(3.h it iray deDoHt jn the bedfi ^ 15 f The difEcuhy h this obfervation of A — — C of . while that which paffca over different lands. wimfe furface conftdcrar mometer. with particles of tufo (or calcarious grit-ftone) or comrade a chaiybeat or other vicious quality. not perhaps great as niay be imagined.)<. greatly depends on the properties of the water. vvl. When this is too great. that the difference is very immaterial between the crops of This.THE RURAL SOCRATES.— It is alfj to be remarked.noxious paiticica. From eight to ten degrees above freezing. where any perfon that will call on me* may fee the vaft difference between a meadow in the parts watered and unwatered. Y. the befl: .* deed. which may render it injurious to the meadow over which it is to be fpreadOn the other hand. fovirce : and that af^ream which from the length of its courfehas confidtrably augmented its original heat or cold. but of undoubted importance : I experienced it in my Su0blk farm. according to the feafcn. a temperature nearly the fame in all feafons. according loReauwur's. will acquire. near Tts. there may be inftances of water being found perniciouB to adjacent rweadows. furniflies 2iJecond me^us> dF improving the foil To extremely advantageous. it has been proved. Spring-water is. efpecially towards the fpring • when the water gradually melts the ice that may h?ve lodged . deep fpring prcferves near its fource. ir. if La. One inar rjaturally conclude. efpccially vyhen it can be procured immediately from the fpring . the fiFecis would be too precipitate. therBut a dream. the greateft variation. in proportion to the diftance. nsUft be more hurjful than beneficial. for he obferves that it infenfibly decreafes in virtue. and yet ftrong€r in my prefent Hertfordihire one . hat that degree of temperature already faid to be inherent in water. and prove highly pernicious to the young blades of grafs. I confefs that I could affign no fatisfa£tory t reafon for *This is a part of hufbsndry (trangely negMeci in England. as all the oifeer four unwatered ones in the fame field. that the water beft (lakulaied for enriching a foil. an incseafe of heat in proportion to its diftancc from its fource. it turns it yellow and infures it in many refpef^s It is alfo cuftomary in fome countries to overftow meadow land in winter. in Kliyogg's opinion. bly exceeds its depth. that water takea near to its fource prsferves its original purify . that fjr from refi-efhing the grafs.ay be inipregaated in its couife. during the fummer folftice.ing it over the ground. ina meadow well v/atered or well manured.ying meadow under water.. %! if this operation were left to the aflion of the fun. to fupport Kliyogg's by philofophlcal reafoning. but falubrious to thofe more reuiOtely Ciuaied 5 Orting tc. I had thia year (1769) as much hay fronm ofFone watered acre.

and commonly lofi — . are peculiarly diflindl in his own mind. but this perfpicuity. but did not think myfelf authorized to difputs the truth of his obfervation . which exifls only in his own underftanding. a facility in em- bracing luminous views of a fabjecSt. fnn'ji ^*' it ii confide rahlc cxaditefs. and even retains them in a forcible.VoI. to have his own conceptions clear . thus at length becoming purified. as of fand or gravel over which it run?. and at Pari. correfponding. though at the fame time a vague manner . to the average cffedla of the lound. joined to a perfcvering attention and an intire freedom from prejudice. and de#» Icend to the flnalled: minutiae with great precifion . found in him thofe qualities necefTary to form the accurate obferver : namely.—. forgeta that this temperature viiries in difif rent climares. I have only to regret.by Brocas and Hu ^ibolt of St. He makes himielf mafter of the dimenfions of his obje<rt:. does not enable him to communicate exad ideas to others .) ^F. it does not Item advifeahle to oveitiow any land with fpring water cither during the excefiive hear of uimmer. i. that he is not more anxious to pre^fcnt his ideas with dillinc'tnefs.28 THE KVKAL SOCRATES. elevation''. not having regulated them by any fixed meafure and therefore the notions of it which he is able to communicate. in fpeaking of the temperiKure of f. (fold at Zurich byHeideggucr and Company. having. for fiich a diminution. are always confufcd and incomplete. hcac through ihc ycai^in the vUot whsrc ihc fj^ring ii E» . or the infenfe cold of « inter. and to determine in all his obfervations the preciie proportions and degrees of things. I'he Annoracor here.— Kxcellent rennarks on the watering of lands are to be met with in a roe- But iDorial which carried the prize given by theEconomical Society ot Berne.>rings.rt/^^ and poIiQied by art and application* The ideas of the perfon who poffefles only natural genius. It is fufficient indeed for his own purpofes. and it is in this particular. but the party neither gives himfelf pains to deveiope nor to attach words to them. Jaqnes Srrett.i turcs . on all other occafions. and expo* inferred in their JournaI.that natural genius difFejs fromthat which is f^////t.

excellent — The experience is remark portion to that which which cannot be too often repeated to at! from praftical agrtcultnrc. and deflroys it entirely. but in vvhai articles f and in what proportions ? How coj-liafd li his knov?!edge '^hefe fefpcd^« ! Y. and return to the detail of Kliyogg's obiervations on the watering of meadows. may likewife be of the worft confequence to a meadow .* I i^ to thought it incumbent on me engage him to correal thefe defeats. Few things then belter mark 2 knowledge of things and of the world. or form a more iroponant qualification in a teacher. He finds that water^from mofTy grounds is very injurious to greifs. bears no progained from the regilter of pra^iciil pgricuhurc. otherwife his lands may faffer more from overflowing than from drought. I inflriKfted him in the method of keeping regular accounts of his receipts and cxpences. man may fufFer himfelf to be deceived well as deceive others. ! arifiog A farmer kno^^s whether he ^rsins or lofes.j' and recommended his fending one ofhis fons to learn writing and arithmetic : nor had 1 any difficulty in making him comprehend. if he trulls to the uncertainty and deceitfulnefs of memory . Nothing afcertains the falubrity of water more than the produ<^ion of crefTes. b . he would be much better enabled to form a«5 a precife whillt the wiieft and adequate judgment of their value . remerethey were taught. E. l)er * An — how f An farmers. fo that the huf- — bandman cannot attend too carefully to his v^ater. — ruflies^ important praf^ical remark ! Men inSrufted by mhers. as to others. Water loaded witli' calcarious grit-ftone. or upon broken proofpj. rather than upon reguhr dedudlons.THE RURAL SOCRATES. where they attempt fo explain. Men felf-inftrufted. cofniuonly overlook fome efifential articles . that by.t But it is time to clofe this digreflion. than an accurate meafure of the ignorance of othcrgc joined to a happy mode of conveying information. particularizing every article of labor. and But when a river is choaked with fiicculent plants. expence and profit. and marking the progrefs and minute circumflances which altend-ed his improvements. their own fyftenns being founded opoa a fort of inftinvftive perfuafion. brookline.

fo that the lefTer channels may imbibe and communicate fertilitv over the meadow. which ths water Thofe of mofs foon rife and multiply exceedingly. covering . without fapplyinp any nourifhing food t^! rheir room . the meaputrefadlion dow would foon become fwampy and the grafs bad. . that the water may be carried off with facility. till they are ftified. fpear-wort. procured. Uy the feeds of mcfiea-snd rufnes.-^c foils) of caftio? : vnf/akfdVimz'imo the (trcam woc^ld be much gre:\(cr. F. This he throws into the prinhead of v^^ater. to take particular care that the principal and dependent channels. which will kill all kindt of mofs.20 THE RURAL SOCRATESwater v/ill * rudies. . And rufhra may be extirpated if they ere carefully diii/tn ou' by the roots . The direction of the principal trench ought to run acrofs the mofl elevated part of the ground. The rules neceiTary to be obferved in fluking of lands. and ?••.•"."iL'rh lefs cxp*nre. It will alfo be neceffary to change the trenches frequently. according to Kliyogg. — Thir. in turn. for mofs never rifes high enough to bz touched with a fcyihzf Or. and ihc ground drained that produces them. cipal * This fpreads in IS occaficnci? its courfe. from green turf cut from eminences land may Our in pafture or fallow land.he furface of the ground and entangling the fibres of the herbage and grafs. •i ' . It is likewife efTentially neceiTary to (lope the trenches in fuch a manner. To obviara Jihis misfortune.. are. its be de- ilr LKftive to vegetation. the cattle v/ould not eat it. which would immediately occafion for the turf being once injured. in order to give a due inclination to the collateral branches nor fhould it be cut too deep. bei^efit from this operation. V. or'tncfs. fo that every part of the : : reap. fJling up thofe firfl made . and no part remain ftagnant.— cultivator confidcrably augments the vegetative properties of the water by mould. as I have already aientioned. which would prevent the inundation from being gradually ex-^ tended over the whole furface. if hay coold he made of it. be placed in^ a proper fituation to diftributc the water over as much of the meadow as poffiblc. is a good thought 5 but the benefit (on fo. cind«<% and a(hesraay be ftrewed.

a new proof of the bad hufoandry of maintaining a difproportionate number of horned cattle. lays he. is bedowed nay.THE RURAL SOCRATES. he flill more overloads himfelf with care and work ? The IP. Vv^hich occafions the farmer to let them devour every blade of grafs for their fapport. if a cultivator has not been able to cultivate properly what he . it will fame * This h mofl cxccllenr advice : but through vafi: trafb of country its England. fnould have remained fo long.on of tiieir feet forms (b ziiany ceils for the water . •f I cannot read this work without expreffing my furprife. that a book Hvhich certaii. the bcafls breajk the turf. if. to any that have been offered to the public. the impre^. and even fefd wiih hay ia thepaRures there cannot t>c a more cxccraWe fyftcm of . the farm is ento luffer cattle — tirely ruined. by degrees. fion : The it is 2 nwft refined experience could not ftart a juder obfervaY. unknown in Kngland. . conduC't. equal. fupplies his 2r meadow . pofTeflTes to the highefl. that if a doubles his number of acres. . Y. that he lliould be able to do it.ly contains resny ideas of culture. degree of perfection it is capable of attaining. till. for grafs. and in a rainy feafon. never to purchafe mere ground.* pendently ofthelolsof fo mucli manure. and this water congealing in This is winter. which Kliyogg converts into him with a third method of improving he thinks it very hurtful to the ground Indeto graze late in the year. greatly injures the roots of the grafs.sn culture always in proportion to the even be found. but feeks to extend them without however deviating from his grand principle. they fcffer their cattle to remain in the fields all x^intcr. and employs only the fertility of an eftate . at leaft. kffjn to all the firmers of every country in the vvoild.-^JreadypofTefTes. till he has carried the culture of what he.! How is it poflible. by ncreafinghis pofTeilions. The autumnal inanurc. and run the hazard of robbing the earth of its befl fubflance. which comnionly happens in autunnn. Kliyogg is not fatisfied with the improvement of his meadows.

nothing more is required. is very cuiions but frequent in •* nonhern parts of Ragland and in Scotland*— -It is not confined to manuF** ing. of the whiie clover fpringing flr'lds arable land. Thus it is evident.The following inftance. with every advantage of (ituation."^ In this When - ' inflancCj this * Kliyo2. where there was before " fuch ri^anuring no appearaace of it. \]x\\ divncr bnj ihe fame rvmt f-jllowF. amongfl the inhab* — itants of a populous village* f Kliyogg converts one of his fields into a meadow. harrows it over . divided into equal allotments. than to take a ftirvey of an over-grown farm badly occupied . where ?. adapted to its nature. a crop of this will appear after plentiful dunging. For our conviction. as well as tuo much Jive flock.zz THE RUQ^L SOCRATES. made the fatr^e oblervation ^\:\nX'\ (bat it fiiouid he for if the nature be bnd. and when it is quite level and all the fmall ftones picked up in a third gathering. will not produce more than a fourth part of what lands of the fame quantity and quality afford.) -. and gathers the ftones a fecond time that lodge in the furrows . that a tarmer may have too much ground. . change of foil is ^.» raadt : . mentioned by that *' I havs excellent cultivator Sir Dlgby Legard. The fame meadow that is matted with mofs and every kind of unprofitable beggarly weeds. oi prrenfiia! •* ofren obferved «*^ed ** '< covered with wiiiteclover.-J have offen liaiireil . difpl^p : hh real experrencr..g» in remark. coploufly manured. where lands. and often^ in an old worn-out meadow or pafture. He then pionglYs it. Nor is he vcvy anxious in the choice of feed . is a very ftrong proof. that the difference of herbage depends entirely on the nature of the ioil and the preparation of the ground. for experience has tau^^ht him. he always choofes the befl foil . --Thi^ kaCi. that his eflatc will clear Jcfs than it did before the additional purchafe. and commences the work by clearing it of ftones with the utmoft affiduiity. he fows it with grafs-feed. fame mimber of laboring hands as when he had only half the number. f' in great cjunntiiies on land.where pafture has precedwithoot any perfon's remembering the fowlngofit. will produce trefoil of the bcfl quality when improved by mr^nure. manuring will improve their liiicuriance as well aa l!iat of the beft vei^etahies.

will wither for want of the juices appropriated for them. Thefe various experiments tended to convince — . by me of an Dnconnn)on Ijrge crop. vvhilfl noxious weeds. . Ray. in Northumbeiland^t in confcquencc of a " large qoantiiy of lime being laid on fome acres of black moor land cnv* crcd wi. both divifions were manured in the lame manner and carefully watered^ from the ilagnant pools . was more or lefs luy-uriant chiefly cording I hate an accoant maile.feeds .-I find from other account. — kim that this foreign trefoil. 23 inflance. 944) requefling him to make fome experiments. in the manner I have defcribed. Till lately. i. and he accurately obferved the comparative produce. that the fame commonly lap4* pens in the county of Galloway. not finding fuitablc nourifhment. and divided it into two equal parts in one he fowed the Flanders trefoil.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and this great btii^hen «» of whi'e cl')vcr fucceeded.eans ot conveyance «< of the feed. in the other common grafs. no lefs chan thjee tons an a<:rc heirg ''produced at Ke<'ge!y-]V!oor. like the grafTes common to ac- our own country. without any aifignable nr. Let but the hufbandman fulfil his part of the obligation by induflrious culture.ition. The mofl wholefome and nutricious plants will grow fpontaneoufiy . The firft account of them engaged his attention. we find a manifefl proof of the infinite wifdom and goodnefs of the Creator. Very copious manur«< ing with lime. otheus of the fame fize in an unimproved ftate. where great quantities of fuch moor « land have been lately brought into caltiv. Kliyogg never heard of artificial grafTes. . The Philofophical Society of Zurich remitted him fomc pounds of Flanders trefoil feed {trifQlium pyatenje purpiireum majus. and leave the refult to Providence. p. fome richly manured.'. For this purpoie he prepared a piece of ground near his houfe. which want nothing but a proper bed to make them vegetate .h heaih the heaih was entirely killed. hvl on in great qir^ntines. the winds will wafc from diflant fields the moft ufeful feeds. appears there to deftroy the heath. dung or marlc." McnQirs sf A^rkuliurs^ VcK I. he made feveral other trials of the Flanders trefoil in fmaller fpots of ground . in waiting the refult. and pro** : " made by Here or 55 du:s whijc elavcr. 3^6. .. HijI.

native ** of Flanders taught hiai to temper this heat by a very ufeful piece of *• economy. we (houid be able to determine whether the fubflitution of them would an^ wer. due regulation of the quantify of irefoil which a beall may eat \vithout hazirc?.Q wake cxperiitcRis in 175S. faint-foin. at much more profitable to continue the old method of hufbandry.* Kliyogg . heated th'^m xo^ tt^. ^'hat oxen and hcrfes eat both. ••of {haw and trefoil alternately.v!ih the afljftanceot a little attention anHI experience. whofe excellepcies are fo highly extolled by a calculation of their jud advantages over our natural herbage. they make layers in their hay-lofflj fix or feven inches deep. as — exotic graffes.Och. A proportion not difScuk to afcertain. the Flanders trefoil which.—-It is^ much to be wifhcd that fenfible and unprejadiced f irmers would take equal pains in making experiments on lucerne. and occailons very alarming dlflempers. cording as the foil w?s more or lefs manured. A — •:. Kliyogg declares he cannot difcern any that is material. with equal *• avidity. Some enlightened friends of agriculture have already informed me. and which never ought to he cxeeded. great probflbiliiy likewife that Kliyogg was unacquainted with the l)cU method for the culture of trefoil. an excellent meihod. * I fhoull is a senoe.24 THE RURAL SOCPiATES.ongll the Flemings. «." There h. and ihe cattle are preferved fii'ek and cool. in ground where the culture and preparation are the fame . than to ufe thefe articles of modern difcovery . Arr. what. to me. fo^vjj with oats. in ftipplying a very fucculent nutrition. In re^ gard to the grand experiment to find the difference of produce from the feed of trefoil and that of common jgrarfs. ends. that the trials they have hitherto made. i *' ably . has had remark. which is the laft *• cropin rotatijii berue the ground is fuffered to lie fHllo^. The fame Ob/eii. and other fpecies of in the prefent age.ationi inform *' that it mcceeded very well when tts. fall fbort of the defired fuccefs and that they find .-'-Preft^lent wc MjuiIuc. appears. thai to ^* fodder cattle \s\\S tfefoil only. "It had been remarked by the Baron de Pontual. By this means the value of (haw becomes equivalent to that ** of trefoil. -r-The idvaloarh-t Colleciion of ohferiatiofis hy the ^Agricultural Society cf Britannjy recorn. excites cattle to feed immoderately. 'vbo began t. where the meadows abound with "this grafs. for inflance. in fevera! places. The ftraw imbibes the fcent of •* the trefoil fo fuongly. irr:3ginc the only thing wanting to prevent this inconven.

becomes genuhiw. This is when the plantane is faiFered to predominate . wheti thrcrtied. more than one hundred (heaves. The cKaniire ilill refirft maining rience in the ground after the crops are mowed. which.hc SBarc. in a good foil. a kind of baftard wheat. i& may be converted into meadow again.^ He pointed to my obfervation a meadow. a man may have.^ — . in his opinion.* twelve bufliels of grain.. At great luxuriancy below. a rich meadow oC <• trefoil. The produce is. the trefoil was in two feet in height. for feveral fucceffive feafons. ^ malter contains four muids. where the plantane was fpread over the foil and reduced it to flcrility. which may be mowed in inoft years twice> and in favorable ones ** three and four tioaes. Thus the clear profit of an acre of land is three maiters.The firfl allotment is for wheat . which. The Zurich F« D .THE RURAL SOCRATES. -—The fole remedy for this evil. whofe large leaves fo totally cover the farface of the ground.** F. The muid is divided into four quarters. it is the general cuftom to feparate into three divifions. his rule is fix loads of manure and thirty bufliels of wheat or fpeit. called in the north lib grafs. in the manner already defcribed. about ihe time \hiy were ripe.t (which iall: grain he commonly prefers) for each acre. and the the plotjgh- * " ing neceffary for the oats are equally beneficial to has convinced treloH. or two coombs and a half. that ine. is to plough up the meadow and fow it with grain for fome years . and afterwards.. is an excellent pafture. . Let us now confider Kllyogg's hufbandry in his grain lands . :j: Y. yield fix facks of winnowed grain th^ Tack containing ten bufhels. and when prefled down. Y. ^ + Spelr. weighs about 125 pounds cf . * This 13 precifely the cafe in England . but the narrow leaved plantane. in general. Kxpe- with only the additional prica of «* feed. and full thirty bottles (or bun- dles) *< <* ** ably fine crops of oats. in the diilridl where he lives. that no other herbage can fpring up. which. Kliyogg has fifteen acres in each.. -S Kliyogg made me attend to a circnmftance which may prove the deflruiflion ®f a meadow if not corrci^ed.

in the fpring firfl diviiion three ploughings before the month of May. which yield annually at leall five The coombs of grain and forty bundles offtraw. that thefinefibres of the roots may infmuate themfelves with eafe among the particles of the broken clods . pcafcjor oats. heavy clayey ground fnould be ploughed very deep. that a Zurich acre is hut a liitie more ihaii three roodsEngllQi . but in a light foil. we mufl endeavor to preCerve fufficient labor for two : — folidity for the roots to flrike. (hould be fcnfible how very effential * Thi» is a rei^arkablc U6{. that the beads are very mean cnrs. — Wheat (hoots ftrongeft when an interval between the time of plough^ jng and fovving. is ploughed twice. efpecially under the eye of fa inrluflrious atnan as Kliyogg. I have. and a fingle pair ploughed m-e 2n acre a day withow^ any eHtraordinary cxtruon. confequently this i? very pmit work tor four oxen to perform. but wheat thrives beft on a IViff foil. I iifed oxen in Suflfolk. I conclude from hence. namely. They roll roc 1 5J. beans. if fon. a complete day's^ — men and four oxen for each acre. \% .* Purfuant to the cuflom of the country^ be gives to the namely. The allowance is three bulhcls and an half of feed an acre. in a former naffc.— Kliyogg has alfo fomc Thefe are inclofures. there is Kliyogg likewife obferves. fays he^ requite to be lightly ploughed. His computation for ploughing is.—-Light foils. Light lands are be ft fop barley. (hewn. which he is peculiarly careful never to negled $ conftantly varying the grain every time. which he fows every year. a pair. Barley is mofl vegetativ*i when fowedimmediately after the plough. and at the endof harveft. immediately after hay feaThe fecond divifion. and can be accomplifhed without great inconvefiience. third divifion remains fallow. that whoever is defirous of conPcantly plentiful crops. rye. He gathers from this eighty iheaves an acre. The feconddivifion is fowed either with dies) of ilraw.^6 THE RURAL SOCRATES. at theconclufion of harveft and immediately before the feed-time. it does not interfere with more material bufinefs. manured twice in three years. and on the contrary.

he throws afide the feet below it. greatly facilitates his woric by the ufe of fledges. and the other. that he affirms that there is ar. or a very few In loading his carts. a very puted lerfible difference betv. flrewing only th« fineparton light landso T^his is one of his occupations on winter days . Kliyogg difcovered veins of this gravel running along the lides of fome barren uncultivated hills. and bordering upon marie . which gave him hopes of a good road for fledges for fome weeks. though little accuflomed to thde minute obfervations. is. 1 Inftantly perceived. larger flones. commonly on the fuperficies. had been without this manure. from a deficiency of hands and leisure that year.he marie itfelf which is difcovcrable among the fmall The manure — — particles . if it is not indeed the produftion iDfr. I faw him lafl v/inter in high delight at the appearance of a fettled frofl:. in the neighborhood .een that part this difference to of tiie field which had been manured. whofe effeiSts appeared fingularly aflonifhing to me. if he buys iced at a village only four leagues diflant from his own.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and confiderably lelFens the fatigue of the oxen. reddifli fand. fame ground. v/as a fmall gravel of a blueifh hue. This remark is worthy the attention of fomc curious natidralifl. advantageous difference in the produce. the foil en which it was fpread being a greafy. and is > Our induflrious laborer beflows on his arable lands a kind of manure. which the generality of Jiufbandmen devote to indolence. or at lead to domeflic engagements of fmall advantagCc The deep fnow that covers the ground during great part of the winter feafon. new . A third part of this field. he made ufe of. There feems a great analogy between the operation of this gravel and that afcribed to marie. when he took me into one of his in-'' clofures a ' little before harvefl. Kliyogg combe one thiid lols in the crop. effential it &y frequently to vary the feed upon the Thus he is indefatigable in the aearch of Co thoroughly convinced of the utility of this rule.

when it pught to be renewed. that every fpecies — deduced . 6d. induflry. Thefe alledgc. on foils that had beer? given up from their barrennefs or Alterations fo aftonlQiing. The which heaven has fortunate with fuccefs him. and particularly a Icind of pjudiculaire {rhinanthus chrifia galli^ Linn. which has never deceived arguments on this principle. or rather more impoverifhfreely. there is little to be reaped. but that after a certain term. encourages blelTed efFe£ls : — — * ! — — We : — plication. that we ought to attribute it to the lazinefs and unfldifulnefs of thepeafants. The effefe of gravel led him to this general maxim.s feems the reafon why it is not more pra<n:ifed. that they will not pretend to difpute its efficacy for a few years . 14s. as he has already given fpccimens of equal improvement. He lately bought near an acre cf flerile ground for 4I. J7s. Tf our country does not produce even a fuperfluity of grain Dreffing larids with this manure is not a newdifcovery . in a diflant fituation. Kliyogg has converted the worft land imaginable into excellent grain fields. by way of juftification. the negligence of the peafant. how much foundation there is for his afTertion . than it was originally. and hopes to make it worth 21I. in reply. grant ed. within a few years : a thing by no means improbable. th'e operation of this manure to be limited to fiich a period . 6d. to invent ncv/ operations. or fome other to be but is not this the cafe with fubiMtuted in its place every improvement in hulbandry I It is only as the reward of confcant and diligent labor. rationally from new experiments in agriculture. that when it gets the ma{^ tery in a field.^ a plane fo deftru6livc to barley. that the earth Kliyogg fiipports all his yields her treafurcs to man.28 pcirticles THE RURAL SOCRATES of gravel. Kliyogg apprehends the falutary of this ipecies of manure to arife from the heat communicated to the earth he alfo attributes to it the virtue of extirpating baneful herbs. the ground will be as much. prove. forcible. By the a-riuance of this manure. with allidiious aphis him.manner.

It is very extraordinary that ihia peafant. u'hich not only wafies much land. a branch of economy that didingaifhes him from the peafants of that country . cultivate very little vegetable food . nnd then covered with pine branches . fo neceffary to purfuc their improvements* *This land. and diminifhes. cabbages. which obliges them to confiime a much greater quantity of bread and flour. .THE RURAL SOCRATES. v/as conflantly overflowed by torrents coming from the road. fpreading the earth tak#n out of the trenches over the whole. which.!*: : ces ot Eoropcan huibandry ! Y. which he half-filled with large ftones. a ftratum of earth hitherto unknown to him. is as great ^n acquifition in his eyes. By a procefs nearly refembling this. Kliyogghas another peculiarity in the culture of his arable land. the only means they have of procuring money.ftriimenial io the improvement rf an* The difcovery therefore of otker of oppojiie qualities. I is the famous njctbod of draining all fons of wet foils in Ergda not reniember meeting before wiih any nsention of it in th? French authors. but occafions the roots of the grain on the fides of the ridges to be overflowed as they lie in the- — the double injury. (hould unite in bis Hitls far*!?. . fo many o^ '' ' t rir". on the lideofagreat road . In this manner he regained lo much lofl land. peafe. he thus remedied changedithefe furrows into trenches of the depth of about two feet. and obtain from it as good grain as from the reft of the field. he has made a very fine hemp Held of a piece of ground fituated in a floping bottom. &c. after heavy rains. Thefe fufRcc for the maintenance of his family daring the greater part of fummer . Dirapproving the cuftom of throwing it into ridges. enlightened only by nature. in proportion. as a purfe of gold in thofe of % niiier. who. cf earth may . excepting beet. to prevent wetnefs . and had been given ypasuDprofitablCa furrows between He — '''^ Our wife cultivator has appropriated a pretty large inclofure to the culture of vegetables^ fuch as French beans. 29 he 'ir.

but I ought not to omit his rules for ihe culture of potatoes^ as he is the firfl man in fhe village who has made them an effential objetfc r^^fafctenri )n . nor fhall i expatiate an his manner o^ pruning fruit trees . as in theie two articles there is nothing uncommon . free/from thofe dangers to which plants and grains are expofed from the variations of feafons. is about the value of fix muids of wheat . Ik fore the potatoes were arrived at a certain degree o^ gnaturity J which. whilfl an acre of the beR land will fc^rcely produce four makers of fpelt. by preventing farther growth. ! ifJifference — We may hail. and which trains them gradually to the performance of more toilibme work. antl this part of thej Socrates wag written Haifa century ago. What appears* therefore. and his economy in this article faves a ranid of wheat in the fpace of three weeks. his method for the culture of turnips after rye harveft .^daily confumption in his family is one bufhel. is as profitable as ten muids of wheat . that this root remains in fecurity under ground. which. a very decifive preference over all other fruits of the earth. nor which fo frequently difappointf- and deftroy Iliiral culture of potatoes is in a manner recent. comparative value of an acre of potatoes to an acre of wheat^ is. F. an eafy tafk. . confequentiy the.iIl-ftorra has injured the green flalks »yove the groimtl. nnuft be cxcufed. Neither the nipping frofts in fpring. an acre planted with potatoes. One acre produces two hundred bufliels. and in the bell jcars. I pafs over in filence. deftroycd the •rop --^ feet this i« very rare.. According to this calculation. His children are entrufled with his kitcheti garden . Thus he computes that twenty buHiels of potatoes are equivalent to one maid of wheat. in the opinion of Kliyogg. E.** The excellent properties of potatoes and their great utility. Tior fnow. . .'^ther miftaken or common in the text. The. *The f Yet there are inftances where a h. adapted to their flrength. as ten to d)^ a vtry elFential — likewife add. have given them. the other peafants being fatisfied with hav/ing f jme beds of thi^m in their gardens. at the highell price.30 * THE RUa\L SOCRATES. : provements.

if fpring. and left in that flats fifteen days . Let the culture of potatoes once become general.* when it is ban owed over. Thus planted. arable land. the unfriendly years. He then fets the potatoes in the turrows. I apprehend it will not be thought an ufe. the induflrious peafant will procure. — wc enter into a circumflantial detail of Xliyogg's huibandry in this cfTential branch. that the culture of potatoes is already common in many diftriills of Switzerland. and a wellgrounded hope that better rural economy. leaving a foot's fpacc betwixt. after firfl ipreading over it fome tumbrels of marley gravel . nor will he be liable to diraj:>pointment even in the n7oit He will cultivate. from a very imall piece of ground. and ploughs a fecond time. before this he This advantage is fo manifcfl/ part in his houfhcld. it is prepared in autumn by ploughing. si Ic/lroy the labors of the hufbandman. two or three together. particularly in thofe whole vicinity to the Alps expofes them mofl to the inclemency of winter. ileld is covered again with manure. can injure the growth of potatoes. for the luccefs of potatoes chiefly depends on the afllduity of the hufbandman itx- — — — — cleaning * TIftj operation is prcbaUrf deigned to prevent i)b« C. as it is more likely to kill the weeds which are diflodged . A dry feafoor is judged beA for planting. When be has fele<aed a proper fpot of giound. Towards the following I'efs procefs. within a trifle.anltjg i^jf . a comfortable fubfiftence for his family . may. releafe us from that dependence on our neighbors. the His allowance is ten bulhels an acre. — the unavoidable confequence of our prefent fituation. ofits of his to market the pf expended a very confiderable dilcovery.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and will be able to carry fame t^uantiiy of harvcfl almoin entire whilfl. by degrees. he hys ten loads of manure on an acre. In promoting their culture we find a new refource againft national alarms. efpccially if the foil is fubje^l to weeds. The very large ones may be cut in pieces.

ff a frefh crop of noxious plants ariies.*' to loofen the potatoes. that vvill C. the potatoes are drawn out of the ground. a great number of potatoes that lie in the ground are gathered up. He begins to gather in his harvcflby cutting the tops clofe to the ground . yogg gives the preference to the former . v*'hich are gathered in balkets. and when the harrow paOes over. vvhilethey are fupplied wich the co.m- r>cn Cons of food. E. great attention is cleaning the ground. Mtmofl care to prevent many from flill remaining.—-Kliyogg is convinced by much experience. and ofIn the autumn.fork forage. Y.3^ THE RURAL SOCRATES* For this reafon. Horned cattle devout ihcm Douhcro parwef theUoitedStares. it Is by no means well tafted : and I know from in the expedience. and approves of planting them alternately.jttlc. and in following the plough. * However wholefome if may be. there is a fecond gleaning of potatoes^ Nor is it poffible with the v/hich are fiill immerous. not touch them. Kliyogg waters them from his pools. a fecond. that the crops of rye are as good when fovtn after potatoes. if this can be done a month fooner it anfv*^ers much better^ he thinks. required when the leaves of the potatoes (lioot half a foot above the furface. . Ic is then fowed with barley or rye . Klilotted the third year either to potatoes or wheat. the tillage is repeated . Kliyogg. by fupplying the cattle with wholcfome and well tadcd The ground is then flirred with a pitch. When this is done. in all his fields defigned for grain . which jnufb be drawn out as foon as the tops appear. When the crop Is carefully got in. as in fields where The fame land may be al* there has been only grain. to have it — carefully weeded. a fortnight after leed-time. about ten athird w^eeding is beftowed. from a convidion that the culture they require contributes greatly to meliorate the ground by the extirpation of weeds. and that varying the produdlion in- — creafes the fertility. — and carried home in facks.

taking care to pare them f:rl"t. in order to fee if the flour would make bread witlxout wheat . — They va'uab'e prcfsnts furnifii the A bcil iu their kettle.* To iinifh the circumAantial defcription I purpofed giving of Kliyogg's hufbandry. is fcattered amongfh woods in detached pieces. and of exceeding robuft conflitutions. The foil is in general extremely wz Iisve received frora country people with 3 pleafant. but had no fuccefs Vt^hilft he ufed no other ingredient . when they had putatoea lo nftoft * Potatoes are one of the {b. and is then \ery excellent. becaufeit is efTential to the msk'wg of good bread. whoieibme. wliere each perfon peels his own fhare. well-fnadc. favorable to pppalation. nutritious kind of aliment. Nor is it found lefs noiTrifliing or invigorating to the conflitution than when made entirely of wheat. They fome: times with the common dough take equal parts of raafheJ potatoes. as I ly a buQiel of potatoes : — : : fedl: this operation. but with the addition of fome of the flour with which they made houfhold bread. fometimes a third or fourth part the bread mufl be exceedingly well kneaded. them into the kneading-trough . E . and brought to table.t^HE : RURAL SOCRATES* ^f have already obfervedj allows his famieach day. pour in boiling water enough to cover them 5 bruife them till thoroughly fmooth neither time nor pains fliould be fpared to perKliyogg. they anfwered His method is as follows Pare and cut his purpofe.t new worU. Kliyogg dried fome potatoes in an oven. and eats it with fait fometimes they ftew them. that there be no lumps. and the young villagers there are ftout. They are boiled till fufficieirtiy fbft. I have fcldom ieen diftempcrs amcngft foldier?. but hitherto the experiment has been unfuccefsful. ^Our hiifbandman determined* to try if bread could be made of potatoes. and then had them ground. there li ill remains ail account of his paflurage — and woods o the P^fl lire ground^ in this country. F. as the cows and pigs find the parings very acceptable. great pare of German Lorraine finds in them a confiant fjpport .

inilk-thiftle. eKtremely bad. too prevalent in Switzerland. that by perfeverance and affidu- — — : ous labor.34 THE RURAL SOCRATES. and every feventh at all other times the cattle grazed there. iTnd thefe grounds thus dripped. ^c. that he has applied his industry tovvards this improvement. have been nibbled or broken down by the beafls. This was a long time obliged to be omitted for ^want of laboring hands . and ^here there are large holes. and the greater proximity of l>is other grounds prefcnted fo many immediate objedL. with oats But he was foon (enfible. which has been felled . cattle were immediately turned in to feed. when I mentioned the exertions of Kliyoggin augmenting his compofl dunghill. The land is then dreiTed with marley gravel and manure. a much more confiderable advantage might. It is only fmce his children have made a beginning to affifl: him. Thus the tender (lioots which %ould have fprouted again. that he could fcarcely devote a moment to his paflures. according to the rules obferved in his fields for grain . be gained by turning them into fruitful corn-fields frtr grain. have been appropriated to pafI have taken notice of the little advantage ufuturage.-— He at Urd treated his pailiures like other peafants . fowing them with wheat every (ixth year. cading the earth In the form of a parapet bank. and it is lo — : -im^'iiingly improved. that^ ia general. which remains two years in that Hate. and produced frefh trees. expoled to the weather it is then made ufe of to fpread on the moil barren fpots of the pallure. it affords his beft crops.grafs. . and that according to the pernicious cu^torn.^ of cultivation. and the cattle find but little fudcnance from its natural produce of rattle. The firfl: ilep is digging a ditch of about three or four feet broad and two or three deep round each pallure . and to fill up fmall inequalities of ground . till by degrees the woods became totally deftroyed . he fills them with ftones before he covers them with mould. There is great probability that thefe fpots of ground v/ere formerly covered with wood. ally reaped from them.

To the fame caufe i.' which 35 he takes care to vary. and requiring no other attention than to cut them down at a proper age. on the Village of Wcrmetchweil. in time. where ncgle£t will. not having been able as yet. crops. at liberty to tions Five acres of this pafture knd.— He delights more in this part of his eftate. which is more lenfibly apparent every day. is the increafe of manure . with the utmofl indudry^fmall branches of pines and firs. he colleds. One of thefc paf^ tures he has made uie of for hemp . infallibly be produ<5live of ruin. that he carefully roots out . becaufe he is — farm it as he pleafes. to gain proper information in reg^ard to planting trees . fclf fown. without thofe reflricwhich confine him to cftablifhed cuftoms in the culture of lands dependent. which are to be met with in our forefls.s ovv^ing thofe defart trads. in places where the foil and expofure are remarkably favorable. the offspring of indolence and ignorance. in fome refpeds. — He leaves to nature the care of fowing pines and firs . aipecies of knowledge with which our country is unfortunately little acquainted. were I capable of awakening th. which lie mod conti- guous to his IVoods^ are fet afide for planting. we — may attribute. that the pafturage dependent on the village of Wcrmetchweil. but Avith a viev/ very different from what 1 fpeak of. I remarked jujfl now. His prime motive^ as evidently appears.prejudice. and it is well known that the bed foil is always feleded for this purpofe.thatfcarcity of wood for fuel. had its origin from new-felled parts of the forefb. fometimes of confiderable extent. It is with thi^ view alfo. by wounding the young (hoots. Happy (liould I be. To this falfe . which the cattle had rendered incapable of bearing farther wood.with dead leaves and mofs.c attention of my countrymen to an — — objet^ fo efTential to public utility. for which purpole. Kliyogg beflows a kind of culture on his woods .THE RURAL SOCRATES. Woods in Switzerland are regarded as wild uncultivated jpots.

the firll view. He made experiments Ibme years fince how far he might carry the operation with fafecy he reduce^^i the branches of fo many trees as thfe compafs of a quarter of an acre afforded. to accelerate the growth of the trees and augment the beauty of their trunk. the refl.he branches cf ail were confiderably lopped. that. Y.3^ 0ut all THE RURAL SOCRATES. on jtotliofe of his neighbors. fo long as he — • : know this pracftice is cbntraditftory to the generally ef- theory of the vegetation of trees. and the experiments of the mofl: difcinguiflied naturalifts of the prefcnt times (fuch as Kales. in no fraail degree. The neighboring farmers reject this manner of treating trees as extremely prejudicial . his woods appear thinner. a method which contributes. and du Haniel . till it arrived at its pcrfedion . from the openings vifiblie between the trunks where the branches aretaken off but after a more accurate examination. ventilates the young (hoots. almoft to the top . the fame number of circles might be taken off with confidence. and firips his from time to tunc of branches. though t. and often fuperior in growth It iriuft be allowed. but they afterwards grew as vigoroufiy as others.^ I their approbation.) tabliflied who greatly * This method of pruning fir-trees I have hefore heard cf afif'wering : but how Kliyogg's pruning his woods for manure can be advantageous I can conceive only by fuppofing the Swifs woods and our Eoglifii >0'< Qn?s totdlly diffcient. leaving only three knots on any . the trunks were from fix inches to a foot in circumference^ He did not lole more than four trees . I found his opinion well founded. to fpeak truly. and that if pruning had even been omitted feveral years together. Bonnet. trees jbut Kliyogg troubles himfelf but very little about is convinced that his pines and firs are equal. I did not fee one fmgle young fir that Teemed withered and decayed. weeds. were a longer time than ufual in making their fhoois. . he inferred that the lower circle might be taken off every year without injury to the tree . Kliyogg oblerved that every year produced a new head to the fir tree.

the more limbs they retrench in vegetable to a certain point. form a clothing of thick branches ** that almoft conceals the body of the tree. ire analogous to the It is ftomach juices " •* animals.** there the firft and principal preparacion of the * The " buies •* that " life. fo it may be trcly faid. who difplays in fo many inftances the greatefl difcernjnent. contrimore than any other method of induitry to their luxuriancy . whcfe vegetation could never be ** renewed. a poplar. The roots of tree*. there is no number of buds every where — '^' ** perceptible . sn gIoi. with /^rhre (irce) in the Encyciopedie. I acknowledge that there has not been fufficient time for a courie of experiments capable of eflablifiiing this as a rule . or an f* ** axe. wcuKi narurally conclude for fix *' monihs after. But how great the furprife toobferve a tree in rhefc circum<* (dances (booting forth. perhaps. favor of fnch aromatic and refinons trees as have — fpines inflead of leaves. but at the fame time I cannot help thinking that the opinion of a man.* Thus * The rea<3er. merits a degree of attention which may ani-^ mate us in the purfuit of more ample difcoveries. a profuuon cf young <^' branches that form another head ! This (hews the almoft inexhaufliblc <» refourccs of vegetable nature! For it may be confidently afferted. is firipped of its branches from top to will <• throw out from the loweft amputated parts to the top. infinite it <' rifes in a «* yet if an oak. will ccnfider of recovery. below the wounded part. which may be pruned with lefs hazard than other woods. picurs. feems to point out one exception at leafl. thas from the extremity of the branches to the root ef th€ tree. in. culture of a tree. and fit only to be ** hewn down bottom.THE RURAL SOCRATES. a perfon who firft beholds a tree that has loft its head by a hurricane. Yet the fuccefs of thefe experiments made by Kiiyogg. and which the leaves draw in by futftion. and cf plants in general. 37 who have demonflrated that trees receive their principal nQurifhmcnt from the humid particles with which the air is impregnated. and whofe obfervations are fo totally free from prejudice. uhofe trunk perpendicular diredion. < a trunk thirty or forty feet in height. will not be ment between what is faid above. clofe to the neck of ihe branches. In the fame manner. the more they multiply. Thofe who have never its •*feen a tree entirely ftripped of <* it in this mangled lUte : as incapable branches to the very root. or any tree. an which burfting into leaves round . that it was a dead trunk. by pruning away part of its branches. on forre paffages drawn from the article f* difpIeafeJ with o^fervirg the agreethe nature and culture of trees.

that the efFe^Sl of a conftant attention to clearing the foil from weeds. ani! How comes it falfe. Thus far may be afHrmcd with certainty . is. good timber one* a l' Even the fize they doattainis defotrocd and odious. that if we are not fupplied at home with grain for our fubfiflence. as he draws annually from every a^re tv/o loads of . The more lemof our ed attentively I rural philofopher. this coIle(9:lon of lap will be employed almofl entirely to the benefit of the trunk itfelf . that th€ roots fiipplythe tree with a vaft coIle£lion of nutritious ]uices. cut ty f —-In theory. the rnorc I am confirmed in my opinion. it ought much lefs to be imputed to the (lerility of the foil . :i tree that is If> number of branches will increafe in llze. then. tlut the heavy weight of n3en.AL SOCRATES. cF materials proper for manure fo that Kliyogg regards his woods as refources fo much the more valuable. examine the economical iyfwhich I have endeavor- to explain.* and pruned with difcretion at a proper feafon. than to falfe maxims introduced. — debt' « ** •< perceptihle fpace that ilots not enclofe a portion of erabryo eftion of the fecret fprings of vegetation.3 ' up a vaffc number of fuckers . whether their number be great or fniall." life ready to appeir. foil. even in girt. cut off for man's arms off and you will Increafe his height amazing«> according to my obfervation. according to the method propofed. wherewhen covered withmofs and briars^ the young twigs are fo entangled that few can make and thefe fuckers furni(h a perpetual fupply their way trees^ throwing in the fame . th$ are conliderably diminiQied by annual prunings. whenever the fituation of the tree requires an extraordinary ex- F. which are communicated through proper tube$ to all the branches. * Erg 1.— I obferve farther. cooperating with the floth and inattention of our hufbandI conclude farther.38 THE RUPX. all this reafoning is that pollard trees (thofe whofe heads are regularly faggotf) do nor near equal. — litter for his ilalls. . the 3. Y.

. as themofl: rafh imprudence. as I have before obferved. 39 Jcbt under which many of the peafants fink. confiding of four parents and eleven fmall children. having few natural advantages. have afTured me. which could not fail in a very iliort time.which is ever ready to calculate the poiribillty of another's ilr . determined in favor of the proprietors. I am greatly miflaken if all indifrerent perfcns wouldnot have pronounced the fame fcntence on the follcvving queflion : Whether a family. which. who are far from being partial in his favor. they always produce tlie finefl crops in that divifion. Fifteen acres fown with wheat. cflate. yield 50 malters 4. bafncls. thanks to the a(ftivityand wifdoni of this extraordinary man. could be comfortably — the neceffaries of life from an eflatc Icarcely valued at 875I. 6s. ? A quef!:ion which the event has. I will endeavor to render the fadl (till ftsoi) gcr by calculation . which mufl pay annual interefl: Supplied. and being loaded with a We confiderable mortgage : yet in a few years improved to a height almofl: incredible. at the rate of ioo Theaves to iixty buihels of iinwinnowed corn. to involve the tv/o brothers in dedruclion and' they expe<Sled their bankruptcy every day. They iikewife regarded his enterprise. whofe appearances denounced ruin and decay. that when he engaged in his undertaking.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and yielding very near double the crops of grain and hay which it formerly pro- duced. in proportion to their extent. in hopes of exciting.with for 547 1. This conclufion was not altogether the refult of envy. produced 1500 flieaves . The . is not an infurmountable objeiTbion to the re eflablKhment of agrihave Teen in the inflance before us an culture. as far as I am able^ the emulation of all good farmers. the lands which belonged to him were ranked among the worft . ho^vever. and thab now. Some of KHyogg's neighbors. fortune.

at five muids an acre. price of wheat in Switzerland is The the at leaft 17s. hemp. the farrier. is 3 32 16 5 maker Co that the Total reimburfement The tytheofthe to fields of wheat. is at the rate of 4I. per acre a conQderable produce for : fo frtMll a fi^rm lo yield . yielded 75 muids. and fix 9 6 3 Rent of a meadow Seven tumbrils of tGtis 4 16 ftable s 5 of turf afties g i Total expence Clear profit 50 19 30 i & o 8i 7 If I have omitted the wheelwright. 4% 4^. lis. I have likewife omitted the profits arifmg from the wafte ground concerted into good ploughed land in the article of reimburfement . amount's £. a. manure. which producing 48I.40 THE RURAL SOCRATES. produces grain. — but we muft attribute ryi^rvjri: g^ it to the induftry of it? l\. and a variety of vegetables for * As I am unacouaintecl with thcfe meafures. excellent culiivator and his ample "iCfe. which at 8s. fix bufhels of wheat for leed.48 4 4 Fifteen acres Town with rye. as I have already obferved. 18 6 7 9r The tythe of feveDty-fivc muids of rye is Kine maJters. (allowing three budiels and an half per acre) Interefl 5 3 8 5^3 21 17 of 5-47!. (allowing ten bufliels per acre) Thirteen muids of rye for feed for 15 acres. Y< . we mufl confult the pfopo/tions. 6:1. 6s. 4 3 s. 8d. the collar-maker. 6do whole produdl amounts to* ^. potatoes. which. ps! whi':h ia a g?od crop. at 4 percent. the muid. —Th? rvi? is y. pd. in the articles of expence .— Thefe 15 acres are aliout lof Englifu.

but how cotne fpiriterl improvers. by engaging in the improvement of an eftate fo badly circumftanced. merchant?. to an idle unfkilfui farmer. had he not been endowed with intelligence and a<5livlty. which liarnds. that his his example. whilfl more money would have been expended for the payment of laborers. he pays . it is per cent. true. in the mod plentiful years. is the making his annual payments. it i* a« mark* a Wvh Y. 6d. in agriculture^ than the four per cent. and vigor of his children will lend ailiflance to his labor. the moiety of Kliyogg^s harvefl . his with bacon. when the health. to apply their money to an intereft cf four or live The one.~ Thefe waflc and uncultivated fields would fcarcely have afforded.tra^ed . the other a certain iDcome . 7s. .— Senfible that the time approaches. 4? His orchard likewifc fupplies him vvith fruit. manufa<5tursrs. by is fo very unufnal in economical fhews the ftrength of Kliyogg's ideas. It is the misfortone o? thofe who fee an objedt but in one ligiir. to trade on borrowed roonty f Not becaufe fuch a condud^is totally Iree from objeftions. is an uncertain. obferve. That rnind which beholds * This tnaxlai of condu^. by tend towards aggrandizing his eflate . he received in — cows with milk and butter. but hecaufe tho advantages more than balance fuch obje^ions. his hogs An accurate examiner of this ^flimate will profit. fince he makes much more intereft by employing 4I. according to the above calculation.* and he confiders the reciprocal convenience it is to a rich citizen to have ) furplus profits of the year are always employed Kliyogg in Imprcrvements. for the ufe of the table. when they might eafily coainiand ten or twelve. all his his plans polierity may. &c. — nothing but liabit that difficulties and obje^ions foul.THE RURAL SOCRATES. be animated to procure. money on' landed fecurity* The only trouble it gives him. on the other fidcj the apparent hazard t© hufbandman of unavoidable ruin. or in the purchafe of land. firength. than.. who regard the paying of mortgages as the fixft aioi . ii isean and goi. The by This he regards as more advantageous than liquidating^ the mortgage upon his eftate.

as their an« ceflor enjoys* SECTION Itr 0/yc/wf philofophic and domcdic particulars in the ckf^" radcr of Kliyogg^ moft amazing. a thorough reformation of manners mnft be introduced. the the deficiency : it alarm our fears is this ought to which indolence which induces the idle part of our people to prefer the lefs toilfome. it will then be the proper time to think of adopting the new hufbandry . an equal (hare of good fof^ tunc and as pcrfcil contentment of mind. and exchanging the ancient modes of cultivation for a more perfect fyflemj eflabllfhed on experimental demonftration. two of ib few hands who have few hours to fparc fromi women. is. domeftic is i WHAT working for their children ! The unprodu£^ivenefs then of our foil i% itot the It is not necefTary confequence of want of inhabitants* progrcfs of floth but andof hands. but more precarious works of the manu* fadurer^ to the rough but more manly exercifes of the hufbandman. that all thefe improvements are efFc<Sled with a family of four adult perfons . whom are and the care of educating and employments.42 THE RURAL SOCRATES. by indefatigable induftry. — We — Our . When the peafants fball be animated with a true ardor for rural occupations. and merits our particular at-* tention. affords another fource of calamity which is daily augmud necelTarily conclude from thefe menting^ confiderations. that before agriculture can be brought' to perfedlion in this canton. The extravagance of our artificers.

They feek tedious and labored explications ^* of their text. to the uniform *' pradice of the duties of chriflianity : and if they in^' culcated without ceafing. faying their pray^^ crs. '' how many grievances would be rcdrelTcd. by reprimands. in going to church. to oblige the idle to *' work or to punifh their obftinacy. . if the government and the inhabitant of the country mutually concurred in promoting the general good. leading back to theirduty fuch as have devi^' ated from it. Hence " it follows.THE RURAL SOCRATES.OurphilofopherKliyogg «' '^' 43 is invariably of this opinion* You cannot conceive. and finging pfalms and that they may then in" dulge ** *' — — . Sir. menaces. either from the " pulpit or in their pafloral vifits. that the eiTcnce of piety '* confifls in exa<^Iy performing towards our neighbors ** what juflice di<^ates. or in other words. which the peafant is incapable of com* ** prehending . Thefe gentlemen have com^' monly a great deal too much learning in their fer*' mons. and exert the *' authority lodged in their hands. in rendering *' to every one his due. The public ofHcers ^' fhould attentively infped the coRdu£l of every nidivi*' dual . ! . that we can hope *' for relief. inflead of informing him in a fimple ** manner how he ought to regulate his conda£l. who is appointed by the date to watch *' over the good of the comqiunity. and falutary ^' corre«flion. The clergy might be peculiarly inftru*' mental in this laudable work. Our lands want *' only to be cultivated with more underflanding and ** induflry. were they more aflidu*' ousin admonifbing their parifhioners. *^ ticulars. that the villagers (far the greater part of *> them) imagine that they have fulfilled all that rcli*' gion requires. It is they who fhould prefcribe to culti*' vators thebcfh methods of husbandry . It muft be then from " the magiflratc. to fupply a fufficient quantity of grain for *' our ufe bat unfortunately we err in thele two par.— The pcafant is feldom enlightened enough *' to difcern his real advantages." he has often repeated.

who refufe to labor hbtwithHianding the exhortations of the clergy. in fome particularly the unmarried. arc fenfible how rnucb women.gluttony in eating and drinkingl Thus they begin by diflipating their patrimony.— The magifirate of the difl:ri£ts. There is. fuch as are notorious for lazinefs and ina«5livity. to enforce corporal puniQimehts and' pecuniary 'fines on perfons. on the contrary. F. Nbne have a right to expcfb d benedidion from heaven. An indolent one. ex« pedis all from Providence . and exccflivfr. merit tins !«• p roach. whilft they fnould treat with the utmoil feverity. -' Tb- polic*} of the $mU admitted of iht JiboTC tseafursso . and ivho thus earn their A diligent hufbread by the fweat of their brows bandman knows nt/t what a bad year is. but thofe whofe probity is irreproachable. that in omitting to hear a fermon. Good God !'' exclaimed he.. ought^ oh their fide. and their in duflry indefatigable . nor fuffers the ferenity of his mind to be iufHed at ilerms andtempefls. in my opinion^ ten times more evil in cheating a man of a fingle farthing. if fuch meafures were purfiied and what an abundant enjoyment wc fliould have of all the necelfarles of life i"t 1 Kliyogg '' 'Viany readers spparel. F6r this purpofe. to hear peafanJs accofec^ of luxury in in Switzerland. and examine accurately the cultui'e of the farms they fiiould diltin1 ' *^ ^' ^' *' *' *' *' *' ^' *' ** *' *^ *' : ^^ *^ ** *' ^' ''' guiOi and reward thofe amongjfl: the fubordinate huf- *' *• bandmenwho give the nloU: evident proofs of labor and application . and complains of the partiality of fortune. they (hould make frequent and regular circuits in their diftrid:. becaiife his har veil is worfe than thofe of his induftrious neighbor.^ ^^ ciaige *' 'rHE RURAL SOCRATES e themfelves with impunity. and ^^ *' *' ^' end by defrauding their neighbors. in luxury * of ap- ^' ^' parel. but thofe the may be lurprifed who have been diftricis. *' What would be the profpcrity of thefe cantons.

one point vviji be gained. I. hov^ever faint. has a iiifficient degree of information and * As tiieEng1i/h cxtrafl •' tranflator has here pa/Ted ovei noticed. mi will give you coorage in «* your farther efforts.^ engaged in hope:* in an honeft enterprize. Do <« net be difheartened yourfelf. and let the c< manner of executing theoi be a naodei of feriior acd zCiWiiy .. You doubt the approbation of the pub«< lie .f3^1ion w. will not . " away all hepe from me. To day. ^ effarc .hici\ <. He who has the "priority of birth. ha?e meditated well upon objeih tending to th?. and in the end you will perceive.«* utility (fays Kliyogg) propofe them with etjergy and zeal. «« apart of what yoo feek frc^fT-^?. when we heat <» the truth. «t but this did not difcoarage me. waa not a!! at once. when the ftate of the feafons has feem^ to Jake. when we know that we have done oar duty. Often. whereas in working «' er. but why (hculd you doubt that what is honeft and ufcful will at laft <« obtain its concurrence ? There is fomcthing within us. al'w&ji .« " we experience. ought to be redoubled. and the firft •«<on!y fuggeft the trial of new expedients. may at another feafoti^iroduce " falutary fruits. «< When — — — «' for the public wc often fee.IHE RURAL SOCRATES. who in his ^ political conferences ufcd to jrc£r. aft foKows of yx)u fo much of the paflage as is intereftiog.ark» fhaf r?^ . many «* years pafled away beforel could perceive that I had made any advance . vanilh. their zeal cools . however difagreeable it niay be. they leave things ro take their couifc(exclaimed Kliyogg with vivacity) is exaif^Iy what ought not to be . that efforts is prefling the call. according to the apodle. 4^ *Kliyogg cxercifes all the duties o^th-tmafferoftt family y though he is the younger brother. and he who reckons upon Providence whc:?. however fruftrated. and the •• blefling of Providciice will Yon will always obtain not be wanting. end makes yoa every Groke J «« approach nearer to the objcfts yon have in view . This K-hcn no remedy appears. containing a converfation between moFC thaii nine pages unKliyogg and oar author. the more ought we it. the fruit of all our labors <» «< <* *« *« «« «« and contrivSuch contradidions difliearten public men . But my dear «' Kliyogg (replied our author) fuccefs in your cafs is a conftant motive to «« aiSiviiy of your hoc is a ftep forwards. pa'olic . and proje^s rejeified which are the beft intentioned — for it it prccifely /^<r«. in a finglc inftant. fecms to agree with the Ia?e Dr. li'jes Kliyogg in the above converfation. ton:)orrow anothand infenfibly your work will receive its lull accomplifhnienr. Providence has favored me at the time of bar«* veft with a fufficient crop. that I f. that ev« cry cne will be afhamed to refufe you his approbation.icceeded in improving my lands . and the firft that can be propofed ? Tnift to Providince : every ufeful attempt. The rtwre to he convinced of the necelSty of is an im media re attention to And not the internal i}iiti«. an^ ed. of itHtlf a « fccompenfe . that fays Tes to it. «* '^. Tebb of London.

— *' (fays he) all efforts are *' the. the jefl of his *' domeflics . • There is only. as to diffufive benevolence. According to him. if it is he who fets the mofl induflrious example ^ fifort is loft. the tree. (who however fell far fhort iif^eneral of Confucius.r/jee is that which is ioundcd on a love for xhfwhoUhu* fentiaaen>. fays the Chinefe philofophcr. tern to every individual of his family. and to reiign." Many Vnit the ht^ pafrieti/m iftai%. On the contrary. and if his ignorance is accompanied with :*' obflinacy. which gives life and flrength : if the root ceafes to vegetate.b*t i% ufe ful. the execution of his orders will be an in*^ tolerable burthen. and the lafl to leave them. however healthy *' before. one of ihc moft wife and amiable of men. the ible direction of every thing to his adminiftration . in confequcncc. few men would be tempted to envy him that honor. the — *' <" •'* fage who is always content .J many of the Greek philofophers have uttered fimilar pfpcftxng a diftnttrejled pu ifuit of vijctHC acd pf v. Kliyogg alfo agrees wuh Confucius. the mafler is to be the firfl to commence The veall forts of work. when he himfelf is the firfl to difcov*'er wearinefs i With what expe<flation of^ obedience *' can he regulate and order the bufinefs of the day^ *^ when his laborer underllands how to methodize it *' better I Such a mafler will be the fport. fmce Confucius knev/ ** he hopes. With what confidence *' can a mafler exa^^of his fervantsto labor with un*' relaxed ardor. if the intellec*' tual faculties of the mafler are evidently more en* */ largcd . for he does not pradliice virtue in order to be retompenjed by it : I the prad^ice of virtue is he fole reward for which of thcGreeW philofophets.s . for virtue renders his fool tranquil : noih« ing troubles or difturbs him. *^ <^' mailer of a family may juflly vain. all cares are ufelefs t be compared to the root of a tree. ry elTence of his authority confifts in being a living pat'* Without this. muft perifli with it. ^^ . to acknowledge the fuperiority of his brotband talents.44 and rcafon sr's genius THE RURAL SOCRATES. Satisfied with feconding that ardor of which he is fufiiilhed with the exampleIn admitting the fyftem which Kliyogg has formed refpedling the obligations of the head of a family.

I hii-e him *' to do the 1: lavieft part of the bufineis. The next time I faw my friend. inter*' ruptigd I at lead think. and diligence. when he works in the fame fpot of ground vi^ith your (elf? That is a point. and is. for. faid I. and to have an eye to their execution. — — — cannot determine. ftrongand robufl the misfortune is. it is permitted us. in order to be ** exempted from tt)o great fatigue myfelf : all that *' fecms ncceffary for me to undertake is. 1 replied. dexterity. he always found him'unemployed. and worked clofe *' I ** my faby my *' fide late in *' " ** *' *^ *' thecveningc He feconded my labor better and better evdry day . there will not be a fervant in his hoiifliold will glory to emulate their mafler's condu£t. i. he is not always hearty in his work. is it not natural that every one (hould be folicitous to pafs hi^ time as comfortably as he can I But I find we think in a very different . took the lad into the field with me : he fhared tigue early in the morning. I " my — — *' ^' *' '^ — If this is your way of thinking. as you fee. to give proper *' diredlions. Were we denied this privilege. fairly fpeaking. " whatdifferencev/ould there be between opulence and ** poverty I And where would be the advantage thatPro** vidence has difpenfedto us a larger portion of wealth f replied friend. I could not forbear obferving the great injuflice he did his fervant in accufing him of idlencfs. ^^ *^ 47 pie . as a painful employment f "faid he. but " yogg *' *' *' *'Iwas requeftcd by a particular friend (faid KI1-. lately to me) to (hew his fervant my method of manuring with marley gravel. He protefted to me. docs not want capacity. fbr F had never feen any* ^* '* tt *' body fo remarkably indefatigable. This lad. when we are rich enough ** to afford it. that whenever he went to overlook his laborers.THE RURAL SOCRATES. to enjoy a reputable and honorable rc" leafe from it. it no lon- ** ger amazes me that your fervant is idle during your abfence . " Yoii regard the rougher part of manual labor. and I could not avoid admiring his vigor. on the contrary. Is he equally idle.

my dear Kliyogg. — m — : — — th:it . he Kliyogg no fooner forms a refolution.4^ ^' *' ^' THE RURAL SOCRATES. Many prejudices had he to encounter 3 many contradi£lions to cope with from wife and fifter. he obliges every body to rcjeiH: and abllain from it. ^' *' *' *' *' *. than. and am not under the neceiiity of fhortening my days by hard labor V" ! priety and retflitude he querable firmnefs. when fhe perfuades me not to harrafs myfelf fo much . be a convert to your way of tbhiking. The applaufe and approbation his economic improvements met with from fome of the princip:d psrioiis in the canton. he fays. otherwife. this perfuaflon he made ufe of the mod vigorous efforts for extirpating all' bad habits which had crept into his family. It is one of his principal maxims in farming. only ferves to multiply thofe fpbngy plants which fuck all nourifliment from On the fame principle. and tions. though the moft proper meafures From other refpe^s are taken to make it profper. not fupport itfelf where idlenefs. whom he found great difficulty in convincing that they ought to rciflify domeftic abufes. and diliipa* tion are predominant. So true is it there fccms but one heart and one wiilconcur in it . comfounded on reafon piaifantly iiften to my wife's opinion. a houfe canthe crop. to begin by re7nov:ng all weeds before he attempts to mend the joil . and tells me that I have enough to live upon. which long habit had. for the future. luxury. in fome meafure. contributed not a little to reduce to reafon thefe intefline fermentaAt prcfent.^ «* ferent manner 5 I am never more fatisfied and happ^r And I muit than when 1 am working myfelf.inftead of being ad vantageoits. purfued my friend^ from a fenfe that it is* I v/ill never. manure. rendered facred yet his fortitude always triumphed over their refiflance. of whofe prois convinced. with unconinfifls that all the family (hall and when he regards any cullom as perBJcious. concord prefides at bis board. or even of no real benefit.

v/iih the He fixed.— The two fiflcrs (one of whom had been brought up in a tavern) were filled with refentment . and with theme of tire profit arifing from his buftnels.THE KURAL SOCRATES. or bencfieial examples^ makes an imprcfiiorf on others. till their flrength is enervated. The v/orld has long taken no'^ tice of it . in very fever^ ". and they are incapable of applying to the occupations or dutie^of life. their under flan ding and reafon totally degenerate. faid they. occafioned by hard labor. from which there rcfblted. . and maintained his reiblutiod moll rigid exaftnefs. mination foon convinced him that this was a miftake he fhuddered at the thought of the bad imprefTions and dangerous examples his children would receive from the guells who frequented his houfe . that quantity to a pint from his own experience. 8uch a proceeding We G '' m . terms. that '^ your unaccountable fingularity would prove the *' ruin of your family. which is mof!:' precious for work 5 wantonly difiipating tiie money which ought to be employed to the advantage of their domeilic affairs. conAccurate exafiderabie profit towards honie-keeping. the greater part of whom wafle in a tavern that time. in appearance. have always foreleen. or the fatigue of a journey : the fole ufe for which wine feemed deilined village — •: — by the Creator. and attacked him. Hiat the €>rs jtf encouragement with which' a government honwho diftinguiQi themieives by ufefu! fiifcoveries. and induces them to endeavor at an imitation^ the rubje<5J:s Kliyogg kept the only tavern which there was in the . ^Thefe reflexions led him to a determined refo* lution not to allow any of his cuflomers more wine thaa Was ncceffary to recover and recruit the confumptiorj! of rpirits. was very Toon attended with the lofs of the greatefl part of his company. and the better part has prophefied that no ^' luck would happen ever fincG you began to deviate *' from the cudoms of cur wile forefathers 1 You fee *^ what fine effects your obllinate caprice has produced.

But why is ? the profit we '• *' '^ draw from the tavern to be defpifed This." " that the article of hufoandry ma^y fufFer a little . whofe labor acknowledge h entirely loft to the farm. would be a great affiilancc to the family/'—'' You omit in your calcula(faid Kliyogg) that there mufl be one fervant extraordinary to wait on tlie company.) Examine all circumftances vviih deliberation before you condemn me. and a fmiling countenance . ** THE RURAL SOCRATES. Are not the crops coniiderably larger than when I firfl entered upon farming I And is not it apparent that nothing is wanting but more hands to make a further augmentation of our income r'^-— have no objec^'^ We tion to make to that point. yet can you believe that the money acquired by indulging the vices of our fellow-creatures will be attended with a bleffing ? Are you deaf to the fad complaints which are poured forth inceifantly by the wives of profell«?d drunkards and dcbauchees. added to wh-at you make by farming.''-— '' I am rendy to admit. ! — ^^ *' ^' *' *' ^^ *' *^' but their (Irength will increafe in proportion. (faid Kliyogg) that our advantage from the tavern is proportionably more lucrative than fromthe farm . yet the advantage is far fuperior to the lofs. and confequently the time is dravt^ing nearer^ xvhen they will be able to aflift in improving our eftate. good folks (replfed Kliyogg^ with a compofed tone of voice. '' '^ *' *' '^ — We '^ ^' ^^ '^ '' '' '' ''- ^' .^m. muftfoon be reduced to beg from door to door I --Hope better things. Have I ever refufcd my children any thing neceffary to their happinefs ? enabied me to fupply them I thank God for having with wholefome food and proper cloathing 1"— ^'Wc do not deny it. (faid they) but as they grow older^ will it not require more to maintain them J" "True. " *' *^ of the ready money we were daily r€^ ceiving from our cuflomers! Is not this to take the in depriving us *^ ** ^^ *' *' ** ^^ *' *' bread from your children's mouths ? Our poor little ones. at the caufe of their unhappinefs ? Does tK)t every ckv nfforfl inftances r-f Tons who have great ** wealth tion.

THE RURAL SOCRATES,
^^

p^^

their fathers, advancing with ruin, towards by abandoning themfclves hady ** to intoxication and floth I Is it rot realonable to fcar^ ** that thele unfortunate families plunged into mifery, **. will cry aloud for vengeance againfl the infamous a*'varicc of tavern keepers, who have contributed to ** the diflipation of their wealth !*'— ^' There are, how** ever, to be found, landlords who may be called for** tunate and, who have acquired great wealth by ;

wealth

left

them by

**

ftrides

•'

their bufinefs/^-— ''

*'
*'

*^ *'

Acknowledged ; yet how rare are the inilances of their continuing rich to the third generation ? Their children iulenfibly accuftomed to a libertine life, lofe all inclination for induftry ; in accumulating riches at the expencc of others, they
impoiing and

" grow
*^

wicked

:

and would you wifh

*'

**
**

to expofc your children to the like temptations ? Would you wifh that ail the fatigue and trouble wc have endured in the culture of our land (hould prove
ufelefs
? and that our children, corrupted by bad examples, (hould be abandoned to beggary, and ey.pend more in one day than they can gain in twenty years by this unworthy occupation ? Heaven forbid, but no one ever aUerted that thefe confcquences mull in-

"
*'

*'

" "
*'
*^

difpenfably happen."
that this

—"
;

The

probability

is

furely

^'
*' *'
*^
"^^

**
*'

*'

*^
*'
*'

and do you not daily fee with what facility children adopt bad examples ^''—>'^ muft allow it/' '' Suppofe then that to happen, which you thus admit to be poffiblc ; with wbatNunceafmg reproaches would your minds be deprcfTed, for having been the caufc of your children's depravity ? Whereas, if you follow my advice, you may in truth, amafs lefs money ; but our children, inured to labor, will be contented with the produce of their land, and the blefiing of heaven will vifit them,as it has *^ Weil then you mull purfue your own vifited us !'' courfe ; we are always obliged to fubmit to your opinion) even though w« arc fure you are in the

muft happen

We

*^

wrong

52
*'
^'

THE RURAL SOCRATES.

wrong;. but remember, if the event involves us in want and mirery, yoa are anlwerabic for it." Such was commonly the parting word of that contra*^ di'flory fpirit which oppofed the invincible conflancy of
our philofophcr, who perfifled here in the wiie refoliiThe inhabitants of the village made tion he had taken. it the objcifl of the'ir derifion, and engaged one of their companions to open another tavern, but to their greae detriment ; and many parents, diflreifed with the irregniaritics of their Tons, which daily grew worfe and worfe, complained to Kliyogg himfelf of the bad tendency of taverns, and that the money fcjuandered there would reduce them to ruin

He
rity
*^
*'

of families,

dlfcovered another caufe injmious to the profpein the ciiftom of making little prefents
or for fjew-y ear's gifts, gratuities (faid Kliyogg) habituate them early to acquifitions by other ways than induflry ;
at chrijlenin^s^
is

to children

Thefe
in life

*'

which

*' all
*' *'
**

lowing the feeds of iazinefs, that fource of evils : beiides, preients on thefe occafions, confifl of unwholefome delicacies, which are at Jeafl {{iperflaous ; or of expenfive toys of no real ufe. People

are obliged to return thefe civilities to their acquaintance ; and, hovv^cver fmall in appearance fuch trifles *' may be, they amount to a fnm in the end of the year, ^' very often burthenfome toa family/' He made it a rule, therefore, to receive no prefents whatfcever for himfelf or children, from godfathers or relations ; and never to make any, except to real objcds of charity,

"

fuch as perfons whonl age or accident had rendered incapable of procuring a fubfiilencc. He blames all thofe who bcftow alms on midejerving chjeCls ; confidering it as an injury to fociety ; and that thofe who diilribute their wealth in injudicious benefa<Slions, render themfelves refponfible for the dangerThefe perous confequences refuiting from them. fons, fays he, think to pui chafe by their alms, a benc-

did-ion

TilE

RURAL SOCRATES.

55

diTrion from heaven, eommonly in favor of their oivn illicit purfuits after gain ; while their gifts, by indulg-

ing beggars in idlenefs, encourage them to the commif^ lion of every fort of crime, fuch as theft, impofture, and lewdncfs. Of all the rules of condu^ pra^lfed by Kliyogg, there are none which have cod him more trouble in the He has been accufed of execution than the two laft. unparalleled feverity towards his children ; and, branded with infufferable avarice and inflexibility to the poor.— But, unmoved by the fe reproaches, he has perfevercd in a refolution vv^hofe re£litude he acknowledged. His children, it is true, never experience the rapturous fenfai'ions which are excited by coflly prefents ; but they are fo much the more contented and gratified with the enjoyment of what is neceffary and convenient for their
flation.

Thefirfl time I went to vifit him, I was defiroiis of leaving a ^leafing remembrance of me in the minds of his children by fom.e trifling prefents ; and was fomewhat furprifed not to find in them the lead inclination to accept them. Their father defired, at nrH:, that I would not give mylelf fo much trouble ; and as I took his manner of declining only as a compliment my offers were continued ; but he infifled flill more vehemently that they fhould not be repeated.—- In vain I remonfrratcd that it was right for young people to have proper indulgences, and that what I begged their acceptance of was a trifle. It is not. Sir, faid he, with fome emotion, the value of what you wifli to give my children, that caufes this repugnance ; but my perfuafion of the dangerous coniequences to them attending thefe fort of
gifts.

He
tions

exerted eqtTal iirmncfs in banifhing

tliofe dlpin--

anntxed to particular days ; for at his table there k no preference in good cheer given to Sundays or Feftivals, the conclufion of hay or corn harveli, or chriflenv

54
incoiifiitent
jneiit

THE

RUP^AL SOCRATES,

ings, or country wakes.

It appeared to him abfolutely with reafon to allow the boi\y more nourifti* on days of relaxation, than on days of labor jvvhcn

the rtrength,exhau(led by painful toil, has much more ocHe therefore regulates the food csiion to be recruited. sccoiding to the nature of the work ; and prepares iii$ laborers doc to expe(5t any extraordinary feaft at the end of harvefL^^ '* This is not the eife£l: of coveioaf'^ nefs, (ne lays to thern) for I (Ijail fpiend the fame mo-, ** ney that others do ; but it (haU be in maintaining you

^*

better every day

when your work

is

mofl fatiguing.''

Kliyogg drinks no wine at meals ; but carries his pint with him into tite fields ; and ufes it as a reftorative, >cvhen he finds himieif fiaking \inder the burthen of la*
J)or,
/^«?^j" for the iife^ofhis family, like other never table pork a didi at his yet is (eparate $ ; ijut a certain quantity of bacon is dreffed daily, cut in

He

fattens

farmers

fmall pieces,
this,

and mixed with iome kind of vegetable : he finds, renders the vegetable a more ir.vigoratHe is of opinion that food of thehardcft di:ng diet. gefrion, affords the greatefl: degree of nourifhment. For this reafon he gives potatoes the preference over other This convi<n:ion he roots, and 'rye bread over wheat. draws from his own experience ; in which he cannot eaiilv be miftaken, as he labors inceiTantly in an equal decree ; and has condantly oblerved that his ftrength is much (boner exhaufled when he feeds on delicate meats^

irhan

on thofe which are grofs and more
••
^

difficult

to di-

rcd.

^

.

.

and unofl material obje^l of his care is, ^:je educafion of his childreii ; which he rationally confikrs as the mod iacrcd of all duties. He regards them -^3 fomany pledges intruded to him by the Divinity, /i7r ' - - > - ^' f nooth the road that leads to true happinefs ; convinced

But the

fird

'

•'

and ^^Xs in the Sunday. him from fending many fchool communication unprincipled lefl with and lic . In confequence of this. is to prevent the entry of falie ideas and irregular dct^bfervation has fires into the mind while tender.n kind of life. apart for this occupation. he can avoid fetting any bad examples before them.THE PiURAL SOCRATES* lie direct 55. faould His great principle on this head tliem wrong. prevents them to a pubfplit. on which fc ied to the danger of imitation. One of them always ilaysat home \ as well as to pieferve decency of behavior amongf!: the children . taught him that children imitate the manners and actions of older perfons. and be apprehends that. by a due government of his ow^n paifions. and hopes to infpire into them that true contetit which he regards vvhilii by removas the only foundation of happinefs from far all other fociety. village feads. TheTame motive infinences our philofophcr to forbid fome hours * his children fubie<fled fairs. by injuring their morals. — ting. and to be confidfrcd as a fee tarj% . Kliyogg undertakes to teach them himfelf. ill educated young perfons in their walks and hours of recreation. and infifls that they [liall attend him in all his labors^nd Ihare in them in proportion to their fli ength*^ Thus he endeavois to give them an early talle for his ov. in triith^ ban to cenfure. to have his childien always with him . fuch as &c. as cnftoms manners he has taken whcfe bad and depraved pains to banifh from his own houfe. from partaking in public diverlions. the brothers attend their duty at church alternately. (hould. if they could be equally prefer ved from contaTo prevent this evil. as he is able ing them. with whom they live . he is defirou3> gion from others. a prohibition that has. mske them too dearly purchafc the arts of reading and wri* — — . as to hear them repeat the catechifmjand give them lefTons in reading and wiiting. they are not expoThis rock. and for his own way of thinking and ailing . convinced that juHicc would be required of him.

yet fu rely life is not *' intended to be a circle of labor. you refuted ta •^^ let your daughter accept an invitation to an entertain* *' mentjwhere fee might have eaten and drank.56 tarlil. and a rigid father whofe parfimony refufed to his* *' You are exchildren the enjoyment of any diverfion. *nd dan^^ ced.''^-~-'' I confefsit. niy 5^o?d neipjibor.'* *"* then. •^^ flie can' laugh and divert herfelf at home* Do you think *^that drinking to excefsy or being imiTioderately mer^' ry. aild I'cgrettcd the money foolhiily ^' lavilhed away . are the only things that give fatisfa^tron ? Can " you eat more at a tavern than nature permits ? Can '•* you be more thian merry V' '' Clearly not. it \|K3" but the dther day. *'• we return to our occupation with frefli alacrity.' that when you " have been. do you not give the *' preference ^' '* ! — — My — 1 ! Why . *=' cefBvely in the wrong (laid one of his neighbors to' — Kiiyogg) to treat your children ib inho'ninly by refufing them every kind of recreation \nd who has *^' informed you (faid he) that I deny them recreation ? ^' Pray have they not as much health and cheerfjlnefs •'' *' as your own f** Bat do not you abfoliitely deny *' their appearance at all places where young people *' meet to be merry with propriety and decency ? Have *' not you commanded your Tons not to go to the tav'' ern ? Nay. THE RURAL SOCRATES. guilty of irregularity at the tavern over^^ ivight. ^'^ of wane of rcfi." '^Andliave you ever felt the leail difpofi*' tion to repentance. but a lit'* tie fcflivity at proper intervals. and beholding the hap*' py revi^ard of your induflry ?"— •' Yes. have I not oblervcd. iB of great fervice ."—-'' Have you then no plea^* fare In eukivating your land. and per*' forming the duties of your flation r"-^'' Never.^'-— *^^ Ah my friend. you were very little difpofed for bulinefs in the " morning You have complained of tiae head-ach. undoubtedly *' the appearance of a good harveft gives me real plea*'' fare. and diverted hcrfelf like the refl of^the world !'* ** daughter had not the leaft: inclination to go. without including *'* Ibme hours of plcafure. afb?r laboring all day.

and he has found thefecret of making himfelf equally beloved and feared by theme They are accuflomed from their infancy to hearty food. incapable of labor. to infpire my children with an inclination for rational pleafure : it appears. that io long as man affiftance to fociety is . deferves to be taken Whilfl they are too young to labor with the notice of. hoe.ence . or fpade. when let in competition with thofe that render you incapable of profecuting your work. — . that I am fecuring their In teaching them to ihun thofe future happinefs miflaken pleafures you recommend. aird lends as no he can be conlidered only has a right to expert fubfiP. he is peculiarly cautious of creating the leafl diftindlions among the children. he makes them eat their dinner upon the but from the moment they begin to be of fome iloor ufe in hufbandry. or ex- who an anbut no — ped his carefles. hisfons and his nephews : and inflrut^lsthem with equal zeal and alliduity in the princiimal.*' The method Kliyogg ufes to cnconrag-e children to work. and which have frequently been followed by repentance t I endeavor. that they can gain his friendlliip. by exciting their emulation. provided for the family j and he gives them thoroughly fatisfy their hunger . ples of virtue. whilft the mind is iie^iible. I hope to prefer ve ! ^ them from ** that ruin. according to the pernicious fuch as as is much as will H cuftoci . It is only by an obedient behaviour and by doing well. avoiding carefully to excite gluttony by feeding them with delicacies by way of reward. His approbation is all the recom-penfe to which they afpire . claim to being treated as a member of the community. He feems to love. In this manner he teaches them to comprehend. In other refpedts. he admits them to fit at table with the family. «^ '^ ^' '*' 5/^ ** ** *' '*'•' *' preference to joys which are not attended' wlth-remorfe.THE RURAL SOCRATES. to me. with equal afieiStion. \i'hich has been the confequeiicc in io of depravity of manners many families.

the opmlon which Kliyogg has imbibed . had not the lefs regard for Born with high his own country as a worthy citizen. ferent in the choice of diet. an elevated relaxation from military fatigue. feelings for all that is beautiful or excellent. and as they find tbemfclvcs abundantly provided with all that can fatisfy their reafonable wiflics. that I cannot forbear relating it. without any hazard^ difpenfe with the trouble of locking the clofets or cupboards where he keeps his flores. he came to leek. and baniflies an immoderate defire of riches . I have heard him expand upon this idea in a converfation with a friend of mine. defcendants may. vv^ho had acquired in a foreign fervice. friend.^ THE RURAL SOCRATES. This fad j unifies. and I took the firft opportunity to procure him that fatisfaiHrion. in all probability. is the mod pleafing to their tafte . which is equally open to all the members of the family who are old enough to underftand its ufe and This are fuppofed to be equally entitled to a (liare. This confidence extends to the box where he keep^ his money . Thus they have no palTion for ihefe things. for they regard money merely as an inflrument that fupplies them with what is neceffary for the wants of the family . fo that Kliyogg may.— Hs was ftruckwith the fmgular geniu:". continue incorporated in one family. that to which they are moll iccuftomed. in fomemeafurfe. he conceived an ardent defire to be perfonally acquainted with him . for Tome centuries. communication of wealth occafions every one to avoid/ with the jiiceft circumlpe^ionj the flighteil: appearance of felfiQinefs. the fortune his merit deferved. The moment he heard of the fame of our rural Socrates. and ar^j infenfible to all the pleafures of the" Indiftabic except that of appcafing a keen appetite. no one entertains a thought of any thing beyond. and — My — . ^juflom of tnoil peafants. in the bofom of the mufes. in a manner fo fatisfadlory. of the man. that their.

I cannot anfwer *' to my confcience to part voluntarily wi^ any of my *' children before they have attained the ag6 whenrea^' Ton is mature.^*= " —I am fully peiTuaded it abounds in both. j^ fqon faid to him witlj a tone of fricndfhip and franknefi. through *Vthe mediation and affiRance of his Holy Spirit."—'^ I believe you (faid Kliyogg) but they '' are my children. not to *' fail in this facred duty. when he falls into bad company !— Do yoU — > *' '' think. " *' deferves. will not admit " of your beflov/ing the attention which my fon may *' require with what facility will not a young . You have infpired mc . difpenfe myfelf '' from. truft me «> with one of them. Sir.. that there are no men of honor and virtue in the fervice I Only allow them '^ as much probity and religion as any other profeiiion. *' which I cannot. my dear Kliyogg. But pardon my freedom . not to be convin^^ ccd of it y yet is my ion dvvays to meet with fuch . *' conneded with your employment. *' I perceive. ** may .*' in a moment with the mod iincere and uncommfon *' affedlion : and as you have feveral fons. The duties. and *' man fufFer himfelf to be drawn into the allurements *' of vice. and have " too ftriking an example before me. t" and what is more. and 1 lland bound In a pcrfonal ob** ligation to be accountable for ihem to Providence . for your kind intentions j and feel for you aU V the refpe<rt and regard that an officer of your rank. God has blefl me with children that '' I might educate them to his glory.THE RURAL S0CRATE5. replied Kli- yogg. Sir. and ufe all my cn** deavors to render them happy : and I mean. " with all the pundluality and fidelity of which I am " capable. it is impofllblc to rank '' you too high in one's elleem. interrupted my friend. or confide to another." '' Your manner of think'' ing (faid my friend) is laudable but I w^ould be . without a crime. *' as confcientious in thefe articles as yourfelf ? I unf dertake to acquit myfelf as your reprefentative. of your underftanding and probity. and I will make his fortune in the ** •* army/' — '^ I am infinitely obliged.

or in waikjng over fields which our hands have cultiwhere I explain to them the different parts of vated agriculture. Sir. cultivate d with — fit^ — *-^ farm.-obferve. but you have feven fons in your family. - " may he not often aflociate with the diffipated part of " mankind ? 1 will guard him from it as much as pof'' fible. necefTary to ly a my tranquillity. and have made themtiicir conllant iludy. if Providence thinks ^^ '^' when "^ *' '•^ '^^ '' But care and induffcry. which has fupported me hitherto.y time agreeably. and remark with what fii'guiar liberality Providence has rewarded our labor. ^t leaft. in reading with them. . their hopes of happinefs. ^' '' ^' fo long.6j> THE RURAL SOCRATES.- — I find (faid my own life continues irreproachmy friend) your maxims of educa: *' ^' *^' *' *' ^' ^^ ^' "' *' end fenlible . (replied Kliyogg) ag un to ." who have been habituated to them from their infanProvcy. This very eftate. faid the generous officer. which nothing ought toextiwguifli. and on Sundays I pais m. : My children are Icarce- *' *' *' *' *' *' *' *' ^' momernt out of my fight they accompany either mv brother or mvfeif through the whole^courfe of country bufmefs . as well '' Indiiputabiy it may. endeavor to procure them (bme eflabllQiment . ' ^r-^ br-:^pdcfi to the blciTmg ^vf favorable feafons on idertce having placed in me in a : my children agriculture *^ their .'' -". provided they unite to regularity of condu(5]:. but 1 have a competency for all my fons." furcly happinefs is to be found in other flates. 1 have inflruifted Hiey are ignorant of eve'-' ry thing elfe : their ideas. that your itation in life will not allow you to watch his condu6"i with the vigilance ance I I beo. By this fyflem of education they will efcape the evil of bad example . will fupport tion prudent : — them and their defcendants. and on this fuppofition many a worthy man the army is not to be defpifed makes his fortune there. that ardor for work. by thofe as in huibandry.I acknowledge it.'' '' Whatever reli- — *' " ** *' have on your goodnefs. as able. who cannot always be kept at home you mufl by fome means or other. Sir. or in fmging pfalms.

be much to be pitied. it foon brings on difgufl and fatigue. in all probability. ^^ that children Ihould alv/ays follow the occupation of : ' '-'• — '^ their . Sir. *' '' were I obliged to habituate myfelf to your delicate meats with high fauces I flionld not enjoy {o good a flate of health. *' robufl and more difpofed to work : but if I cxercife '^ my m. they *' would find themfelves tranfplanted into a new fcencj. the hour and the nature of his meals will be different ] and. and may beaffured of fucceeding/* Be it fo. If I '' am not miflaken in your opinion.lef^ contended than '^ with my homely It is the fame thing in regard fare. And I.e thing foon happen in military exercifes ? A mind without prcj jdicc which applies with zeal to the purfuit of any profeflion (no matter what) will enter into it with readinefs. *' '' ly poffible for any Sincerely (peaking. << *' 6t of the real ncceffaries they enlifl in the army. but my fon would at lead forget his firfl occupation. and fhould be far. could he relume it with the fame ardor and alachave contracted abroad anothet rity I He will fyftem of life."-—" Would not the fam. I have praclifed bodily labor without re* '^ laxation. " where you reduced to the neceility of dining on the " coarfe food. and to the enjoyment life ! of The moment : *' employments of the hufbandman have hitherto been with fatisfaiHiion. In fhort cuflom is all. it appears to me fear ceone to b^ truly happy out of that circle of life to which he has been early accuflcmed. on the contrary^ ihould be equally fo. day after day and I am i^o much the more . his houfe will be the feat of dif- ^' fubniitted to ^^ . which furnillies me with a continual *' feafl. my dt^^r Kliyogg. " The cares and fatigues attending a military Jife. ^' to labor. *' You would.ind long upon any abflrufe point. if unfortunately he knows not how to lay afide vi^hat cuflom has rendered a fecond nature. to which a variety of circumftances m'ay oblige him to return.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and fiiould this happen. would >' to them appear painful and difagreeable whereas the their labors.^' *' '' ^^ ^' — " *' '*' *' *^ *' ^' '^ order.

When your for«' tune becomes feparated. that the *' iif^ they lead renders them haj^py and contented. than of '' But you are not ** materials to excrcife them upon/' *' immortal. Sir . and wlien that is accomplifhed.— ^' Why not. when experience has taught. as the land is capa** ble of. and your death may be the caufc *^* of divifion among your children. I have long been iolicitous to fee my chil*^ ^\tv\ of a proper age to aflift me in bringing this farm «* to as high a degree of perfedion. the *^ 'produdions of the earth are always in proportion to the *^ culture. There will *' always be a greater want of laboring hands. can hardly avoid embarrailing each other : youreflate (excufeniy repetition of the-queftion) can «* it be fu^icient to maintain them all I Yes. *' v/e (Iiould hear no more of treachery or violence. their father. I have never yet met with *' the perfon with whom I would willingly change fitua<i tions nor have I ever. and contentment of mind and of ** heart would cflabiifh their refidence on earth For I <« faithfully afRireyoUj Sir. which may be purchafed for a trifle. the rcfult of it would be. Sir. tranquillity. Kliyogg. ** *' — — — — . and where *^ we may undertake new improvements. but murt '' How <' ufe their united efforts to keep up its value/' ^* is that prafticable ? there is no poflibility. will they be able with the *^ fmal! allotment afiigned each. *' — ** ^* ** employment of mankind. to this prefent hour. to continue their pre'' It is *' fent way of life J" precifely for that very *' reafon that they mufl not divide the eftate . felt any '< want or the ilighteft inclination to covet the poifeffion ''But your fons. that fo ma*^ ny perfons fhould be moved by the fame inclinations. af*«of what belonged to another!" uni'/crfal ** found his t : — ter all. that there '* And v/ould only be one profeflion in the world.62 ** THE RURAL SOCRATES. ** Peace. there yet re^^ main large traces of neglected ground in our neighbor*' hood. and every one fupport from the labor of his hands." where woLiId*bc the misfortune if there was not ? reIf agriculture was the plied Kliyogg^ with a fmilc.

and knowing no other wants. what is true and jufl will be eafily diicerncd " by the mof^ limited underllandings And if any vi* *' cious inclinations ihould venture to appear.t in fuch a — *' ** ** ter number fome one. I take all opportunities to convince them that ^' vicious habits precipitate men into ruin and. on the *^ contrary." the fuppofition is not very improbable. When early impreiTions are fortifi*' cd by time.'' *' He who is the moil induflrious.to gratify ? From their infancy they will have beea in-ured to la- *' *' *' *' The profits of that will yield them abundant bor. ra*' tional. may afpire manner of living . Where there are no irregular defii'es to in^* tcrfere. (retheir ilation. ^* «' (^3» and when they have no farther wifhes. has' a natural right to com^^ mand. — We — : ^^ nrove^ . he who " exercifes the authority of mafter will know how to '' fupprefJ them in the bud. their '^ Yet. and food. or finer raiment — . *' ion in many articles where the command can only *' proceed from one. food and raiment . *' or debauchery.." *' plied my friend) that your maxims may be fo deeply ^' rooted in thcmindsand hearts of your defcendants. fooner or later. may {igh for more to a bet- delicate V " *' and v/hat then will become of this happy union ?" *' Thofe (replied Kiiyogg) once habituated to a certain mode of living. as ''to flifle all inclination towards a more delicate man^' ner of living yet there m.uft be a contrariety cf opis. by having recourfe to ap. *' with the utmoft circumfpedion from being prefent *' in anyplace that may tempt them to idlenefs. I guard my children *' approves. furcly defires will extend no faithcr. and the rcll mufc confent to be '' governed. arc not very likely to abandon it for another they *' are unacquainted with^ and which their reafon difOn this principle.THE KUP. luxury. there is little danger of their being era*^ fed.AL SOCRATES. th?. and intelligent. that true happinefs is the conlequence of a ** regular and conflant attachment to the obligations of '-' '^ will take it for granted. ^' who find that mode to conftitute their happinefs.

they entertain their guefts nobly with wild fowl. as the ordinary courfeof things feems to oppofe it. What is Hill more extraordinary. The eldeft fon always fucceeds to the efEate . who leave the family feat when they marryy are paid a thoufand French livers. which is the extent of their wifhes and that the from rank and riches. and the diverfity of difpofitions. and contrary to what experience teaches as to the nature of the human It is not. and game. contentedly in li. refpeftable for his age. but by cultivating it with their own hands. without a thought of dividing their patrimony. before I — granted in to one of their anceftors ."* '' Ifubmit to the wifdom of your arguments. He will have no other prerogative over the reft. impofproduce fa^s that as ftiongly corroborate the fyfteno of our riiral philofopher. excited their dillike lather than defire. the account I received from him. converfation wilfuncloubteilly appear tedious to a . and information : He is related to the perfons of whom he {peaks.dants of this honorable lateil/ has ever deviated from the way cf thinking of his anceftori. they anfwer. in ieaii:y. by Saint Louis. Thofe tu'iult fnfeparable . or a temptation to embrace any other profeffion. but in work . at the time that he was Egypt for having (astjjie patent certifier) faved the King and his ar- This family lives in the mod obfcure kind of mediocrity . There is a family in Upper Provence. ^' " *' *' (concluded many rea(!ers *This but log I . and has vifited them frequently. to psrfons of — Yet a benevolent tarn of mind it will be inrcreft- rational alTent to what Kliyogg advances. '' '' *' <' '^ *' proved and eftablidied regulations. which is in poffcffion of authentic letters of NohleCe. They are independent. it is true . and retting them an exemplary pattern. fj ancieut in its origin.froni my common place-bonk. Thus I have great caufe to truft in the goodnefs of Providence that my poftcrity will long remain united and undifturbed. that they have always lived peaceably and ray. not one of the defccr. Their alliances are wiih fimple peafants .literalIy. above a year heart. and founded on fuchdiilinguilhed ferviccs. We are apt to confider the expe<f\ation of Kliyogg as chi- merical. perhaps. apprehend.^4 ** THE RURAL SOCRATES. When they have been advifed to avail themfehcs of the advantages annexed to a nobility. then in iintninent danger. but enjoy no other advantages above common peafants.. lible to knew chuc fuch a man as Kliyogg exifted. I (hall relate one which I had from an ecclefiaftic. Their happy abode is. not (o eafily obtaineci. upon their own eftare. of candor and purity of manners. is. I (hall tranfcribe. however. pigeons. manners. and the younger branches.jt laborious retirement. and it will only be when he aims at mere commandj that they will fubmit to his authority with patience.the feat of peace and innocence. and though their common way of life is in the ruftic ftile.

This operation is eafy before L would fooner un^ *Vthey have acquired firm hold. him. as maflcr of the fchool kept in it 3 an event.fHE RURAL SOCRATES.Kliyogg left to his brother the care of inflruding the children. '' Sir. his principles — '* ^' *> *' Habit teaches men to regard as a treafure. and you will beh'old peace. the Marqois tie Mirabeau's firft Letter . which will be attacking the evil at the root 5 *' for good feed can never make any progrefs. which will add ^* weight to my remonftrances. they cannot fail to be attended with the moit *^ happy conlcqacnces. however pernicious. till the * weeds are extirpated. ^. if *^ properly exercifsd. and purfued himlelf the I more indcfatigably^ the Thofe wlio are dcfirous of more public and csore geceral exaniples. He conceived an imnjediate hope of feci ng^^ reduced to a more extended pratlice . '^concord. ever flnce the introduc-^ He came to tion of good order in his domeflic affairs. the vice they have been long attached to . whofe tenor of life naay throw (ome probability on che opinion of Kliyogg. fi«(i . mzy them in Jofephus's account of ihc Efleoea . and to treat as a dangerous innovator. be on the *' children. ana of communicating to his countrymen a (hare of that fc-* llcity which he himfelf enjoyed. *^ dertake to educate a dozen children. ventures to attack eflablilhed cuftoms. who. and affection reign amongft your latcit de- " fcendants/' The brother of Kliyogg was laft year (1761) nominated by the village." . *< <« 6^ (concluded my friend . than attempt to *' communicate my principles to a (ingle grown perfon. which our country philofopher regarded as fortunate. in *' a^lual poffeilion of a fpecies of authority. You cannot think what ** influence authority has in promoting public good.) remain fleady to your principlcs.— My firfl attempt (hail. (fays he) I am participate his joy with me. a people. Heaven will crown your per* ** feverance with a bieding. and th^ accounts iiktK\' 'i\ from the Count dc Treffan and the Journal (Xcpn^oai^^jce.— Sec alfo i^ t^e fcquel.

particularly in country parifnes. the labors of the hnfbandman : referving to bimfelf the £nging-fchool . though the former difplays fubftituted Conrart's verficn of the pfalms. and fuperior even to the new French verjion. recommended. Duke of SaxeGotha. I (hall tranfcrihe a ftill more furprlftrg faft. ed writer^ •« if «« whom my country honors) ** would he an ufelefs acqoifition. than that of Marot and Beze to the French. the hours after fupper. by M. (who ww 3nurd€red at Lyons on St. tcftant chorcbes. A bjr «« German prince. Spring. (lill ufe mufic. though made to correfpond with Goudimers mufic. they did cot extend to the proprietors of eftates. thefirft elements of agriculture. the attention employed in teaching the people. is worthy of obfervation. which. Noi let it be regarded as chimerical. to fing with propriety. Tiuly gteat »«lii* . E/neft the pious. of the Germans. more than a cer. without difcoveringany great fcience. cuftoms are often preferred to common fenfe. Ihould not yet be adopted in all thefe churches. entirely changed • chc fac» of bis principality. for experience proves its prafticability. •• •* curate abridgments ought cal rules. nclwithftanding his language is more obfoleie and unintellfjgible to proof that ancient them.66 THE RURAL SOCRATES. profcffor of rhetoric at Bafie. for — —The French churches have by Beze and Mano extraordinary genius — The that in poetry.-— Vocal rtiufic has ever been his mofl delightful recreation . to inforoi the mindo the children of the peifantp are educated — «* of the common people . rot. acto be complied . and he has the notes of LobwafTer's pfalms by heart j* whilft his brother has much lefs (kill and tafte. and cannot be too often addreffed to the coniideration of government. But on the other hand. The canton of Zurich is re- Swifs and feme A — A markable forgooil finging. ftill fing the words of LobwafTer . and the beft praflical lo- ** *• ** •* Thefe abridgments (hould be introduced into fchoojs where a meihod that has been often . Bartholomew's day) coirpofed the mufiC) for a poetical tranflation of the Pfalter by Clement Marot and Theodore de Beze. has fomething folemn and harmonious. explaining in clear and fimple terms. related by the penetrating and ingenious author of ** EJfojs on variousfubjedSi inter^Jiing u politics ^* and morality^*' which perhaps will not be thought inapplicable to the ' The difcoveiies of the learned" (fays that diflinguiihprefent fub}?d. is. that the vcrfion publifhed about twenty years ftnce. adapted to the raufic of Goudimcl. on Saturdays. where he employed. Kliyogg * Claude Goud'meh a famous mufician of Franche Comte. fung with judgment in a village church. ft ranger woyld be furprifed to hear pfalms in four parts. Lobwafferj publifhed foon after a German tranflation in the fame The greaterpartof thePromeafure. and remained unin» telligible to the hufbandman^ For the information of the laborer.tary ajo. as is cuftomary.

to the inde-- — cent <* ** «' *' '' his civil virtues.'elve peafants. At TscMlit-ken. andlhavefeenthe ii«S paffed by Duke Erncft. in the principality of Halberftadt. Nicholas. where vocal and inftrumental pieces of Italian mnfic are performed. an- ticipating any intention of theirs. to have recourfe to civil auHis endeavors here again were fuccefsthority.have been long acknowledged as the hcfl chefs players in Eu*' m rope. and at Huttinguen. or to call : a prohibition that raifed anew the cla- mor of the village againft him. and his fcholars (the only ones. Sec. Since writing the above note. for the firfl time. where ihey were taught even coufic and drawing. Thus indifputable is the h&y that there is. Kliyogg entered upon by ablblutely forbidding about the in at the tavern 6y his office at the fingiiig fchooi his mulical fcholars to ramble ftreets after they left fchooi at night. ful . be had his people Inftrufted by compendlums of every kind of ufeful knowledge. which the clafs of peafants arc not capable of coatprehcnding . if his admonition was flighted. of the ridiculous abfurdity of the diverfions at the carnival and on the eve at St. i: is yet amazing to obferve the difference of infornration in this and the adjacent circles. He (hut his fchooi againft all who were refra<Slory . by threatening to lodge a complaint with the minifler of the parifh . He went farther . whofe execution would be pronounced excellent in a concert of the firft mailers. I have been credibly inforo^ed. and put a flop. they have a concert-hall. It is well known in Germanv. in the canton of Zurich. the inhabitants have eftsblifhed a weekly concert : The performers are tv. perhaps.THE RURAL SOCRATES. capable of performing in concert the beft Italian corupoGtions/* —This is not an imaginary fa(fl k this author fpeaks from his own knowledge. another village in the fame canton. He made them fenfible. in the country who did fo) walked quietly home from his fchooi every evening. and there are two upon the violin. that the peafanis of the famous villagr of Stroepke.no fpecies of \ knowledge F. by de-"^ grces. a very fmall village. dependent on the bailiwick of Zilly. " peafants. which were put inio ihe hands of the peafants in all country fchooh . there is an harmonic focieiy . He was menaced on every fide ^ but his courage remained unconquerable. and. The villages have good mufic all their ** churches and there are few where it is not eafy to affemble a band of . who meet on an appointed day . Though thefe inftituiions no longer exift iri their original rpirit. that at Wxdifchwcil. he extended his remonilrances to thofe in Advent .

cent diforcler that had hitherto profaned the eve that precedes the birth of cm Saviour . from their (edentary nature. by maki'^g his eftate produce as far as is praiSlible. how^ever. for rejeiTLIng manufa^lnrcs abfo•luteiy. and from the rtiotnent thcfe extend their hands *' to receive it. who have no land to cultivate . or the efTe^ls of difcafe. a remarkable proof of the efficacy of fleady perfeverancc in thofe. and to refufe tlie fmallell: prelent v/hat'^ It is our frailty and venality in this article. ibever. and confequently occafions the ruin cf agriculture He is not. . where a foiall exertion of flrength is required .6$ THE RURAL SOCRATES.ce. he determined to bound his expe<^ations of advantage within the very moderate faJary afiigned . and to others. capable of the toils of hulbandry. as daughters. but regards them as very advantageous when under proper r. -^ (C'Jild he) rjc to be considered in t^he fame light as cai^ried ! : " hofpitals . Men oHer to their fiiperiors the flattering *-^ bait. inftrudled in view.nlatinus I'hey afford fubfiftence to many. '^ (faid he) that weakens the influence of the wifell re'' gulations. who areentnifted with the execution of the laws. ar'id which. relax their ardor for the rougher labors of the field. thoie hands become jncapable of relilt'Mng the progrefs of corruption. in manufacbures of various kinds. The too great encouragement of manufactures infenfibly deprives the land of proper culture. and diminifli their ftrength. and has appropriated room to that employment. he has had one of his weaving . — With whatever this is necefTary for clothing.'^ Kliyogg has been peculiariy attentive to render bis family independent. v/hom jiaturai infirmities. The better to cnfure an obfervance of the ucv^ regulations which he introduced in the fchool. render in'' Manufa (Tories. well a as food. Yet he does not hold in high cflimation the works on by aikgreat nimiber of the peafants.

in his edimation. as he apprehends its mod general effeds are to introduce an inordinate love of money. but when *' we receive into them the healthy and robuft. is to be contented v/ith what we h?>ve earned by indufcrious : — — application. enjoyed a heartfelt fatisfa£lion. be a really great evil.THE RURAL SOCRATES. broke itito indecent and offenlive murmurs. — The uncommon fertility of the year T761. Thus an apparently great ad- hofpitals ** — if vantage would. it tended to debauch the morals of the people. we open *' a door to idlenels. fo far from complaining. who on every bargain they flrike. The true manner of praifmg the Deity. '' God be praifedl" The thanklgivings indeed witli which they aifront the fupreme Being. than to hoard it up in a granary till a more lucrative opportunity. and are always repeating. confider* ably lowered the price of corn The farmers. relatively to the influence it may have upon the mind or manners. and familiarize the mincj with fraud. which are almofl: always acquired to the injury of others. ^On this principle. in general. -# . and are acceffary to the deflruc*' tion of cur country. he fets very little value on the fiouriihing flate of commerce . alarmed. -in the improvement of his lands. whether they may have overreached their neighbor or not . make a parade of the benediction of heaven in their favor. Kliyogg. The moft fubilantlal amongfl them refufed to Cdl^ and took meafures to preierve their corn till the markets liioujd rife. *'* 69 : Efbabliihnients of this fort are an iuvaluable refource to the fick and decrepid . at the time he had been accuftomed to fell it . He often is {hocked at the hypocrify of thofe men." In general he weighs every qneilion. expredive of their inlatiable avidity after riches . debafe generous fentiments. that the poor laborer could eat his morfel of bread at a moderate price : he got rid of his corn at the current price. arc. convinced that it was better economy to employ immediately the fmall fum it amounted to.

fhorteil: is to arrive as his na- end propofed by the way . with Aeel clafps . and is. ^' but ferves as a guide to his moral condu6l. and tive fagacity readily points that out . who have farihtatnj. and every utenfil will be mod — Nothing appears to him more clear and determinate. His brother puts it on in turn. when our inte'r^'^ ed happens to be in oppodtion to that of another. without envying the poffefiions of an- cther. is placed in the very fpot \yhere it This principle is not only the convenient. and it fcrves both of them for their journeys to ly. The flrongefi and leafl expenfive fluffs and linens. how we diould wiOi to be treated *^ in a iimilar fituation and to obferve during the . As the grand St the purfuit in all his operations. THE RURAL SOCRATES. All that is required. than the ideas we ought to entertain of judice and honor. only. foundation of his economical fydem. #>f all pafTions. When bufinefs calls him to the city. in his opinion. Extravagance in clothes. a the city. is one of the moft frequent caufes of misfortune to families . Kliyogg recommends to all the members of his famicondant attention to neatneis in their drefs . but forbids every appearance of luxury. is ** to inquire Vvathln. as well 3s e -/pfjlencfd all how moch a fpicit nccekrata operations. he wears a coarfe grey furtout coat. are v/hat he prefers. the mod exadb order and decorum prevail in every part of his houfe./o application. in fuch or fuch *^ cireumdances. whether our heart is tran- — '' quil * Thofc. the mod ridiculous and irrational. ''Every man (fays lie) may read in his own *^ bread. ihefeveral taOts . can conceive how of order our cul- ii^vatorhas been able to accomplilo. and this is to be confidered as his holiday fuit. what he ought to do or avoid. *' courfe of this proceeding. wi:h fo fe-v alfiflants.

THE RURAL SOCRATES. diftingitilhed talents in all branches He wrote an effay oa imtional pride and we have few compofitions difcover fuch depth of genius or elegance : in the German tongue of diftion. and a face. lA. of whom I was infinitely fond. \ifj of literature. he quits it with pleafure when it can oblige a friend.whofe frefhncfs of complexion denoted the vigor of his conftitution. I knew I flioald procure this worthy philanthropill peculiar •M. ffcafcJ. united to a confurnmate knowledge in phyfic. which he Whatever ardor he has for lacontradts with facility. fo peace and ierenity of mind are the reward of virtuous from fuch convi<ftion. Zimmerman like that great was » pupil of the celebrated Baron de Haller. that according to condudt. Zimto a Boerhaave. N. had recourie to my advice in illnefs. I have always found him perfecflly compofed. Dr. a Haller. or a Van SwietenT. and continued to difclofe air the beauties of his mind to a fkilful phyfiognomirt. plenty is the recompenfe of a(Iiduous*and laborious toil. Zimmerman publiihed an account of what pa&d oa this occaiioH. a phyfician* in that town.'* — . turally attending our anions. Dr. Zimicerman was the phyfician. His animated eyes. this bock. snd man. whom the fatnoos King of Prulfia fenl for to attend him in his laft Wnefs. £. the recompenles or chal^ In the fame manner that tifements of Providence. — This th?c excel- lent writer has given large more deciftvc proofs of his uncomiuon talents in a work afterwards puhlifhed upon Uxperience in phjjic. F. He has a flrong propendty to friendfhip. when I was jull fetting — out for Brugg. Even when he has I never fawKliyogg melancholy. bor. ^' 71 quil and fatisfied. It is in it felf-approbation for hav- ing fulfilled our duty fulting is in inward complacency re- him true Hedifcerns in theconfequences nahappinefs confifts. Zimmerman. In the opin- would do honor ion of a very able man* who is a competent judge of the fubjei^. hud always a gay and open appearance . He b hint>fs)f fiocc<J»-. iDernaan has been for many years firft phyfician to the Court of Hanorefa and enjoys a great reputation. B. . He came one day to my houfe. to pay a vifit to Dr.

which have always the mofl cxacl relation to the thought he wiflies to exprcfs. even from the firft moment of acquaintance ^ he has great eloquence. to favor me with his company . though he had ten leagues to travel back the next day. than when he happens ^ofalUintoa conference. He felzes with avidity all truths at the firfl mo- ment. I'hough hefpeaks yi^ith facility equally willing to be filent. and a fimplicity ofcxprellion peculiar to himfelf and which he cannot owe to imitation. and his penetration in thefe refpev^s is altogether extraordinary. whofe hereditary prejudices may be regarded as part of their elTence. he makes rity. To illuflrate his meaning.72 THE RURAL SOCRATES. When Kiiyogg attains any beneficial difcovery. he is often obliged to make ufe of The comparifons and metaphors. He then devotes his whold and his fenfinotice to the difcouife of the company ble and judicious replies demonflrate that he fuffers nothing to eicape him. he h he finds that he is not attended to with pleafure. converfation of Kiiyogg is eafy and unconflraincd. iiar fatisfadiion^ in furniQiing his eager curioiity w'uh an opportunity of noticing the excellence of the human character. However univerfal is mankind. if . and he takes all imaginable pains to convince them of ita utility. and rejeds nothing bccaufe of its novelty and before he has thoroughly examined its intrinfic merit. Kiiyogg was unwilling to rcfufe my entreaties. and fatisfai^ion. in a (late To nearly reiembling that of nature. is Kiiyogg more happy. In this ji^rticular he is diametrically oppofite to mod countrymen. and to conquer their prepofTeffions. nothing intcrcds him more than to impart it toothers . where the fpeakers difcufs^ Never vvit'h . the the benevolence of Kiiyogg to all' their zeal for truth and their integ- ftandard of his afte^ftion .

in ef^c^ and without intending it. at the conclufion of his difcourfe. The diflindlion withj do not awaken and approbation which Kiiyogg meets in hiia the leaft fpark of vanity.riergy which the rea! intercfl they take in tht queftion infpiics. K Limiting . and in hearing his fentiments on the duties^ of thofe who hold thlb reins of government. the admired outline of their own way of thinking and ading for the public good. he delivers his thoughts with a noble franknefs. after having employed their keeneft fatir^ in throwing Kiiyogg and his admirers intp ridicule. find infinite pleafure in talking with him. matters relative to the public good. ftrengthening his arguments tacks' the errors that He atwith comparifons drawn from rural economy. Reiterated trials have convinced me that. ^g with an e. men have introduced him into many Companies. whofe had been much excited by the delineations I had made of his condudl and converfationo Nor have I ever met with any peffl:>ns who. I who know how he conciliates the eilcem of all to value merit.THE KVKkL SOCftAt£&. that my recftal of his vi^rtues had infpircd them with cfceem for a man fo extraordinary but that beholding and converiing with him. with great freedoip'. and did not confefs to m_e. Curiofity . were not flruck with amazement at his good lenfe . By this behavior. but in a manner very remote from ruflicky. I have known fome perfons peculiarly lavifhln their encomiums. — of probity. in general. had raifed that efleem to the higheft pitch. He traces before them. and examines the duties of every f^ation with fingiilar Judgment . which will explain why feveral of the moil: intelligent and virtuous members of the republic. the regard paid to his character is in proportion to the difcernment and integrity of the perfon who beftows it . offend him. On thefe occafions.

about an af- '^ had provoked him to the higheft pitch. or of his Handering his '' neighbor ?" '' I cannot pretend that I do 5 it mufl '' even be granted. ^ and makes them wear the fame clothes on Sundays *' and Feftivals. on coming out of tl^e court. that there is no dif*' puting againfl him. but whether men praife or blame me. . -When I acquainted him with my intention of communicating his character to the world If you think. tell me. *' however. as on w^orking days. faid he. *^ This Kliyogg is no better than a beafl of *' burthen he is Ihortening his days by hard working. with a natural fmil^. andimproving — : would believe that envy does not ceafe to perfeeute this worthy being ? Fortunately all its eiForts only furniih fredi fubjcvftfor praife. do you hear ma'' ny reports of his fwearing.74 JLimiting ail THE RURAL SOCRATES. it will in any refpC(^ be the better for it. that he is punctual in keeping his ^* engagements. I alio do not recollecl ever to have " heard him fwcar. is he guilty of ^' thefmallefl degree of injuflicd I Or. he will not fuffer his children to fet their '' feet in a tavern. prctenfion to the advantages of enlarging bis ideas of men and things. He confelFed to me. that he '' had . he preferves invariabl}^. . of fpeaking fo fluently. .. by frequent converlations with perfons of fuperior rank and knowledge . ^' For inftance. or partake of any diverfion . *' '' moned him fair that lately before a magillrate. you are welcome . I was diverted one day Who — with hearing one of the mofl: rancorous of his neighbors exclaim.—He has the art. *' and forces ail his family to bear him company! His '' whole difcourfe is about making people labor and do *^ good though they fay that he does not allow himfclf *' much time to pray !" " But. I fhall be neither better nor worfe. fum^ ! . or fpeak ill of any man But he ^* tires you with the repetition of his methods of farm*' ing and is always particular in his way of thinking. his fimple and natural manners. A near relation of mine.

*< RURAL SOCRATES. a entirely divefled of prejudice as perfcil anden- dowed judgment as tliat of the moR- celebrated pbilorc])her . When he dwelt on twc duties of the various ranks in fociety. to acknowledge that Kliyogg was in the right in every article . and that furely he muft >*' have bewitched hisrcafon. piirpofed to excite by premi- my ities ." Would to heaven (laid I inwardly) that all my enemies may have no worfc things of which to accuie me. as fhouid be acknowledged befb to anfwer that purpofe. the mofi: rational and induflrious cultivatois to put in pradlice fuch rules for the improvement of land. his adlions. ** though he was convinced then. that he was in the wrong . my cheeks were with veneration inoidened with tears . and the univerfai happinefs attendant on their obfervation. He eacrerly fought to comfort my deprefled fpirits. 75 had been forced. other. in this villager. and. which at that period. iWid he to me (in the courfe of a converfation on the " nature ' . his wcrds. I was ftrack whilfl I liftened. to fird . as well as afterwards. Itemed always in p^iitcx harmony with each.TflE . commencing an acquaintance than that of extending and improving knowledge in rural economy. his fentiments and \vill being abfolutely fublervient to reafon 1 His turn of rejection. and could not forbear expreffing my anguifli in his prefence.— '' My dear doctor. I rated my own abilmuch above the fimplicity of a peafant and meant to irvftrucl him . I intended communicating thefe to the Philofophical Society . inprefence of the judge. in.' — But what was my man v/ith a c^flonifnmenr. with all the zeal of fricnd(bip. lims. by attacking and fubduing any prejudices he might have contracted to put him into the method of trying nev/ experiments in hufDandry. an4 f fancied myfelf tranfported into the company of one of the fages of ancient Greece^ : m One day he found me i in a deep melancholy . *' ^'' — I had no farther view r^nth Kliyogg.

and in reading pious authors j whilil: they have not refolution to do well in othei: refpet^s. and awaken in the ioul. and entering upon a new plan of life. there is great danger of our making an improper choice. as well as other people . is the moft acceptable worfhip he can pay to the fupreme Being. unlefs accompanied with endeavors to be ufcful to mankind by fome exertion correfpondent t^ur ftation. and that an attentive per» formance of it. and grafi^ing the fhadow. I felt the pangs of remorfe. Induftry and exercile will reftorc that tranquillity we have loft. when they pour forth a profufion of groans and lamentable exclamations and who apprehend that religion conliils in conflantly praying. But when the miud is a prey to gloomy refiecllons. Loft to tlicmfelves and to lociely.76' THE RURAL SOCRATES^ nature o'ijocial obligations) when I fee a man give evident to|cens of difquiet and agitation. I conclude he begins to be dlfiatisfied with the former part of his condu^ . 1 N— — — — 1 — '' and . when the wind has blown duft in his eyes. In fuch TTiomcnts. The dcfire of reformation is unavailing. and that he thinks ferioufly of correcting his errors. Neither his knowledge. felf reproach is continually increallng . youthful follies. piety. the more they be^ come inflamed and painful. It is many years lince he fell into the (late which I have de(cribed. a man ought to recolle£l that he has fome duty to fullil .. they remove farther and faither from the lubftance of virtue . How many are there who fancy they have done all that is required. You vifited our friend lately on his death bed. furnhhed him with fufficient motives of confolation. but the more he rubs. which made him burthenfome to himlelf and others. I grew feniible of my errors . I am no flrangcr to the fenfatfcns highly delightful 1 had my fir ft ft ate of mind I have been dejcribing. who thinks to get it out by rubbing them . nor irreproachable life. and funk into a gloomy defpondency. like a man.

and perfuaded me again to fet my !^' band An immediate reflexion fucto the plough. *' a maxim which. in the clafs ** of peaHints. mine contemplative . 40. I refolved to appjy my whole at*' tention to my farm. Yours is confift in manual exercife. and I was then convinced of the inefficacy of "devout forms. ff f* *' 77 *' *' *' *' *' and was overwhelmed with melancholy. every thing appeared clear and diflincl: . as i wiflied *' in fimilar circUmriances. by Providence. what ever "chiefly in what " efforts * MatN xxii. 1 am obliged to my excejlent wife for leading me back to true religion It . but I grew flill more reftlefs and diflarbed. wher^ practical duties are neglected . I experienced the mod comforting fenfa*^tions. Whenever ^' I prayed. but your labors and fhe was who feprefented to me — '' ferent. *' and to bring up my children to the lame bufinefs. " and when.'Kliyogg was now filent. my" dear '' You "Kliyogg and I acknowledge the truth of all you ad*' vance mine are extremely dif^ . and never to be a moment idle. I thus continued the con-^ veriatiQU have reafoned admirably. " I iikewife refolved to acfl towards all men. according to the words of our Sa*' viour. they fiiould a6l towards me .! read a chapter of the ^' bible. << On thefe two comrTsndirenfs ijot'e Gjd snd /5Xf cfourndghhor) hang aU tbe hvt and the prcohcts/' F cf . I was caljed upon to cultivate the earth . In this {ItUt ation. Pietifls or the Ele£l (being Herrenand 1 pafTed hiiters or the followers of Zin^endorf) all my hours in reading and praying . '^ From that inflaiu. I fufFered mylelf to be feduced by thofe wht) ftyje themfelves. which this deje£tion " of ipiritsrenders me incapable of purlui'ng. whilft *' before all feemed clouded with oblcurity. includes all the law aftd the prop/iets. " though when theie are fulfilled.THE RURAL SOCRATES. that being placed. fays. they give an extraord]'' nary force to the mind.^ After *' thefe refolutions my heart grew lighter every day . *5 cceded. in hoursof relaxation. : the ruin that threat'*ened our affairs.

whenever it fhall pleafe heaven. that I may feel the fweet ^'' confcioufnefi of being a ufeful member of lociety. I have alv^ays *' been greatly edified when you have been kind enough ^'' to introduce me into company. an agreement of fentimcnts. or however llrong a<fl:ivity fortifies is my inclination. In the coninto dlTqui*'. From this moment ^^ I will fet myfelf to the tafk . to dif'^ ccrnthe errors our huibandfiien commit . and vv'hat ^' defe£ls (land mofl in need of a general correction. be able. f* 4^5. you may enter ^^ fitlons tending to the benefit of mankind. whilfl meditation requires a more fedentary and tranquil life. *^ Walking may alfo be made an inffru^tive as well as '• healthful recreation by enabling you to examine.. animates and iup^^ ports the execution of benevolence ichemes .v. where the difcourfe " has turned upon the daily new difcoveries in various ^^ branches. and '• Still you are purfu^' ingyour proper bufmcls (faid Kliyogg). of Ibmething of which he was igno« ^' rant . MiituaJ communication here in^^ forms every one. and on the molt eligible means of bringing *' the old to perfection. my dear Kliyogg. ^^ *^ *' *'.* *' *' *^ *' the nerves . ^^ with your own eyes.:8 *' ^' *"' THK RURAL SOCRATESo « efforts I make. the company of my friends. and a man *^ can i^:>re:id tlic nfe of whatever he has difcovered. (I repljed.whigh whickens the blood'and occafions a languid pulfe. and feize every "^ occafma of performing my duty. with far *^ greater facility than in your clofet. the culture of our farms . By the conflant exercife of a farmev's life. a life ipcnt in glorifying my Ci eater.MiVri'l f:o rviv f'U-. Thus your occupation is calculated to banifli melancholy.v-creiturt-s/' # .verfation of men of fenfe. . from the finidity being greater . and happy f" regular in the practice of all its obligations. the circulation of the blood becomes more free." — *' bv b/:"Mo. to quit ** with ilitisfaclion. I am therefore obliged.) f^ I will pay obedience co your advice. mine to invite it. mental aiSlivity enfeebles them. and Corporal feek diflipation in v/alking. often to fly frora refie£tion." '" You are in the right.

K. whofe energetic pen could have made the world properly acof fancy. I apprehend the queftion debated by the philofophers of the prefent age. produced in me falatary effects. he remarked. ibmetimes to turn their thoughts and obfervations upon the lower clafs of people. and our ideas of happinef?. Let it not be thought an extravagance all.THE RURAL SOCRATES. nearly upon the fame plan. of difplaying the — My whole This author is not the di^ philcfoplcr who has entered into fuch invefThere was a book pubiifried in 1756. t 79 may fafely afiirni. See there p. that the admonitions. with a copper-plate and this infcripiion : Johannes Ludeiuig^ agri ac 'vivea co-^ Cajfehud^s frope lonus^ Philofophnsy Maihematkasy Oratory Atttodida8us» In the Jourrml Etrangert for Auguft^ JEtatis 41. Dre/dasJi A. had Kliyogg met with a Xenophon. F. 24. that the human mind is capable. there ?s a curious exiraft fioiB this work. I am yet tempted to hope that this faint fivctch will not be abfolutely void of utility. but had done little which wasorigisah ion of my friend appears juftified by the account given of Ludwig. Annoal KegiSer. if I I The parallel quainted with his charaiSter. and true greatnefs of mind more certain and determined . in all llations. might again be refumed with great benefit. and above the example of this worthy man. and vh'tue would have gained the admiration and honor it deferves . Having prefented to the Fiench tranflator the life of Ludwig in German. tigations. Hoffrpan of Drcfden . — — . Our knowledge of the various properties and faculties of the human foul might be rnore complete . Rural Socrates is to aie a proof. — compare his wifdom with that of Socrates would have been much more ftriking. that Ludwig had inftrufled himfelf in various articleg The opinunder great difficoltie?.* nay. bting that for the year 125&. if the features I have endeavored to mark. lyj^.7. intiiled. imprefs on the mind of my readers only a part of thofe fenfations I have experienced in contemplating the original. 188. may be an inducement to men of fur pcrior fcience and abilities. Tae Moral Philcfoph/rf by Mr. 2758. in the 3!rft volume of the EngUft. p.^ — whether fcience and literature have been more beneficial 6r injurious to fociety. Perhaps the defcription I have given.

till. whole benevolent eye co nprehendi ^. 1 who are defirons to revTrify errors in gov* ernment . and lofl to fociety in whole extent of will render hitnfelf pleali ig to that Being. and from thence be ipread ambngft thofe adjacent . with a more precife and comprehenfive knowledge of the belt methodic of irn pro vement. will Mnd fufficient opportunities for the exertion of thefe faculties .8» THE RURAL SOCRATES. that is to fay. The flrongeft incitements to irdefatigable toil Cither the pecuniary adYanta2:es arifing from it ^ are or hon- * . cj'mongfl: us . and inteHigent farmer may be. The tirll: obje*i requires a general reformation in the moral conduct!: of the peafants . and the utility v/ill then become general. a work atfirfl undertaken with the fole view of ftiniukting Tome of my countrymen to ofe their utmoft efforts for the re-eflabliihrnent of agriculture tive flatefmen. the fecond depends upon experiments and obfer- "^ations.^s phced . the whole country w?ll reap t^e benefit of io excellent a moSuch happinefs cannot elcsipe the eyes of attendel. the fch )lar.tonce what is uiefultothe human race . in communicating to the public. the magiftrate^ every man accordi'ig to his occupation. as injflrumental to the general pro peri cy. erate upon his neighbors . before us proves the pollibilitv of fucceeding \ and aC the fame time indicates the moil efficacious means . and of pointing out the fliortefl way for The inflancc the attainment of this laudable purpofe. The hufbandnaij. This confideration has induced me to confiply with the importunities of my friends-. accordiiig ra his (laiion. good morals will prevail in the village to which he belongs. the artifan. as the moft confummate legifThe influence of his example will infenfibly oplator.. by degrees. provided he makes a good ale of the taFent A' wile he has received. unremitting ardor and alfiduity in labor . its powers . and in adling cpnfonhably to the faculties beftowed. that great talents are never whatlocver rank he who pofTefles them that the real grandeur oi man confifls .

procure confideration. mofl powerful fprihgs that can influence of the one is human nature : and. and a thoufand other vices All that is good becomes cxtindl . in the diflribution of marks of honor . to arrive at tiie fame diflinction by the fame path But on the contrary. the appearance of a nobleman or a knight. in every age. for fince thofe who have the leafl pretenfions. and application. frequently ufurp them through intrigue. would animate every heart with glorious emulation. however unworthy the candidate. all the effed: will be to give rife to bafe intrigues. when we behold men the mofl defpicable attaining it. in obferving it ad fb univerrally on all men in all governments. where honors are lavidied on idlenefs. which feems flrongly to invite all legiflators to employ it ?— Indeed.— In republican governmenlSj to be chofen into the magiflracy is an honorable diftinction : and happy is that ftate where dignities are the affared recompcnfe of virtue and merit Thereall things flouriQi . how is it pofUble to niidake the wife intention of the Creator. fince that alone can render him an ol>jecl cf efteem. that probi- — ! ! talents. -If nobility or knighthood always furnifhcd living teflimonials of fervices rendered to a country. the mofl important affairs are confided to bafe a^d iiiadive men. There the firfl lefTon of infancy is. 1 L vanifhes . as ^vell as the mod eflimable . and every citizen is animated with zeal for the public. and that titles of honor are often the reward of infamy and lewdnefs .THE RURAL SOCRATES. which alone will be fure to obtain the prize. have conflantly availed themfelves of its efficacy. which occafions the profligate and ignorant to confound the marks of honor with honor itfelf . that they ere not always circumlpe£b and juft. flatefmen of fuperior abilities.irid:ion.-^ But all is loft in a nation. 81 ofary rewards beflowed by the government and particuThe defire of public marks of din. intemperarce. The misfortune is. they infenfibly lofe their value. and become negleded . emulation ty. and conduA to honors. lar Ibcieties.

by the folc force of his own genius and re fie dl ion . and to hear him converfe fome. What feems hitherto mofc to have diilinguifhed our country philofopher. and a mean. the more difficult will it be to difliflgnidi in him what is his ovrn^ from what is borrowed. which tends to iiiflriicEl: and interefl . edjilcn af the Rn- ral Socratest Et . fff- THE following* is an account of what pafTcd at a meeting of peafants at Zurich. Every «ne now wifhed to fee him. clergy. that fuck a charaifler could not ex- ift. chofen from the beft farmers of the canton. than many of our magiflratcs. I endeavor to catch every particular of the life of our good Kliyogg.. The * The firft part of this fc6iion 13 cxtraf^ed from a lelter written by Dr. ferviie condudl fjcccfs* asSSBE is the only metV cd employed to obtain SECTION III. and the mere he frequents' a certain flile of company. defcriptionsof Kliyogg had put the finiQiingRrokc in Zurich. The lafb could neither comprehend nor rclifh the fa6l.3 . from the hope of an opportunity of being able to de- My : tc£l errors in my relation concerning him. though I fear that the more this v/orthy man mixes in our city.for the purpofe of bciflg iafsricd in the Sijpplemect to the fecrtnd Frerich.g2 vahiflies . THE KU^AL SOCRATES. Qif th& Projeds for the advancement of Agriculture^ uukich Kliyogg gaverije in the canton of Zurich. unaflifted by books or the converfatitm of the learned. is his riiiug Xjb the fublicic heights of philofophy. men of letters. becaufe they felt warmly in his favor . to the intcrell taken in his characSler. They maintained with vcliemcnce every where. and others. and wealthy merchants. that a fimplc villager fhould be wifcr and better informed. 176. in confequence of an invitation' from the Philoiophical Society. Hirzrl to the French tranflatuFy Auguft i.

v/ith the fajne zeal. to vanity. to a love for truth. capable of furnifhtng every farmer with food for a rruich greater number of cattle. in his opinion. Kliyogg had pcafants of his it particuWIy at heart to perfaade the community to confent to inclofing their common paRure which is an extenfivetratft of land. lb material to good culttire. to relifiii. which he wiflied to fee executed. fvvampy and wet. and in its prefent Hate. and of augmenting manure in the ^kme proportion. and whofe fituation enabled them to af- the plans for the public good. No other motive W2s now neceiTary to engage him to continue frequently to vifit thofe. and men of fenfe and virtue gave him their friend(bif). and how deeply he had advanced in the art of penetrating into characters He feized in a moment the diflindlive qualities of each perfon .in cafe they defired that agriculture (bould flourall recommended their extending their complaifance . He cam« often to its aOcm- and communicated his ideas on the methods to be ifh.'T^He above pnrfued. whofe difpofitions inclined — — . Kliyc^g was fenilble that the Pbilofophical' Society was occupied with vievv^ congenial to his own. thsit his reaibnings did not fail to make imprciTion . wiih the highefl: fatisfaiSlion. very . therefore. 83 Tiie d^fire of meeting with Kliyogg. and that he gained fufiicient influence to induce him to hope. — them (Ifr. or to a turn for contradiction.THE RURAL SOCRATES. be- came general. He (aw at the fame time. When it was found with what franknefs and good fcnfe he jfpoke. a»nd in his different conferences foon found whether tlie notice paid him was owing to curiofity. The wifeH: and belt infirudlcd cf our magiflratcs did not dlfdain to converfe with him reCpe£ling ths improyerncnt of agriculture and many fubjecls of cl vl\ orovernment. but. and ani- mated blies. when inclofed. I Ixid now an opportuai* ty of admiiing his wonderful fagaclty. envy itfelf was conflrain^ ed to do him jaliice. that he might be ufeful. of fma)! ad-^ vantage .

and you mufi: be careful not to oppoie this opinion. By placing a confidence in ^' them^ you will gain theirs . He recommended. '^ It can only be by thefe conferences (laid he) ^' that you will ever' form jufl ideas of the flate of our *' agriculture determine the precife pofition our cuU . he advifed us to choofe fome fubje<^t proper for the invefligation of peafants. and rcgularl}/ to confer with them. " will engage their attention. and then to requcfl their thoughts upon it. and leave him to fuppofe that you have a ^' high idea of his capacity. Society could not but applaud this propofltion But fome amongfl Ihem had too of orv philofopherc The — inditfercnt . ^' tivators have reached . to make refiedlions and obfervations on the vari*' ous parts of hufbandry. and excite a fpirit of aiSli^* vity. You (liould rather ^' flatter him . but convi(rrion5 that is net from ^' you wifti them to purfue new tracks. and they wijl fall infen''^ fibly into your opinion. and that the dead fences with paliTadcs rob the forefls of a great deal of wood. if you mean to excite his *' emulation and incline him to feck inflrn<Slion.hich concern him . You fre*' quently reafcn upon what concerns our profeflion : ^' will you permit rae^ gentlemen.in matters v. as a firil effay. to bring fbme of my *' brethren to reafon in their turn before you upon fub*' je^ls with which they likewiie are acquainted. and afcertainthe caufes which *' have prevented their farther progrefs. the quellion concerning dry fences for inclojures^ which he apprehends to be carried to a hurtful excefs \n our cantons . Thefe marks ^^ of confideration for their flation and underftanding. The f farmer imagines thai he is better informed than your*^ felves. and the laborer of a great deal of time which might be more pro- from — ''•' fitably employed. conceiving many of them not only ufeliefs.84 THE RUHAL SOCIIA TES." Perceiving us pleafed v/ith his difcourfe. complaifance fo far as to hear the opinion of the peafants their own mouths. when once they are perfuaded *' that it author ity. but injurious to the fertility of land .

It was flated in this manner. '' This appears excellent to thofe who underfland good writing. railed our utmoft ailoniQiment. to cx()e(fl any thir?g from It fuch a cop. may We : ^' " ^' Kliyogg only was not thoroughly fatisfied. . jndifFf* rent 8^ u. more eligible. com- We mencing with that recommended by KViyogg concerning . and they thought that every pcaiant was . according to diiferent circumftances . in what man- they be rendered the mod ufeful. can land be protect- ed ner ? g.7^cefraiily included in one or other of theie characters.'ice a year. and regularity of the arguments. by what method." is a bandmen — Our himfelf indeed flrong proof of this. In what cafes are fences neceffary I and in what circumftances may ihey be omitted as fuperfiuous or detrimental ? 2.'iclcrilanding an opinion of the unpolifhed manners gind of countrymen. tions (hould be regularly circulated tv. before the time limited. or at leaU be attended with the fewefl ill coniequenccs \ received. neither iiiforn afion nor advantage . but it often happens that our bcfl huf- philofopher returned at length therefore feverd ti:nes to the chargef'=--and are leaJl ikilful in flile. to ventnre to eKprefs their feniimcnts with treedam in a public affembiy . and to excite ag eed that thele queftheir emulation by prizes. perfpicuity. This way of thinking led to a refolution of requeiling the farmers to fend us their fentiments in writing upon particular queftions in agriculture . appealed to them that the modell part of the peasants would be too timid. cfFording. Where fences are agreed to be detrimental. fays he . fixteen different memorials the lolidity.fc-rence hefsdes cofifufion and diiorder. whilft the bold would fall into rude and noily diiputes. fences or inclolurei Qiiery i. He prevailed. W^Lere fences are judged necefiary.THE RURAL SOCRATES.

to point the relative they wvere difculllng. They gave Kliyoggan invkarioii in form for fach as and many of our tnenTybers undertook he pointed out . and without the leafi: fymptom of animoGty or confufion. aftonifliment aud that of the Society in general (reveral of whom fl^cohdcd me with pleafure) was ex* My treme. When their opinions were divided. I was appointed /ij/j" deputy. was the day appointed 5 aud fifteen pcafants. An unexpe«^ed affair requiring the attendance of the treafurer. to invite. without interruptnig each other. from different diflriiSts of the carton of Zuj-ich. Heidegger. a wife mag'ilrate. the queflions to be propoled to them and corsfined his enquiries principally to the three queflions before dated. compute the advantages and the defevfls and propofe the methods he thought mofl likely to rectify the latter. loon brought him back by a clofe red the bis fubje<n:. Hot onetranTgrefTed the bounds of decency prcfcribed they fpoke ahernately. in Mr. --The 15th of March 1763. deP:ribc. prcvsllled with the Society to confent to a perfond connumber ufpeafa?its. queftion concerning X\\q memorials on the prize three ?'»'] i'lvrMids publiOiigo. when we heard the P^reater part of the peafants. He .U jWence THE RURAL wiiJi ajclcdi SOCRAT'ES. and fupported them by initances drawn from If any of them departe.' opened the coufereace by a difcourf^ truly pathetic. The zealous t^reafurer. with order and precision. appeared in the alTembly. on their part. : of tiic refult of this confergiven the public an abllra(5l of ence. exhorted the peafants to anfwcr with manly frank- BcB and ingenuDufnefs. the rnoft ienfi hie farmers of their acquaintance. an abridgeT^l-c of incl'^^Vr*^' Kienv I 0iall not fay any tlhng as the Society has • .d from their own experience. Gueftion . the courfe of hufbandry in his paii: of the canton . they objedled with rnodefly. each in his turn. of his promoting every thing that tends to the good country.

c?ri lain rules for cultivating and i^n proving the fertility of the foil. ir . and energy ihcyexprefTed their con- ceptions. ^^ procure intslhgence. in order to be more *• fure. confirm this by irials of their own. and has indifputahly convinced nSj that a good unckr(landing and an upright heart ai e not excluded from any condition of life and that true dignity is no more foreign to fimplc villagers. we read differtations from ?M *^ parts of the globe. a heart affcifted with what I h^id feen and could not forbear exprcliing to the afTembiy the feelings with which 1 was agitated. cempofed by men of talents and " likely to inflrui^l us by their experience.THE RURAL SOCRATES.is amazing with what facility. my ''' good friends. by giving frefh vigor to the ^' indnflry and adlivity of our laborers^ and endeavorino- With I heard. It. when we confider how very rarely we meet with the like in men Vv^hofe genius has been cultivated from their cradle !— Upon the whole. raliko. when " I behoKd men of worth in the city and the coontiy '^ unite their common endeavors for the public bene^ iit And you my friends from the country mu(l now be convinced that all our views center in the difcov'• ery offuch methods as may tend to augment the prof" perity of our republic. mentof aii which was ference. in realitVj it is cii you tha': to inflruft Ta . you are animated with the fame zeaJ» *' and I expe<Si: the moft happy cffc£ls will attend your ^^ country from. Thofe ^'^ of us whofe fituation v/ill allow it.' — clearnefs. as by their intelligence and zeal for the public good. I have never ifi *• my life experienced (faid I) a fatisfaclion equal to "^what I am fenfible of at this agreeable moment . than to the mOfl elevated . I may venture to aflert. — '-^ ! ''• ** *' them irs the niofl. I (hall content myfelf with declaring that wc were fingularly edified^ as much by the decent behaviour of thefe honed people. proper td icrve for inftrucTlion % other hul^ colledled at this interefling conto bandmen. I fee. that this conference did honor to human nature . for.

88

THE RURAL

SOCR.ATES.

the fuccefs of all our enquiries depends. All our {peculations will be tVuilleis, if you are dilatory in performing your part ; and if, convinced as you are of the integrity of our intentions, you delay to execute the
plans

we recommend.

It

depends on your endeavors
fiouriihrng country.

to render this a
virtues,

happy and

Your

your candor, are lure guarantees of your acquielcence you will then ha\e a jufl right to the glorious title of benefactors to your country : you
:

will chea demonflrate that

the occupation ot a huf-

bandman, is, in its confequences, the mod: important and honorable of all that are exerciled in civil locicty ; and, at the fame time, the mod agreeable and
fulfil. What can be more .pleafing than a perpetual contemplation of the woiks of the Creator ; breathing a pure and fiee air; confirming the health of the body by exertife and labcr ; and beholding a happy fertility, the reward of care and diligence ? What employment can be more eafy to fulfil than tlut, where the greater past of the lucccis de-

fatisfa(Story to

a man'^s own condudl ? How much moie unfortunate in this refpev5l aie we, who fpend much time and care before we can rer^der our ideas acceptable to others I And what a number of efforts miif^ be made, and obihules be furmounlcd, before we can introduce thern into prad^ice, or reap the leaft advantage from our esei rions : Continue then, my give us friends, to fecond us with all your might your conficleiice and friendQup. You (hall fee us, in our turn, do every thing in our p6wer to convince yoti of our ftncere regard and to render of general u(e the maxims we have learned from books, from expeMay this riments, and from your converfation. nni4>n of interefts procure ojr country all thofe bleffmgs which there is reafon tocxpedl from it." I had the fatisfadlion m finiihing my difcourfe, to ohferve fomc emotions in the countenai^.ce of my auditors^ cxprcllivc of their approbation.

pends on

;

;

The

THE RURAL SOCRATES,
The
was
fo

2^'

Society, as a teflimony of regard and good will

to their gneds,

had provided a dinner ; where there general an appearance of cordiality and kind-, ncfs, that the conclufion of the day was not leis atieftif}g to a v/eil-v/i{her to mankind, than the beginning.

Z^/^iy-'"

Philofophical Society having difcovcrcd, that written by pcrfons/zc?.^ engaged in practical agriculture, had little comparative weight with the peaiantry ; propofed (as has been related) ^4nnual prize quejliom^ to which the pta(ants replied in writing.* At the end of tlieyear, the information contained in the papers of the peaiants was extraded ; and recommended with the more confidence to the inhabitants of the country, as
it

THE

had been fuggefiied by fome of their com-

rades.

The firfi objecl propofed for difcufilon regarded the care oi forejls. The increaflng confumption of wood from the progrefs of luxury and manufadlures and from an augmented population, joined to the decreafe of the
made this a neceifary fubjeift of attention ; and had wholly been neglected by the peafantry, who even thought it ridiculous in any cafe to plant wood. The prize queflions v/hich were iirit propofed in 1763, and continued in 1764, refpected the fowing5the care, the
forefbs,

yet

it

cutting,

volume of the French eJiiion of the Ksral ^sc^ate;^ % 24 Sept. 1774 ; and written by Dr. Hirzel, to the Baron de Tchoudi, an officc-r in the Krcnch fervlce, and author of an Efthe fecond
letter
is

*In

inferted dated

and of of her perfor.>.ance3. It chief! 5? Zurich which fefohed fron? the hiot furnifiied by the conference between the Philofophical Society of Zurich and certain peafants of the canton ; a conference, as we have feen, From this letter, the following part of the by Kiiyogg. iirft propofed above fedion of this work isextrn<^^ed and tianflated. Mr. Young's tranfiator from this period of our work will no isore be
trees

{zyoT\ReJinom and cone hearing
legards the improvemcns? in

rhc canton of

^card

of;

except in our Appendix,
IVI

E,

9!^:

THE RURAL SOCRATES.

and the employment of wood. The anfwerS ftftoniflied the propolers; and proved the important truth^ ;^hat found rcalbn well directed can never mifs the truth. Profeflor Ulleri, digefled the whole into a body of inilruftions, which uere approved even among the Germans, with whom the art of the Forefier has approachAmong thefe papers, ed the moil towards perfeftion. whoie bufinels often the bcfl was the work of a cooper It was fo well drawn up, that led him into the woods. it needed no alteration to fit it for the prels ; and the author of it in confeqiiente, was made the diiedlor of a At the fame time, commiflioners confiderable wood. The prinwere appointed to take care of the foreils ciples upon this fubjed thus becomipg more generally known, the Society was encouraged to proceed farcutting,
;

ther.
It

ral

was now determined to difcnfs every branch of rueconomy, in order to arrive at a fyflematic fet of

infl:ra£lions for the

country ; and the next topic propofed, regarded the means, of preparing, afTcmbling and multiplytng maiiures^ compoils, t&c. This was the more natural, as the pcafantry ^xrc already convinced of the necelfity of attention on this head, according to the maxim prevailing among them, that 7nanure is better than contrivance ; {_M[ft ijl v.her lift ; mieux vaut fum'er qne finefTe \\ and much had been done on this fabjccl, eipecially for the increafe of
liqoid

manure [mare.]

It

was

alfo neccfTary to attack

the cuilom of turning out beafls

into fallows, as alfo

into flubble, after harvefl ; a fort of commonage called /-/re*// de parcours ; which diminifhed the quan*

of the year, when it was bell when the fermentation was luoft favored by the heat of the feafon ; and injured a l-^ fo the turn for improvement, by checking the cultivator in the free difpofition of his land. This ew experiment was equally liiccefsful with the former many fyflematic thinkers were found among the pcafantry.
tity

of dung

in the feafon

in quantity and kind, and

)

;

THE RURAL SQCRATES.
ai>d tiic fpecies
-

9

of commonage above-mentioned was
fubjedi:

finally abolifhcd.

The

following year the

of the Society^s prize

was the employment of the manure of the far jn-yard ; for as it was eilablilhed in the difcuflions of the preceding year, that there were diffeient fpecies of manure, the examination now was, how bell to «pp1y each, of them ; both as to the objed of cuhure, and the fpecies of ibil. More inform atioo was obtained on this head than was ei;peded ; and the memoir of Captain Togguenburguer of Martelen, an experienced and intelli* gent cultivator, was printed without any change being made in it. In the reiult, the peafantry received here

It v/as even found profitable provided it v/as done upon a better fyflem ;for the manure ought to be fo laid, as to increale tlie future means of manuring, by augmenting the quantity both of forage for cattle and of itrav/. Thefe fucceffes led to another object ftill more difficult and almod unknown in the country ; namely, the rmxiure of differ era earths^ and the decifion of the ^<?it is true that in cieT of culture called for by each foil. a little diflri^l of the canton named Lagerberg, they had known from time immemorial, the ufe of a marley 'potters-clay S^glctije marreuje^ for im.proving clover, to Gravel alfo had been the great benefit of their cattle. applied to clay; though it v/as pretended that this was to enrich the fathers at the expence of the children. In \.\i^v'meyards alfo on the ildes of the hills, the cultivator when replacing the earth lofl by wafiiings from, the rain, incidentally found benefit from the new earth which he brought to his old foil.— But ftill the fubje<St was imperfectly handled and parfued ; and foils were not yet known by their oppofitions to each other ; though hence was to be drawn the grand rule for their being

again

much

inflrudtion.

to

manure

lefs laud,

mixed.

The

..;:plemc?2fs

Society had next to inquire into the ftate of the o{ agriculture u fed by the peafantry ; and here

mortification and other incorvmlrnccs v^ciild have oc- cnrred to ^ manv of them. Brunner^ fecretary tot. which united duvability with iightnefs.». the peafant would have been anticipated in his own inquiries. Thefe to get them placed in every jchool-room^ that young perfons might acquire right ideas as early as pojjible.. in which the canton of Berne v. and permitted the plougliing of heavy lands with light ma- A man chinery. The abflrad of what was written on tliis iubje<Sl is to be fdsn in the paper of in[lru6iions drawn up by jMr. In the two lail years. and in particular.92 hers sgain THE RURAL SOCRATES. was difcovercd who could prepare wood fop |)loughs.If the conference in this cale had preleded the prize queflion. that of the folen^n conferences which have been above defcribed. was ftill purliied namely. and the clerpj were tiefired to promote attention to them . and the obje*^ of exciting his own meditations miglit have been frufliated . TheSociety had alfo the opportunity of informing the peafantry^ when they fhould cultivate with the plough. inflrudlions ^xcYcfe?if at the expence oftheSoci" civ to all the pari/kes in the canton.commifFion. the pick-axe.'as far more advanced than that of Zurich. ' It . nnd if it \\zA jolloroedx\\t difcnliion of the prize queflion. when with the fpade. the notice of the cultivators was UWutdtoXhtwatering and draining of lands . or the hoe with two branches. its hopes were equally gratified by the iiffue. — Rut the lecond plan for drawing the attention of th:^ cultivators to what concerned them. two branches. Every day plcafing proofs offered of the falutary fpirit which was excited by this means among cultivators. Care however was taken to make the fubjed: of them diifer from that of the annual \ prize quedions.

) abfent women. and colts . mares. that the views of promotagricuUure of the canton of Zurich could not •be fully attained without an exav. Afterw^ards came twelve columns for noticing refpedively the number of oxen. and young cattle . widowers. hogs. Ey thefe means the Society has fmce obtained accurate intciligencc relpt^6ling the country. Wherever there were difficulties attending this intelligence the peafantrv v/cre called — upon to explain then:j% ConfC'rcpcc. widows.1: knowledge of the adual circumdances of the country. and fervants . and the different means of lubfidence of the different villages. as alfo concerning the Ip rings rivers. and lad of ail the lum total of the perlons compofing the family. ni'jrried men.) abfent men. as regarding rural was economy. a comparifon was made eafy with thofe of tlieprefent time. Different columns were appropriated fes. fheep. namely meadows. and goats . and deatli from old rcgiflers being added. and pigeons . Above each column ried males — — — a memorandum was placed. paftures. geele. or Ipccies of manufaiflures w^hich the family purfued. births. and female lervants . fowls. the diiicreut properties. (whetlier marri^^eble or otherwile. ali^-^ of the married women. and laftly another for bee-< Heiice an idea was obtained of the population. hearths.THE RURAL SOCRATES. atid canals . and woods. Five other columns were provided for arranging the land tinder one of the ^wc kinds of landed property . hories. it ' 93 ing the farther perceived. with the profe'ffion or trade followed by each family. -An extrad: of the marriages. inviting information in writing concerning the quality of the houfcs and land. and likewile refpectiug the precautions taken with refpe^l to fire and other objects of police. cows. their value or produce . ty in Yy\ . Hirze! therefore prefented to the Societ ihlcs 1761 a plan q\' for each village. unmarried females. fields for grain. . to the regiflcr of the hou- families. Another column exhibited the profeflior. unmar(whether above or below the age of puberty. vineyards. hives.

by many clergy. and m.ommunity . and more and more ?. a!]d arriians.] zvGods . the pea Hints became mor<? and more proud of their profcilion.ogo v^'iarc feet (or not a fquare of 45* yards) — and .any talents called to }ight. Whole communities joined i^ogethcr to gGt rid of the droll de parcours (or particu- commonage above noticed. converting ihem into meadows. as by improving the common paflures. of torrents. which hrive been dirc£led to objecls highly important. or in difcovcring ?}2arle pits^ or other matter proper for dreffing the land.) Others agreed to divide tlieir common pailures in n^ardiy places. military perfons. and the pealants were always Satisfied and lent away in loinc reipecr or other iiii' jproved.l^ . eoritain i3. merciiants. perfons have alfo joined in fubfcrip- tions for aiiifting inch poor laborers as to be diiliibuted bailiifs ^nd the wanted capital^ committee of the Soci[or chiefs] of the villages and by a curates-were invited to give advice as to the diflriTwo pieces of land. \v\\o Premiums have been inpcraddcd in favor of thofe have found out metliods for employing the poor^ to the advantage of the individual and of the c. in working np their turf . By thefe different mcsns. and making roads.ttentive to its principles. the aiiiilants were more numerous than at ^he preceding ones . lar right of — many EcQ7iomical OT \AoriciiUurai SoQicfxes were formed in places . conference.94 THE RUPlAL SOCRATESc Conferences were alfo held with fotne of the cmii' vators. in countries where flraw is Others again advanced in the care of their fcarce. or plantations of willow f which fays the French editor are fomctimes as profitable as the bcH: meadows. which together did not bution. on the fubjccl of the advantages and defe^^s of the rural ccouoaiy in their fevcrai neighborhoods* Thefe conferences were attended by fomc of tlie chiefs cf the government. At every new iiterary men. preventing the ravages &c. Many humane which was cty r. keeping in order the common woods.

The pafture vvas converte(': into fields. therefore to keep his cattle conflantly in the flabie. A . who were fhut out even from the w-ood. A few years flnce the Society received from the canton a landed property. lb as to fupport a whole fafniiy . -^ The proprietor who had before kept only tw^o head of crattle. Eighty beds often feet fquare each which were ranged in a line along a narrow flip of land v. The marfhy fpot of meadow was itfelf planted with willow .THE RURAL SOCRATES. fertilized 95 snd which were deemed entirely barren. as a donation lo be applied to the objecl of e:>perimcii!:s. fomething w^as even faved. A pcafant who with great alFiduity had cultivated a fliVall property upon the old fyfteni. his whole land became more fertile and w^as more eafiiy worked . in the fourth year was enabled to keep three . liave been by help of this fort without the aid of any cattle. was engaged to work it under tlie circ:i5lions of He was ordered the Society upon the new fyilem'.ere devoted to varied e?<periments upon grains and. a reier voir for liquid manure was placed. In the noil difl-anc field. and his vine^-^bad fuffered no detriment. his wheat was doubled .heap. Other inflances occurred of iervices equally confiderable ard" interefling. whofe produce farther fenfibly augmented the dung. and put their manure on his wheat land aiid meadows y giving to his vines earth drawn from a m^r (by meadow and afterwards e^^pofed to the infiuerce of the weather. intc^ which v/atei* was led from a neighboring fpring. "I'he Society alio had recourfc to a new i^icthod of advancing cipriculiure. forage of different kinds. though had it been otherwifi: his ether advantages would h-a. of which a third part w^as put into clover in fuccedion for the fummcr feed of the cattle.ve richly compenfated for it. and with the help of a little work at a maniifaiSture.. The agricultural experiments in the mean time gave knowledge to the canton as to' feveral articles of culture.

J. in the old duchy of Aguiljon.i thedifclves by their exer(ions and fuccefs in zgriculture. rrs. owing to the magiiharcs at Strafburg giving a fmall gratification to thofc bringing ta market the fincft bcefj cjbb?ge. to whjcrt thcfe only were admitted.ilj fucceed. &c. with other oaks. an agreeable and produc- cive kind of bjct.96 THE RURAL SOCRATES. Gardr-nin^ iind fruit trees fuinifii fubje(51s which might properly fail Premiunns lilfo may fie within (he ol j?rt9 of a le^urer in agriculture. E. wha had c^iflinguilhe. n {aid by this means lo h:!ve becooie ihe beft culdvaied of any iri its neighborhood. de la Pt-rriere. In many parts of uith the variorjs ufe? rn which they may be applied. and tiiC pre-eminence tf ihofe who had done rnnft in the year was decsdThe ptrifli of Cepsde. of editor in a notCj informs us of a clergytnan of the name who tlie every year provided dliterent prizes for his parifhion- which Ihi^ relates olfo. THE . are ut^heard of in diffVrcnt countries. A tion of a botanical garden^ in part of this land has been devoted to the formawhich every year are feen 200D ditFerent plants. which ailing in like manner. Jin aiuient tmiflceteer of the King — ofFrar-ce. rd by a tribunal. Ag! jcjltural concerns foraic J the fuhj^ii^ of a conf^ji-ence upr>n this occafion. that in Alface they have fucceedcd in relfing fo'-nc of the fineft vegetables in Europe . th:t Agrtculiural Sncieiy of Alencor had the dillrihution. The advantages of the roan- ^ oult (. All thcfe dilFcrcnt operations. M. vegetables as the companioiis of animal food are in rarioos inftances ff very modern date.''^ focietv Icli' * The French of Cciofnbel.he northern worU. the original oak becomes attended by a majefUc foreil. <jiven to ihofe making known new fruits and ne^' garden vegetables. and this garden v^as placed under the care of Tii\ Locker. gave afeftival yearly. whtre this fiant wo.nan's gold) of the Germans and ftill Swifs. are the conlequence of its fit^fl Thus the virtues of private CQ7incciion with Kliyo^g* lUe may extend their influeiace to the whole of human jnft as nn oak by its aQorns may furround it. Ir is affir-ned in a French puViication. let it be repeated. of which fome arc extremely rare . of the Philofophlcal Society.

to "Bh . Jf Kliyogg maligrzant jenloujy is mi the ohjed ofins . I': HiilQioff. v^ho travels in order to difcover the men of merit of different nations. Paftcr et An)ft«r<Jam. SECTION i. He has merit. — i Thefe are queries from Dr. more palpable is this fatire.. Queries r£fpedl?7g ^I'^yogg^ ivith ihdr j^nfvjsr:"-: I AM afked. the lefs eafily it is fupI would therefore recommend t6 every friend \ of mankind. It is roircellancoaj in its oature. and what perfon with merit is free from this ? True merit is a perpetual fatire on thofe who are defiitutc of it . that Kliyogg is orpofcd to the envy and malice of his brethren. I ' of his neighbors f If their attacks hav^ not excited in him anger and a defire of revenge I And in what manner he governs himfeif in this cafe ? It is not to be doubted. and if afterv/ardshefeeks N i| the ^ This pirt of or? completion confiSg of materials ftfunJ in the J'rcnchi and not in the Englidi tranfiation. to frequent thofe places where the idle refort in order to fhew their talents by Griticifing their countrymen . and — the I ported.THE RURAL SOCRATES PART THE SECOND*.

and on whofc countenances are to be obferved . who infinuates himfelf into the favor of men in place. and oppofcs nothing to his enemies but the fruits of his labors . the diflingniflied favor of our governmen':. and whofe obedience and alertnefij in their labors every day increafcs his happinefs 5 and laftly. in oider to diftrafl or injure him. in order to augment his manure with the ipoils of his firs and pines. though the only ufe which he has made of the accefs which the fublime fimplicity of his cha'rai^ler procures him among the moll refpci^ted and beft intentioned membersof our government. neighbors of our philofupher feek to ridi<:ule man. and to lead them to favor the induflrious cultivator. : remarked in him the fhiallcfl difpcfition t6 I have rrientmcnt. proceeds in his courfe . Others again make liim a flatterer.UP. Another pretends. always tranquil in the midCt of their intrigues. One exclaims. rich harvclls . and leave nothing undone which envy and malice can fuggeO:. the acquaintance of thofe who have been mod cenfiircd there. who are well brought up. if he docs i>ot find among ///^fWperfons the mofl remarkable for their merit and talents.^ He. Others.the figns of an interiial tranquillity and content. children. have ore' . that iie deflroys his woods. to acquaint thciji with the true flate of what happens in the country. in fhort^ laugh at all of his enlerprizes v/hich vary from the common courfe .AL SOCRATES. by ufing a mixture of different foils or by exhauflinghis arable lands and depriving them of their juices. little occupied with his Creator. the difputc^ between fcen him' Icfs I i':. it v/ill be fingular. who always endeavors to be wifer than other perfons. lies been. I have never properly difcovercd him in anger mi>ch hina as a lingular The — : — . that he luins Ills poflerity. on the other hand. Others wi(h to make him pafs for a vain and Vvorldly man. and trufling only to his own efforts though in fa61 he only regards labor as the furefl means of obtaining the divine blefirng.. in order to dcprefs his neighbors .98 THE P.

i2. K>ne parifli 9^ and another (where great vehemence is ufual) employing only a frauk. and molt accurate llatiemeiit of fails.vhat they had cffen. but lowe above X.iry ^fom the defanged ftate of my affairs . kindnefs penecr/itcs trie. I can no longer live in my ufual i^yle . cannot be in letter hands than ours ought not to owe their fuhfulence 10 us. and to conclude all.'* friends. > fecond anecdote refpe^^a the generoGty and delicacy cfanold An': I' abaptiit of the country of Walc'tc'^f ' ^"'°n recited. that I may at lealr leave a wreck of my fortune to my children.oco fieriing. in oppofilion to the lieat of the adverfe party .-fed him. affembled My chiefs. I have obferved him Seizing with a kind of enthuiiafm. of which the minute ftill fubfifls . and more than once. One isfaken Uom ilie Marqnis de Miraheau. *' ** his of ihat h. the * The French tranfl^tor cites here two meixoraWe excepiicns. In effed. the ncafure is nefeff. who gives »he folloviing *• The farmers and vafTelation in the Ef. con-.^efcenJ to Introll: your rfFaJfi fo What iii the amount of your debts.12.ieri(/es du Citojen for 1769.g to regain their good will by marks of the moft unequivocal frieuddiip and by fcrv ices the Such proceedings are exceedingly mofi: important. and flgned a contra^ wiih hia-. and 1 muft cf neccffiiy q-jit you. but that generofity and difintercfLcdnefs are of all their natural u^ualitiesj thofe v/hlch develope themfclves the leaft* . leaving him half his income to fupporc him according to his r^nk.000. for ihey belong to us all ?— Your us.e ihey returned with ihe j^. and pfOiTiifirg him a fpeedy anfwer.ired with this inrormaiion . lifT. as in any other whatfoevcr . fimple. an. . Your but 33 children. • The 1 M. In th? year 76^. and I *< ti. who envied and oppofed him feekir. — .THE RURAL SOCRATES. in their own phrafe.imsly.e M.elr France) learring and deputed to him (omt ct f:ll the-vi to any in the admins •* — . to rf queft that he nuould mt ijhatkn of the faancfSy and ta kno-jj in n. I notice carerare in the inhabitants of the country. and our only wifh is to reinPtaie the f. that genius is as common in this clafs. in defigneu to his cftate. faiJ he vviih e^TiOtion. that. ^ftcr fomr thanking hiaa. rnuli fell.n a pro^tt marithai they we know — ner. de Kergroadez fell (io the diocefe of Leon.i providing fi>r their reiixburfement in forty years . his lady might go to church . The deputies rc. ds . replied the old mer.hf. fully every occurrence which can make me acquainted with this clais of people and 1 am every day more and more confirmed in the pei faafion. lie replied. the means of procuring accefs to his patrons for thofe. they prcfentcd him iviih eight catriage horfes.

i!>c old man ftill advancing.hlic 1 . to deprive him gf the fruits of his labor.(?Ier.abaptift. aiJ il-arcn for f»eldi (le camp to the count de Stainville. with a degree of calmneG equal- }v removed from infrnence and from fear ilred but being conHrained. the p^afant being too feldom in a iituation to cxercifc Limitted generally to the fingle care of procuring bis fubfiftenre. M — jrer. He entertained us with a thoufand intcredip. and. we know how capable he is of railing him4elf above his fellows . it was in vain that we ufcd every poflible intreaty to oblige hint to linifh his repaft. de Biornflal. vvhaia be enjoined to conduct him lo fuch fields. which nothing can alter.**"*. he fees and habitually meets in others fcarcely any thing befides attempts. tthe who had been for fifty years at head of ihc magiftracy of Amfterdam. in one fhape or other. He rofe immediately to receive us . much as he Hood in need of reft and refrellunent. having that moment taken his fe^t at the dinnertable. he dej de Stadlcr to follow him. ^^ had never fcund one jerious accufation in the fii. We found Kliyogg jufl returned from a fatiguing journey. uhen M. and •"* tzW mc the quantity of forage yon want. — 1 have lately made him avifitin company with Baron Rudbeck and the learned M. adds. and (hewed us the improvements which then occupied him. and thefe are the virtues which not only preferve him in a conflant ftate oftranquillity and content. When he afked the reafon. are each as natural to him.-ffij}(fi cgairH an Anahtipiiji^ . and that friendfliip. two SwediHi travellers of merit. that a petfon. affiired hi:r». *' the othe^ *» fields do not belong to me. having orders to of grain where the horfes of his general rr. fend therefore mowers. ot vthich the Anabaptift had taken rio notic*. them.'efting the Anahaptifts. de Stadler found that they had pafled a Tuimber of. whofe obfcrving eye fuffers nothing to cfcape them." The French iranflator. conducted us into his fields. met ao jgood Ar. — The man endeavored to cxcufe himfelf. M. that during the vi-holc of that time. but which manifcri: themfelvcs in the divine character of his countenance. bur this does . which can interefl humanity. conciefcenfion. They had proceeded through a wood A confiderahle way.ight forage . fields of grain. But as to Kliyogg.tot) THE RURAL SOCRATES. as his allonhhingadlivity in his ruftic labors .g things. and forgivencfs of injuries. faid. At our f^e S£r.

he fees the Hence his origin of poverty. and even and hence above ail. he thinks that his only vocation lies in cultivating his land. the fcrupnious . as to the jnanner in ivhlck Klh yogg employs his Ivn^ evenings in vointer f Whether he reads and particularly wlaether lie reads the bTble^pialms. bounding itfelf to the nourifnment of his body. and to the prefervation and (if poifible) the increafe of his health and flrength. Every other employment of the produce of his fields. \\\ the abufes of the good things of this life. every thing all this I To tending to delicacy or luxury. in fupporting himlelf and family out of the produce of his labor. The philofophy of Kiiyogg is entirely bcunded to that fphere. and his anMiety to keen them out of the way of . (which is no other than content.THE RURAL SOCRATES. to what a ing us to Zurich. in which providence has placed him. fraud.) In this. ?.^hich he gives to the education dren. excites his' indignation. all the faculties of his mind are employed. and catechifm ? whether he is given to philolbphical meditations \ whether the events. loi he gave us a country collation. as alfo the occupations and amufements of other cialTc^s in life befides his ov/n. No. and cattle. well-founded complaints againfl drunken nefs and the diifolute during the week merriment prevailing on feafl days. and every vice. The ufe which he makes cf the fruit of his induflry refls upon grounds no lefs judicious . next queflioned. and fom-ctimes from tlie inflructions of others. interefi him \ anfwer plainly and ^im^^Xy in one word. I am . manners. i^ur return. point cordiality and courtefy have become ingrafted inwith difficulty that to his chara<Slcr. Deftined to be a hufbandman. vines. and cufloms of mankind. and in making this his true happinefs. of his chil- attention v. His lands arc worked upon principles derived from his experience or his fagacity.nd tl was we prevented him from re conduiS^This trait will fliew you.

telf up to corrupting diverfions. and lent himfelf to it purely out of friendlhip. foi you know ^' that I do not underhand thefe matters/' M.- .a(Iions.^'-^^-^^. af /or/g as youth are permitted to ' con/ider the firjl ftcps towards vice as innocent amale^ ments."^*"'% The celebrated M. 'i'heie imprclfsons in Kliyogg are the his cfakof never having quitted the circle of occupa• tion? '. to what purpofe ^ " "'' • • • '' feems was from riis ncigliborhood) ? The evil ought to the firif errors of this have been ftifiedin its origin girl ihould have been prevented. " Gracious heaven. perceive any. though commonly regarded cent.fi* Is Sviiz^rland. of force of underflanding. It is now too late . Kliyogg laughed at my having defired this.ia2 THE RUilAL SOCPtATES. 1 cannot avoid upon this occafion relatirsg an anecdot. It is then that authority ought to have intevfci'Ci] a^d ihevv^n its ieverity. frequenting alehoufcs on fcaft-days.ngrsretaaJ prinr f=l!er at B. who had dellroyf^d the unhappy fruit of her it illicit is . as innc hcie recreations. But in the midfl: of the operation. will " be without elfedl.. when (lie was fecn abandoning hcrfelf to idicncfs. the eyes ^ccame extinguifned. I confent very readily. and the face offered nothing but vrinkles. having ieatcd lumfelF for the purpofe cf drawing the portrait of my country friend. and giving her.o- — lajn. faid he. Meckel ':Quid not ceafe to admire the heavenly fparks of fire. dc Meckel cf Baik"^-.and It to behead this miferable creature. (who : ' ' the cruel fpet^lacie which is a'bbut to take place. *' It *' (laid he) that it co(h me njuch to fit flill. concerning Kiiyogg whicli pafled in my own hoiire. the haracterifiic traits of the countenance fuddenly difappear^d ^ the mufcles v/cre no longer rounded. philanthropy. howevI do not fee to what good this tends '^r. and nward content. They had jufl: given the melancholy fignal for the approaching execution of an unfortunate v. but is not if you. '"' : -vhich came from his eyes 3 a llriking (Ign to a pliyfiognomiii.

aits. who had for a number of yeais been a foldicr in Holland. ' . deride. never liaving been in a fituation to condder the infiuence of fcience upon the happinefs of men. But tlie children of Kliycgg fometimes looked into the books of their uncle . and the pitch fork. at the moment. — ty. in which they found accounts of the manners. for which he was a very great cnHaving pafTed the latter years of his life thufiaft. as alfo ofmyftical works.fHE tions wliich liuKkLr SOCRATES. 103 concern his flntion in life . that — Ws "^ i . and way of — . as this worthv veteran died foon afrer of a confumption.made liis children fenfable of it. nor to do -any thing but that which it was his duty to do. than to applaud.d. therefore. hew dilUnt Kliyogg is from all fort ^' t^ f c r u d k on ^' ^^ The . fold the whole " 'i his ridicucolled:ion Vv'ithout delay at a lov/ price. v/hich flattered their curioli. *' Ions trafii (faid he) was near ipoiling all mv children : ^' the pick axe. away from work. which it was proper to root out : he therefore ." may judge froxii this.. with our philofepher. Kliyogg Vvithout the help of erudition. and liIs being ^ccuilomed never to think of any thing of which lie ought not to think.Our philofopl)er found that they fometimes ifole their rd to it hter than ufu-. the pains I had taken of which he could not perceive the ufe. thei'e are ^' the books wii^ch they ought to have in har. and. had made him perceive the abiurdity of the doctrines of-thefe myflics. even read my publication rcfpcfling himfeif. This reading. and this always in the manner which I have formerly mentioned. The bible then is the only book which he reads. they diretled their thoughts to diflant objects. One of liis brothers. He wai — more inclined to . I have Tome reafon to doubt whether he ha?. or returned in fliort. living of different nations. was very fond of reading and had fornied a tolerable colledlion of books in geography . which injured their atteiitionto what Vv'as before tiiem. apj)carcd to him as weeds in the mind. the plough. begged cf his brother to lock up his^pbifon .

nor docs any thing occur to excite in any one the rmalleft jeaKliyogg loves. and the bell opinion is always foihnved . than that of feeing them contend who (halt fnggell. and to govern thenifeives by good fenfe. led \QVY advantageouily . vyithout any mixture of reftraint. in all domeftic concerns. ual in them. under all circumilances .Q^s^ next inquiry refpe^Its the treatment of Kliyo^9 fa chearfnlneis. ont of the reach of the dangerous pleafures of gaming and drinking .5 it was a^lvantageons. eqiially. and treats. and thole vvho enter Irito it. every one of this fimily has liberty to give his opinion . and has no greater pleafure. would have been agreeable. and with tb© harfhnefs and leverity common to a perion bred in the country and whether his children are free from ambiI anfvver. Kliyogg knows fo well how to banilh e^ry fpecies of ::^ jf aUnify from his houfl:\oId5 thst his fons have rec^eived lDt» . An have been kept. which.104 ^'HE RURAL SOCRATES. openI am afked whether and a proper degree of liberty prevail in his honi'holci . but the flipulation of living with the father-in-law made it impollible for him to accept an offer . The v. — . . or it he governs his family by fear. and conlults them all loufy. reign in this happy famdy . — — — Onr philofophcr therethe places where they prevail. neither vi^luais nor money as 1 have mentioned. Kvery one may iatisfy his appetite . havii-ig never approached even hit children. v^hat is ht{i for the profperity of the family. Things indeed cannot be otherwife with the mode of living i have deicribed. fore fees bis own chara£ler mnkiplied in each of tlis His principles indeed have become fo habitchildren. that no temptation of fortune can engage His eldeft fon might have mar:!iem to quit his roof. that harmonious friendtion and jealonfy ? iliip and an amiable gaiety. for all areaccurtonied to feek for truth without prejudice or partiality. with equal care from their earlieft infancy. ?. beino (but up . find this painted in the contented air of thnfe who compofe it. without this.

He became attached to one of his daughters . where peace and concord reign without interruption and are the delightful recompenfe of honcft labor 5 and where thf: beauty of the 133d pfalm. but has even joined his mother to their fociety. having adopted all the father's principles. His fon in law has become in all refpeas a feconci Kliyogg. This man had been fingularly prepofieiTed againft Kliand. Having folid good fenfe however^ uth and worth could not efcape him he bluihed a^ his projed .— with Mer who . of whom he had conceived a very difadvantageous idea. . when the latter had jull cftablifhed himfelf ri the farm which the republic had confided to his care^ he came to fecehim : but by no means fo much with a view to inflrndlhimrelf. and thinking himfelf in confeqiience the bapplefl. with the conti- yogg . and working and partaking in every thing with his children. is to be felt in all its extent. but their -father reprefented with energy the happy effeds reiliino.THE RURAL SOCRATES. who were diiTatisfied. years. fav/ himfelf obliged to refped the man at whom he had pretended to fcolF. as toform. his opinion of this fmgular character . They how much their father was in the right.from a reunion of their labors. demanded ""ler in marriage .inperron. .-. and found all that '/as fingular in him. and whom he wifhed to turn into ridicule by means of fads to which he fhould him^'-^Ifbe a witnefs. and obtained her. : jed increafe of profits in a family in proportion to the while divided families creafe of its a6live members and properties led to a decline of every thing though 'fie concluded his remonftrances with leaving full lib! : • erty to thofe have fince found by experience. Ac firfl indeed there was a flight difcontent among his Tons . built upon folid reafoning. W^. to quit him. into it lo^ great cordiality the hufband of their has not only lived with them for many . The mother is equally charmed at being able to clofe her career in the midll of a family-. upon condition of ving with our philofopher. of men.

that Urongly penetrated they prophet. often alone in Ku fields f tf his 4ime never hangs heavy upon him . fo that his time is never a burthen to him.ts of the f to deigned has Providence which the blelfings with obtaia may others that prays he and crown his labor? . if he to man is for it eafy how proof the find of iceks only to procure true center* t in the fiilfilment of haphis duty. which he often takes after other work . cither in labor. It is here that we to experience the like. the other.lo6 THE nURAL SOCRATES'. he alivays the finds employment. royal the animated which fpirit the fame fatisfadion. Add too. or if he guards againfl tlvrs by the pleaiin-'. that the children ©f When Kliyogg are wholly without recreation. ing» he fits among the pialms of befides houfe the in fung allowed to be David. though nothing i? and fing to them .— He confidcrs rJf? the mnny topics fuggeft- ed . think however. time.^** able are be happy. it is eafily perceivable from the manner in which with thefe pfalms are executed. he often goes from one to This walk. inftead of running after the phantoms pinefs and grandeur which he never ceafes to prelent to himfelf. that notwithfland- ingthe great diftance which ieparates his own property from that v^diich he farms. of value the feels he country the inhr^bitar. ferves as a recreation. and it docs not prevent his forwarding the During bufmefs which he finds offerinc:. ^hc fame. at his arrival. or in confidering the work or improvement which is required . or in examining It is again afl^ed. if Kliyogg is ' condition of everything. he occupies of welfare general the and* profperity of his houlhold. on the reflexions with himfelf his journey. of degree a fuch exercife pious this tade in that few even with the moft refined affiftance of art. of contemplation ? Whenever Kliyogg goes into his fields. whicii lafts him four hours. harvefl in fields the into go for example We mufl not they he has On the Sunday evena violin to precede them.

Look for no other blef^ fing from Providence. Act towards others as you wifh they (hould a6l towards you.'.' His theology is very brief . Beware of eating any bread befidcs that. and I will explain it to you. that he fays. But in return. fo that it ofiens happens in the heat of converfation. which you haVe earned v/ith your own hands. after a manner of his own.URAL SOCRATES. and the benefit to arife it from it to every country which makes a ferious objecl. It mufl not be expeftrd. that you may be able to allure yourfelf that youare beloved of God. that I can have much to fay re{j^e<n:ing his difcovtitute queffcioned — cries v/ith regard to religion. cannot be thoroughly acquainted v/ith the fubjecft with which he himfelf is occupied . which. he anfwers. '' you un'^ derdand nothing of this. 207 If he finds id by the properties over which he pafTes. that at tendency of the prefent query leads me to con* it is conceived. a traveller. he enters into converfation with him . or the civil relations in w^hich he ilands placed ^s a member of fociety. that Kliyogg. This opinion requires corre^ion.THE P. I underfland nothing of thele things. than that which belongs to confiderate and continual exertions. always turns upon the improvement of agriculture. he conceives that all thofe v/ho are not huibanduaen by profefTion.x\di lar bors impoled upon you by your profedion in lifco Do always what your confcience directs in the moments when you confult it.hylical refieiTtions . jedlure. and this isthe fum of it.'' He is himfeif then an example how little wifdom is dependent upon learning. gives into metap. as he never goes out of his province. therefore. Fulfil with fidelity and affiduity all the duties ?. or The lead into general obfervations relative to natural philofophy. either natural or revealed- " ^^ '' '' *' *• *' ^^ ^'' . and maOo ** Gofitemplate . that whenever he is upon objcv^s which do not r€(pe<3: his profeflion. Kliyogg is Co dcf• of what is called fcience.

On the other hand. which yet he admits as <:ert2in. in the country. for we mull owe this to oiir Saviour. One of them r^rjr/. — this head. he anfv/ers.^j^^ great amount of his . and he has known how to '' provide for the reft. that he par- in company with two of the leading men he had jiill alfifled in pacifying a warm diipute between two neighbors .*'*** If he 11 whai he thinks of original fin. fo in his happened one day. than to underlland the dodrines . he calls the religion the Ciiurch-going.• — . becaufc it feeds and multiplies all the others . rr. he anfwers with afojt of difpleafure .n^ ^t. *^ Do *' only what is right.•^.^. '^ Such aie his ideas of religion.2oB '^ IHE ilUIlAL ^OCIIATES." If any teli him^ that he leflens the merits of our Saviour by fuppollng that he can deierve heaven by his good works. Contcinplate death without terror. when praying and going to church is thought to repair every thing. never having conceived the ifmalleft doubt on aflced .Tv. pleafureand debauchery. — him It as thefe perfuafjons. When he hears much talk of religion and the ufes of public worfhip. of which he is more anxious to fulfil the precepts. Nothing therefore fo cures hlm^ much agitates common was ifh. whom wheat .' — The infernal tranquillity which when he feels that religion pro- he has done his duty. when the converfation turned upon the fertility of his fields. and the prayers of fuch perfons. coming from men devoted to idlenefs. and In which they permit alfo their children to iiuiulge 5 or from men who feek to inrich themfclvcs by tricks and cheating . flnce the confcience becomes deadened. a palpable lie^t}<j which they leek to abufe God and man. and of the necelFity and efficacy of prayer . '^ I do not. and be tranquil about the reft. *•' pretend this . is to him the ftrongeil demonftration of its truth. he defpifes . ^' which I confider as a point decided but our Sa*' viour himfelf requires tn return^ that I fhould ad *' well this is my duty.r? Vmc ^^Q^.all religion which refides only in profeinons arid is contradicted by actions. This deceit he conceives as the worft of vices.

(returned his an^' tagonilinow believe what I have heard. who was always talking of the importance of going to church. and of prayer !" '' I love religion (laid Kiiyogg) from the bottom of my heart ?^nd I go very willingly to church. replied Khyogg .THE RURAL SOCRATES- lo^ ' ^vHeat harveft . replied the critic.ork on the Monday morning/'' ^^ — '*' ^•^ . after having taken the facrament in the " morning. '• but on my fide I *' diligent labor. and they think to difpenfe themfelvesfrom "" paying any attention. for ali thefe pious readings render " prejkming. interrupted him by faying. but unlefs there are good v/orks.*^—-^'^ Woik. when pronoun'^ cing upon the writings ofaphilofophical theologian :) ^' It is plain that you have no religion. his prayers are io mafor ho v/ can he in effecl lenoufly ^d« . that God blefles all honed and and loves thofe who eat no bread which ^^ their own hands have not provided. is without doubt proper but read*' iiig and praying mull. prayer. and pious books arc v/holly ufelefs. is it not better to be without it ?'" What horrors. If any one meditates an ur. '' and this without prayino much to Gud'^ / "• This is more than you can know. and that on a Sunday you have carried ^'your plough from one field to another. iince you make ^' To little account of divine v/orfliip. — ! — ^'' . when he defigns a^n unjufl a<Sl. (anfwcred the other . be added. faid ^' Kllyogg. know more than one of thefe books witii *' which it would be better to warm the body. than the '' imagination men . — know. when duty and good works arc '' called for/' ^^ Heavens what fcandal can exceed "^ this.jufl adr. 1 maintaia '^' that all public worfliip. or of what ufe would ^^ And *' be ali our good books of devotion r'* I. and ufes fraud and artifice to proi'eeks to falilioods ^' cure his living ? If this is religion. that yt>u have worked on the afternoon of holy ^'Thuriday. to be !) | true . '*• . to edify '• myfelf . when the other. to be ready ^^ for your v. with a fury like that whicli '' belongs to the orthodox theologian. •^^ ^' or " ny *' '' cheat his neighbor. drefs himfelf to God and afl^ his bleffing.

is en out of the tjothlng to n<. and would is luit the fancy of many^'. when I took the f'acramci^l.) but as to the holy Thurfday^ the magillrate did not order me to refrain from v/ork j and fince. on the Sunday 5 but fo is there more ? evil in this. which may not only fali up-. . I made a frefh j *' '' ^' *' *' prpmifc to God to fulfil all my duties I thought it no lirLon that afternoon to attend to my calling. ?ihe S'jndsy. this. on {h. But he has been believe. true (faid ^^^ '^ KHyogg . it many ^^ ^' ^' would be very eafy to be a Chriflian. if for this would not even purpoie it were neceffary more vevy of Chriftianity lay much precepts. that he owes every thing it is by attending to its fuggeftions alone. It is to the fnperiority of his reason. every Sunday . are accuflomed to do. — The Sunday chiefly defigncd adds Hu» philanthropic j anil the preparation for the ciihcr have t. which have fucceeded the troubled mind with which the myflical opinions he had adopted. than in playing at Piineas_)/<?z^ '^ *' •'^ pins on that day. than in the application of thefe precepts to the improvement of manrjers.nnian. that he has arrived at that internal calm and that fvvcet content. when he fpoke pit of the afa being led away to watering or takfay. tliat he fcarcely knows any book befides his bible and catechifm.no */ THE RURAL SOCRATES. with ^' Does not the clergyman carry his books from one place to anotlicr. for I repeat. bat npnn cattle. a day of *vIonday's work might ' . reft. of real exigence may be done on that this tbc Snnday. which is the mod important of the duties which God has impofed upon me.u — Bot a divitje may has do with oor crdinnry wQik. that Kliyogg for he not of number of j igid Chriftians he to a true believer.iken place on the Saturday right o*" Monday morning. and what aie thefe but the inftruments of his vocation I others If the elTcnce of Cbriftisnity confiRs in idlenefs. : * Jefos feetrec! to allow that woiks «lay. without giving the cxairple of premeditated la»>or 07." Yoa may judge from the fir. that the eflence in — far from boriovv^ing his mode of confidering reli- gion from our philofophical or moral clergymen . 1 agree alfo that I have carried my plough from one field to another.

things which he cannot comprehend. The youngcft cf his children died not long iince. '* fince his whole thoughts are bent upon agricultj. KliyojTg had a fingnlar affevflion for him.'"' Saying this. what people will '* fay. *"' when the poor child is not in a condition to compre*' Jiend any of thefe things Pray for yourfelf only . " you would be contented. and other agricultural v^orks.) he will die in his calling.) the occafion. if we neglccr thefe *' things r"— '' It does not concern us. '' Of what ufe is this.) '^ '-''• — *' '^ ing aloud. at prefenr.. having prayed v. he took l.'ith him :'* \^ '« he dies. that it would be unpar'^ donable to rifque diilurbing the fcienitv of our *' child in the lalh n^oments of his life antl I defiie . . that he will deign to is *' ^' people fay. '^ fmce (lowering his tone of voice. when the quefiion is only what is right snd I *' fee no u(e in repeating to a child who is out of his '' mind.) reading aloud can *' have no other effed: than to diflurb our dear pa: '' '^ But what if he (liould die. " and fee how tranquil he is wilh it . and in his r?imblings he ahvays conceived himfelf to be in the fields at v»^ork. while your Y'^zy-. tient." er." — .er book and (hut it . I am " perfuaded on tlie contrary. all his plays being only fo many imitations of ploughing. (faid Kliyogg. formerly overwhelmed him. His mother thought thefe not the proper objc6ls of contemplation for a dying perfon and wifhed to prepare him for death.e mothwithout our. — The diforder had thrown the child into a delirium v^hich never quitted him . (faid Kliyogg. He is now fo well confirmed in his principles that nothing can fliake them. adhering thuif a I v/ ays But him what into his favor. becaufe from his infancy he had (hewn a very peculiar tafle for agriculture . ' tti adopted. will only difturb this tranqaillity. of a malignant fever. (faid tb..re . by reading the forms of prayer adapted to . manuring. with recom^' mending him to God 'divA his divine providence. I repeat. if fuch v/ill his will. Pray yourfelf to receive God in filence.THE RURAL SOCRATES. in the eighth year of his act.

(of which my narrative reipeiSling him farnifhes more than one example .) but his imagination is always kept in fubordination to his reafon. lee We may ciEGTIOM . he perfe^lly knows how to cxprefs . eye-witneffes to a life. and it is this which attaches to him the admiration and good-will of thofe who know him . £o forcible in any other man . whatever is beautiful in nature or in morals . than by any choice of words. always to his grand principle. that the exlericr of reli-^ gion is only good when reaibn avows it and the heart participates in itt from hence that very found and very vigorous good fenfe properly forms the diftinguifhing Not that he wants imagiquality of our philofopher.ATE5.— PF'hat redly renders him an extraordinary man^ is the pcrfcH and mfeparahle a^^recment of his thoughts^ his This agreement I never fiiw ivords^ and his aClions. Their elleeni for him I am perfuaded would increnfe.u^ THE RUilAL S0GR. but it is more by the animated and heavenly movements of his countenance. in coniequeilce of the feeble portrait by which I have made him known. as we may jndge from the illnftrations he employs to give clearnefs to his ideas.and renders him worthy of the feelings which certain' refpec^able perfons have for him. the whole of which is in harwovy ivitk itjelf. and only ferves to furnifh him Vv'ith figures As to poetic to render his difcoiirfe more impretiive.. and whatever he feels. iingle one. nation. could they h?. thoughts . I do not recolleft his having difcovered a Neverthelefs he feizes and feels with force.

It was held in the month of May. D. (See the pofturoous publications of that gentleman. at the baths of. The reigning Duke of Wirtcmberg. He died before he couid conclude any. in^. while another of bis fifters is (A. a celebrated German in + This was a worthy. prefent emperor of /J^^/T^. One of his frfters would Iiave been at this time emprefs o£ — though fudden death prevented this Aujiritti but for the death of her confort the .*** He had written me a letter of which the following are extra(Si:. having for its members many enlightened perfons Switzerland. is at the fame time the greatefl. a but afterwards departed froax change of fyftem from appear^. Schintznatch and in the midft of the Helvetic Society y that his Serene Highnefs prince Eugene of Wirtembcrg% defired to fee Kliyogg. but ac laft was obliged to think of negotiation uith that country. He was fucceeded by his brother. * The account in this feftion. are We *' great. Gleim canon of Halberftadt. Schintznatch was the firft place of the meeting^. but bigoited prince. and to enjoy ths benefit of each other* conveifation for the three days during which the. ties " with zeal and exa(n:nefs our dutowards our country and our fellow creatures J fulfil when we .) The Helvetic Society here alluded to was inftituted in iti 1761. affembly continued. ?« extracted from a letter written by Dr^ poet.I have long entertained. who m«t annu- ally to hear a dlfcourfe from the prefident of the year. aftually the wife of Paul . my defcription of whom had been fo fortunate as to excite in him fomc interefl. who — at it firft . Gibbon. the annua! afiecnbly was next held at Olicn.} He Joined the coalition of fovereigns againft France with great zeal . perfifted in the plan of negotiating. to Mr. Hirzel. it^ SECTION Qfths it Tniervievj between Prince Louis Eugene of PVir^ temberg and Kliyogg^ at the Helvetic Society* IT was in the year 1765. that the man who is the *' happiefl:. and finally at Ataa» P .tfHE llUPiAL SdcrtATES. He confirras me more aiid more in*the opinion which ^*. who finiflied this projefted negotiation by a leniporary peace/ afterwards osariied the princefs royal of England. 1797.3* -r— *V I have often v/ept over the ravifhing and affecting V pi6lure you have drawn of this philolophical peafant* ". but after fume fufpenfion. not ipuch favor with Mr.

When I explained to Kliyogg the rank of this young nobleman. and the fatisfadtion which an honed man feels when he finds tliat he can refped: himfeif for his duties we which it condudl. elevate fublime minds.114 *' '' *' ** '^HE are happy.) . RURAL SOCRATES. when we love our condition and the impofcs. — has not a little cojitributed to raifc my own courage. and I went the following day to Brugg to wait for him at the houfe of my dear Zimmerman. The example of this prince. except to refrefli himielf under a tree with a' bit of bread which he had brought in his pocket. there appeared a vivacity and a ferenity upon his countenance which won every heart. and his relationfhip to Frederic of PrufTia. *' which is exadly v/hat is ufeful for humanity/' You may eafily believe that I very willingly accepted the propofal which hishighnefs made me. it mufl. He then gave his heartfelt praifes to *' ** *' '^ ^' this king of PruiTia ''who (he faid) would never have performed miracles had he not always been the fir Jl at work. *< when . (continued he. *' but on the other hand. he looked at the burgrave with the piercing eye of an obferver. how much comparative efiimate lowers thofe proud mortals. with a movement of his head which in him always announces a peculiar emotion. -My friend Kliyogg appeared' the day after. He had walked ail the night. ** who wifh to fubmit every thing to their ambition . having travelled feven leagues without flopping . of bringingmy *' '' this peafant phiiofopher to Schintznatch. ^^Ifenc with fpeed a mefTenger to Kliyogg . well affured that he would' not fail to come immediatelyj nothing being fo natural to him as to give {^cafure to his friends . very early in the morning. and enjoy the delightful convid:ion of it. whom Kliyogg had fo often admired . He had on him a peafant drefs of ticking [coutij which was very clean and if his habit wa!s not impoUng. and with a draught of frefh water taken from a neighboring ipring. — — ' : The burgravc of Donha had alfo come to Brugg • to meet Kliyogg.**^ I am thoroughly fenfible.

<&c.^HE RURAL SOCRATES/?< ny when hold. >' not always foreniofl. He only exprelTed his joy at finding that fuch great perfonages could carry their love of mankind fo far. it was all in vain. things *' could not go on for believe me. rcauiriog as much preparation of the earthy s** duftioDS We . all is undone. queflioning him about different new forts of grain. The fervant who knows *' and who can dp a thing better than his maflcr. I " *' ^' difficulties have been upon the point of (Inking under in the adminiftration of my own liour1 Ah faid I to myfelf.***.over the earth. by telling him that he was about to receive the honor of being prefented to a prince. and to be always there. and the lall: at night. and fails to fhew to others by ^' his example the manner in v/hich every thing is to be ^' performed. (faid he) if there is a neglect of tillage *' and of manuring. fol*' lows his own plcafiire in it. as to hold converfe with peafants . fince in this condefcenfion he »faw the furefl means of Ipreading plenty and happinefs — . and how to obtain the bed pay " the molt perquifites/^ It was thus that our philofopher diiplayed his wifdom from the firfl moment of this interviev/v— When I endeavored to alarm him. if the mafter is . . as of a proper preparation of the earth. firs. *' own advantage and . which will never lead him '' to waile his (Irength in increafing the wealth of one *' whom he defpifes but he will rather think of his. now mounted an open carriage to go to Schintz. Kliyogg condemned nothing I but only maintained. *'A11 *' thefe liew fpecies of grain and artificial graffes v/ill *' fervenopurpofe.chapter of agriculture. and artificial graffes. *' where the labor Is moft feverc j the firfl in the morn« " ing. the burgrave took occafion to bring Kliyogg upon the . Without this. that agriculture did not fail fo much from the want of ufeful plants.—x\s the road crofTed various cultivated fields.natch. it is neccfTary to work without being difheartcned . the quantity of which latter mufi: *^ be increafed with the greateft care thefe new pro.

fori ^' fince you are more elevated than I am. You princes *' and great men fhould tell us what ought to be done and the manner of doing it . '^ are both good. whole firft meafurc v/as to embrace hini with i^nuch emotion ." It was in the midll of difcourfe of this kind. to janient want of that manure. have condefccnfion for us poor peafants !'' '» It '^ is no condefcenfion in your caje. with which Kliyogg was wholly unacquainted . when great perfons lik^ ^' you. '^I have great joy Kliyogg in feeing you. i^rince Louis Kugene of Wirtemberg had already come out with all the members of the Society. I took Kliyogg by the hand to condudi: him towards the prince. but foon recovering himfelf.U6 ^•' XHe RURAL SOCRATES. replied the generous *' prince feekto raife myfelf to your flandard. (anfv^ercd the villager. when he learned that it injured other articles of culture. after all the good I have heard of you. lo pbcy. Kiiyogg. ^' with the am glad to fee you.''— '^ And I alfo. my as the ordinary produdlions *^ 1 — . and to work with zeal and integrity . mod marked fatisfadlon paipted in his « eyes :) How charming is it. bqt. ''* ^ ''^ '^^ prince. i'ov you have leifure to ** — — *"'' We ''^ *' /^^ examine and wcigii well what is mofl uleful to a country and it afterwards belongs to us peafants. which beipg left the f' ^^ we give wholly to the juicfs of the grape. if ^^ each of us does what he ought to do. do injury J"' *' enough in this way poor fields and meadows our . (faid he fmiling. that v^e found ourfplvjLJS near the entrance of the houfe at the baths. was for a moment di (concerted .. '' which we aheady poiTcfso have neverthelefs (he added) feen fome perfons who f have devoted ail their care and their befl manure to *' thefe new articles. while they have neglected every thing •^^ elle upon their farms/' The converfation afterwards jturned upon the cultivation of madder. he faid.) excite his curiohty. which we for have fo much ^ffedion. . .*' and her^ the eyes of our philanthropic prince gliftened with tears. it foon ceafed to Our vines. to receive our country philofopher. faying. and thus : ^ ' '' together .

as well as I can do thofe of mine you . my which he a fecond time embraced Kliyogg f prince.THE RURAL SOCRATES* . and it isprecifely becaufc " you reprefent fo well your half of theintire man.¥ *' ji. if you were not accuflomcd to do the fame to Indeed you are not aware of all the good f' others. I wifh to heaven." '* I oughtrather to take your place (faid the ^* incomparable prince. anfwered.with his heart again penetrated .'' faying '* I fee. with a ton^ «f fenfibility which madq: — : : — — . and the good is not yet realized. if you *' did not keep us in order. that I love and ''honor you. he waf flill more io at the interior content which he read in his eyes.) '' for it is you. '* the peafant. *' that the man appears as a v/hole. who are ^' better than myfelf. he faw the whole value of Kliyogg He therefore replied. yon. and " cannot believe to what a degree my heart feels elated ^' at your behaviour. that I could affirm as ^^ much myfelf. My labors will become doubly " dear to me. and the good would be ftill undone. (replied the villager) by the manner in which *' you fpeak to me. that you fulfil the duties of your ^^ fituation. *' which will be produced by your condqfcenfion and fa> *^ miliarity. who was now much affeiSled. and it is only when they both join. together we form the entire man* Howevever advantagcous for thecountry may be the tendency of your "' wilefl: deliberations. fince I perceive that they pleafe fo good *' a prince would not proceed thus towards . your work is bat half proceeded *' in. while he was fpeaking : in fhort. and *' fulfil ybur duty with fo much integrity. and with the fame confidence . till the fubjed:. and that the work 'Succeeds/' If our philofophic prince was afloniflied at the jullnefs of the ideas of our villager and at the luminous manner in which he difplayed them . who encourage well doing ." Kliyogg. and you ** me. puts his hand to the bufinefs : but v»^c *' fhould crofs each other in our exertions and bring on *' confufion. Thus the peafant is but *' half of a man^ and ths great lord alfo is but the other *' half of a man. " You have *^ju(l uttered a heavenly truth .

I received at^fird many flattering compliments on the fubjedl of my philofopher . During all this time f had continued fllently to obI faw with ferve the countenances of thefc tv/o a^^ors. He v/as quedioned much about his agriculture. the deepefl: fenHitions.*' than for a fabje«5i: . led him into his own apartment to converfe with'him in private. and when I approached afterwards to hear the opinions that were given. and cfpecially that of his iilluflrious friend. you have no fuperior to do the you are abandoned to yourfelves fame to you a^St . I perceived only two of the mod excellent of men. my hero being thought happy in having fo good an hiftorian. As formyfelf. which ipread itfelf over the v/hole company . you are at hand to fet us right or to punilh us . I admired in them. The whole of the afternoon and a great part of the day following. his manner of educating his children. born to love one another : and i had the happinefs to feel that I myfelf was beloved by them both. I fometimes kept at a diftance. the full means of examining him. and to ! — iiDw putting his arm into that of Kliyogg. but when perfons in your fphere do wrong.-*' THE KUKAL itnpreflion it: . fituation. how difficult is it your confciences. Kliyogg was the obje<9: of the moft curious attention of all the members of the Society who were prefent. whicli gained him more and more the affections of his auditory. for when we fall into contrary to juftice. how two fouls. to give thofe who had hitherto known Kliyogg bymy defcriptiononly.— — Many . who were ftruck to liear fuch important truths delivered with fuch frankThe prince nefs and noble fimplicity by a peafant. and he anfwered thcfe queftions with a noble freedom. : WichouC doubt. and his leligious principles . m'an in all his grandeur : the pri»nce and the peafant alike dit appeared . palled one into the other .ii3 a ftrong . and alas *^ for us to govern ourfelves/*—-The prince anfwered no otherwife than by fhewing a lilcnt admiration.SOCRATES. each fo noble. is upon the hi^arts of all pr^Ient more difficult to do good in your ^' *' *' *' error or ^' .

for all the — -''^ *' eafe I'' .of it a great fund of found reafon. that my portrait had fallen very fhort of the beauty cf the original. What does this '^ mean. and his judgment which was true and' never at a fault.) with the fmilc of contented' fhortly and naturally. in the manner I have defciibed. (faid Klivogg. with a natural flyle . had placed him €xa<Slly as it a quality which lefs creates furprize. as yet. for inflance. But infenfibly. infpired an eflcem which increafcd continually . but they perceived inflead. and a natural good fenfe which he applied happily to every cafe which prefented itfelf in the narrow fphere in which Providence . was fuppofed owirg to the coloring of the painter. and a great part of the interefl which bis chara£lcr had excited. as perfe6?:. the aflonifhing" fenfc of our fage. with the new difcoveries . without finding it . he prefented his hand to the prince and was going. Kliyogg took leave of us by expreiling his thanks marks of friendfhip which had been lliewn to him 5 and after adding his nun behiit euch Gott (may God now keep you). -—It: was then that I found every one agreeing with me.*** and knowing nothing beyond the culture ufed in his own part of the country. It is with this qual. which is then only when it is equally intelligible to all the worlds' and when each thinks it is that which himfelf and every one elfe would have employed upon tbe. not being at all famiJiar. ' ity indeed. only heard a fitnplc laborer^ with great fenfc it is true j but he had faid nothing but what was common about agricuhure . approaches perfedlion. and which by the manner in which he parted from us was carried to its utraofi height. Others looked for learning in him. infdmuch that in the end he left the greateft part of his auditory in an^ admiration bordering upon enthufiafm. when the prince Aid into it a piece of gold. and fceking only by obftinate labor to perfe£l what he had in view.THE RURAL SOCRATES.ranae occaricn-— •^**Thus Kliyogg was at iirft thought only to be a common peafant. n^ Mfiny however had.

loaded with our bencdidions^t *' ces. — — *' Kliyogg. You cannot fufficiently give credit to the degree of fatiffaction I have received . ** having enough arifing from my own labor. and another morfel of bread *^ will carry me back.iio tMe rural To SCJCRATES. that wasoia^ by which he wifhed Kliyogg td *' keep himielf reminded of the pleafure he had given *' him. I fhould be have o'ccafioned you expcncame here upon a morfel of '^ bread you have kept me free of expence. faid *' But it is only money. ''—The aufterc air with which thefelaft words were accompained.bor to give us pleafure «" '' But. So keep your money. engaged the prince to take back his money .as foon as any one feeks to acquire *' it by other metiiods. the whole company always dining at the fame tabic. while I " have been with you . he is undone. faid ly a little prefent. that great lords can " *' *' *' love induftrious peafants . llnce you have *' quitted your l?. have feen from you. (now acknowledged as fiich) here returned towards hisf home. * Our author has neglefted :o obferve here. though I ** am not the iefs obliged for your politenefs . Oixr philofophic peafant. and he has lincc acknowledged to me. F SECTION . and if I were to pay for the pleafure which I have my ft If juft felt. 1 fhall fo redouble my exthat I lliall regain what I have loft. pleafure has not been Iefs than yours . fince I ** wifii for none but that which I acquire by the labor *^ of my hands fo^.'' and he attempted to return it. " Keep it (faid his highnefs .) *' you have iurely gained this trifie. of which I have no need.*' "• Kliyogg then looking at the piece.'' ^' your — : debtor. He put bim in the fame pofition at the pubHc meeting of the Society. that the prince placed Kli« yogg by his fide at the two meals which our philofopher maJe at Schintznatch.'"' '^ — '' But I By no means : 1 . that he never in his life felt himfelf fopoor as at this moment. my I */ *' and fince crtions. ^* It " *' eale V* v/hich the prince replied. at which ilfd Kliyogg aflil^id.

value. and that its produce diminiOied to fuch a degree.—.illE RURAL SOCRATES. His paternal property by conPcant improvements had continually inci^afed in much — limits. This led Kliyogg to think of renting a farm of a certain extent . The efFe£i: of thefe fine reafonings was. it appeaired to them peculiarly irkfome to improve a property" which wgs not their own and which belonged even to a corporate body t fothat tliefe fenfelefs people were anxious to obtain the produce of the farm with the lead: poffible trouble. at four leagues from the former. His predecelTors in it had followed ma:\ims diametrically oppofite to his own* Naturally idle. but another bis diilance more confiderabie.^^'y^gg ^^^^ lives* 5 and though a fenfible change has occurred in his favor. He not only cultivates his own property after the principles he originally l:iid dovi^n. From hence aroie eafe. he hinifelf is always the fame. where his manner of cultivato be pradifed. of Kliyognrl Particulars concerjiing the additional Farm Farther j^ccoimts rejpeding his Fatnily. which rendered the fales of land lefs frequent. the fuccefs of it having been fo manifefl. as well as ccnfiderably raifed its price.t . that their arable land. taxes Included tion in his tion was begun — — fcarcely * This f^aion is extraded from a letter wntteo by Dr. and an attachment of the proprietor to his foil . 1774. HirSsel so %h. His example had created a blaze of emula- neighborhood . His Bcfm^ viour at ihelVedding of his Jecond Son. and he had neglcdted no occafion to add to its But additions to it had become every day more difficult. JULY 2 2. tliat the farm became every year worfe . i^l SECTION m. and it h2ppe*"ied fr)rtunately that one of this nature became vacant exaftly in the neighborhood of Zurich.

Heidegguer at its heiad. debts exceed its ac^to greatly it expences cumulatcd. debauched.having a vaft houfe in the middle. E. The property confifted of (ixty-five journeaux* of tneado'v land. focceeded from able management. fuffercd idle in more an flill them couraging their profits. and idle race fo often produced by an ill underftood zeal for manufactures. which. When things were viewed under this afped.. the merit of Klivogg could fcarcely efcapc the vigilant eye of the government. and who at the feme time fhpuld find his account happened likewife that this farm. having his Excellency Mr. The chamber of finances. not to fay If the farm which belonged to the entirely negle«3:cd. doriiain * Journeaux arc quantities of Isnd capable oi b^ing each worked one day. which joined to a granary. and the abandonment of the farm was quickly the refult oftheir bad conduvSl. and twelve acres of com^ mon wood (that is. awaken a zeal for agriculture. They had refcarcely replaced the feed it called for. the force of the example might produce a happy ferment among the inhabitants of the neighborhood. and laborious from the weak.li22 -THE RURAL SOCRATSS. and was accepted vrith univerfal ap- — ^^It We : plaufe. tavern of a keeping to therefore the courfe . promifed a Iccond advantage from Ibch an employment of it . robufl. its fltuation. two barns. republic. by in fo doing. four journeaux of vines. and reflore eafe and an ufeful population* call that an ufeful population. where the parties are which is very different healthy. a wood not confiding of pines and firs. and a Thefituation of this prefs. looked out for a perfon who had capacity and courage to reflore a farm thus redu^ ced. m . enthey life.) It had the advantage of being all connected . being placed between two villages where agriculture was in a very low ftate. one hundred and fifty acres of arable land. He was adviied to propofchimfclf tberefv)re as a tenant .

The greater part of the meadow land confifts of the bottom which lies along the fide of the Katzenbatch. that he wifhed to enter into an engagement to increafe his tythe every year to a certain amount. he knows how to profit. or jzlnglafa. and which in the time of his predecefFors had readered a part abfolutely wafte. or at leafh having a clayey though there are fome fpots which are dry and gravelly. Different * The mica. being upon the fide of a hill which has a gentle defcent to the Katzenbatch . and even his fields have many fwampy places in them^ owing to fprings which are very injurious to arable lands. . clayey bottom . . The land of the farm is of a different quitlity from that almoll all the fields of the farm of his own property . and is rendered marfhy by means of the adjoining hills which command it on every fide . fincc it gave him the pleafing profped: of exertions which would be followed by the AfFured of fuccefs. ^23 domain is very agreeable. being of a heavy. which both required and was capable of much improvement . ssutalllc leavesr talk. 3ppe9r? like fmall bits 0^ E. he finds a fandy earth. frequently yellow which at firft fight.)*** But what gives the mod plealure to Kliyogg is. till he fhould double it. mixed with mica (or talk*) from which as we fhall fee hereafter. His penetrating eye had already detected the caufe of what had hitherto happened. he gaily undertook every labor which thefe improvements called for. which is a ftream formed by the overflowing of the Katzenfee i(6r lake of cats. four leagues diftant time to time to direct what is neceffary to be done. Hance. Thus Kliyogg received a farm. giiftening fab. and he was fo confident of his fuccefs.THE RURAL SOCRATES. Above his fields. found in fand. in the want of labor and contrivance . foil. and others where clay and gravel are mixed. is a thin. without being in the leaf! difcouraged by an apparent flerility. and this was exactly what he wanted . . profperity of his increafing family. that he difcovers from it his paternal v^here he goes from property.

But this. as he had already made great advances in the ontfct of this new.j>4 "^^^E RURAL SOCRATES. undertaking . -' " ' even . Kliyogg rejected . to have colieded money fufficknt to purchaie at once the cattle. but Itill a certain method was. one with Wcrmctfwcii. A flower. and to feek But even this courfe prefor every thing on thefpot. ploughing the in his aHiiled him fons ihat the length feeing plcafure at v/ith were tranfportcd they of their farrows . and whofe numb^er might be doubled after a time by productive marriages . for all were ' in fmali divifions. v/hich if fold. fented very great difficulties. he proceeded to take poflellion of the farm wirh a manly courage and with a The fir fl time tirni confidence in the divine alliflance. as he required thefe fame hands for working his paternal property . ftraw. to coHtinae^ ihe management of their paternal property upon the plan which he had laid down . for children arc He to lione more a real bleifing. apparently the ihorteil would have been. which the exhaiifled flatc of the land fcemed to demand . ' the fields at their former home according to the very perni"iliey cious practice generally feen in our countries. overfet him and ruin his credit. at left therefore his brother par: of the family. and to hirp laborers enough to execute the mod preifing improvements. to undertake thefe improvements with the hands with which Providence had fo liberally blefled his family . than to the laborer. The iirft and Different plans prefented themfelves. overcome everything. new lands. than when fortune opens to him. fmce it would appear as aA ad: of riccelfuy. he thought it danA bad year might gerous to borrow upon intereft. mud be at a difadvantage. As firmnefs and conllancy however. brilliant profpeds. and provender requifite for making the manure. and he knew that envy is never more adive in attacking a man of merit. and with the other part. Kliyogg animated himfelf with the hght of his children who were already arrived at their flrength . for as he had not himfelf the capital required.

as a compofh for drefling his lands. and.-^ The fiill refource wiiich offered itfelftohis penetrating eye. was thejupcrfluity of the hedges^ which had run wild . promifed but a fhiall quantity of draw . and from which he pruned or rooted out whatever was ufclels . and inilead of itfpreadupon his m. and no provifioa for liquid manure. %vas where to begin the improvements .— This flate of things had much lelTened the firft effervefcence of joy felt by his family. and kliyogg had no firs or pines to furnill) him with a fubftitute. and this noify gaiety feemed to influence and to gi/e new flrength to the cattle who drew it along. and the hedges had encroached fo much upon it.. ^liis t/'/^o^j offered him a fecond fource for manure. and looked around him for the means of fupplying himfelfwith ^nanure. as time had produced an excellent mould on the i'pot. were drained from his arable lands. . The little grain which was growing. the greater part being covered with water. and there was much danger of diicouragem. and. There was very little dung . as vyehave Cccn^ in many places marfhy. He began with his arable lands .eadows.*** and the rell exhaulicd for want of manure. reckoning more than ever upon his adivity and the aid of Providence.ent fucceeding. he fpread a confiderablc part of this mould upon his fields. and then. burning it upon the fpot^ made an excellent manure of the afhes. the whole of the farm be- The meadows gave> very lltt]« ing in a flate of ruin. He thus re* gained fome of his bed foil . as he took from tliem all their ufclefs hiiJJics and brawbles^ which be reduced to — adies. The vineyard looked like fallow land . the former refer voir s for' making it beicg few and decayed. Kliyogg alone refifled the impreflion. The waters at the lame time finding a freer paflage through his hedg- es.THE RURAr SOCRATE: 125! even fhouted with joy in following the plough . The queflion that was next to be dircufled. grais and of bad quality. The fields were poor. that one of the befl portions of it was rendered ufeiefs.

He had difcovered in the piece of ground oppoflte to his houfe a little mount of gravel. cfpecially when the fiiort period and few hands employed in effecting them wer^ coniidered.) of which we have already fpoken . carried through the middle of his fields. Atjihe fame time he had recourfe to his former pradice of mixing foils of a different nature. he received the water obtained through a number of fmall covered drains. and in 1773. In confequence of thefe mcafures. which he undertook to remove. his meadows being thus fertilized with water very proper for the purpofe. having for that pur- — pofe carefully repaired the old refervoirs deflined for preparing liquid rr^anurc. his fields by degrees became entirely dry . By thefe methods he lupplied in his firft year the w^ant of manure from his liables. his next care was to amend the nature cfhis J oil.126 THE RURAL SOCRATES. and then by larger acjuedu^ls which were led acrofs his lower fields. and laft year he difcovered the land mixed with mica (or talk. formed by the fuccellion of dead leaves. and places hitherto the mofl incapable of culture. which enabled him afterwards to arrive at more mould. in v/hich he was aflifled by the generofity of the republic. which he neverthelefs fought to augment by all poiiiblc means . and formed new ones . After having provided for manure. Kliyogg has fucceeded in. by fpreading it upon the lower part of the field containing it. ^o as to make it yield an equal produce with thofe — which were the bed manured. whofe waters were drained in like manner into the aqueduds. the courfe of four years in doubling his crops of grain. which confifled of a heavy clay . fince it has improved the adjoining field. he reaped 4000 (heaves . and which is a real treafurc to him. he conveyed the whole body of water into his meadows . became as fufceptible of it as any of thereih The enormous quantity of thefe cuts was of a nature to flartle every one . By a very deep ditch therefore. afhcs. from the marlliy fpots contained iti thefe fields . he reapfa 1769. By thefe different methods. ed .

'fHE
sd 8000
;

RURAL

S0CR/\TE3.

127

though in general the latter year was lefs faThis crop was fufficient to enable him to fell one hundred muids, after paying his tythes and other taxes, and providing for the fubfiflence of his family.— His llables are well furnifhed alfo with cattle ; for while liis predecefTors had only eight horfes and four head of horned cattle ; he has five horfes and twentytwo head of horned cattle ; and he propofcs augmenting the number, fince he fees a variety of improvement!
vorable.
ftill

^

to be accomplifhed. His abundant harvefts produced

by

his

improvements^

naturally furnifhed a ftill farther means of augmenting them, by an increafe in his quantity of flraw, fo precious for his dung-heap ; his crops and his dung-heaps thus mutually increafing ; each of them powerfully resiEVing upon the other* This fuecefs, the reward of zeal the moft active and intelligent, charmed the republic of which he was the tenant ; and the governm.ent in coniequence favored him in his plan for eretSling new acd large refer voirs, wherein to prepare his liquid ma-

nure.

The attention bf Kliyogg to his fields did not prevent his giving attention to his meadows; which in like manner he endeavored as much as poffible to improve, in order to be able gradually to increafe the number of his live flock. -Thcle meadows were of two kinds ; the dry^ which could only be aided by tlie manure from bis cattle, efpecially in the form cf liquid manure and the moi/Iy which were by much the moft numerous, and ^hich he defigned to affift by managing the water with judgment. For this latter purpofe, he began by digging drain-sto carry away the flagnant water ; and, aa he obferved that the river, though it fiowly wandered along his meadows, had ftill fall enough to allow hint to take up its water where it entered his grounds, ht' profited by the circumftance to make regular cuts from it ; though the water was not proper for producing grafs

',

of

i-S

THE PtURAL SOCRATES.
bell quality''^.

pf the

— He

is

nowetnploycd

in eonflruct-

ing the trenches in his cow-hcufe, which are fo urcfu! for multiplying the quantity of liquid manure ; a contrivance freqnenc in the neighborhood oFour city, and which turns to great account, efpecially for field-vegeHe forms all along behind his cattle a trough, tables. afoot or a foot and an half in iis width and in its depth, lined and covered with planlis ; the trough havThus placed, it receives ing its ilTue without doors. the urine and dung of his cattle ; and being always kept half full of water, it forms a thick mixture ; and ferves as a ferment, Vv'ith which a very great quantity

of water may in a very fhort time bfe converted into liOne portion of this ferment being mixquid manure. ed \w\Xi\ jevenpOii\Q\\% of the freihefl fpring- water, foon makes the whole become corrupt ; eipecially if the relervoir in v«;hich the mixture is made, is of wood and
placed
in a

warm

fituation

;

or

if

fnbflituted, in cafe a natural heat is of this fermentation, an excellent ma?mre

an artificial heat is wanting. By means
is

produced

j

which proves the befl ailiflant which can be given to fuch meadow and arable lands as are naturally dry. The gypfum [or coarfe- alabafler} of which Kliyogg
has lately begun rom.ake ufe, iupplieshis induflry with Our country a new means of augmenting his forage. the gypfum important ufe of owes the knowledge of this Kiipferzellt of to the difcoverics of Mr. Meyer,-pa(lor 5

who
* The
niot3r;.-tainaus

firurtare

of Sw-itzeiiaad

makes

It

abound wiih

fprings and Ilreams,

mnnyrf which
;

are fuiTicienily elevated to be condtid^

(fi/wulicarc over the foil

ten {ervc to

wi»t«:r

them in

and water wheels turned by the lireams may ofoijier c&fes, and are fometifoes fo employed. E.

f This refpcf^iable c'ergyman, eager to puMilh his important difcovery, has given a very detailed accounr it the msionef of ufing the gypfum. He fpreads the gypfum in its natural ftate, but reduced to powder, upon mcadland 0';vs containing both the common and artificial graffes ; 2s ylfa upon
fovi^n

with peafc, vctcheF,
efFtfdl is

lentils, oats, rye,
;

jnifing

upon clover

and

this, in foils the
it

does not

fait niarfhy places,

where

But its moft furIt moft dry and arid. iiuks too deep, its a^vity on!y feewor lobacco.

THE RURAL SOCRATES.
fcrvice.

12^

v/ho has herein rendered agriculture the raofl eiTential
this fort of means, then, that our fkilful cultienabled annually to increafe his number of cattle, and confequcntly his manure ; which promifcs him in future a circle of fertility and blelling always enlarging itfelf. He gradually applies cattle of his own breeding for this purpofe, which yields him a confiderable profit ; as he is able to fell every year a certain number of fat oxen.
It is

by

vator

is

Thus our Kliyogg remains true to his principles and thus thefe principles are always juftified by a compleat fuccefs. I have never fcen io happy an ifTae fo flriking]y refulting from a judicious plan, as in the cafe of our All wife cultivator.

ing to exert

gypfum

on the furface. Mr. Muller limits the quznticj' of upon a rasafure of land [journal, joorneaux] of i8c< perches freckoiiirg the perch at 12 f^er of the Rhine,) to 8 iirnri ; of which each contains 16 pots. A larger quantity would become rather
icfelf

to be fpread

hurtful,

than falutary.
tlie

— The

greateft

care muft be taken to fpread this

powder befors

grafs or grain begins to (hoot.

Upon meadows

there-

melting of the fnow ; that hj at the end of February or beginning of March and upon fields of grain as fobn a-s thefs are fown. A laborer having ignorr-nily ihrown ic upon his meadows after thefhooring of the grafs, loft four of his oxen; a gypfc:oa8Correftion,which obftruf^ed digeftiort, being found in their inteftines. I: muft be beaten io. the firlt inftance in a great trough, with iron hammers, into pieces not exceeding the fize of 9n egg. It ij then reduced to powder in the fa me manner that apples are prtfled to make cyder, and by the very fame pppararus. It ia no! rpqoi(iie that the powder {hould be made very fine j f.ieces of gypfum of the Ciii of a pea o: bean being quickly difTulvedp when fpread on the ground, Such is the fubftance of the mpmcir of Mr, Meyer. The Abbe Rozler hag placed another nnemoir on this fubjes^ in his Journal deFhyJiqm {u IV, July.) This lad tueraoir confirms that of this clergyman of Kiipfore, it rauil be fpread at the

;

icrrell.

F.

This manure Is no where perhaps better known at prefent, thao in foroe of the United States ; as will be found on confulting what has been faid by Judge Peters, Mr. Robert Morris, Dr. Mitchill, Mr, B^rdley, ani others, OQ the fubjeu^, E»

R

I

JO

THE RUPvAL SOCRATES.

All the children of Kliyogg as well as thofe of hh brother, have turned out well. They are all healthy, robuft and laborious; all intelligentjand virtuous. Their occupations have to all, without exception, become real pleafures ; for labor in this family is acceptable merely as labor ; the only queftion being v/ho (hall lurpnTs the other ; and they know no other jealoufy than, the laudable emulation of excelling in their undertakings, whethThe er the obje^Tt confiils in dire£ting or in executing.

tendency to luxury and fenfuality, fo common elfewhere, is here confined within its jafl bounds. Even the fervants employed under them acquire an increafing attachment to their work ; in which never; helefs they all agree, that they arc furpalTed by their mader and his There is alfo a beautiful order always prechildren. vailing in this happy family. The Sunday is employed and in dei^in reading the bible and in finging hymns canting upon the blellings of the hulbandman, and the inward peace and content following upon the certainty of enjoying the fruits of their labor. They know the ronfidence with which each may fay tohimfelf '' This *' is what God has given me in recompenfe for my exNothing here has cofl the fmallefl figh to erlions '' any of my fellow creatures I have never taken ad*' vantage of tlie want of information in any perfon " My fatisfat^ion is therefore built in no refpeifl upon ** the fufferings of others." When the occafion offers for fpeaking of luxury and the ordinai-y diverfions of the young people of the village, w^ho are fcarcely acquainted with any thing elfe befides the tavern ; Kliyogg fliews to his children how ienfelefs are fuch amufements.^ He gives a crowd of examples within his own obfervation, of perfons whom this bad habit has by degrees turned from their occupafrom whence have arifen family derangements, tions which he has detailed, befides a multiplicity of debts followed by the moft cruel anxieties, and by over- reaching and bad faith, as the only means left for ]>rocuring

;

'*'

:

:

:

;

fubiidence

;

till to his part without in- when ing is the hours fixed for refting themfelves j Noththey are refreQied with wholefome food. we cannot help loving him and when we love . knovvS • not the fliould Supreme Being . '' and who confequently renders the -earth fertile only ^' in proportion to thepains we take in cultivating it. mufl: not be weighed. which wins every one who hears him . that the food of petite At the end the man who works. we *' ought to feel a high fatisfaclion in occupying our'' felves with the idea of him.ith the fweat of our brov/ . Kli* yogg maintaining that no ad ought to be more voh.THE RURAL SOCRATES. " Whoever (iie affirms) prays with fuch views. by the ruin both of body and of mind. for they always coaimencc the day with this pious exercife . after having prayed . and in fliort. that he fpeaks of the happinefs of a virtuous hufbaiKiman from his own experi- ence. ^^ ediflions which leave nothing on our fide to be done. 131 {"libfiftence . every one yields to a refloring and tranquil fleep . eating according to his apfor it is a rnaxim with Kliyogg.inta" When we know God. Herepreienls on the other hand. any more than to their work ." When they are come to the place Vv'here they are to '^ work.3 a quiet conrcience. fpared upon this occafion .—-Far from mixing anything difagreeable in his inftrnctions. how their own iiabits of labor render thcni happy j and how precious . fuch as never is vi^anting when the body is fatigued. and convinces them. . and in fpeaking to him. and the mind unopprefTed with rorroding . Kliyogg puts himfelf at their head to go into the fields at daybreak. whofc defign it is. that we gain our bread v. though they are not conih ained to it. of their concluding repafl. he ry than that of prayer. he accompanies the whole v/ith an amiable gaiety . '' him and regard him as the fource of every good. every one from the mafler to the loweft fervant. every one applies himfelf terruption. ^' and in imploring his benedictions but not thofeben. *' fays. On the working days of this happy family.

offer itfelf tomy eyes in a manner fo palpable .132 THE RURAL SOCRATES.^hen ieconded by indullry. learned thefe h^s refped:ing the admirable order obfervcd in this family. if implying the feparation of either of his fons from the fam/ily . In propartlon as Kliyogg increafes the profperity of family. andy^ou may judge that I did not hear it without being moved. v. due . — To rior. his barns and wine of his own growth. that Providence has deiigned that this fa-mily (hould becomvC one of the mod marked examples. His ior\i may choole the richefl young women in the neighboring country . no fortune being able to induce them to quit a father. having found by his own experience. to fell grain. as we have feen. and his flaflrong and healthy cattle of his own with provided bles His rent is always paid on the day when it is raifing. never did the bieffing which follows up-^ on induflry and good morals. and he is able every year. this interior profperity is joined that The of the exteof granaries Kliyogg are full. I have lately corroding cares and gloomy difcontent. who has adopted with joy the manner of thinking bis . from a youth whom Kliyogghad taken into it at my recommendation . He has refufed in confcquence themofl advantageous offers. how many things may thus be done. to keep all his children and grandchildren united in one family . and to incrcafe his property. and I do not fear to conclude. '' jivo . and in this. 1 repeat . to encourage mancellar flored v^^ith kind. and cattle. whofe care in eduIt fcems as if cating them has fo vifibly profpered. wine. and his houfaold is furnidied with every necefTary . Providence deiigned to recompenfe them for continuing in fuch difpofitions his fecond fon having juft married one of the richell young women of the neighborkocd. he acquires frefh perfonal confideration. although he is more and more firm in his principle. his fons haveperfeclly joined him in opinion .. Ko..

however different in many from thofe to which fhe has been accuflomed irX the family which (he has quitted. ilie had not her fellow in the country. The brother of Kliyogg had jufl arrived from the Art-family-property. fpoke in high commendation of his daughter . fing a beafl at the fair. and that they I ding. and are forcibly imprinted upon his countenance.*''^*. he vvifhed to return with me to his houfc 3 but I refifted and obliged him to purfae his journey. he was now in the purfuit of bufinefs . '^^'^ Having reached the farm of my friend.--— I expreffed to him the (hare I took in the happinefs of his fiimily. that of purchaHe v/as in his ordinary drefs. joined to the beauty of thefeafon. he told me that he had found himfelf in a condlticn to equip his for| as . cannot here refrain from a defcription of this wedwhich I did not fail to affid:. When he v/as informed of my intentions. which continued upon the fame footing as when the two families were united. to take part in the family-joy. in particular. determined me to furprife my country friend. refpecls 133 and ading of the family . with franknefs and kindnefs. I found every thing in compleat tranquillity . form the chiradler of this man . for having followed the counfels of his brother ^ how well all his children had turned out . The conRant defire which I have to witnefs the feelings of Kliyogg in all the important conjun£i:ures of his life. He.*'*^ But what was my own furprife in meeting Kliyogg alone on the road to Zurich. how he himfelf had been bleiTed by Providence. Notwithftanding the folemnity of the day and though his fon was married in the city. hSltv thanking me with confiderable cordiality.r THE RURAL SOCRATES. he related with a tone of great ienfibility. To give me a proof of the increafe of his circumdances. faying that in working. for it was in the month of May laft . with that open air which is peculiar to him. Icfi goodnefs. at confLantly afiiiied him in his works at Wermetchv/eii. every one being at his ufual work.

And fo *^' occupied is he with his idea of working. it was for "' woik.) in that refpeft . we fliouid have been the 'laughing-flock of the neighborhood. jiow took me out upon the nev/ farm of his lia'other.t '5 * THE RURAL SOCRATES. appeared to fliew Tome coolnefs in his manner of receivas a dragoon in the militia however though ftill — ing the compliment which I addrefTed to him upon the ceremony ot the day. till noon . in which one is fometimesinclined '' to indulge onefelf. (faid I) that ^'' upon a day v/hen Providence fo manifeilly fiiev^sits *' favor to the family. '^ adding. and if we had confented to his own method In everything. that when peafants kept horfes. ^' (I anfwered^ flill more adonifned . and not to indulge Inch idlenefs. made or projedled. from '^ which he will never in the lead depart. mufl *' conduct the bride to town to be married . not without much expencd injuring himfclf. wiiich called others from ^' their work and .gave them a lelTon of idlencfs . to Ihew me all his improvements. we found the /bn-in laz'j oi'KWyogg . Have you not more than once — — — ' • We — My ' ' ' • tedifed' . (I anfwcred. *•' ought not to be fo fingularas he is/'-—'* How is that.that he laughs at ^' all the amuicments. He would not be drefTed to day differently from his mode on other days 5 he infifled on all the family working as in common. alone and without attendants. from which I canjiot recover myfelf. *' How happens it. ^' (faid he." '^ dear Hans. without He . All decorum upon this occafion ^^ he treated as a folly. wlio to my great adonifhment. but our father on his fide. When we returned from our excurfion. though we had two hor. that you appear {o little fcnfible '^ of it ?" f^I am perfeftly impreiled as I ought to be. could '^^ fcarcely even periuadc him to let his fons put on the ^' new clothes which they at this moment wear. . and they '^^ mud even go on foot. but it is always in his own way.^' fes in the dable.) ^' you iill mc with an adonifhment.) for your father *' was vei-y gay when I met him r" '' Of that there is ^' no doubt. The bride^^ groom forfooth.

THE RURAL SOCRATES.
tcflified to

13

mc yoar happinefs at having entered a where abundance reigns, and along with it, joy and quiet ; which, at the lame time you allowed, was the rcfult of the great order eftabliftied in thi^ family, and of the conllant zeal (hewn in it for work.'^ I confefs it, (he replied,) but one mull take care
family,

not to

become the ridicule of one's neighbors j and the wedding day of a Ton is a proper time to (hew one'sfelf, and to indulge in fome expence^ efpeciaily if one '' True has the means." but if we judge by com;

mon

opinion, a holiday and the day of a fair or of n

which admit of more expence and amufsment than other days :'*— But not fo much (he replied) as a wedding day/^ There are few people however, (faid I,) who m.ake this difference and the zeal with which your father always prevented his children from participating 1:2 the diforders of the more ordinary holidays, ones
village feaft, are alfo privileged days,
;

as ridiculous, as his prefent feverity in retrenching whatever feems to him ufelefs in the prefent wedding. Yet it is to this fame zeal which is fo much cenfured, that you in a great meafure owe the ^* Certainly (here exprofperity which you enjoy.''' claimed the honeft: Felix, the brother of Kliyogg, witii. a deep figh) our people revolted, like you, at the finguiarities of my brother ; and even attempted to make me go myfelf into debauch ; bur hov/ often do refifted them, and yielded to I not blefs God, that I my brother. Do we not fee the favor of Providence '' I grant, (returned attending us on ail fides?''

Teemed

Hans) that this was perfectly right, when you were poor, and your children not of an age to help you ; but, at prefent, when our means are increafed, thefe things ought not to be lb narrov/ly attended to." But do you want any thing (I faid :) are not you well fed and well clothed and are you not befides healthy '^ This is all very true (v/as the aniand merry r" wer but it Ao^-^ not prevent our being fneered at,

:

'^

when

S36
'f *^

THE RURAL SOCRATES.

when we do not liv^ like all the reft of the world.''— Bat v/ho are theie fneerers ?" " All our neighbors!

never ceafe to obferve, that we are very fingu*' lar people." V* But fay (in return) is it not very '' honorable for your father, that he has a free accefs to '^ perfons at the head of the republic that he receives ; " vlfus from perfons of all ranks, who think it an hopor *' to know him ; that Rrangers from all countries often *' come tojiim; that even princes treat him as their *' friend and that his fons can have the bell matches ; *' in the country ? What peafant was ever honored like *' your father : Yet it is from thefc very fingularities, of *' which you complain, from his unalterable afliduity in his labor, and from his care to inculcate the like ardor in his children in their early youth, in order to ^' preferve them from the diforder which is feen reign*-' ing every where elfe ; that all thefe marks o»r diflinc" tion ariic, and that his family fo eminently profpers. *-' Without thefe qualities, he v/ould have remained a "' poor peafant, confounded in the crowd ; and God '^ knows v/hat would have been the lot of iiis children : ^' they would probably have been diiperfed, and "forced *-' " There is to feek their bread among ilrangers.'^ ^"^ no difputing this ; but IbJl things may be puflied too " far.'' '' Butpray, (my dear Hans) when you delcend ^^ a fleep hill v»^ith your waggon, why do you put a drag ^' to your wheels V' i^ Certainly that the waggon, pref"' fed on by its weight,- may not rufli with violence, and
''

who

'-'

^''

•'

crufti the cattle

^^ ^'

do you put a leaving him entirely

which are yoked to it." >' And why clog on the feet of your colt, inftead of
at liberty :''-—''•

That he may

*'
'^ ^^
"^
^'
'''

^^

not hurt himfelf in his ramblings and may learn a fleady pace." And yet, my friend, you are angry with your father, becaufe he puts a drag upon you; and prevents you from being hurried on by bad example.s towards the luxury, debauch and idlenefs, which may drive you into perdition. Alas, my poor HanSj let your father proceed : the manners of our *^ days

THE RURAL SOCRATES.
^^
^'

23^

"
*'
*^

"
''

days arc fo feducing^that all which he can do, will not prevent your yielding to them a little. You may thank God therefore, that he holds a tight rein to *^ Well, hinder you from falling/' I agree (faid Hans,) that I am wrong in this particular; but he at leafh ought to count us for fomething, when thequef-

for he will alhave now for a long '' time defired that the cow-houfe might be properly ^' arranged, to enable us to make liquid manure, which ** is fo proper for our meadow land ; but he will never " yield to me ; and our whole attention has been ^^ given to the carrying oiFfand and gravel to improve " our arable land." '^ But have your meadows been ^' negle^fted ?''— I do not fay that they have ; but our '' improvements might as well firfc have been there." Agreed ; but would you recommend one to under'' take one thing, and another to undertake another." *^ That is not a point which I can maintain ; for an union " of forces is what is mofj: eifential to work, if we wifb *' things to go well ; iince as foon as th^fc forces bction
is
*•

how

to diflribute our

work;

ways go on

in his

own way,

I

''*

^^

come feparatcd, for different objects, nothing great is " any where done." '' Thus then, according to your own opinion, it is nece(fary when opinions differ, that

''•

one fliould take the lead and in this cafe, ought than of the father or the children to be preferred f"— Hans had too good a heart to anfwer me any otherw*ife.. than by the blufhes which covered his countenance. He
^^
;

''

fought only to excufe himfclf urging that ''a willactive workman could not be blamed, if he ** fometimes pretended to give his opinion upon the *' manner in which his work fhoald be condu'^ed."— This I alTared him wouid never be taken ill by his father-in-law ; but that we fathers were ofter obliged-to appear outwardly more fevere towards our children, than we really were and that he would foon have to make the proof in the cafe cf children of hii
*

now
**

ing and

;

own-

f

138
I

THE
now
defircd

RUllAL SOCRATES.
let

Hans to

me

Tee their cattle,

and

tc^

carry me into the parts of the farm which we had not before inrpe(n:€d. The parts which had been improved

were ihofe which he fiiewed me by preference. The good fcnfe of his obfervations, and the content which gliflened in his eyes whenever he could fliew me proofs of his ability ; confirmed me in my perafter his

own

hints,

fuafion that he was a Ton- in- law worthy of Kliyogg ; although little pallions and certain prejudices, too deeply rooted in him, led him at times to revolt againfl maxims divftated by reaibn.

^^

How

*'
**
''
^'

^'
^'

^'

Kliyogg at lair returned home. I afked- him fmiHng, he came to be fo avaritious, as to make his peopie work thus upon a wedding-day ; and why he did not appear in a new coat, made after the manner in *' All ufe among country people at their eafe ;" thc^e follies, (he anfv/ered with a fmiie,) have given much thread to be tv/ifted over again. They are alVv^ays preaching to me here, that wc are much too fingular, and*bbtain the laugh of every one ; and yoir

my dear do;Sh)r, how much trouble keeping down" thefe follies. Bad examples *' however are too numerous ; and thefe young people " would be run away with by them, if I did not daily ^' combat them.''"—'' You ought however to relax your'' fflf a little more.''—'' I ought to relax Why I do-' *' fo but too often and if 1 went but a little fl:ep far; *'ther, all would be loft. I have already proofs how '* necefl'ary it Vv^as to (land ftiif againfl the firfl com*' mencements of mifchief in their tender youth ; and *' if my good folks were not as well fixed in good habits " as they are, I fiiould no icnger be able to keep them in ^' orderV" When the wedding party came in, I found the fons' and daughters of Kliyogg much better clothed and more in ftifuion, than in truth 1 had expeded. None belideftKliyogg and his brother Felix appeared- in their ordkiary
*'

will not believe,
in

^'Ihave

1

habits

;.

and the rell: of the day was conrecrate-d to joy. Without offending any one. for which fome (lull was requifite. without its fpoiling ivork^ the fervants are hovv'evcr the flrong good fenfe guiflies which conilanlly diflin- him. The only difference to be found between them is. I never faw in him fo much of what is called brilliancy. in v/hich mofl: perfons place their felicity. replied he ly of all the v/omen of his village. thougli they are in cfTcd vices leadinj^ to unhappinefs and want. and confequently that one may pieale by other means befides that of ornament in drefs.] lie afterwards led the converiation to the iubje<51 of '\'^. that at always out-done by the maders . but it was ces. icA" a3 v/e have before fcen. is a proof in point. every one in this ^houfe endeavors to fiirj^fs the other in his exertions. No time was lofl: by the family in placing themfelves at table. and to lament the fatigue put upon them. encouragements which ttie gov^n:uje. that even a (lately woman will not difdain a laborious man. for the trouble they had given him to diffuade them from going to work that evening . During the entertainment Kliyogg enlivened the whok. —What now (Irtick me the mofl was the familiarity of the fervants who were -not diftinguilliabie from Companions in labors of the children of the family. and to partake in whatever was ferved. imiling.TIIE liablts . in bringing home in pomp the clothes and other paraphernalia of the bride [braut-fuder. to be learned 139 from their countenancomes from a caufe very different from exterior ornament. they are permitted to ufe every liberty at the table. lie intim. company by his converfation.it and Phiiofopbicai — . the field. He turned into ridicule both parade and fenfuality . It was cbjecled to him that lie declaimed continually againfl fnevr and vanity . —He then began to praife his fervants. that true interior fatisfaL^ion . RURAL SOCRATES.ated that the drefs of the bride was by no means conformed to principles. though j4ain and modefl . in an agreeable irony. and yet had for his wife the mofl: flate'I'hat.

. New Philofbphy^ and Fa?mly* laft llinejs and Death.I40 THE RURAL SOCRATES. ' b. with alfo great and induftry. His [n. (hevviiig the niif-^ chief arifmg from tlie country people not being fenfible of the value of their aid . materials friend. froai might refulc a which general union. joyous difcourfc . Fiews of his Hujhajidry^ New Vifits to Kliyogg.but on the contrary. and difcover. and I was particularly gratified to fee •Kliyogg the fame in all circumftances . to der The time pafled thus in fenfible or bcneficiaK &c. . His Jecond Marriage. that happinefs neccffarily flows from a conduct founded on iblid principles Filled with this happy perfuafion fteadily purfued. and He an acquaintance with agriculture. S ECT I O N JV. \% in particular an admirer of German agriculture. and determined myfelf to profit by the example of this. I quitted him after w idling him a thoafand blcf^ &ngs. feeling difHe dilated upon the fefident towaids thefe perions. to whatever was. in orlicity give vigor adopt. joins which become general zeal confidcrable learning. and thence to prove more evidently than ever. fophical Society give to agriculture — fage. this who in Switzerland licies fedion through a minifter of the gofpel and who to the quahis vocation. The lation Editor of the prefent compihas fortunately obtained the for is .

* Un coup T harmonic & noblefle dans lesdifferentes clafles dcs homnnes or " A ficetch corti ^ ccrning lijrrr. agriculture. d' oeil fa^ . than the difference between this land. by Dr. and the unhis by parifhioners.ony and nobility of charai^cr in different claffes of raen. than the average of that of the Engliih eftimating the latter as it is exhibited in the accounts pubiifhed by the AgriBritain. . The materials in queftion this were exr tra&ed 01 abridged by perfon froni. ufe improved land ftill fuifered to remaift in its neighborhood. Hirzelf They were prefented to the Editor in a French drefs. title given to in French is. 141 which with others he finds to be more advanced in many ficuacions.'* PAGES . fome farther abridgment £. cultural Society of Great As a proof of his own fkili in agriculture. a Ger^nan work originally pubiifhed . fo improved a piece of neglected land given to him this refpeclable perfon had of blue marie found on the fpot that he foon fold it for a very remarkable price.THE RURAL SOCRATES.** firft tranflated into Englifh. Nothing could be more pointed to the moft fuperficial obferver. by the . and arc now * Tbe ^* la with.

:nic in every condition . p. it in this living example the great truth. &c. when they have become acquainted with this admirnblc man. finiih by being his attentive hearers .. that he has feen icars of princes flowing. of the body and in -i furniQie. iiappincis of being a man. devote with ^nthiifiafni their abilities to ufcfnl things.s marks of diflintlliun. virand tue and hapincfs are the i. compared with the finer qualities f>f the 'he 7c^>s human chnradrer than drefs hns with regard to human body.level with the compreJienfion of this peafant. when they recognized in the countenance of the peaiant Kliyogg the nobienefs of the iuiman character. TU^: l^ril- uthor ROt being fituation to tiTiVcl or to m^ike lianl . Dr. In hearing the friendly tliicourres between this peaiant ^nd people of quality and merit. IMAGES g 4» Contain only compliments to the fenafor Angelo Q^ririni of Venice. to whom this fl^etchis addi-efled — p. the peaiant. that wifdom. Pvlore than once he has had the fatisfac^ion alio to obferve learned men. 4. p. the author felt all the He faw as it were embodied. and felt their own imperfec-tions. Drefs fometimes conreals the de. — p. that the external circiimflances of tlie prince. 7—9. tl\e learned man. 5. and after having horrowed hints from his good Ct^nie. Various perfons who had confidcrcd the pic^cure of Kliyogg by the author as a poetical fidlion.J4£ THE RURAL SOCRA-^ES. and eyen of the (lave. Kliyogg was a means of furnilliing many occa^ons of obferving other men and weighing their merits.have found falling Ihort of the original. who at firil: uied great efforts to put their talents upon a. bi]t T^ever can give us beauty or flrengt)]. the artifl. 6. Rirzel repeatedly affirms. have no more value.

3^7yiirv our j atignei - . that they bear different forts of wheat for three fucceffive years vvithoiu iheaid of any other manure* He was loading a waggon with maris to be carried into a field juft obtained by an exchange . tmd thole perfons who had inllruded him in the* ule of a mixture of different forts of earth. 14. 20. for employing them in hard labor eVen ditrm:' ^ ths winter^ which otlier peafants pafTed in idlenefs and * ale-houies. mine of improve the heavieft of hir. Hirzel i^ys th^t it was long. 143 fent acqiiaintnnce. He fa id' with the mofl: lively emotion of joy ^ I owe to this marls * not only abundant hai veils. p. Dr.' '' ff'liy (faid they oft" en) are we not equally with them to enjoy the fruits cf *' our labor y and t(^ repair i-a this 7^. They met Kiiyogg that which has enabled him To to . fure. 15. It is true. that this treafme had lain hid under cultivation and that it was at length allowed to Kiiyogg to marle-pit . bleding the hour ni which he had difcovered this trea-. p. that the didifcover and vine benediclion accompanies the cultivator make ufe of it to sew degree of fertility and who is la- bar ions and indaftrious. .THE RURAL SOCRATES. but the chara<fler of my children. finds this made up to him by the crowd of Grangers who have addrefTed themfclves ta bim in order to fee Kiiyogg. perhaps' for ages. or in ufelefs talk. p. labors of a refpedlable peafimt vvhx)ni Providence had deilined to fervc as a proof and example. that nothino.g gold. tliat they murmured againfc ml ' at firlf. give to his other lands a to rccornpenfe the thus . The in yogg made company with Dr. was to be icen upon it except here and there a fe\w pines. in author gives an account of a vifit to Kiithis Venetian lenator and Seflari. This was the fpot chcfen for the conference. fands.hi*s his fellow-traveller farmir.*^' ^' KHyogg ftruck off with \m hoc'a piece of this marie. and v/hich had been fo much neglected.

the joy which ac* companies the view of the blcilings fnowered upon us * byProvidence. and by frequenting church or reading books of devotion/ Tlie author's companions reprcfent'ed toKliyogg. ((aid Kliyogg. that I had faid nothing which was not * both trufe and ufefuL They now enjoy the bed health * and remarkable ftrength. in particular.) but young people demand other recreations : and. when they fulfil the-duties of their flation. Hence I * had need of all my paternal authority to keep my * children to labors. * *- — •^ — ^ ^ ^ * well (laid they .144 ^^ ' THE RUPvAL SOCRATES.) Every hai'veft I hire a violinplayer. (p. that it was nevertheiefs proper to allov/ to his children fome lei Cure and recreation. expcd: in that flate the divine blefling madly flattering themfelves that they fliall dcferve it folely by prayers which * they do not underftand. who amufes us while we arc at w^ork. who after crofTing their hands. *- in '^ going to hear a icrr. They acknowledge that * they do their duty to God. joyous as Kings. on feflival-days they require to be amuied with their companions. * and that want of occupation and indolence deprives us ' of thefe.) But at length the rich ' harvefts with which Providence biefled us. and when they work with zeal and ^ judgment. ' I pro^ cure for them. in finging in talking upon . (p.* *• : * '• . * but even mifchievous. as often as poUIble. which they held not only as ufelefs. ourielves. 24. forced * them to confefs. But what particularly increafed their diP content w^as. feeling. 23. and ^ ravillied with the ' This is goodneis of our Creator.' * As all — to fcfUval days.ion.) we employ them hymns. But Khyogg replied. They defpife the hypocritical difcourfes * of the idle. and with ^ whom we often fing with enthufiafm one of the pfaims ^ of king David. the tone of raillery v/ith which our neigh" Of what ufs (exclaimed * bors fpoke of our work *' thefe people) are iheje heaps cf /and: is he ^oing to *'^ turn his fields into defarts*^ f and fo on. the from fummcr f— * M/ children could little com- prehcnd that conPcant labor gives health and force.

the plains. The company now He eft to learn defircd with much interwhat Kliyogg thought on the fubje^: of God in c. and preferve our confciences pure and fpotlefs. lis order to ibund Kliyogg and learn whether heart was free from religious rancor. * * * ^ '• ' of my fields and the aid given me by my children. 26. convince me. it 13 enough for me \x\ to know that it will certainly doit. I have only to open my eyes. and the fertility .tural corruptionj children. into taverns. which do not encourage us in our work.25) from ever permitting my children to go into noily company. * and to regard by turns the flars of heaven. My heart is content and tranquil and I red "^affured that i^rovidence does and will do every thing for me. that his mercy has engaged him to M read — and to pardon our fins through Jefus Chrift. I acknowledge none to be true pleafnres. I do not know in what form it will judge it wife to acccmplifh the latter point but . I fulfil as much as poffible all my duties". and theinnume' rable produaions of the earth . I educate my * * ^ fuccoiir us in our n:^. or into dancing houfes ? in ' ' ' * * fuch indjlgence would only lerve to Ipoil them. * * ' ' 14^ upon every fubjed which prefcnts itfelf in walking our fields. 25the bible that God created and prefervcs the woi Id . the moun^ tains. p. and them into the depths of corruption and misfortune. if we * oblerve his commandments and imitate the virtues of ' our Saviour.' p. that God gracioufly bleffesihofe who obferve his commandments. Hirzel k . which can render me happy in t/iis life and in that which IS to follow. Dr. gnd I ei^joy the divine aid Vw'ith gratitude and praifes for his bounty. But may God preferve me (P. and that he ' will make us happy in this and the other world.nd Religion. In cffed:. as Jikewife to alTif]: us * by his Spirit in the pradice of virtue . and Co on. 25. the animal creation. 27.' precipitate p. This encourages me in my exertions .rUK RURAL SOCRATES. to feel the truth of the ' cxiQence of a creating Gvjd. I labor. * * explained himfelf as follows.

who alio * have need of perlbns to aflill and work for you . fince it his harder for thefe to pradicc virtue. : I (hould efteem a Turk or a Pagan^ were virtuous I Ihould even love him bethe provided ^ ter. I alfo fliould be a catholic.* p. but it is a fatiguing ^ employment . fmiling. To difcover whether Kliyogg was contented with his condilion.146 faid. v/ould be very capa* '^ God ble of condu£ling a much larger fociety. ' than for Chriftians to do fo. when it is fo pleafant and praiie^ worthy to render men happy by good law^s ?' ' I have nothhig to objetft to this . lefleem them the more. ^ er of a family like himfelf." what is yourreafon. It is not their fault that they arc not of the reformed religion. fiuce though flrangerSjthey fhewme affe^lion. much fewer ^ obftacles to doing what is good and ufeful. is the obftinacy of my fervants y * whom yet I have the power of difmifiing whenever ^ they ceale to obey me.Hirze! a^cd him '' whether he would exchanoe his fituation ^ for that of a nobleman not rather . I ^ know that thefe. the companions of JDr. For you gentlemen. and if he would ^ command than obey afTuring him. provided they are virtuous does and of this I * ^ ^ * * ^ do not doubt. (laid he) 1 would rather an ^ hundred ^ And times be a peasant than a lord." ^ preferve me from this. and i find in my condition. than you ^ do in yours. that a good fath. that thcfe pcrfons arc * And what . like my own fervants. their . Whiit occafionsi me mofl: vexation and ^ trouble in my labors. who ruled his houfiiold ^ with fo much zeal and tirmnefs. are fometimes ^ fufficiently ignorant and obliinate to oppofe the moll ^ ufeful of your enterprizes cannot al* and yet you . had I been born of catholic parents. Kliyogg. 28-29. '' ' ^ THE RURAL SOCRATES^* Do you know ?'' catholics — He anfwered. thatfignify. yielding ta ways drive them from vour fervicc But ^ ^ — : — '- — " '' . judging from the friendly manner in which they aredilpofed to converfe with pealants and to inform thcmfelves of their occupations.

addreffed to Mr. The next obje£l of the oarty was to learn whether Kliyogg was inlenfible to vanity . but that * iefs he would not oppofe their wifh. it fays not a word of Kliyogg or of sgricuU A new Examination cf the philofophy of Kliyogg follows . He felt indeed much gratification in feeing pcrfons. Pierre in the Black forefl (oppofite to Alface. Hirzel was therefore defired to inform him. but he never (hewed any marks of being proud in confequence. that '' this would nei* ther render him better nor happier neverthe* . to be exhibited to public \iew at Venice. or be of ufe. and refpe»^ed and loved * — yogg had no him asfuch."= ButKliidea of the flattery arifing from glory.TliE ' RURAL SOCRATES. The fccond article in the original of this work by Drc Hirzel (from p. Hence thefe princes. and Dr. . if they thought it their ob{linacy. in proportion as they gained an infight into his charadler. fo elevated.) H—rt-rra^gSaBEnswr^ p. by feveral vifits which had been made to him by princes. but ture. 89 to 178) regards the /^(^^^(/f ofknoiv-ledge in modern times ^ and the manner of cnli^^htening a people. 29-30. andexprefTed this in his compliments to them . ^ good you had deligised to could give fatisfadlion to any. Bail iff (or civil chief) of St. condefcend thus in his favor . Kliyogg anfwered with a fmile. Dro Hirzel was convinced of this. difcovered in him the Rural Socrates. that they had brought with them a condderable painter to take his portrait. I47 you arc often forced to renounce the perform/ p. 199 — 202. Mercy.

that he fteadily entcrtsired jly to perfuade the and followed old ideas liis his old principles and that in fpite of the lufrrcof Ins fame. — 202. jealouiy. pretending ignorance of ail which had pjifTed fince their lafl interview. he left him time to anfwer at his But all the'anfwers of Kiiyogg ferved onjeifare. to deride our philofophcr and to attribute his vivacity to the power of wine. Hirzel devotes one of the fine days to Kliyogg. • 204. which Was laid to be his great enjoy m en tv fin ce he had planted a vineyard of his ownc The author himlclf indeed feared either thatKliyogg was deferted by his philofophy .'— Klivogg family of had its peace difturbcd r.efs. that he himlclf confeiled. ccnvintcd Uw Hirzei. — anger. and wos often inexplicable . that fuch a matifhould fuffer himfelf lo be ltd away by pal. 202 with addreiPiDg to Kiiyogg diiierent fhort queAioiis . or that he had drauri too favorable pidure of him. His Jecond children often complainiincth'is ed of the iianhnefs and obliinacy of their father. he was always the fame. Dr of the fpring tea vifit "tvas they controxert his plans of agriculture. and fame. . as the niartiaoe. and. author. The family began as ufnal. obflinacy. and piomilcd to corred himfelf. Hirzel. magnified their quarrels. in which he aKvays in purfnit of lornctlsing new which called for much labor. The efioi t5 fion. &c. ai'd the love of wine. it is true. Uiat ivhich he made on this fubjefc.etimrs loved wine too mucl) . This rnnde it the more incredible to Dr. in order to examine liis did this whh the more eagerHe philofophy anew. feduced by enthufiafm^ — 'Sic* i . To difcover the truth the author bcgaa p. 199 THE RURAL SOCRATES. but he blulhed at hearing tie exhortations which the author ^ddreflcd to liim on this fiibjetft:. and thought themlclves privileged to oppole him . regarding his ideas of propriety and economy (for he was frugal in fpitc of the increale of his fortune) as fingularOften did ilies which expofed his family to derifion. that . he fom.?48 p.

tatterold and workipg all in was with his might.THE RUFlAL SOCRATES. laid. and lonnc hundred paces in length in order He to drain av/ay its water into an adjoining river. If I my attention and luxury in drefs : they v/irhdraw a part of his attention from his work. and many * elTential things will cafdy be omitted. of tiie depth of 5 feet. and ail the manure which he gave to it was gypfum [or plaiflerof Paris. Experience had ai * * ful to a peafant. At hir> an ival Di-. 204 occaiion. would be beftowed upoamy and my undertaking would fare ^11 the wei le Nothing faid he with vivacity. it is exadly thus that I ought to be dieifed. were better dreffed. hi« . but Kliyogg after welcoming him.Hirzel found Kliycgg p. will be you but . 205. to work in — . . prepared for clover. '* ^ the manner the * ' * a part of clothes.]— An experience of four years had conquered all horles — . ^The field deflined for clover had now in it flax feed (grains d'huile) . in the worfl of my clothes at which ' thcfe gentlemen bluili that fenhble. ^ihat his tiis 14^ heart had not changed vs fenthnents. quantity of his hay had confidcrably increafed. * my dear (iodlor. *' you find me. than pride — — The length ftiezvn io Kliyogg all the vje of this Jor ape. without puffing them up which is not to be aitirmed of the common clover. fmcc this artificial grafs (as it is called) had enabled him to fpare his natural grafs. Sec' 207 2JO. is more hurtcafe requires. He had in particular found that the Spani/Ji clover agreed fingukrly well with fattening them and keeping them in heart. 205 cccMpicd in digging a ditch near his cellar. . and that reafbn (till controlled his palFions. namely the 11 April 1777» 23>6. for it.— His fons blufhed at the fight of their vifitant . What had pafTcd npon the preceding p. an ed drefs. in order to fludy his ch^ratfler with redoubled attention. engaged the author to devote another day to — Kliyogg. which * will only be done fuperficially in this cafe. by the fide of the ditch v/as a iield of about an acre.

tSO THE RURAL SOCRATES. Here alfo he fowed clover with fbccefs. p. From hence Kliyogg led the author to a field containing about an acre . and the crop entirely failed. and yet in nothing fell fhort of the former. Thcfc prcjadices arofe from an auempt which he had made in the year 1774 . his prejudices with re/ped to this gypjmi. covered with a very (lender coat of black mould. that a man like him. a meadow. a drought of four weeks fucceedcd. after fowing a field with clover and then ftjewing it withgypfum. 21 g acres of grain. which had injured his other meadows and fields . His difguft was fuch. which Kliyogg had found quire neglet^ed . A little higher up were about £fty p. 25 had been dreffed only with mjirle . Of the 42 remaining acres. . that he came the next ipring to confefs his obligations for it. Kliyogg had no reafon to repent the having followed this advice . that he came running to town to reproach our author for having fulFered himftlf to be mifled by books. Near this field of clover was the Langwiefc. confiding of 8 acres had been manured . on account of what had happened. 212. the winter before he lowed thclafl mentioned acres. that he ought not to be difcouragcd by the failure of a firfl: attempt. when he h «d recommended fo worthlefs a thing to him. — — — Kliyogg. ought not to have negleded to remark the drynefs of the (eafon. 211. but ihould rather take the hint to fpread his gypfiim during or after rain . 218. and that he ought: not to plough the field immediately. It was eafy at a diftance to remark a difference of goodnels in the crop. The upper and lower parts formed a green carpet 5 but the middle was yellow throughout. Hirzel appeafed him by repicienting. Dr. p. but which improved from day to day by a mixture of water and mud. The lower part. as his clover lucceeded lb well. as he propofed. and bore the beft of wheal. w'len. which he contrived to conducTl: there. but fhould wait for a more favorable feafon. of which the foil \vas a dry gravel.

In another field which he had already twice marled. Mere and thei-e hard pieces prefent themfelves. acres. being without means. On the other hand. p. The marie in general has a ^yrcy color. and having fprcad this marie every where evenly. in which arc petrified plants. that in the firit year it yielded 50 ftieaves of wheat."as fo improved. 222 224. The Society mace him a prefent of 20 liorins. but.THE RURAL SOCKATES. ---The countenar. w^hich neverthelefs had received no other drcfiing than marie four years before. Kliyogg had a field of wheat \cry finely conditioned. in whom he had remarked a great palTion for agriculture . we mull fpeak of an amiable aft of our philofopher. and it yields a very fmall quantity of feleneticfalt. two fucceflive ploughings perfedly united it with the natural foil. Kliyogg went to his marie pit. which by this drcfiing and his labors v». were lb little producflix e. a poor peafant. this peafani could undertake nothing important. but at other times it is covered with a mixed foil of a few inches. it ferments with acids . but it is fornetimes — — — blue. Before quitting the marie pit. What adoniflied our author was the duration of the effects of the marie. that they fcarccly repaid their pofFelTors for their expence. five of uhich he fpcnt in — buying a little negleftcd field of half an acre. He recommended 10 the Agricultural Society of Watt. the fields of his next neighbors. as . It mud be added. The reil of his money he employed in bringing marie upon it . which had na marie. it contains particles ivhich gliden in the fun . A marle-pit fornetimes makes itfelf knowr^ at the furface . that thefc acres were originally the worfl of the whole 50 . From his fields. having fewer weeds with a lighter foil. under which the marie fometimes defcends ten feet. p. and that now they even exceeded the 8 firft mentioned. the young grain was finer than any where elfe.ee of Kliyogg brightened with iov. 2ig— 221. 15X had carried upon the ground 600 waggon loads of marlc (drawn by f jur horfes each) .

of his farm are condderabie fields. Kliyogg now led his guefls into a meadow behind his woods.) neglecfled fields. which formerly by the little trees or fhrubs with which it was covered. to ena1 co\dd prove this ble him to make a little fortune. Khyogg began by car- years. v. '^ You cannot believe (faid he) how fmall an ' aid is requidte to be given to an indigent man. which and in particular it lacrifices to it the . which perfecHv fucceeds. Bat to return toKliyogg. he pointed to this field.^hich it fcarcely tills once in thiec Kliyogg rents three acres of thefe. a fleep bank. has fants of I^umlingen. did much harm to the neighboring wheat. upon hisfields. employed itielf in ipinniiig (lockings ." To the weH: p. of which they know ^ how greatly to augment the value in a few years. — . which encouraging and ledoubling their induftry. they buy (out of their favings ' or upon loan.• *• enough 7S little lucrative to facrince agriculture to this occupation. and burned Ipreadingthe a{lics. 226—250. He pointed out as he went aU^ng. fields in queftion. THE KUPcAL SOCRATES. They begin fometimes by ' buying a cow with the money they receive which * not only furnifnes the fanriiJy with the necefTary milk^ * but gives them at the lame time manure to tertilize * their little piece of land . merely to But hitherto In(lru(5l this village in its true interefls his example has produced no citeTr. p. -This was a freQiinftance of indefatigable labor of Kliyojrg in recurring toeverypollible meThe meadow in thod of mannung his lards queftion confiiled of eight acres . 225'-226. ^ by many examples of peafants^ who have been adilled ' by the Ecojiomic Society. and extending to his fields. except to engage one (ingle peafant to make an ellablidiment there.and the leaves which had rotted on this foot during many years.152. Thefe he rooted up. and is mad '" . belonging to the peaThis village. for many years. : — . and its low fituation gendered it moid and marlliy. and felicitated himfelf with having contributed to the relief of a p >or and indiiflrious man.

After running over half the farm. of mofs. application. and to confult experiment. 15^ Tying to it confiderable quantities of manure. Khat the^ into his houfe. fill a falt-barrcl . yogg remarked that it had been marled without the lead benefit .— But we ihall find that this neatnefs arofe from Kliyogg having found in hii walking in woods. Klitry dinner. he maJntalr-:?. fhady alleys. whfch the difcovery of his marie rendered fo pradlicable. which he attributed to the moifiure of the marie. 234 235. it having been taken from a pit entirely filled with v/ater. without being. the patience. in avoiding every thing which could turn away his attention from his principal occupation — or introduce idlenefs. Without denying the utihty of their honey and the inftrudlion to be derived from their focial labors. we may obferye before we attend no bees. and reflexion of Kliyogg. 231 author turned towards the hpufe. 232. — thorns. The drielV part of this meadow Kliyogg had fpread over with gypium . and thence his dung.THE RURAL SOCRATES. fubjedlt to any of the inconveniences of which fome accufe it. firmnefs. and the iflue anfwered his expeiflations. and that it is abfolutely necfeffary to ftudy the land. In order to give an idea of the inf^exi^ bility of Kliyogg. 233 234. there to make a counBut as they palTed a particular field. the p. It is here therefore proper to obfervc. In palling by the woods of^ KHyOgg The abfence of their neatncis appeared aflonifhing. the befl manure for his vines p. producing as nuich effect as ten loads of dung. the meadow being covered with red clover. that there are different forts of marle^ all of which have not the fame efficacy . he was enabled to increafe But all this required his cattle. like made it appear. and one barrel fufficed for a whole acre . This manure increafing his grafs. that he has ^' ' him cof?. and of heaps of leaves. as with a carpeti Twenty fmall meafures of gypfum at the cofl of three florins. . — — p. — — . before employing the marie in any quantity j the bcfl theory being contradicted often by pratSlice.

author obferved at the end of their meal. llie fird was a man advanced in ye^rs. had their feats at the upper end of the table. In ibort. formed the dinner. that there* were large remains. and that wc flop too often id' obfervc them. * when it was equally diilributed betvv'cen his children '* and the domed ics. the fervants rot being obliged to wait with impatience till the mafl:er and family were fatisfiedy before they fat down to mifcr. Two Why — — Kliyogg •Many hid cjT of the Swifs n^ake a very good dlfh of f. good bread made of wheat and The rye. diflies of boiled biyley. who walked with ditficulty. Thefamiiy of our philofopher was found at table. p. At their fide. wine to refrefh his the that he referved '' anfwcrcd." p. efpc* cially as they require mod attention in the hay ieafon. * companions when fatigued with their work . wi:h ft»me oihrj fat fubftancc hea. all their eafe ierved themfelves with the fame freedom . with two daughters^ who perfe^lly refembled their brothers . huf od. Two of the latter particularly attracflcd our author's notice.too much trouble. on accoimt of pains which had attacked his knees during a very long periSuch a man feemed little fit for hard labor . the niafler and fervant both at taWle and at work. Two Tons. and who had an air of profpcrity . fat the fervants . who appeared much at for the table being fpread for all alike. coft. fl:out. and afforded a lively example of the happy refult of a wife domeflic government.cd up vvhh ir^ .ears baked dry. to be paid by their honey and wax . well made and healthy. Uiere was equality between ablc remnants.IS4 THE RURAL SOCRATES. which communicated to the converfation a like equality. which proved that avarice was not When it was afked with' the vice of Kliyogg '* at table ?" Kliyogg' wine no there was furprife. and a pitcher of water. two others of pears which had been baked and dried^. 239 243. 236-239. for which * purpofe a quantity was always carried into the fields * at ten in the morning and at four in the afternoon.

and with the prefence of two grand fons of Kliyogg. (fou} is au Jait. the latter even rcfufing to work with iuch a vagabond i but our phiiofopher was refolute.. and holding it in a more dexterous his upon p. Kliyogg in this interval took her young child upon his knees. and whom Kliyogg took to his home . which his work nearly repaid.. As the wife during the entertainment was Tometimes abfcnt to attend . and induced him to marry her. «. notwithflanding the youth was not without his faults. His children and fervants remonftrated at firft: againfl this. bread. New difcoveries v^ere now made His fecond wife of the chara6ler of our phiiofopher appeared at table : a good antd laborious woman.TE&.her kitchen.J 247. care. in defiance of the patience. had attached Kliyogg. and amuled it as well as a nurfe could have done y looking at it very affedlionatcly. giving him in his family a good education.—The other domeflic was an orphan from a neighboring village. The rcfrefliment offered to Dr. [In the fequel.. and laftly wine from the vineyards of Kliyogg. gg^ l^liypgg fald that he hsd taken him into his houfc from compalBon.. . after iiril quieting the repugnance of his children to the match.) parts E. who by the fpirit and prudence which fiie had fhcwn during her widowhood. who begged from houie to houfe. The repaft was feafoned with friendly difcourfe . of Svvitzcrlandj 8S t« % This France. and firmnels of Kliyogg. as common in fjmc E. Hirzel was boiled milk and breadt.. and the manner in which (he had educated her children from a little property whicii was in debt .THE RURAL SGCRA. this young man eloped with a new fuit of clothes back. and of a little boy which Kliyogg had by his fecond wife ^ being the youngefl perTon in the houfe. upon feeiDg him forced to beg 5 and that he gave him only fmail wages and the ufe of his tabic. 244 — — o •f The French houilli call this m'tlk joup. a piece of beef from which fdup had been madel.

Work muft be dorte from a love for it. by means of reading. to their hufbands . Thefe impreffions * are dommuuTcated. The fons of Kliyogg had this day been working in the vines . 'drcffed p. after the return of his brother. . * well on account of their delicate conflitutions.I5« (dexterous THE RURAL SOCRATES. ^' '* faid he. all hard and dirty work ^ and fjniih by becoming the mere inipeftors of their — . Some geographical and myfllca] books |[before mentioned. 252 254. his brother had been drawn afide by fanachildren of *• *"' — - ' is^' • ' tics . and objedl to work as . * who avoid. is always afking for a rich wife .When the Tons were retiredjKliyogg complaineldeft fon. He neverthelcfs faid that he did not long expevSb to prefer ve this child. gave our philofopher occafion to [renew his] remark. ' fields become neglcv^ed. grown manner than could be expefted from a man old in the hardefl work. " that y^ there is nothing more hurtful for a peafant than 2 paffion for books . had been led to forget their * occupations that he lamented in particular. will a paf always pofTefs the divine ^blefTing. and not with a dcfire to' become doing enriched." p. ed that they were too fond of riches. that his own chil* dren. as from ^ the fear of dirtying their clothes. who in truth had a fickly countenance. There * * * * who are no true riches but thofe enjoyed without remorfc and with true contentment. My * ' workmen. or from duty . Their workmen laugh at an idle niafter turns his back upon his bufinefs. the . in their turn. that the . and imitate him ^ by doing nothing whence the harveds diminiQi. p. an occupation which they preon w^hich fubjeft their father adferred to all others to them Come advice.' little by little. diforder creeps into the houf* hold. and by degrees all the 'wealth vanifties. and] which Kliyogg inherited from a brother who had ferved in Dutch regiments . that he had often found caufe to re* gret. 250 . but rich wives * love luxury and good living.' -^ He who works from * fion for his duty. 248 249.

157 patrimony greatly fuffered by it . and ' the plough Fanaticijm in religion^ for the p^:^r?int. ?>lvv'ay. and had great trouble to recover them from their * millake.THE RURAL SOCRATES. was placed another refervoir. which is the cafe with our Kliyogg. and particularly the orchard. which can conquer all : difficulties. and iofiietimes he is ^ of mind and ends by forgetting his true deftination as that their that tie *- p. directed. 258. ^ he continued. which iurrounded the houfe but it is difficult for a peal ant to do all at once. and that books are for the learned. And we certainly found parts which had not yet attained the perfection of which they were ca- — We pable . the door of which he could clofe and open at pleafure. But in fpite of fome imperfecllons of orchard. particularly where he is obliged to execute the principal things himfelf and finds trouble in procuring proper workmen to aflift him . ^ tics * . It is indefatigable labor only. and takes away much of * the time which ought only to be confecrated to work^ Often the party expofes himfelf to the tricks of cth^ ers led into a melancholy h#bit .. clofed our philofopher's dinner. 256 — the — tcr . . dow. At the bottom of this meadow. by means of little canals.Kliydgg had dug a pit four feet deep and as many wide. and carried upon a neighoring meait. upon a foiid and fteady plan. Difcourfe like this. and to convince them that labor is our firfl * duty and the bed means of obtaining the blefling of * the Creator . he ftirred it all through . which colk<5led the remains of this wa-^ p. rofe to vifit the reft of KliTogg's farm. I with much plcafure law pains taken lo colled the rain-water^ falling from the houfc and barn. and to mix it afterwards with the filth from the flables. troubles * his reafon a jd confcience . When he difcovered that the mixture had become fuf£ciently putrid.i does the peafant harm . 255 256. into a refervoir in the court .

as in other cafes. conquered their prejudices and repugnancc—Foiiowing here his ufual maxim. the cold r=nd heat. he had thrown the Below his Jic/ds^ which afiies over the whole meadow. to colledlthe water running from them. p. and the air. Near the orchard arc fields containing about 50 acres. he had dug a deep ditch. into his hill at two different places^tobc able todrefs the faller with it. which being compofed of gravel. to render the refl of Tliis was an objedl however which the land lighter.nd to quicken this work Kliyogg fcparates with gunpowder great pieces from his hill* The gravel. always to go to work the fliortefl way. of about 20 acres ftud of a moift temperament . penetrating and even the manure has more acinto it more eafily cefs to the land. the rain and fnow. and after having burned it. VVe now approached a meadow upon 267.? jneadow.i^e THE RUPvAL SOCRATES. ferves when diflrjbuted. v/as the river Katzenbach . in rendering the land lefs heavy^ renders it at the fame time more open to the adion of the feafons . bat rifes on the lides to form a hill towards the center . which afforded a new proof of the refblu?:k)n and patience. tcv . 61 the Katzenbach. p. from whence Kliyogg conda<Sls it to anothe. Kliyogg dug his. He had fiill 100 acres to be treated in the fame manner. but experience here. and to condu<fb it flom time to time upon difl^^rent parts of the meadow. thus to fee his harvefts in a train of increafing year after year Fifty loads of this gravel are carried upon each acre y ?. from which Kliyogg 50 acres fo much — 1 : — . 253. border upon this meadow. What a perfpeclive was it for a laborious man. The land is heavy. which our philofopber employed in improving his lands. But what more particularly fcrved to water this meaclow. when mixed with gravel 5 and weeds sre thus alfo more eafily drawn from it. He had rooted out of it a tliick licdo-e . was not to the tafte of the children of Kliyogg* who could not comprehend the ufe of fuch a mixture of foils . after keeping it _ur refl for fome weeks.

— It is true that Kliyogg is reproached with doing much hurt to his woods by the great number of leaves which he ahvays collefe from them . he covered the roads which led from his houfe and from thofc of fome of his neighbors to the neighboring mill. is excellent for vines .fields of Kli- yogg to lee his cattle. provs of — — : the contrary. the increafmg fertility of his lands. — : this clafs of people. p.-^ occupied in his vineyard. This operation was conducftcd with a degree of precifion which was even mathematical.THE KUKAL SOCRATES. Sec. feeing on evc. p. 268 271. His children. obfervations follow on ['n. All the family of Kliyogg wa.) not be interefling to America therefore not given for tranilatlon. In returning by tlie rye. and mixed with the earth and mud from ditches.-— The fcite of a hedge among other circumflances offered to Kliyogg a fat earth.^y (ids thorns and bufiies and hedges entirely rooted up. 359 had made a trench with infinite trouble and difncalty. and the vtvy afp^eci of his woods. p. and much reflexion as to what regarded agriculture. From p. 271 274. though efFedccl the common without any mathematical inflrument fenfe and jiifl eye of Kliyogg alone directing him. of which a part could be carried among his vines» But to increafe his means of drelling his lands. Here. The manner in which Kliyogg cultivates his vines will prcbabh/ (fays our it is Swifs clergyman. his domei^ tics. as every v/hereelfc the author difcovered important improvements.] Kliyogg now condudcd the author from the Katzcnbach to his vines. B. with his (lock of ivhcat and v/inCj every thing in fhcrt. the true eye pofTefTed by peaiants Alfo on the rage for law-luits which ruins £0 many . fhewed the — bleinno: MS . and amounted to one hundred loads a year. 275 — 276. but the precautions which he ufes on this occaiion. which being trodden upon by horfes and cattle. every thing manifefled indefati- gable application and care. 272 274. with little branches of trees and leaves and mofs .

and always deferves the name of a country philofopher But the author adds. that the pliilofopluc dream which he had till now entcrtaiiycd. with which flrange cattle often infe(5t a whole flable. the faith- — companion of Ills labors. to which in thefe fitnations his family would neceffarily be witncfsj was contrary would efface front th-: minds of his children the good . upon making a tavern of the houfe to fell their wine to the beft advantage . reafon. 4 calves of one year old. It hence appears. with fwearing and loofe converfation. The fon. Hans alfo thought it innocent for the rich to difHnguifli theralelvcs by their fine clothes. p. 280. but he loved alfo tliofe pleafures of fociety which Kliyogg detefted. whilft cattle which are brought from diftaut places grow lean and even die. Hans infjRed likevvife. that conformable to maxims which many others alfo confider as economical. By this means he accuftoms them to the food of his — farm . himfelf having procured for him a farm in another part of the country.in-law loved work. 4 cows. Tiie cattle of Kliyogg were well fed and attended. and as many of two years. he raifes his own cattle. 277 — been faid to prove that Kliyogg is flill the fame. which — to the mode of thinking prevailing in Kliyogg. He pofTeflT^d 4 horfes. Already his fon. he had found himfelf obliged to abandon.\L SOCRATES- blsfung with which Providence had favored a man fulfilling with cxadnefs the duty of his ftation. and the father-in-law thought a tavern would be ti fource of corruption for the family conceiving with . 276 277. Knough. and by the fame means alfo. has p. Kliyogg preferves his cattle from contagious dileafcs. 9 oxen. Difference of fentimenthad given caufe for this reparation. of having all the family of Kliyogg united in patriarchal concord in the fame houfe. that the (Iriking examples of intemperance and other vices. had quitted him .l6o THE RUR.in-law. remarks the author here. folely from a change of their food . Kliyogg : hirafelf ful was indeed the firft to perceive the impoflibility to execute the idea.

and who on her death-bed. the luxuries of life . gave newteRimonies of the pleafure which Trie had always taken conforming heiiclf to tlie will of her hufbano. but from iiis^nd and for this purpofe. p. who was of a choleric temper.^This was a new reafoii for Khyogg to take a feconJ wife \Knie This dlffenfion was increjifed by the death of the ofKliyogg. which is the fource of every miichief.— Such a maxim conitantiy led to new labors and ferved to d'ive from the family that idknefs. for notwithflanding her . was defirous of a like match. i6i good difpofitions. It ivas oy the fame means only. of whom mention already been made. fliefcrvcd to prove. all riches acquired without labor. by the cafe of the rich wife winch his fon had obtained . good examples and good lefTons which he had always given to them. that the happinefs of it couiu be preferved. he employed all his money to mcreafc its quantity and its produce. 280—284. His fons gradually yielded to his rias ^'^^ reafoninrrs . and he faw befides with much chagrin. that riches ibfren the charaaer and infpire a tafte for exceites in drefs. that labor and good morals had alone ad^ yanccd and given true happinefs to his family and that .~~It was after her death that the fon-in-Iaw tnoiignt himfelf more privileged to meddle in the family and oppofe the fingalarities of his father-in-hw par.THE RURAL SOCRATES." In this opinion he was coriHrmed. ticularly when they brought upon himfelf either the envy or fneers of his neighbors.in law of Kli'« yogg . and often fiew out^mto cruel ironies againfl his father in law. who was fiill a bachelor.— Kliyogg for the fan>e reafon. AJi this often gave room to di(putes. rep-arded a^> aangeroiis. well as as for wrm prefervc the tamily-peace . and who appeared to Kliyo. that his eldefl fon. who had always contributed to firfl m .rvr well fitted to aflid: him in governii^g his houiliokrco'Ii" forniably to his antient princioles. efpccially on the part of the fon. In effcdl: he foughl: no profit.*** Kliyogg now fet himfelf anew to convince his fons that poverty diaionorsnoone.

p.new wife (hewed the bell difpofltions . He gave him cattle. his Hans (liould never be ru' ined . Such virtue was not without its reward. knew how to gain the compleat affe<Slion of his children . His — . infomuch that the eldeft fon of Kliyogg married her daughter. he joined to this the mofl tender attachment to his younger brother . and thus laid the foundation of a folid and durable peace. his refpeift for his father increafed with years . that Kliyogg entirely obtained his end. to lay upfomething. have already faid. and while (he followed the will of her hnfband./. — We — . Kliyogg had eilablinied his firfl fon-in-law apart from him» But the farm which he had procured for him not being ofthe beft quality and being otherwifemudi neglccled. and wine . than all his other children . Nothing could fave him but the affiftance of his father in law : and his father-in-law was jiot backv/ard in granting it.. 285* difpates. This fon (by name John Gafper) remained more faithfully attached to the principles of our philofopher. corn. that Hans had f^metimcs. reafoningSj and bluQied at having put fo many obflaclcs to this fecond marriage . and there is every appearance that one day he will become a fecond KHyogg. ' and that if he could not otherwife gain his livelihood.r ys treated him wlih the mofl tender affeclion. that to avoid 287. Kliyogg had the happinefs to fee all his chi!drcrv well provided for ^?vci7 thofc cf b's fecond wife. '' that v/hile he lived. the undertaking fell particularly heavy upon him.i62 THE RUKAL SOCRATES. treated him ^ very ill . and envy had the mortification to find.'* It was thus that our philofophcr returned good for ill. it is true. By this means he helped him to overcome his obllaclcs. a^Stlng with a gencrofity which could not have been {urpafTed even if Hans had ^. and to obtain the entire aps robatioR of his landlord. Kliyogg even declared. but on the other hand he had afFi fled him in ' his work with a fidelity and zeal worthy of praife . ' he fl^ould come into his houfe again w iienevcr he * pltafcd. and lent him all his credit.

p. — . He makes them read. who are likely to purfue his niaxhus. and he alfo teaches them to flng. and they love him fufficicntly to fiy to him upon a iingle lock. M. 289. it mull: be obferved that Kliyogg teaches them to break in and manage the cattle and often occupies them in other agricultural works which do not exceed thch^ He keepr> by preference. is the education of his txvo new Tons and of his grandchildren. *Yo complete the account of thefe little children. felf to the little ones. llie ions of his fecond marriage will always find in their eldefl: brother a Ibpport cemented by double ties. returned it immediately. . 290. He therefore cats *. He fpirc in them the maxims. had he not made a //^7//. and learn parts of their catechifm or of the pfalms . He collcifts them about him.vith them at a fcparate table. p. without being affected. night and morning . they fay their prayers in his prefcnce. for which he could now tranquilly wait. obferve them affembled about his knees. the company of theiit age. as a hen colleds her chickens . 287. p. but the children perceiving from the looks ef the grandfather. children .THE RURAL SOCRATES. He thus faw his houfe folidly founded upon two ions. the great devotion which he (hews on his fide communicating it- does not forget ^fo to inthat they ought to defpijc what they d) not gain by their exertions^ and to regard When the author f ride as the greatejl ofhuman follies heard the children ling for the firft time. he was defiroas of marking his fatisfadlion by offering them a piece of money . that he thought it would difgrace them to accept it. and finging one of the pfalms of David with him . thinking that he daily acquires a new refcmbiancc to them by the decline of his own flrength. to prevent all difpute and diibrder after his death. That which affords the mofl plcafurc to our old man. 288. when he gives himfeif a little rcpofe. One cannot. The prudence oF Kliyogg would not have been complete. 16? p.

lb the indiiftry and vigor of his married children makes his glory. V\'l:en fpeaking of (IriL^ncfs in fulfilling the duties of O'^ir flal'ion !)en: mode uf wo: Hiipping the Deity — : ^ h- .. dent of this fort to efcape his notice.*•' ter my couch.g anecdote may fiicw ths p. " and yet n'>y wife I iet nothing of this ^^ 1 am not fer-. What our philofopher hated no Icfs than pride. The author often remarked that Kliyogg dctcflcd pride. and run by their fide vvithhis cep. : fan with each other.AL SOCP. . rill he told tiiem with firmnefs. One night his repeating. This fcnt them av/ay confounded to their work. he v^ould put on his worlt coat. with Vv'ife ufcd the 6th pfalm as a prayer Davidj '' all the night I make my bed to fwim . that if they went into town on horfeback. The inarcjuis o^ Baden Durlach^ \y\\\\ the princes of his family. and c-rpecially prayers la which fie never fuffered an incithe heart has no concern. 295. he faidto the butcher who bought it Yoii fee theie rich lords. Tiie foiiowii-. p. At another time. 291 293. made a viijr to Kliyogg in 1783 . that the Iicaft c^^' ''''"f f7:ntdd always bcin uui- — : ' . . 294.fiblc of it«" But he did not en this ache only recount the lefs fervently rclpev^ religion quired.and faid fmiling. wns hypocrify . little As the education afihefe children formj pleafurc. that he v»' as ^ /r:^^ /?^/ri^ri*/.x64 p. go to them 5 without f'oubt tliey have more fat oxen to fell than 1 have. 290. 296 node of thinking of Kiiyogg in matters of religion. I wa. which Kiiyogg oppofed with all his might but vvithoqt efledl. to afKalms for them.'* He interrupted her. having fold a fattened o>i. p. 297. >ils THE RUP. while his fons and fervanls Rood around much better drcffcd than himfelf. p. The marquis conclnded his vifit by fiyingof Kliyogg. At the wedding of his cldcji'iow^ his Tons infjftcd upon going into town on horfeback . Vv^ith m:y tears.ATES. and three pages are accordingly introduced to /Tiakc flattering cornplin"ients to the rnarquis and his — (on.

money flies ' away and diforder and confulion following in their . to their children and domellics . Mil order to traffic in thefe articles. and in order to give pleafure ^ to the beneficent God who prefcribes it to us . and alfo proud and expenfive. Add. becaufe indolence weakens ^ the bodily flrength. It is true. from other pcafants. but ' work foon becomes a burthen to them ihey even per. ^ merce to the labor of their hands. efpecially as this money procures ' them influence. a general derangement occurs. Not content with * felUng the fifperfiulty of their own v/lieat and oxen.heologian. ^Such ' conduct willfecure the divine blefllng and maintala . who have no other objecl' than to ^ enrich thcmielves and who. ' ' elude:: A . ' family. for pleafure. Here Kliyogg fpcaks by turns as an p. The mifery ' here becomes the greater. ^' It is not prof. lie ' *• 16/ laid once to our author. Sec. who imitating their example. and the tafte for good wines and fi 5r dcjicate meats becomes a fecond nature. and for luxury. prefer com. as a contagion. if wc feek the divine blsfling. * they buy wheat ar.it \v^ niuflfearch after. ' the expences of their family increafe . which does not fail to ccr' i-upt their minds . Work ' then mud be pnrfued for the iake of work. and at ' the fame time every effort mull: be ufed to combat the ^ paffion for money.d wine.t th. ' mit to themfelvcs fome injuRice. and as the refult of a renCt of duty.THE RURAL SOCRATES. that * they often fucceed in aniaHing confiderable fums . ' By this means the fertility of their lands diminifhes ." 300. will hats ' and defpife vi^ork and give themfelves up to idlenefs. that the defire of enjoying ' their fortune renders them lovers of the table and otii' cr pleafures . There are many pcafants. and^tlie means of gaining the clergy ' and their judges. ^ our confciences pure and free of reproach. 298 egotiH:. '- ' ^' — — . a4. to fucceed. in oider to fell their ' articles at a high price . and a moralifl but our Swifs clergyman omits the ' The author then conparticular^. This conir ' municatcs itfelf. ' and become proud and voluptuous like themfelves.

that in moments like thcfe. Hirzel tra-. WAthout fuifering his mind . eludes with faying. to be troubled. traits all In thefe thirteen pages Dr. found of them be diflinguifii p. ^llb iu Kliyogg. D'AIemp. of the preceding which increafed from day to day. the author dctermi once . a froit dedroyed the profpe^ from . Having fuifered alfo much from the complaint. and God would flili be bountiful to them. be has thought hloiielf in the company of Socrates and Epi<^etas. 320— 3:23. obliged him^ finally to remain in ills bed. —From cold ing deranged. 302 bert. The author tinilhes by whatever they vi^ill any man held as excellent. Such was Kliyogg as long as Godprc- ferved his healih and flrength .1 66 THE RURAL SOCRATES. . p. that p^ ^ig_2i9.c dcjedeJ Kliyogg or drew from havoc hisTi con:ij>lai»*ts. to his crops: In the in his TheypariySi was difaftrous autiunn v/orms had made great in the rye : and following fpring during the month of his vines May. and trees which v»'as very promiling. i^->u No niisfortun. cesthe portrait of a good prince refembling Kliyogg. he felt his bodily powers and the vigor of his mind daily diminifhing dangerous humors colleftinginhis body . that period. to Qiew that Kliypgg merited ilic name of a philofo-^ — pher. faying. Seme pad'iges from Seneca. and the P^lements o^' politics are here introduced. 304.to the age of 74.wheat. that is. His bit he called their affli£lion Tons were deeply afRicted ingratitude towards God as they had fullicient blefring3 remaining to them from the preceding :iF)d even from that very year. 305— 318. p. He encouraged them therefore to low a great quantity of Uimmer. and his digelling facuhies becom. and announced his approachjng death. mmed —At the ^:^(lne^vs of his Hcknefs. dropfical a winter (1784-5).

courfe from time to time. this travellearning the author's intentions. furroundcd every where with pillows^ He raifed himfelf with much trouble. ^ and he will alfo grant m. 323. but from which neverthelefs he hoped to recover." Kliyogg neverthelefs wiihcd and always expe£led the re-eRabliihment of his health. and the too great avaiice of others. and when the author fpoke of ft. by dwelling with tendernefs on his httle ones. bet all in He interrupted however this diia lasPientablc tone. and his eycs^ which formerly fparkled with joy in his converfations. and to tell the fufferings which he had undergone during many weeks. and the return of his flrength for working. paid the author a vi[it. more to fee him . /^3 to medicine he {o- having' . touching upon their characler and talents and other circumftanccs. the mofi: intereRini}. were moiflened with the tears which conflantly fcU as he fpoke. on the Ji Jane (17 85 ) It was on that fame day that Mr-vSclnimacker^chamber]ain to the king of Denmark. It is true that he ilill repeated liis wife ma::ims on the fubjecfl of the too great luxury of fome of his ch'ldren. propofed himielf for the party. Let then the will of God be ^ done. — difcourfe Toon turning upon Kliyogg. in order to fpenL to his vifitors . with tears of joy. He difcovercd little fear at death . Our philofophcr was found reduced to a condition which drew tears from the feeling Schumacker. and have truly fulfilled the ' duties of my fiation. companions of his old age . he faid. he was greatly funk and in bad humor . He was flretched. who has loaded me v/ith his kindnefs . nnmciy. p. The v^eaknefs of his bodv had made much impreilion upon his fpirits . I have always * 'loved equity and juftice. in a (late of great debility Dpon a bench . " 1 have a good confcience .THE RURAL SOCRATES.e his favors in the ether * world. for I have known him through all my life as a * God of mere}*. OI3CC 16. The rcnicmbrance of his ler The — — — long ilinefs was however fufRcient rr"-^-'^-:? to it ^'*'*'^:^ — throw him into ::hogfnher .

who led them through the farm^ and gave an account of every thing with a clcarnefs which made them recognize in him the worthy fon of Kliyogg and at the fame time convinced them. during a longcourfe of time. — . the Rural Socrates has occafioned me fo much pleafure . that he had often obferved that the fpirits of adive perfons fuiTer mofl from the fentiment of their declining flrength. is the end of my oblervations on who. byway Here fays the author to his correfpondent. as the author and his companion were :iiFe£l:ed. .i68 THE RURAL SOCRATES. without cffc<^. . Sec. becaufe he thought they gave him fome relief. of conclufion. 326. Sec. and who has given me the opportunity by a defcription of his charader.. of contributing to the general benefit. 327. night and morning. — THE . p. who has fo often encouraged me to do good . that the complaints of the father againft his fons. were too much the refult of his difeafe. they obtained fome confolation from the converiation of the eideft fon of Khyogg . he abandoned himfelf folely to nature ufing only a few ipoonfuls of brandy. having taken fome from the medical perfons in the village at the beginning of his malady. The author remarks here. p. Mnch hov/ever.

'' If Mr. and I can truly fay that I have not found one. Hirzel for having drawn him from fo really a 1 Hence his obfcurity. or rather of fmgling out and manifefting this. being originally ext:ra^^ed from the feventeenih of the '-^ Pbyfiognomic Frao-ments*' of that writer. Hirzel (fays the noted Lavater) had no other merit than that of writing his peafmt-philofopher. ^ one X * Oiort The a in the fecond fyllable of Mr. fmsm PART THE THIRD. his deferts would have been never \\c Kliyogg. who refembled hi77ile. who was high. Lavater's n?me is pionounceil . ' There are few men whom I have examined fb rigoroufly and whom I have obferved on fo many fides and in fo many different fituations as Kliyogg .Jf fo much in all points . the S'^ifii. SECTION T'/ie r. a (ingle one. man. It is tranflated from a French tranflation.THE RURAL SOCRATES. man.en. amorg hia-caantryfr. without returning new thanks to Mr. celebrated Lavater defer Ihes Kliyogg^ X HE following account of Kliyogg is hy Ihe famous phyfiognomift Lavater^ ^ a clergyman of thd canton of Zurich in which Kliyogg refided.

Gan there be need of excufe infpeaking with warmth of fuch a man ? None of all thofe w^ho know Kliyogg.a-o •fthc rfa! f^ocrarei?. raufl equally happen to thofe who iindertake to trace his chara(f^er. purefy. in was fo lingular in his kind. * What is thus faid of the portrait-painters of KHyogg. •*' ' with the ' "^^n^ as it is to re^i:c. Hirzel has faid is exacflly true this and the other feparate feature ftand covreclly . certainly. it is only Kliyogg when it is not placed near hiTS>* Upon the comparifon. who mufl not have been '"-::^d to acknowledge. ' I have this moment read the new edition of his life . wasabfoand defigned to be . and I fiiall be pardoned by thofe who know him. tltat Kliyogg Ir. have tried their ta- ^ * ' ' ' ' ^ * * * * * } ' upon him. _ I . can venture to affirm that too much has bv::en faid of him . All the fl^etchcs were eafily known.: How often have I not perruadcd him to for mc ^ to be painted lents Three of ihe bell: portrait drawers and ^ *- the moil: happy in their likeneffes. . -. and handed down ilsch as it really is to the univerfe and to poilerity.s c''r"'. by himfelf . one vvh9 was incQrriiptibly. evidently. fubilantialJy. but for the whole of the pictupe.to msraorc or lefs Vv^antingin eKpreflioit and mind fothat I have at length ablblutely rcnounall ced hope of feeing this Inblime countenance reprelented.%r>fe-his^nturci with the'" fit ^pencil. and could not but finile at the palTagcs where the Xenophon^ of our Socrates has CKprefled a feariof being miflcd by an exceflive chthufiafm. u."d eve.ijo * ' ^ ' THE RURAL SOCRATESc fo Readily. all hitcly nothing but iliort wliat he is. in his defcription of fome of thofe fine fituations in which he has feen him. . truth to me — * ^ for aflerting that it is as difficult to defcribe K4iyogg. Whatever Mr. as this manj who is in ' * ' ' ^ t * * * incomparable. I have \:x^c<^ every effort to have him properly exhibited and taken. but not one was a perfe<ft refemblance* All appeared.

io inaceeflible to the corrupting breath of prejudice. that it will be difficult for any to feci more profoundly the truth of his defcriptions: And yet I mull alfo add that in my eyes the original is above the copy . A light without dazzling . I mufl at tlis lame time confefs. — — — : : — ^For . ry kind of pencil ? and as little the hiitorian. Hirzel has defircd to be an kijlorian^ a-dd by no 77icans a panegyrljl. in no degree inquifilivc : but fo found. Few can more highly citeem the talents and merits of the Istter than myielf . It was not a fentiment which partook of the wai-mth of enthufiafm it v/ss as if a faint image cf/V'/ii'^/ man fought to acquire life and diftinctnefs in my bofom. the fame exprefliocs occurring io myfelf . incorrupt human nature which penetrated me delicionfly with its prefence. without hsving his prefence. that it v^as neither refpec>. and fubiervience to a plan. * I never found my-felfnear Kliyogg. \m efj'ergy. fuch as my heart never experienced at the fight cf any other man. I may even add.THE RURAt SOCRATES. I felt gently riling there an emotion i'o fingle. I endeavor to make a like fketch. produc-irig in me a kind of fentiment. ^o f<rm -jain^ fedu'filonj ihat no -gbyrinth c?. if on my fide. and nevcrtkelcrs I venture upon tlie fame attempt. fo delicate. or rather a copy of fach an original is impoflible. and afTuredly none have read liis book with mere pleafure. ^^o difficult to be ^xpreffed. the totality of the cultivator. noi' even friendlhip it was a (oft expanfiori of the foal .n miliead it. * The true model of man. An inteile<fi: in no degree brilliant. 1 perceive tlie fame traits. without any prcfumptuous egotifm . 17 x I nothing blame then the painter . The totality of man the cultivator . as to this relpe(ri:3blc biographer . nor tenderncfs. conilraints. in all its fimple unity before me. of man difcngagcd froni cares. a v/armth without effervclccncc ^ a full fentiment of what he is. that Mr. a confidence in himfelf which is en^ l\r^^ but without pride.

gilation fin^ thPcalni of work. How ^ him a(:l ! 1 * * ' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ' ' ' * Always all that he fays goes ilraight to its objeiSl gold mixed with clay . an ordinary prattle.ill wliich I have related after him. in elforts to exhibit it truly. than to fay. and yet poiTefbelonging to rcpoie. *' how noble How he abandons to you his whole foul.ould certainly mucl) vatber h. Hirzel informs his — ^ ' "- fcdl ojftrc^and his countenance of which the jrefmicjs color announce his good conftitutio7i^ have always a and ' ' gay and open air^which dtjplays to the phyfiopnovinft the whole Eyes which are merely full beauties of his character. How the niofl trivial things How they which he fays are in him and from him carry the imprefiions of his individual chara^^er How fpife of all my .\vc : ' Ihht . a body without a foul . the n? fire^ arc not precifely'the hgn of a line mind Caidjull of au:lior n. 'A word * '*' or two more as to his phyfiognomy and his reader. fo little is borrowed ! ^ ' ^ he for nje. dias never been what 1 have has only been froth taken from the widied to relate furface of a powerful fpring .17 2 * ^ THE ev(^i' PvUilAJL SOCRHTES. the deputy of crfntinp divinity I VVhat praife more true. *Vithont perceiving or iufpe(fling that he does it. For amidri: the p. . to my certainly How ^ ' eyes. . that his eyes portrait. and nevcrtheicf} more entire and complete can be beflowed upon Kliyogg or any other man. that 'iions *-"• * ' his mode of thinkings his words a?2d his ac- * are always in the viofl petfeCi harmony :" a defcription which is here as correv^ as it is maflerly." — Mr. Full of a noble ^ '- tranquil fee ' impatience for action. and all flowing back to it. always diamonds frrez/ed upon Ht* olfers conftanrly one and the the coaj fcfl fluifs fame whole . a fnre thermometer oftjie dlfccrnment^prohiiw andfund of humanity ofthofe^ who frcGueiii his company ! How properly is he. to exprefs the things which with ! ! : 1 : him are fo naturally original. nothing flowing except from this whole . — His franknel^ and freedom from reftraint. joined to a polition the nioft and conflantiy confined to his fpherc as the How delighifni to fun of his own vortex and fyliem.

' * But it is his chin particularly. and it is the fa£l with regard toKli^ yogg* They are neither funk. fb refined without fub- * tlety * ' * having no veftigc cither of effeminacy or deli. —The celebrated I'ln-seus and tranflator. ' ' repofc of his inimitable mouth . prominent. nor too much round* ed. Kiiyogg can only'gain^ he can never lofe. nor oblique. * nor very open not fo open as in the print of hira. The princelfes of Darm* Itadt. had a fyftern of which he divided into about twcRtjr had another re fpe^ing eye brows. and reibl ution. as the painter ^ ceeds in copying The original always feemed to have ^ it more pointed and delicate. benignity. which bend b2ck upon a forehead * which is neither flat. which I admire : an * air fo manly without ! groifneis. phyfiognomy founded upon •lafies. the fcriptare nofei? critic . nor too mucli elevated. notwithftandlng the ' it tone. ^ that he had tlie nofr. and who were lingularly affected with the ierene. of their illuftrious mother . and I Vknow not whetherthis excellent princefs or Kiiyogg is ' moft honored by th?s conformity. . denotes calm innocence. 'His nofe has an extremely {lender out* line pro. far too hard which is given to his portrait. half-formed. : — ^ "• features^ is the 7770ft important^ decifive^ ccnjpicuoiis and incapable of difgitije^ of all the features which belong to * human phyjiogyioiny^ ' How expreflive is the noble I return to Kiiyogg. prudence. .THE liURAL 50CRATES. GeJ<1e9. all the (hades of his cheeks. * open and natural air of this dear man . . fo worthy of the auguft rank derived from their * birth. in cacy being examined by the eye of a true phyfiognomifl> All the indents. Whatever may be faid. and is always made too thick. alfured me. and whatever pleafant^ ry it may excite. it is not the lefs demondrable. nor too low become hini * wonderfully. I here inform my ^ readers of a fa6t colleded from an infinity of obfcrva* tions. ^ ^ 173 luminous . ^ His black eye-brows. %. diffufc over — 'his * Dr. that the ^ Nofe^ confideredjingly ajzd independently of all the other light.

of ihe principal fupportcfs of the E^hemeriitt du Citi^tn a Frensb pc£. finQ-ularly ?r^'<'C5 with thr reft. sjodicaj work on political ec-'^nor. and it>dlt:h greatly defervcs tlie ar- leniion of this country. Dijcufjions re-Oxen to Hor/es^ and his pa^ The Marquis d^ Mir ah eau"^^ to the French Ti an/later. which has btea read vviih amazing avidity in n. who were ftrenuouc The Mirqnis was one aftors 00 dift'ercnt fides in the French rcvoluiion. confider as of that I it kfTure ine thi^i tifeful books which has ever been piiblidied . * ^ I HAVE been charmed with the Rural SocrAtes^ of this work : is cflablilhed at Paris but I to prefent.is noHerran is ih? celebrated author of that excellent work Vamz iti Hotttmfs^ OH H'raUe de la ptpulation . arid likewife ot ihe Viconrire de Mird^ea^ . TIjc Ma'O'Jis de iVJiribepn ucs f aher of the famous Cont^re t^e MiraKau. or a treaiiff on popubtioc] .l S EC TXON 11. which he prefents to his readers . his countenance the moft h^rmcrnizing exprefiion ef ^ * * gravity. * Tl. ihaa we are fot'itj>?r to copy ! Y.!^. ftronjrly marked.. lenliments relate at Let have -only one the mofi: you. Noveoiiber 8.any pirrsr of Europe. Unfortunately the prcfent compila-tioa lias no print to accompanv [The author it.174 ^ "^^^^ RUR^L SOCRATES. His car. i . temperance^firninefs. [The fiiend of men. frippery works How roore deferring a tratiilatioi). llic h is an aimirablc ^f)rmance. and inward tranquillity. Paris. a fuhlimc The reputation my own pre-eminence. . with it«' roundings and outlines. J^re//i 7^e/7imof2ies fpeClin^ his preference of trial chal Plans* concerning Kliyoj^^.'* here introduces iome obfcrvatlons on the defe^fls in the print of Kliyoj^jr. bat which h different from that given in the French edition of the Rural Socrates. 1762.

: ! ! i *v "^ Many who : toink re]I|ion rldlcuhus:^ of cob rTe" conceive at inconfidenr i:h dignity and lo die teelings ot fuch the writcyr aliades. 3icesiliik before him What innate dignity I exhibited too in a man. i M.. which more than arifwerefi my expectations. fmce onV of mv plough boys with two hoVTes wilL turn over regularly *wo acres in a day.**^ "With a view to what was agreeable in agricnllure. I bad eniouragec! But a tranflation into French. had in it reality and life. Omer iu *rnnce . and *^* who. that thefe clans founcV an uninhabited country. and of the moil:' noble philo^>phy and moil elevated piety. Y. is E. of Thomfbn's Seafons this work contained mere pictures and fcenes of imagiWhile I was fearching for lomething which nation. I w^ould then inftance the Haut-p^nigis of St. in which to fpread themfelves . I ihould eagejlyleek the advantages and pleafure to bs derived from coHverfing with ibch a charat^er Perhaps too 1 might convince him of the benefit (did his foil 3] d extent of cultivation admit it) of ploughingwith horfcs^ rather thap with oxen .>en to do only the half of this in the fame timef I would inform him that there is nothing chimerical irs his idea of a tribe [or ilheme of extenlive famih/ union] . wflo follows no ether than the lavrs diiTcated by the Supreme Being ^ It my firustion permitted'me to travel. v/hile he requires tv/6 men and four . --If it diould be faid.ural Socrates. lince the clans of Scotland are in effed of this" defcriptiou.— Kliyogg is How do all our petty prejuin every thing r^y hero. . but only in the very light fcils^ and by no nneans equals acse in hsavisr lands.!! that this a moft rersiarlcaIt ble rircomftancc It is a piiy he did not add the fjjl. for the mind muil be interellcd before it can receive iolid inflriKftion. lyf ^re-cminencc. and which neceffarily includes the quality of being agreeable . i3e Mirabeau : v^iil allcvs^ me to aC.. It contains an example of the theory and practice of the moR: perfet^ and rational kind of hufbandfy. u ho occupy a fubarb in a great city . I found the R.THE RURAL SOCRATES. u often donar o: c in Norfolk.

for the fupply of their own community in the firfi infhince. which necefl^rlly mixes them. and yet never heard . and other correfpo iCiing charoders. and to maintain inviolably the facred band of family imion. and of integrity. . yet i>y their rule of noc marrying out of their family. and a prudent turn on which their more approaching the plan and courfc of life of the worthy Kliyogg. I wifh to inform him. of community of property. though living by commerce. wbo. where are to be found all the conveniences of life. v» ith hofpitality. having in a journey. had not my eftates in Limoufm been only thirty leagues from the fpot. what is raifed beyond being fold at markets and fairs. that the Pincous have not only a principal feat of refidencc in the mountains. and to obtain the whole particulars .* With relpe6t to the family which you mention in the Upper Provence t. and that having married his four children. had the fame idea with himlelf on this llibje^l. I am of that country. profperity is founded. foas to permit my doing it at a future time.'ing it. I fhould however have turned back in order to fee it. and even handfome apartments ^ov flrangers of the very firll quality but many villages of which they are foie inhabitants . have preferved their language and manners. where every thing coming from them carries with it its own credentials. lawyers. But as an example Hill • More will be faiJoftlils family ^ See p. palled within eight leagues of this remarkable eftablhhment. The necefiary arts of life are exercifed in this tribe. wit!i the world. and to whic. Thefe ai'e p^irticulars which I learn only by report . ^. which I made this fnmmer. more than a century ago .YlS THE RURAL SOCRATES. that Pincou a cultivator in Auvergne. he enjoined them to form themfelves into a tribe. This worthy inflitution has lb much profpered. without knov. 'hey furnifli the curates.

finding the firll edition nearly fold. with which the former fcheme has no relation. and the quantity and quality of their dung. 1763. the latter bordering on milery . — * The original fays common. and confequently great . perfons who lead but rrix in a feleft fociety of their own V rf!Jarions. it v/ill be a valuable accellion to the work. In his project. a new one . than after a mere The Afifwer of the French Tranflator to the Marquis dated Bafie^ Jcmuary 4.* * * * * * It feems that you itientibn only one point of difagreement with Kiiyogg [namely rcfpe<£ting his ox* ^ * Your plough-boy goes through two acres en. a family life. . * ^ ^ TJIE bookfellers who had the copy of the Rupropole and I wi(h to make fome additions by way of Supplement. .] each day v/ith a pair of horfes. It is true. which are always fcducing to warm and fuperftitious minds. including the profit upon the carcafes of the oxen when flaughtercd . ignorant of their real duties. heard it 177 rather named. . advantages which are not to be overbalanced by their flownefs. every thing is fimple. or other violent means. — The wiifer in view. without the aid of fanatic mortifications. that four oxen coil lefs than two horfes . that Kiiyogg fecks to found an order of monaftic hufbandmen^\ but nature would be. But is the foil as laborious a§ that of Kiiyogg ? Kiiyogg you know alfo tellii •as. community of property and of this kind. it fcems that we have to inquire refpedling the of interefis in inflitiuions perfeverance in a retired life . and perhaps not fuited to the conllitution of a large empire. ** * but the projefi is at the fame time fmgular. with their cheaper keeping.THE RURAL SOCRATES. If you will allow me to include your interefting letter. i know that an ral Socrates. . — Beiides. the bafis of it . *' M )nk8 are properly however had Cemhites Agrirulteurs** or cuhivators llvirg /« peifons living u?:married in retirement.

and in time of war many being fold to the armies . Perhaps laflly. and have fince advanced that *' population was the origin *' of wealth. than thofe of other coun- — : . On the other hand. than in France.f. I obferved that the Swifs horfes in our regiment fuifered much more from the hard die? to which tlicy were reduced.ble of my ei-or in milL^king the caufe for the ei?e6i:. I admit alio that the fa6b on your fide may be incontefiable in a great part of Yet may not there be a difference in SwitzerFrance. that a feccnd edition has occafion for : any augmentations to give it equal fuccefs. that the fale ofthc P^^ural Socrates anfvvers fo well . our oxen ieeni much more powerful andwhere land . for the fake of the public. the food of horfes is dearer in Switzerland.refly conti'adifted what 1 had afTcrted as a fundajnentaj orinciple in the firfi: work . '' that pop* I was fenujpt^ion was the conjeqiteme of riches/' . and that your opinion adds great weight to this decilion. * * * I AM much pleafed. I have alvays been fcrupnlous of making alterations in the effays though \ puWiih.c oiigtn:4l French E^ic^^J^^^'^f*^ . active than in France.ns. if they go through a fecond edition linly. when fattened. •* - — : U '•^ f.irS THE RURAL SOaiATES. in the fequel oi t.. dated Pans^'J'aruiary 25. The heft of them being drivbear a much better price en as far as Paris. tries. and our herbage better fuited to their conftitutions ? Our caulc alio. 1763. our horfes require extra food at Icafl:^ in our late camp:iij>. an article in the Encyclopedie"^ gives a decided prefer ence to hories . efpecially oats. none but the cattle of Auvergne equaU ling ihem." The method was fimple and eafy to — have- * S9« Cnlftrr 4t( tetrth In il. there are very eifential corre£iions wanting 3 Ami des Hormnes^ I have 'xample. nor do I apprehend.* -^^^ Reply of tJiQ Marquis to the Fre?ich Tra?iflaicr . namely.

which it certainly did not pofTefs when it quitted my hands. and that fo wortjiy a trullee as yourfelf fiiould fiamp a value upon it. that the Rural Socrates according to the circumftances of his fituation its an excellent farmer and a very praife-worthy citizen. and I ought to adhere to it. M. a pirellel which Mr. afferting from his own ^' attentive " experience. Experiment and calculation are the grand iiails of true agricultural (cieiicc . feems to be vvlnt you intend. ijf :tave eftabliilied this latter opinion by feme Higlit chanbut I made a point of not leflening the vahie of ges . and have invai iably perlided in not changing the leafl fentcnce in vvoiks once piiblifliedj but to do what v/as requifite by way — of appendix. Sir. I have felt it my dut}'-.THE RURAL SOCRATES.] I am yet of opinion that ic would not be of advantage ':o Kliyogg to ufe horfes upon a fmall farm. you are to condder it as your own 2)roperty-. but it would give me fatisfadion to write any thing for the benerit of mankind . Arthur Young pronounlatter The inferting notes in the — — ces unfatisfac^ory . [n. *** Agricultural queflions however arc of the greateil: confequence to the profperity of a (late 5 and ofcourfe to the multiplication and happinefs of the hum-in i'pecies. de Mirabeau here proceeds again to fpeak of the family of Pincous or Pignous in Auvergne .. could be of any weight or utiilty. and w ill do equal w^ork. whofe exiPcence be confijuis. e. inflead of work itfelf. not mine. the book to the firfl purchafers . a fcicnce of which the ^' . never to print any thing for the future .*** Thur» the refult of all our rcafoning Ml is. he refumes his parallel betvveen oxen and Iiorfes . Such as it is. and which you are defirous of printing in the fupplement.*' The following extracts only thexefore aie added from the conchifion of the letter. that two oxen are maintained mncl^i cheaper tlian "two horfes. I (hould be glad ifthc letter I didmyfelf the honor to addrefs to you. After feme remarks on the fubjecl:.

. tell ua. and to hope for This does not imply that they will be fo longer life. -Arid this is true for men who' are folely occupied with their pleafures. as not to rcfign the fcene quieliy when called away from it. to recommend you . and fee new fruits dill forming it is highly important to have lived. and are confoled that we die fingle and leave others to furvive us. as well as the future which flies from' it : But the love of others leads us to dwell with delight on the recollecT:ion of the virtuous ajfls. poflcrity. Advcrti/einenl . for to them the But for thofe who are occupied with paft is nothing. and I am perhaps aiithorized.iSo THE RURAL S0CRATE5. regrets the pafl which is over. are in the habit of pofielling this temper . reaped in the prefent. this from (and in which generally fpeaking they are right) . at prefent manifefts itfclf. continue. Sir. but are formed to perifii. or their own little contradled advantages . wrapped up in the profpecl: of future enjoyment frorr> — — . their labors. to live. I experience on my fide a iatisfa^tion in the profpec^. recommend our detaching who ourfelve^ perfons ble to view v/Ith becoming world a more perfetil. whether we have lived many or few years. it is dawn jPe6l day to be and of which the perhoped will ultimately illuminate our Till that period fhall arrive. the good of others . This then is the bed temper of mind to recommend to beings who are gifted with thought and feeling. but certainly intcrefled. I'hofe charita^vhlchis perhaps greater than I merit. Sir. k ftndy which renders you To ufeful to mankind. that it is the fame at bur iafl hour. — to perfid in it. Their exertions and the pleafures they derive from tiiem have a foundation independent of their fondnefs for life. who have fowed in the paft. which fueh a fentiment has infpired and we blefs our neighbors when we quit them. You. It is felf love which defcending into the ton^b with its An^Ttim.

fojudly acquired^ oi l^ami des hommes [the friend of men :] but we are each of us in fearch of truth . Tfchiffeli.** It is to his excellent views and indefatigable exertions. I addrefTed my inquiries to one of the Swifs mofl worthy to contend with M. of the age in comprehending the true principles of agriculture. which is one of the fineft inflitutions in Switzerland * * owes its cxiflence and active principles.THE RUKAL SOCRATES. at \^z9i with reipedt to Switzerland. Tfchiffeli to the French Tranjla- tor. — : .erit have eredcated flatues in their hearts. and to whom thofe of his countrymen capable of eflimating his m. and I am under rjo apprehenfions of offending him by differing in opin1 ion on a capital point of ?. is undoubtedly of confiderable weight nor can any perfon have a more exalted reipe£t for that nobleman's knowledge and zeal ioT the good of mankind. the ^rfl genius. The autbxjrity of Monfieur de Mirabeau.-. to a perfon to whom antient Greece v/ould have erected flatues.griculture.^ *j i. diflrid:. de IVlirabeaii . perhaps. and under all poflible circumflances. i8i leave nothing omitted (fays the I might Tranflator) capable of clearing up the important queftion refpedling oxen and horfes. may be reduced to this general queftion Is it more profitable to plough with horfes or with oxen ? a very material inquiry. I know him under the title. that the latter. Advertifement by the French I'ranfiator. l^etier addrcjjed by M. or particular eflate. which deferves a thorough examination in every country. Secretary of the Supreme Council and Vice-Prefident of the Economical Society of Berne. ALL the obiervations of the Marquis de Mirabeau on the contracted and difadvantageous fcale cf hufbandry purfucd by our Kliyogg. This friend of mankind THAT and excellent citizen M.

k is found by experience. — — m number Horfes maintained uith. and that in horned cattle fcarcely opened at all a cafe rare in moH parts of the world. with which horfes extcute their work. But other 'kings being equal. which is all I can poflibly grant. that four very robufl oxen. Fifty acres of arable land. ac<:ordingto the cuftom of Ciar peaf-ints. nor the eftatc extremo ly deep. are too fmall to employ a team of horfes thronghont the year. the fame quantity of meadow. however. may You will pleafe to obferve. and ieldom or never met with remarks will be chiefly confined in Switzerland. I will fet ac one third the fuperior fwiftnefs and vigor of horles. our corn-countries too populous. and pailurage in proportion. that is. however great it appears. than horfes . and fome laborers of good judgment. Sir. that it is of more general advantage to ufe oxen for draught. that like ours general. for experierce evinces. I allow four liorfes to do the fame work as fix oxen . I ellablifli it as a fundamental rule. Our fortunes are too contrad:ed. other things being cqtial .juf oil* ! What are w« X(y undesfland bj' . whom I have confulted. to admit of making cxtenfive purchafes. The only fenfible advantage of horfes over oxeug cither in drawing or ploughing. vvill ftarcely admit one fifth diifcrence. are with us confidered as large farms : there are very few of greater dimenfions. account for this. forward as much biifirefs as four horfes indifferently maintained without pats*. and our eftates too dear. where the trade in horfes is conliderable. that aneflate of that fize feldom produces ir^orc than of half wliat is made of the lame to that country. perhaps. in all f^ums. will be immaterial.^ : — My acas the only one I am fufficiently quainted with. with iome exceptions. Nay. wherever th-2 roads are not exceflively fliony. The general prcpofleflion here in favor of oxen. cbnfifts in the greater Tigor and fpecd. that this advantage.jS2 THE IIUKAL SOCilATES.

:o the land . or ufed iu the carriage of goods for others : in the firfl cafe their keeping is more expenfive than that of oxen . that in France. the plough man becomes a drunken carrier^ habits very improp*ind is quarreUbme and diflipated er for a hufbandman. :: . as can be performed with the befl horfes. there is not any country in Europe where the (oil is more carefully cultivated than in Switzerland yet our harv^fls are vaflly inferior to thofe the Marquis fpeaks of. computes the maintenance of horfes to be three times dearer than that of oxen but fays at the i^ime time. . plough-man become waggoner — We . beftow three. th^ bafis of whofe art is temperance and application. where mifcrable teams of hor(es perifh with faThe manure is lofl tigue and hunger in road waggons.]|^ I very much doulDt if this be carried much farther in France . that the expence (hould firfl of all be dedudled from the clear prciic of what he calls the great culture . which. deep and equal^ furrows. the clearproduce is ten to one greater. after the: deduftions made for t^ic expence of horfes. and ycry often two [for cur fpring fowings. after fuch deduiftionSp he ilili makes amount to more than ten times the moBut he will permit me to ney that has been expended.TFIE RURAL SOCRATES. and ibmetlmes four ploughings upon fallow lands.erely of ploughing with horfes. It does not feem to h^. 183 ers. fuggeft the impofTibility that fuch luxuriant crops can be the eife<fr m. in Mis letter. With our draught-oxen we certainly cut as. bai: to the foil and climate that w^e mull attribute the caufe and if the fa£b is certain. the on the road to ruin * as is fatally exemplified in fonie parts of the Pai's de Vaud. the cheap means of fattening sattle mud be a* dill fartber additional projit to the graa . and. they muft either be turned upon the flubble. and is in the fecond. de Mirabeau. number of acr<*5 divided between two or three occupiIf there is not fufficient employment for draught — horfes upon the farm all the year. perhaps. to the nature of the draught ufed in the plough. M.

at As our land is. 3d. one of which. &c. does not cofi. the manure of oxen is greatly The manure of horpreferable to that of horfes. which far farpaffes them all is. l SuiJzcrland at large ian diftritls and Italis divided into the German. is labor. fetting their food in if he buys his beafls at three years old. and field. 17s. — fpeedily than that of oxen . Y. infinitely lefs delicate than horfes. fit or 7!. has been informed. the expenccsot certain pra(^iccs. hot and gravelly. 6d. and we are convinced that the value of the manure of cattle exceeds.84 THE RURAL SOCRATE<J. and fells them again at four. in general.° Our manner of calculating fubfiflence of fix The : are lefs liable to diftempers and accidents. are very important circumUances. an article that gains tv/o hours daily . t. in lead. fes wafbes and evaporates in the farm yard. and arc much more regular in Eating their food much quicker than horfes. as it is upon a feled^ion of fuch that thefe difputable points can alone be reconciled. may annually make of every team of four oxen. at about three or four 5Tars old. and fbmctimes one Thefe are no inconliderable advantages but that half. French. tjppofition to their labor. a clear pro- more — . that every cultivator who has the leafl: degree of underftanding. more than that of four draught Tliis has Lories*. been tried and verified by a thoufand inftances. that in the greatefl part of Switzerland. ih tlia'c the latter are every thing decides in favor of oxen . there is altrtoil: an abfolute certainty of his gaining a louis and half. and can breed his own cattle. including the expence of forage. . — — general. in Switzerland is thus oxen. This advantage may be extended much farther when the peafant has a right in any pub- of 61. or two louis a head. particularly in the German divifion t of the canton lic of valuable fad\ : now if their oxen are equal to thofe I ufed what an amazing fuperiority'for the ox culture I Thefe points <)f propoftion. that of horfes a fourth pa?. IIS. is i\ * This In SufFwlk. according to the languages prevailing in its fcveral parts. Whoever paflursgc. may be employed in working.

the leafon why the French prefer horfe* fa» And call aloud for much. quotes the Encyclopedic on this fuhjedi : I have read the rDemoira X "^I'i^is re. Among oiher articles. 185 of Benie. which. and . Befides that their with horfes. they a travjlatkn into Englijh. but to the article Ferm:(^ . contain an elabor^ite comparifon between horfes and oxen 3 decided in faThis comparifon abounds with many circumrtances vor of the former. are the iswi^ as we hear uhere oxen ar^ itioft commonly ufed among ourfelves in thofe counties 3'et worked. Add to all this. they are extren^ely fenfible. The arguments here ufed. old French Encyclopedia. a pair of oxen of three years old. in a preceding. and is reduced to nothing at the end of a few years.orfe when fatted for market. commonly fell from ten to fifteen be furprifed at what I have advaniouis. very great and frequent variations^ there is great danger in ufing young horfes for heavy. comparifon. one year with anotherto It is far otherwife price is iabje^Sl to : Farther and as it coincides with cur experience is fenfible . riclc y. . whilPc a lame ox is not at all the vv.conftant labor. and throws much light on the fubjed^.Z . on this — — of that work on the fubjeft of agricuhure . Upon the whole. ijs. The ilightcft accident to a draught liorfe may be a very fenfible lofs to. B. All thefe confiderations induce our mod judicious cultivators to rate the advantage of drawing with oxen inflead of horfes at 81. in a good meafurc. N. The Marquis de Mirabeau. The Marquis de Mirabeau not only refers in hi^ letters to the arCulture des terres. explains. the farmer. that have been in good paflure." will not ced.ng in England. he has no other advantage to expect than during the time they can work He finks a large capital. there is the greater reafun to acknowledge its juftnefs. indead of proving beneficial^ waftes every day. both of xh^m in th? E. very curious. paper. this comparifon of horfes and oxen highly deferves farther attention.-t{jn.THE RURAL SOCRATES. if the farmer ploughs with horfes in their full vigor. and at the fame tim?.

IN the ymirnal Economique for Detcmber 1755. divide his fortune in*' to feparate portions and that. is a very habitable caflle . 1 conceive that an abftra£t of them may be agreeable to thofe readers who have not had an opportunity of meeting with the journal. Farther Anecdotes concerning the Family q/^Pincou. jQiould they marry out of their own family* ' They have a tradition. and advanced in years. ^ time. if. and * which his fuperior wifdom rendered fo refpcdable. they mufl live in the fame united flate as under his parental *' roof. gave his children to underftand : '* That their way of *' living mufi. which carries their origin * much higher . if they were defirous . Such a mark of confideration is a ' proof of the virtuous regulations that then fubfifled ' amongfl thefe honed: people . a man of great wealth. the * privation of an authority. * ' ''to be wifer than the generality of men. that eleven hundred years ago. at the fame to this day. in whole polTeliion it has continued heredita* ry This family obtained. The fa «Sls related are too analogous — to the hifiory of Kliyogg for me to fear impropriety in placing them together. be greatly diminiihed. *^ they (hould. as was cuftomary. *' At fome leagues diflance from the town of Thiers * in Auvergne. * years fince it was purchafed by a numerous family of * peafants. mentioned by the Marquis de Mirabeaii^ collected by ths French Tranjlator. after his death.*' They did not fail to raife many objcdlious * to tljis propofal and the mod: weighty one was. the feat of a * fmall barony. and like wife of their ' apprebenfions of relaxing their difcipline and man* ners. a perpetual difpenfation from the pope to marry * within certain degrees where marriages are otherwise * deemed unlawful. fuch as he had exercifed. About four hundred called Saudon. namely. . *' — .lU THE RURAL SOCRATES. * one of their anceflors. the fa- — — ther of a numerous progeny. ^^'^ two memoirs on the origin of the Pincou family.

and of the fervants belonging to it. This afTembly difcuITes their various interefis. All they call hiin Mader Pignou. ^ By thefe laws ^he whole parental authority devolves to a general afT^bly of the family. ii Pincou F. and ever fmce have religioufly obferved. ^ itj ' ^ * ' ^ ' ' ' ' ^ ' * ' ' ^ ^ ^ * * * * ' ^ ^ ' ' ^ ' ' ' * ^ He had forefeen and guarded againil all the difficulties they feared . by a woman intruded with the care of them to a certain age. Thus thePi^nous. Their great maxim. to fign refolutions^ and to condudl: affairs in o^eneral . which is inftiiled in infancy. would defend them from all inconvcniencies capable of fruflrating their fchemc. and the foundation of all their rules. ' The family rules extend to domedics. food. which is the fami]y name*. is. bat I fnppofe Pignou • is the pJO™ vtoclal way of founding . and to be ' If regular in the praclice of all Chridian duties. Their fecond maxim is. firmly adhered to. They are called by their chriftian name. never to foar above their original rank. — — — : — * M. ' The children are educated in common without any di{lin<ftion. follow the plough with their laborers. but he is reilrained to the difpofal often piJioles 3 beyond which fum the alfembly mud determine. applies remedies to their grievances. and decides what meafures are moR eligi' bJe. This principle is characterized in many anecdotes. which they mofi cordially accepted. and replied. The prefident alone has the title of Mr. A man is not admitted to thefe deliberations till he is twenty ye-ars of age. an implicit reverence for their own family . nor have they ever repented this fingular confidence. and lodging. that good inftitutions. who are to be prefent at morning and evening prayers. ' They never require of the prefident an account of his adminiflration . de Mi rabeau calls it. The afTembly appoints a prefident to take care of the money. have never varied from other peafants in the articles of drefs. The father compofed a code for the ufe of his children. She has alfo the fuperintcndanceofthe dairy.THE RURAL SOCRATE?. .

— M. and againfl the rules of the So* ciety. * They are charitable to the poor and hofpitable to ^ firarigers they are beloved. and attachment " to buiincG . refpetSled. who prefchtcd him to the King. any of the younger branches of the family happen from it. Many noble families. bene^ volence. but ^ this is a hopeJefs wi(h. le Blanc. fimplicity. without which it is impoffibre * to form a happy fuciety^ or procure peace and comp^^ to detach themlelves — — ^ * '^ — : * tence. ^ have unfuccefsfully attempted to imitate their rule of ^ life. ' " ^ ' * ^ * ' * ^ war.i88 ' THfe If RURAL SOCRATES." Thefc . The Pignous make the niofi: laudable ufe of wealth. tliere yet remain eight ^ heads of families. and are defirons to return. which allov/s no re-adniiffion to thofe vv-ho once * abandon NotwithRanding a great dccreafe by it. he made a recital of them to Louis XIV. and admired". The former have turned the fchcme into parties of ' pleafiire . Deligh.— Undoubtedly none * of thefe have laid the fame permanent foundation for * the happinefs they were in icarth of. Some time after Mafler Pignou being obliged to go to Paris on various butlnefs . difmtereflcdnefs. they receive a proper ' dividend of the public money. dined at the caflle. It generally happens 'that thcfe repent. and the latter have found it impradicable to ^ arrive at that point of union and profperity which dif* tinguiflics the family of Pignou. fince fecretar y at ably entertaicv^d. qualities. Blanc. Louis afla'd him fevcral qucilions. in piety. ' ficknefs for fome years pa fl. as well as thofe of peafants. and was fo charmed with his replies. that he ordcied that the tax of the Pignous fhould never exceed fix hundred livres . was honorand infilled on Mafter Pignou's prcTiding at t?bic. and made hifn n prcfcT/i to defray ihc crspcncc? of his journey. he paid his compliments to M. ' . Several intendaiits of the province have gratified le ^ ' their curiohty in vifiting the Pignous.tcd with their manners and cuitoms.

If it happens that one ^ branch of the family has only a daughter. * — *" ' V fcquently . nor lefs for they keep in the family only ' thofe who are defigned to intermarry and fucceed their parents . the lirft — 1739. * But they have no lordfliips or manors.prop:etors of Saudon. who is con. or Tome other friend to human nature.-/ differs from it in ieveral articles. of ail that relates to this extraordinary family The public would cfteem it nn invaluable prefent. about half a league from Thiers in Auvergne. hut in — this 1 — ' ' ^ ThcPignous.THE RURAL SOCRATES. I (liall give the purport of ihtjecond inemoir. have lived there near th. would take the trouble of receiving exa<5l and circumflantial information on the fpot. and other heritages. whilil: the refl of the children are fettled in ' the adjacent villages with a fortune of 21I. who ^ live together within There are the fame buildings. Their common eftate brings in more ^ than two hundred thoufand franks confifting of mea. till they are of ^ an age to become fettled. There is particular care beflowed on the education of thele. * different from their laborers. vineyards. becaufethey ^ never work in tTie field. They are maintained in a convent at the general expence. The /^rc. which is of fmall value. ' dows.ree hundred years. It is true they were written in different years . ' never more. 6d.?. In expelling that pleafure. J 89 Thefc are the mod interefting particulars in ihcfirjl memoir. arable land. and fome * houfhold furniture of fmall value. ' The maRer is the only man amongfl them who wears ' leathern fhoes. Kow much is it to be wifhed that the Marquis de IVIirabeau. ' The daugliters have alfo a cheft of linen. The women wear them. excepting the ^ fief of Saudon. being dated count . ' This family has branched into four divifions. fuch as peafants rc* quire the Pignous not being in outward appearance. 17s. and the fccond being a recent acdoes not lufficientjy explain the variation. .

who is chofen from the other chiefs. who are cordially received. as v/ifer ^ in . according to their rank . ' that flie never could confent to put fuch an indignity ' on the family and cufloms of ihe Pignous — * I * ^ equally divided amongd the four chiefs. ' the number of their chiefs. in a manner fuitable to her large fortune. and that when once they made a diflin6tion in apartments. it would foon be follov>'ed by other innovations which would interrupt the happinefs of this little republic. fed^ and even lodged. demonflratcd to them that fimplicity was effential to fuch an efiablidmient . About * forty years ago. as a means of eflablifhing herdaugh' ter. but the intendant. finall as it is. they 'marry her to the fon of another branch. vvlio have left the cafile. the principal authority refts with the mafler. M. They alfo receive well all vifitants. if they chance to be benighted. who ^ had an only daughter. to keep fequently heirefs to one fourth part of the eflate. Some of his company were for advifing the mailer to furniili at leail one apartment elcniilied in the — la Granville.190 * THE RURAL SOCRATES. de who was travelling that way. than they. was folicited to marry fome gentleman herfclf. ' ' up They take a . which makes them excerdingly honored and elleemed decides Aiwl what rvl-iflcr Pignou in the province j " gantly. flopped at Mailer Pignou's. defiring * any addition to their fortune. the widow of one of their chiefs. ' The Pignou family are remarkably bountiful to poor travellers. ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ' * ' ' * ' ' a mark of diilinction . This * worthy vvoman anfwered in her provincial diale*^. nor of any of the * fons or daughters. care early to imprefs their children v/ith fiich reipecl for their family and for its * ' inflitutions that there has never been an inftance of any of the chiefs entertaining the nioft diflant idea of / feparating from the commnniry . The cafile is large. providing the bell entertainmeut in their power. but the apartments are fur' Though property is *• * * ' ^' moll plain and humble manner.

pafTes in general. *' *' ^' ^^ longer difappoint chimerical expeiTcations by its (icrility. the tranquillity it beftows By its influence. " if we " '' '' " ^^ obfervation. Children educated in thefe max" ims. *' and mankind would at lafi: be convinced. the concord it maintains.! would no ^* indufliry. in intelligent and enlightened perfons -'united upon the fame principles 3 prodiu^ive of fo ^' much good even amongfi fimple peafants What an ^' acceflion of opulence and flrenglh to a :Rate. —" We (liould accufe our- felves/' fays he. and to fly from the immoderate ufe of *' what we pofTefs. Surely we have better motives than the terrible confequences of a revolution. with the peaan infallible decree. that the *' mod infallible means to defy poverty is to renounce ^' opulence. to have '* a colleclion of thefe fmall republics formed wittiiw ^* itfelf A manly and fublime fimplicity would fucceed *' to effeminate luxury moderation. labor h foftened. the daughter of ^' 1 ! : would treafure the riches thus acquired . for any controverfy. \yhU{t the *' earth cultivated by their innocent hands. equality reiWhat extraordinary bleflings may we not tored ! recommend to efFc(ri:3 of economy and order neglected to 1 hope from it." I cannot (fays the French Tranflatoi) forbear communicating the judicious reflexions of my journaliftjWith which *' I (hall conclude. would renew that purity of manners. jealonfy extinguifned. of whicl! *' the lofs is more to be regretted every day . thefe folid : fuch as the plenty it procures. to bring vv.THE RURAL SOCRATES. back to nature i'*' Anecdotes . ' * 191 in fants.

knoiun in Lor" raine by the Name of Valdajon . A league and a half from Plombieres. as philofophical. lowing memoir. of feiences at Parisi Berlin. &c. by the Count de TrejQTan .General in the French fervlce. Anecdotes of the Family of Fleuriot. conlill of a fingle family. with ^ * ' nor did he difdain to oblige me in the fola parallel to the Rural Socrates. afid whofe character and inftitutions peculiarly aife6led the ienfibilHe not only paid due deference ity of M. ' This the ' {kill Thefc . of peafants. THE piece before us is by the Count de TrefTant. and are incef^ fantly employed in ailifling the public. Metz. and member of the academies F. which has a chearful appearance. in educating ^ their children. which borders on Franche Comte a pretty extenfive valley is formed by feveral openings betwixt the hills. E.— In reading the Rural Socrates. who occupy four ' or five houfes they are brought up in the flime prin' are governed by a chief chofen out of ciples they ' their body for his age and wifdom . in that part of ' ' the Voiges. : + Lieutenant. . with an hUroduciion and Remarks by the French Tranjlator. but the friendQiip with to the work of M. and perhaps even yet more to be refpe6led than Kliyogg . de TrefTan. tj. and fliews and alTiduity of the cultivators. lord chanmberlain of the houdiold to the Polilh Stlniflans.aif{lation . He an advanced ogf. King Londied don. he recoliedVed the feveral particulars of a journey he took feme years iince. The Count dc at Treff^n. Edinburgh.J92 THE RURAL SOCRATES. W2J a friend of Voltalre'fi and a poet. palliated the imperfections of my — . Governor of Bitche nnd German Lorraine. and in ^ tilling the ground. Hirzel which he honors me. Nantz. in comforting the diftrelTed. from a dedre of gaining a peifec^t information concerning a family.

they fpife the cultivation may difpenfe themfelves from the duty of relieving the poor . and that they had proved the greatnefs of their fouls by the mod difintereflcd beneficence . the fincerefl: fraternal tcndernefs. touched with admiration ' * ^ for the virtues inherent in the Fleuriots. * * 193 ^ This family. and fenfible that every part of their condud merited a Civic Crov/n. and the heads of them were * unanimous to return their grateful thanks to their ^overeign for the honor he intended them. The late Duke Leopold^." They refufed a patent of nobility . but ^ that.THE RURAL SOCRATES. perhaps. has always remained indel-= ** — . . traced in thsir fouls. whofe name is Fleuriot^ is better dil^ tinguifhed by that of Valdajon^ given to the country and village which it inhabits. which is nov/ fufficiently numerous and remote from ' ' its common ftock not to be obliged to . ' The families aflembled . the bleffing of ^^ heaven will no longer profper their undertakings 5 *^ difcord will divide them and ihey will ceafe to be '' happy. in *' an addrefs equally wife and dutiful) may. to their ' Repeated cures have added reputation knowledge whild remarkable piety and exemplary charity havejuRly acquired them the character of virtuous men. * contra(^ foreign alliances. but declined ' the acceptance of it. (laid they.ne famtly : a family (ince united to the AuQrUn Toval faini?y. E. are confpicuous in the manners of this happy family . *^ fee objedcs in a different light from ourfelves intox^ *- . *^ '' icated with the pride of nobility. " Our poflerity. ' For many years paf>. deof their eflate . 'Xht \%\t Qreen of France fprang froti? ibe united hcufes. •• ' ' The moft peculiar iriodcfty. the chiefs have principally (ludied that part of furgery v/hich refpeds fradures and ' * ^ ' d'tjlocations . was defirous to ^ ennoble them. . ' * iblc ! ' The * One ri \\\t Lorra'.

* The curejf performed by the Fleuriots are alntoft ^incredible. and have often excited envy. in a plain drefs brought to their habitations. than 1 a(ked if thv?y had any books. They anfwered. I went to Valdajon privately. * Some with whom I converfed. I was received the family. occupied by an aged chief of Being condniiled thither. True hofpitaliry Hiewed itfelf in its mod: natural and touching forms. and as I * ccfmmanded in that part of Lorraine. in an art founded on afccrtained and corre<^ principles . ought to have underftood the fubjci^t heft. it was eafy for * me to invefligate the truth of all I wanted to know. on my entrance.y^ I have always. that their principal books were depofited in a neighboring houfc. who. ^ My objetTt being to know the degree of information ofthe more flcilful among them. feemed-^defn-ous to varniOi with fuperftition and ignorance the procefs of the Fleuri^ Truth appeared to ots in their furgical operations. one of my ftudies . with only one attend- * * ' * ' * * * * ' ' * * * * * * as a fir anger whom chance had ant. . and noticed with admiration whatever refpedled their rural economy and domeflic government . with the obliging manners of the inhabitants. i informed my* felf particularly of what related to them . I flopped at one of the fird: houfes. talked ofthe Fleuriots * ^ * ' * * ' * * with as much regard. by a rdpe(^able oldman. whilfi: a very fmall number. I thought.194 THE RURAL SOCRATES. who under a ruAic form ' pofleiFed . I had no fooner refrefhed myfelf. ' The firfttime I was at Plombieres.— It is with difficulty I refrain from defcribing the neatneis and regularity of each article. and. every thing I faw edified and affecfted me. and to take pi-oper precautions not to — * ' be deceived. me cleareft in the mod favorable reports : I regarded it then as an honorable duty to examine fadi^s with my own eyes. made anatom. ' As at leifure hours. I underftood enough of it to dii*tinguidi real fcience ' from impoflure. as admiration .

Such are the ^' leiTons I received fuch are thofe w. Thofc " of them who have the turn for it. " ing and even our dogs are made the vic^tims. of four or five different ages other fKeletons . '-^•pofreiTed foft ' 195 I and poliflied manners. it on aniirals. and to cheriflithem under their futferings .THE RURAL SOCRATES. *' fame fyfteni He then will pafs to our children. but rich by the * furniture I found in it the befl: books it contained. ' taken to pieces and the parts thrown indilcriminately ' together." different " " prefs filled with bandages and ligatures proper cafes. male and ' female. and ihc '• bleiTing of God has attended our endeavors. curious models to fl^ew the mufcular fyfdifficulty in ' tern. (he replied) were the only *' mailers of my anceftors I have no other . in order to be united by an exercifc of fkill ' and laftly. *' nature.c teach . and experience. As found no beginning my convcriation. or iradc more dilhcflang inflidled will lead to a fuperior Csa is needful : ate crimes againft the God of nature. in practice to *' theory and on mis occafion. and after '^ feparating. plain in itfelf. E. for we en*' courage oar children to feel for the cries of thefe ani" mals. We our chil- " dren to read and to underhand what they read." * opened a large cabinet. Here is a large can join them again. antient and modern ^ fkeietons.) we teach what is nccelTary for the inllrucfl *^ relief of our fellow creatures. and *^ they foon learn to heal their wounds*. I aiked him what * principles he had lludied in his art. — for . and' the . '' Here (faid he. . * in furgery. know thefe bones " and mufcles before they are ten years old . '' Good book^. "where it is probable good eiibcr to ncen or the brute creaEKperitnenta here without an ohjed. the goats yon ice feed. The '' very a^^s of cruelty exercifed on thefe victims extin" guiihes however the prujciple of cruelty . '' children are taught early alfo to j<. Such pain (hoold only ht vhat tion. Our with tickets to mark them.

which Chhile. ' The Marquis dc Voyer and M. ^ I aril unable to cxprefs the tendernefs and refpedk with which I was penetrated at this moment. I made myiclfknovv^n if he intreated. . But. He fucceedcd fome of tlie melt popular piioces in that country that have been known any ivhere in modern times. phiiojophe hievfaifimfy puhiifhed in 4 volumes 8vo.'^ The profpedt before ^^ you (faid he) fupplies our wants and Providence . de St. Sir.ig6 * THE RURAL SOCRATES. defigned and to give me plcato him . but many accounts . ^ whofe fo univerfally abilities and information are *- : : ' known. by ex*' citing inordinate defirts in our children. but afterwards gave way to the beaer fojtunes of King Auguftus II. lit kept his throne while then Ex-King of Poland. ^' you have the happincfs to be in liigh office near our ^' dear and auguft fovereign Deign to tell him. of Sweden was in power . are well known lo iravelkrs. fields of grain. that he would acquaint me how 1 could be of ^ life to hiiTirdf or to lonie one of his family. and gar* dens. and addHe was the oflenfihle author of the CEui^res d^un ed one to the number. for which I could * vouch upon the evidence of my own eye-fight. By her influence but had Lcrraine given to him he was not only allowed to retain his tills to govern for iife.ucfsgood in Lorraine. Lambert. His daughter wa$ married to Louis XV. we have even Tome means *' left for comfoiting the wretched. that they may be ranked among the bed ^' fubjecls of the mofl beneficent of all monarchs*. of France. which lurrounded us. I em^ braced the virtuous old man. ''" having blelTed our labors. would " be ufelefs it might even become pernicious.«.'' ^ If a relation were required of multiplied compound ^ fra(n:ures cured in the fame patient.-i . I could furnilh not ^ only one. but ornamenied it with /everal buildings. * fure. E. who was fupported hy the Rii(lian. *^ Fleuriots will always endeavor to be ufeful to the *' diflrefTed. that *' all our fcveral families lift their prayers to heaven '' for the continuance of his precious life and that the . and not only did n-. ' He pointed to the houfes. XII. Every thing be*' yond what is needful for our fmall expences. * Stanifiaus.

de Morand. p. At home they live like (imple peafants . and with the fame eyes. They arc always. and ufing water for theh^ only * drink. ^ abroad but never go out on horfe-back. in fhort. ' As to the agriculture of the Fleuriots. He renders confequently the fame juflice to the fkill of the Valdajons (cr Fleuriots . that this celebrated phyfician did not fee all which was viewed bymy illuflrious friend \ but he faw the mofl ejGTential parts. eating ' rye-bread and bacon. His teflimony alone would be decifive on the fubjed:. It is true. and who does not feel interefted in every particular which concerns the Fleuriots I In the Journal Economique for December. and rejetft whatever is ufe' lefs.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and will certify the fame faTcs. will alvvaj's with eagernefs p^y a jufl tribute to men as yet fo rare. and their drefs. by an interefting letter written by M. pcrfons lo prudent and well inftrucled. have the fame fundamental principles with the able and induflrious Kliyogg. tails on the fubjed. ' Content (fays he) with their lot. I give no de It will eafily be prefumed that. Perfons of reflexion and fenfibility. Who whom poffcffed of the leafl fentiment.) and was alike llruck and enchanted with their fimplicity of manners. we have the means of gratifying perfons of this defcription. * ' ' ' * * * * * ^ * known. one or other of them. if we have need of tedimony after that of the Count de Treifan. they confine them' felves to pure neceffaries. their ftyle of life. and furnifli excellent leffons. A parallel betw^een them would nevertheIcfs do honor to humanity. dodlor regent of the faculty of medicine at Paris. ou is there the above charming relation does not make a deep impreflion. 1755. 76. but whofe example requires ib much to be imitated/ Remarks by the French Tranjlator. and will \ ' • never- . their food. have had the fame curiofity refpcctifig: this family with myfelf.

being relolvent and good for the nerves. is and fractures. * * ^ ^ * dajon ointment. as any ^ther whatever. never return hom^ in a carriage. vain phantoms of happinefs. . and the Valda30ns.1^8 * * • THE RURAL SOCRATES. abjecfl. diflocations. that Dr. have no effe(St on * their minds. which * is their fok fecret and treafure. Hirzel had theflrongthat the clafs of peafants as inuch delcrves the attention of the philofopher. He will there certainly find a "V^aidajon. and many a Kliyogg. * regarding whv^t is paid to them. Gold and wealth in general. a unknown for true . at prcfcnt Pignou. can retain a doubt. and into the claffo which to the boalfed world of faihion feem the mofl €i\ reafon for nfiirming. ^ ^K^j^Let the true fage who is friendly to humanity feck after men who are truly virtuous . or without . * there : — We Tranflator.] "Who (fays the French Tranfiator) after feeing the example of the Kliyoggs. flrains. They give them alfo their ointment . They affirm that * the receipt of this belongs to their family it is an * outward application. This remedy is in much eile-em in Lorraine . Ev' ery Tnefday they attend at Kcmiremont. having qualities at once foftening and corroborating.es they fup* ply their patients with money to enable them to rettarn * home. and alfo for wounds where danger of mortification It gives eafe likewife * in the pains of gout and of rheumatifm* It is fimply ^ fpread on linen.' now return to our French £Thus far M. without being foftened with heat. and on other * days at Plombieres and other places having fomc* times forty poor patients in one ipot. They have often refufed two or three * 'louis-d'ors from the rich. Ofrentim.virtue fhuns inTpet^ion. * from theiTi only one or two crowns at the moft. the Pignous. It is prefcribed by the family in cafes of bruifcs. Moraud. as a pay too ample taking . whom they vifit and drefs. known by the name of the Val: — . with traftures and * maims gratis. and confhnlly remains attach^sd to . let h\m follow theiu into their obfcurity.

or like' Dr. . ' population' * Thefe particulars are contained in a letter written in 1795". 199 to that ftate of fimplicity which fomc difdain to exam* But a difcerning man will negle<fl nothing to draw f uch charadlers from their retreat he will go like the Count de Treflan to vifit them in their cottages. in the fitflinn^nrf. ry Haiited enjoyments . The original being in German. but Avill not the lefs do him credit.— It will appear that he was lirtle fatisficd with the antient conftimtion of his canton . '''• SINCE I it know what ufe you defign to make of ^ * * * * * * * feems necefTary to ftate certain points i. a portion^ n^cefTarily (lender in a country like Zuirich. E.THE RURAL SOCRATES. and it may be fufpefled. well known for his taand who has been noticed on this account hy naoie than one fove- Europe. to tfe editor of this compilation. refpe^Ing himp in t^« E. He will be eager to make known their virtues and their good actions . where the Kliyoggt. for the purpofe of being inferted in this place. the tranllation is here given horn a French franflation. a contrary effed will be produ<:ed by inRances of virtue. The lents. no more than the mere portion which cannot be ravifhcd from him . which can never {^v\'q for imitation in Zurich.to paMifh the prefent tJnited States of America. not in order to flatter their felf-love. but in the hope that * * if examples of vice make fo many guilty and unhappy.i Ms chara(^€r. : SECTION III. Hirzel to feek them at their plough. man has veica. that he attributed to Kliycgg fomc of his own feelings ia more than one refpea. compilation reign power in + Namely. for fame in their eyes is no bleffing . author of ihe letter is a citizen of Zurich. ** or prevent his ferviug as a model for the cultivators ofAmerIn all the civilized parts of Europe. Inc. AJMtiGftal Particulars in the Character and Seni'vme fit's of Kliyoggy communicated by a CorreJpo7ident^.

other things had a right to examine what fermcns the E^Xt^gy had preacbct! inihe courf? af every lix months preceding. ' It feems that Kliyogg has been extolled too much ^% a fiirmcr. town-halls. -He confidered morality and human happinefs as founded not only upon an indefatigable zeal for bullnefs. *- ^ He carried to great leDgtlis the maxim. that man * * ought to fband upon his own bafis. and if there are an hundred of them. f::ription all afTemblies at * kets. fchools. and even by the clergy of Zurich. marand military reviews . but. we mufl confider him ' as independent of circumftances. they will certainly fay three things which are improper . and affirmed that men grew worfe whenc er they remained in each other's company without In this view. and at the cxpence too of his charader of a church.doors. ^ * * * ing that in thing which was elTential to them. he clafTed under one dercc nidation. and he * ftrnggled againfl with all the warmth and finccrity of his nature. ' meddles in the mofl minute concerns'^. population fuper-abundant. namely. — ir. * We have j)eafants as himfelf for as much by hundreds. that when three perfons are together. *** for he difliked ' much of what was taught in the fchools. There was even an ccclefiaftica. purified from ufelefs and foreign dodrines . they will fay an hundred. but upon fmiple truths.foo ' THE RURAL SOCRATES. true a charge./«/. in all our country. confidered as a ?. He was alarmed at the meeting together of perfons who were Grangers to each other. there is not a fecond With refpetH: to Kliyogg.. faythefe cafes men wei^e fure lo unlearn fome- man. who have done the improvement of their * farms. is and the government To do juflice * then to the merits of Kliyogg. ' The civil and ecclefiaftical conflitution of his vil* lage was entirely contrary to his principles . without yielding to companions or neighbors. * the offirer. * This was hut too who among . I recolle<fl diftin^i'ly one of his ren^arks . taverns.

led to his ruin and that the peafant had no' ufe for cafn. Kliyogg however conceived. Bb . ' * ^ ' ' ' The acquifitiori of fpecie is with us the finglc flandard of internal profperity . week. an intimate knowledge of the human charad:er^ ' and of the primary fources of its errors and its ' vices. except to fupport his houfhold and pay — . 'The + It isfarely ufeful to obferve the rule» to be clean once a . the nfeceffary refult of our complicated relations. he excelled more than he did as a Swifs cultivator ."***". In ours. and the difftpation of it.. * and a refolute and forcible oppofition to thefe ' _ * fources . ^ feared alfo that thehappinefsof his family would' firft piece of filk which entered it . and on this account an altar may be erected to him. and ' he even dreaded theefFed of Sunday cloihest. family. ^oi^ the his management of his fupport of our natural rights. provided be in the WeRern world. but in Euit: ^ ^ rope. atHra(Slcd his notice . The whole of the people ought in troth to be refpedled . * ^ * * ^ * *" * in all thefe particulars. that c6in in the hands of the peafant. we do not and cannot give to the people all which they aflc. and thele are obje<fls which (I * maintain) need not be provided for in Europe. ' He ceafe with the . * but its cffed: upon the tranquillity of the mind and up' on the liberty and free exercife of our faculties.) .7^HE ^ * ' RURAL SOCRATES. There b alfo a time when one may begin to wear our is tio new Ev clothes which fDsy well happen on the day when there work. as we think a man refpe^flablc only in proportion he differs from the people. he calculated ' the influence of each fenfual enjoyment in its moffc * diftant confeouences. . ' Having a deep penetration into man. It was not its effedb however * upon the finances or the flate *^ * * which interefled * him (for with thefe he did not cjoncern himfelf . * his taxes.

is a confirmation that the ideas of Kliyogg refpecTting the union of families. fhort was firmly cbnvinced. are of the high- eft * ^ * * ^ * '- It is true.t of life by a courie of voluntary a<Slivity and exertion . ' as much as poftible by the labor of his family. which is fcen in fome parts of our canton. but that defires are commonly excited by the folly of idle company. than in villages . He faid. and he conceived that our prefent inftitutlons of police. as feen ijpon many retired farms in Switzerland. the corruptions of fociety. — His fixed ^ principle to do by woi k^ by money . ' Kliyogg maintained that the innocence of the fexes' ought to be preferved longer than is cuftomary . but Kliyogg was no friend to that over-done population. that nature is content to poflpone thefe feelings? for a longtime. He affirmed that the pafis not natural to man . but I am lure that he in his charadl'er of a cultivator.^oar THE RURAL SOCRATES. renders marriage Ibmewhat lefs eafy. their ignorance of this clafs of gratifications : — * * * and he maintained that there is no difficulty in effeeling this. His fyflem war? partly the fame for the defires and paflions of the underftanding. that men fhould be brought to a difcreet enjoymer. that the importance. difficult intercourfe between thefe detached farms. and before the mind is fufiicient**^' Our Kliyogg in iy matured to content them.• ' as much as pofTible ' as little as poflible . Perhaps have too flrongly expreiTed my fenfe of ^ *- Kliyogg's fupcriority as a fell (hort man. and ' all •^as little as pofTible by hired hands . by preventing the young from going to bed till they are well fatigued. He thought that they ought not to be awakened too early. where Cimpld manners are preferved fome centuries longer than in our villages . of education and of religion. * * * * * * The fupcriority of the moral charafter. were little adapted to the leading circum- fion for premature enjoyment its * ^ * *" but owes rife to — * * ^ * * — * * * '' * fiances of ^ common I life. that is to fay.

Nor is the reji of Europe in general in the fame circumfiances in nvhich the ivhich Kiiyogg the merit of firfi exhibit} ftg there — fvoriter paints Zurich. the high price of its land.ay be vfful e*ven in Zu" vichi and fill more in the n]} APPENDIX* . Manj of Khjogg s farming maxims opplj even in Zurich : fuch as that a farmer Jhouldfet the example of nxiork" ing . cannot fubfifl: without counting. Zurich. E. or fail to conHder a return in caft. on account of this things at his ^ ^ ^ its clofe population. and where the farms are generally thrown into divifions (or fields) of one eighth of an acre each . as the great objed of his labors. and which. Thefe however are circumilances to which Kiiyogg paid little attention . meafuring and v/eighing .voods. for which reafbn he cannot be exhibited as a model for the cultivators of Zurich. fuch as that of mixi»o topeiher foils rtmarkahU merely for differing from eech other^ that of chtaining the ad'vantage deri'ved Jrom furroivs in moiji land ixithout the iofs cf any landy and that of deriving manure from the trees in cur n. — Ccnfequently Kiiyogg of Europe. and where he commonly obtains the means of paying it by fpin ning . where (I repeat) many in this view have exceeded him.]-— But with a nation whole turn is become contracted by the practice of counting.'* - ^ — . the principle cannot apply. . Many farming praBkes had are alfo equally admijjihie in . and the mortgages with which it is burthened. with * ^ ^ * ' ' * * * * * Where fuch a nation.Jje of this eriicht though ingenhnst ^vjs not a farmer . there the farmer can rarely keep as many hands all the year round. ^ ^ 2©2 ail ' ' * * was worthy of a great legiflator [who has command. the peafant is obliged to pay a high intereft. and part ia!!y.. and that he Jhoiild ne<ver njoriter * Tke 'vie'Txed his fubje^ — defpair. meafuring.THE RURAL SOCRATES. that he Jhould go to nvork the fkorfef ^way . ir. and weighing . as he will want at particular moments.

No. doubted utility cf it have detei'mir^ed r/ie to procure a tranflation . c^rew ibe preceding SOME lime fmce P'rench language.APPENDIX. with a view to difcover thofe that promife beft for tranCbut by not feeing this ruftic phiiofopher in an Englifh drefs. is The work pieculiarly conne^ed with the general caft of the preced- ing fuhjeOs. The Preface given by Arthur 7'oung^ Efqiiire^ to that part of the Rural Socrates^ tranjlated and publifhcdtn Englijh^ under hn^ direClhn. . and to cultivate i \\\t whole with unremitted diligence and reatiiefs./and diiplays an example. vyho read the modern French aathors. I ajr. and the whole ts the rearrr^anagenfient of a Swifs farmer »(3ay //'z. I wet vvlili te Socrate Ruflijue. coming to a fmall farm overwhelmed wirh mortgages. Rural Economy or EJfsjt on the practical ^^ (•arts of hnfi^andr^i .hcn deferving of attention .. I./>7^. which I haVe omitted. not only of economy. fobriety. entitled I ttp work in the effays*'. Itdifplays a poor peafant. uiuch more corred and accurate than moft of our Britifli farmers can boaft. a ffoaU \ peruf- e3 it with great pleafure . are here enlarged upon . furprifecl that fo uncommon a relation fhould bothave attra^ed the attention of ihofe gentlemen. vis. It is the hiffory 6f his pradrce . and'prefsnts other ideas of indifputabl« ufc. which generally decide this negle^l of foreign books. w. 33 not only to gain enough todifcharge his incumbrances j but to purchafc more land. pradiiling fo animated an agriculture. and every domefiic virtue but alfo of rooft fpirited hulbandfy. fuch as an impro: — per tafte (relauve to up J in tranilaiors. that the public iDight not be depcived of the k)fs of fuch an example. the ecoiiorKical manageerent of a farm : it enlarges on Several parts fojneof therp.— I ihouM think * Intitled. cf condudi. from the concurrence of thofe comoion circumftances. lation The merit and unprebend the work is not included in that number. indiiftry. or the ideas of bookfellers con- Cerning their profit.

it >hink myfelf very unhappy. difccrning what conflitutcs the forming juft ideas of happinefy. It has been received with uncommon pleafure in Switzerland and France. are marked at the end. among the cultivators of the earth a Lycurgus. . and that the rceaneft condiinflancea ot exalted fentiment and underftanding. The diftiniftion between the ruftics and the falhionable part of the world confifts in the objecis. a Plato. were I to trouble the public with a trifling or a worthlefs hook . Here learned to defpifc * // nuas njorttten originally French one *^* Y. that real grandeur tion man furnifhes being ced that in all fifuarions. but to the farming reader. and a Luciani Nor ought I to conceal that the marks of vice were slfo to be met with.*** No. written in a Country Church Yard. or to thofe who can be inferefted with the memoirs of an honert iiiduftry. the confciouinefs of a rational application of our talents. I could trace nius are equally difcernible in the cottage and the palace.APPENDIX. The country therefore is the beft fchool for acquiring a for more intimate I knowledge of human nature. in Getman. Graj*s Elegy. 11. Hirzel^) have been refervcd for infer tion in this appendix^ as not direCily relating to Kliyogg. • Refieflions in new is inflrud^ed njc in this great truth. I flatter myfelf this liillc work will not be unacceptable*. This trartjlation is from thi + Some 'Village Hampden^ that nxiith dauntfefs The little tyrant of his fields ivith/iood . the fenfe of the progrefs we make in doing good. and for true greatnefs of raan. a Homer. The notes I have added. Some tnute% inglorious MilloTt) here may refi . 'which \though origirtally written by Dr. capajemployed to the general good.— I wa? likewife convinunconfined to — ! of reafoning. a Socrates. R. And fviajie itsfnveetnejs on the defart air. not the degree^ of the powers ble of rank . are every where the The different gradations and defcriptions of gefteady reward of virtue. Fragments from the EnglifiLor French tranflatwn of the Rural Socrates . and the pure and tranquil joy which is the conftant refuU of it . Some Cromnjoelly guilt lefs hreojl of his country s bloods Full many a gemof purefl ray ferene The dark unfathom'd ca'ves of ocean htar Full many a flo-Lver IS hern to hlu/h nnfesny .

ilofil for Baflej ea^nh foilcfwed the . oifspring in a j^jdicious and inquiries into the theoremarks would throw new light on our triends of human nary of the intelJee. feize the leturning to the firnple and rational li-fe of their countrymen. defrous to gite thefe magijiracy cf canton. and is a part fr. ridiculous vanity of thofe literary geniufea. agriculture..ng from the fi^dy of hufoandry the nature of m&*.es the fecret receffes of irivxiling pi. of Znrich. human of the I am perfuaded fuch itDpartial manner. whom ws brand as favage. of 'which his father caimcrjed ^ifh Here he ^vent through a complete coufe of hufoandry and 'with opportunities of o. that the liural Socmtes %va: rea^ kefart th + The go-vernmcvt ^ • iiz memoir:.1 diOempers fpiings from the prevention of epiiemtcGi rules-\ (inferted in our v^. who feek forcibly to difpofhave any remaining )r (houU we liberty I and fcfstheraof wealth participating in dcubtj whether thofe among them a«ed wifely.ual faculty. fome kuowleogc of agriculture feemed a recei- happens that the preliminary to fuch an office.t^toui) for 3anci?. might. ihe excrefcence of their learning. Snce it is btcome a part of n>y duty to examine foils.— with much propriety. n^ d'ijeafis hh Jlxteenth year reftdei in the Abbey bit en a ant for the Kif^g of Prufta. chofe nations. F. face. renders apparent to ' ihecyes ola iniephilcfopher. letort the appelhtion N is now confirmed pleafore ari{^. capabk of inveftigating nature in her uncultivated contemplating cf and heart. alfo being flrongly re- commenced f:irv to my care. as it fllmoft always meadow and paflure origin of thefe epidemici.ilofophers. a flavery their will. manners and genius of ihofc we call /alamented our deficienry in relations I and rrr^w fufpefted . who fancy that fuperior ortier of beings. * Dr. m^os ofCapel. I ara oblig-d to pay peculiar attention confideration of a redifferent racks of pc^opK%-The The in of living of the .he wifdom and We (hould find that Creator in the order and difpofijion of his creatures. a Have to the dominion cf defpifc the ces.. .^ 1 Philohphical Society of luricb . when fheir extenfivc erudition places them in a is frequenrly clouded with prejudiaoderftaDding their ihat evident.—Ths their throughout authority hy fuhlijhed ihem eyavjpie. <^eou3 My feBtiracnis now became more enlarged. and furnilli the good ne fa of the turewiih mareriais for gratitude to .. Sodety. Xap.1 A P P E N D I X. who after firft opportanuy of she rrsnners and fciences of the Europeans. Hirz^lfrc-1 his ninth to fer'vi/jg mankind in ajfate of fettrement* L. The appointment of firft phyfician to the republic of Zurich^ health of her ci«^aking it incumbent on n>e ro watch over the to the different modes :izen<>.redy for epidemical dfftempers among cattle. rules the force b/ Unii. and 'vvhlch their v&nlty. lo'v: a acquiring for thus farmers. ''•Jhe memi>irs referred 'tOy are thofe of the tn the /rrchfr^ed been has It tfrwhirh the author had been fecrctary. of the AH the diladvanta- defcriptions on their polite gueds. it is the paffiona .

The moft circumforibed genias may follow pradicai rules. the prefent ftate of rural economy in Zurich . nature of with cultivation as are praQifed by the moft induftrious farmers. . &c. with f^vera! for^s of grain and grafs-f^edsj trees and fhrubs. to excite a laudable ecnulation in farmers. difenjes ir in eatile% hy correPJng the injahhrity of the fail^ furRifh proof of what I advance.o embellifii a favorite theory in their writings. we ought a know- kdgeof the competent infighi into fuch methods of by which the^ with their reareft nejghboTb'„ often double their produccp compared What remains is to procure a free communication of thefe roethods .) and of turf (or peat) for manure. It is more uncertain^ becaufe mert fiie too apt . The olje^s ot * h» A farmer can feldom •Ifernje the is do better^ ivhen moming into a nt^o) J nation i thaispraBices of the moffuccefsful of hii neiv neighbors . may be comprifed in the number. tutkey-corn (or maize.oity of their it%co. This I (hould think the rapft eligible plan for re^orin^ agriculture ffmong us. which makes this interefting fuhjed the principal and conflant end ol rts conferences and inquiries. whilft a« a third fort hope to acquire by untried objefis of attention to fel our upen..APPENDIX. cf whcfs good effet^ta we have already reaped much advantage.re to the procuring of new-invented impleetisnts of hu^indry . fuch this the culture of mulberry-trees for filk-worms. ejpec tally if It 'Txillhe i^fj tf/^ obliged to employ laborers obtained upon ihefpzt. fro. This double motive infpired me with an ardent defire of exploring and explaining. I muft nevertheJcfs acknowjrdge. with all pofiiole precifion. dG> not appear to me» the beft calculated to anfwcr the purpofes of improveAn eager purfuit after new experiments. of v/h'ich they have made trials on their ^^i^'Ci cttatf. with its imperfcftions and capability of improvemento In this purfuit I again repeat niy happinefs in being meniber of a fociety.n the introduflionoi foroc unknown fpecies of corn or artiScial grafs : others expt-d fame from the : invention of Tome new innplement it or different me(hod of tillage . prevail* farming. than that which I have ventured to recommend.— Yet this plan for the improvcaienc of agriculture.s before ihcj?were rendered public. ihat the Biethods hitherto purfaed. Some who flatter themfclvcs with being con- fidercd as the great improvers of agriculture. — appears more uncertain. I hsve no defire to depreciate the a'.erit of thofe generous chlzensv. unknown in our clfmate .s are attended with acrowd of dii?tculiics. Thefe fpirited attentions. and infinitely Jlaxver in it? progrefs. uodoubredly merit our comThe introduction of potatoes and loendation and acknowledgement. E. whofe knowledge of the ancient huib-indry there are is fupeificiaJ and incompetent. and to endeavor by all pofllble means. who have appropriated a confiderablc parr of the fjpefp. unmolifted by any obftacle 3 whiUt new in7ea:ior. — in oppofiticn to is a perfevSl I apprehend the £rft principle foils . to refart tQ his f iernMarJi gradually Qivn idr^s. &:c. irsent xvi — aiDongft thofc.

and can be of no It is a work of time to real benefit till they become habitual or general. IV. manufactures. «' cbferved. with its attendant cxpence. 1774)) " inserted in the French tranflation . be an advantageous compenfaiion for abandoning an old one. bat when extended. in addition to' yhe insreafed A The « « • number of deaths. the diminution of Qiarriages and births among the former. that agriculture is int2rnat?yy and I can affirm from my own experience. are often extolled beyond reality. that new inventions are vtiyjlsxv in their effed^s. but as it h^as no relation to Kliyogg. and the injuiy iont to it by luxury. following paffages alfo merit 3 place h'er*. and change the habits received — froaj his forefathers for new ones. but es having had no effef^ among thofc who culti' The French tranilatof adds curious accounts of dialed the earth for food. defpotifm.V A P P E N D I Xa of which they arc fand. * Columella allied (fays Df. (dated 4 Oclober. convince a psafant that the alterations you propofe are eligible . find with wifdora amd Ikill in prefumption rn favor and that it is rare to afliduity thefc virtues. . except in is cultivator foon turned into a company with each other. of Liniz. or whether the adoption of a new fyftem of hu{bandry. and they i\low too much to fancy in their defcriptions. NOe III. Hirzel to the Abbe Sigifmond. It muft be a long courfe of otpericnents which alone can determine whether this or that grain or grafe ma^ be naturalized with real benefit to a country . Count of Rfotlicnwart and Piefidcnt of the College of the Norjh [du Nord]. it was omined in its place . the utility is found abforbed in the expence of labor.— I have alfo obferrcd. Another y^rticle from Dr. armies. HirzeL Letter from Dr. that every feldier draixn from the feofantry a good JQldier " mpropQvthn sa ht has been a go^d peajc:n\** No. that the agriculrcre of our villages always affords a certain of iiieir attachment to religion and gocd mollis . and to perfuade him to renounce his prejudices. 5 « ^ ^ •s Hirzel) affures us. and many of our oldeft (hat they have conflantly it — officers in foreign fervice have informed me." <• A good good foldier . Experiments ofterE' fucceed to admiration in a well-cultivated garden . though it contains ufetul remarks lefpefiing the merits of agriculture. &c. that famine is reprefented as having caafed grent mortality among roanufs^urers and other purchafen of the earth's prodo(f^ions . It is worthy of notice however.

for it is neeeiury that thofe who are to confer efteem. The names of the perfons molt tfleemcd and moft fuccefsful in hufhandry fhould alfo be obtained . might fecure univexfal conttdence .. whilft in the loivci and lefs confined dillrif^s of Greificnfee. and Thcefb . . fince not- we have an uncommon variety of cultivation. Men of this defcription will think theajfelves under the ftrongeft obligation to ftudy. and Regenfper. according to the nature of thefe foilso The grapes on the Lake of Zurich feem to require another treatment. from thofe on the Limmath.1 No. . — — ate infpeftion of the Society of all new open :. to^ leilify miflakes by perfonal inquiries. whofe integrity and knowledge of z\t\y thing relative to hufbandxy. and When the Society fhall have fufficiently qualified it may when furrounf^ed by their countrymen. itfelf. HirzeFs ftr/i worky the Engli/fi tranjlaiion* chiefly taken from If the magiilratcs of Zurich think it an objeft of national utilitr toencourage agriculture by premiums and marks of diftinif^ion. Conclujlon oj Dr. leprefenting a laborer driving his plough. The Society fhould alfo from tiaie to time make cxcurlions. An - cxaft journal fhould be . '.. The members of this Society fhould' therefore make themfelves acquainted with the nature of the different pTsdiiccs ufed throughout the canton . in the vales watered by the Liinmath. . and the culture of thofe planted on the fides of the R-hine. Thour.ethods of condud^ing and ioiproving their farms. of improvement. differs VI idely from both. i . the date of the country . in the . taking allin rotation. meceffary arrangements. with their own relations of their ir. fhould themfelves pofTsfs it. receive the deftined prize! J would h^vc this a medal. firlHn nuifery-groundst field. as well as on the borders of the Rhine . and the Thcefs. . »»d afterwards if fuccefsfu! of every experinrient .A P ?^ E N D I X. t— Thus by a judicious dilhibution of applaufe and of recompenfes to the bcfl of cultivators. djfcoveries. Careful trials niight be made under the immediwithftanding our fmall extent of territory.s the piincipai branch of rurrd econoaiy : but this culture is difF. C c Such . with accura- cy. a t^ik not cafy to be accoraplilhed. IV. On an appointed day thefe ftiould be invited to appear before the Society . re-cotnroending them as modeli to ethers j and in teftimony of the public approbation. e . their whole This would attention fhould be applied to having thei^ juftly conferred. though the vineyards are feparated only by the city . require the eftablilhrrent of a . Society formed of men of charader . .-rent. the Thour. YJu bourg. the culture of the vine fonr. hear an elogiu^n pronounced. Along the two banks of t!»e Lake oi Zurich. and made the propofe an annual felet^ion-of the bell farmers iiom a certain number of villages. an emulation might be awakened in the peafants fo as jto bring agriculture to a general ftaie. ihe harvsfi makes a glorious appearance. -Thofe parts which border upon the Alps arc appropriated to the grazing and breeding of cattle^ and Kttie gnsin is to be feenthere .

are There of Perjza in antient times) in fome reaiarkable inibnces (fays Mr.** No. by M. he condemns with abhorrence . m AFtrfanhg^faton . The citizei)8 thus encouraged to excrilon?.rces with ihe plan here cfTered. « whicU though one of the mofl lucrative eaAployrnents has never yet been * attempted to be for-varded by ejrulation. Giolon when fpeaking which Zoroaiter* lays afide the prophet. as a criminal rejedtioR hfippir. Such rewards wculd infinitely more promote ioiprcvements ia hut'^ hBndty. Jifgtefltd l. afid nvas re^ narhabie for hts jujiice end ohfer-vatioii of the tanjos. to plant uftfui trees. t!. < fides known that criaies arc lefis common among the induftriousj.are flow and remote in their contquence&f. M premh * urns were cftablifhed in the country and in the villages for thofe who heft * cultivated the earth.c common nneans of purchafing the divine favor. would greatly flourifti. and difcovers a liberal concern for private and public feldom to be found among the gioveling or vifionary fchemes Fafting and celibacy. F. The faint. ^ would make great profits . • I cannot better conclude than with a remark from the Hicro of Xeno-* ** ^Agriculture phon. " raifed to the: " rank of a mandarin of the eighth cJafs^ that laborer. He remained a labor er^ fjuiih the title cf riandarin : He enjoyed the prl'^j^ ** ihJge vf being next ihe goxierjior cf the prsvinccy and eating at his table • *' and his name food in letters It is f aid that thh ofgold in the public hall. Vollaire.m A ? P E N D I :^:.i'7i. Ilirzelin hisix'otk cites a celebrated encomium on the fifth agriculture^ hy the an! lent Socrates% extraSfed from book of the Memorabilia of religion Xevophon. modern inaniijtn and E. But as it it does net agree 'with Jyme * particulars^ has been. V. which perfe(^ly ag. ** c'^^ funci ^^^JiiU "4! Dr. af- fua. whilft iagenious fpecuiaiions . My method condufts to its end dired\ly . in the Magian religion.efs. ** cttjhmy fo repugnant to our manners^ and fo firong a fitire upon them^ ^ Jlill fubfp:* See Addiri-ous to ihe Hfoty of all Nations. the revenues of the ftate would augment * and a raodeft temperance would be joined to It is bea love of labor. :t cbligtd to bt'gel ehUJrcn . than rhe coftora of ofFtting premiums for the heft diflertatiou en fixed quefiion?.es the leglflator. Of the honors paid to agriculture in certain eaflern countries. to deRroy noxious ani- + Yonichitigi Emperor ofChhiay ivho died in ihe year 1 724. of i}i fiiperrtition. in cverj pro<vinc£t ** ivhoi by the united 'VCiice of the mandarins of his canton^ ivas decreed the ** niojl diligent^ induftriousy kcnef man ! Not that the laborer trvas campeUed ** to quit his original pro fJJtQn^ ix^here he had made fo good a figure^ to exer1371 s cfjudicature ivith <which he ivas utterly tinacquainted. — the bert gifts of Provj<lence.

8. and one which both the fovereign God and the inferior gods (as they phrafe it] hold mod in confideration. They even believe it the firft of vocations . agriculture . On that day the hufbandrnen wxr:.-^j::rs rf Zorr^jter. Thefg vuorjhippers are nonv very feto in number. I never faw one among them who Hved without doing fomsthing.oJer?: limes : name being gi'ven to them by the Mohammedans^ in reproach. If not wish from your labors KA:e receive our fubfiftenre : jon derive your tranquillity from our 'vigilance : fince therefore we are mutually iieceffa• ty to each other. have recclkded what is f^id in antient hiftory of its numbers. and to work cat Ms CaU iray quote from the vatien by purfuing cll tht labors of agriculture. and converfed wiih them on * accepted their petitions. cenined to renrefent the primitive equality. and moft reward. ife be negleCled. or artificers. inquired into their *' From the moft equal terms. when I have ccnicmplaccd on one fide the dryuefs and prcfent barrennefs of Perfi.] The monarch grievances. This creed (ior it has become fuch^ peculiarly inclines them to culiivation their priefts teaching them.A P P E N D 1 Xo ^ vii.p for more genuine greatr. icjto a theatrical reprtfentation . Such a Itt us live together in concord and lover. compared with the imn enfc fize cf this country . and which might fometimes ift^print a falutary leffon on the mind of a young prince. chap. fertility. p^ardening and vineyards. E. which compcr.eft. The (lately kin^s cf PerTia. G^bbf'T. 1 1 6 fhe — H 7. or to plant a tree ufcful for bearing fruit or for other purpofee. but it was at leaft a comedy well worthy erf a royal audience. (See the Hiftory of the Decline a-nd Kail cf the Rnmpn Empire. yet that the next is to cultivate lands which would o. to coni'fy Wbicx to il. wiih its f:2nty population and llender productions. to the table of the king and his fatr:?ps val [or nobility.fates for aian/ We an abfurdity : " Ht who fjws the ground with care and diligence. and on the other hand.nd f Honx) clojely does this corrcffcnd iviih Louis Eugftie of IVirttJnhtrg^! iSce /. I have an hundred times refle«fled on ihis fuhjf6}. as well as ti!l2ge.<^ion. ixals. including in this term." feflival rnuft indecvl have degenerated.) TheGuebres. jnj} ^r-i'iofied fr-Qrt Mr. that though the mn!t virtuous of all afts is thst of having a family. freely mingled with the humbJefl but moft ufeful of their fubje^s. They are defcendants ofihs M^^if or/oU(. ^or workers in leather. but «s meritorious and no'ole. in a wealthy and defpotic empire. excb^. of mankind. (and to fay with truth fincezity) . cc- " ** quires a greater ftock of religious merit. — p.hcrv. difcourfe to Prince \ l^he Gucbres are the ivor/Jjippers offire orofth^ftt?:^ 17: Tr. nor yet any one of ihem who Their great profeflion is applied to the liberal arts or to commerce. Kliyoggs E. admitted without di{lir. than he could gain by the repetition of ten thocfand prayers.^ in P^ifia (relates Sir Jchn Chardin) are all cultivator?. They coiilider agriculture not only as an agreeable and innocent profeffion.nging their vain porr. ^joTir ichors was hs accuPiOrred to fav."— In the fpring of every year a fefliwas celebrated.e dry lands of Peifia. . Zenifavefta a wife zcA benevolent maxim. and the prefent conn"e^ion. cr fullers.*..

) I fay. uncertain. his property.- jrourdays.ih.car. b. Under a form of govcrnnr. : Even war did not interrupt liis labors 0? etidanger. . while the modern inhabitanTs are idle. . tho traveller. for they maintain that life is fo fnorr. according tO' which they cojitend that the government of nations Ihould be conduced. and thought that to labor. of the cafs fiionld be true .] on this flrange caufes. . 267—268. [n. and the miidnefs oi Indian poliHindoo R?j. as. the It vpas not reafanis were ploughing or re. fuch art attention to all ihe diiTerent orders of — wliich the fociety is ia compofed. as the tenure by which he held was equitable. p. td by ** BciH. the aniient Perfians ' ' Mf.ue(l efForts of hum^n wifdom. v. the Peifian government confirming riiem in their office. Thifj paragraph is tranllated from an extn(\ given in the preface to the French iraorAation of Kliyogg. particularly fhe cultivators of the earth. and that the moll intelligent modern obfervera fnould celebrate the equity.who teprefentthe produce of land as the fole fourcs of wea!u*^ in z\txy country j and who confide? the difcoTery of this principle. Robertfon's H'tjlorkal Difquijuiotis concetnwg the /ixavIf (/re mb. than a fcvereign ruling over inferiors. volupiuoii". and that the proceiFton continued ox. who was prefent at the . 414. ed with ihe Hate of Ir. we are informed [by armies were fighting a battle in one iidd. files and power both rcflc(Sed (for nothing can at firft feem more improbable than that .>t I have an hundred rimes if appeared to me owing to two were rohul^ laboriou?. the antient legiilators of India have a near refembhnte ro the fyftem of rhofe modern fpeculatois on political economy."' obtain whatever %'. march of us that a it Turhj?o st- fry from Conflantinople.b ihe antiaits had of India* p.—-The [modern defcendants of the] antient Perfians have gentle and fimple nnanners.:< APPENDIX. the aniient Perfians made cultivation a branch of their religion . " "Wit fujl in procel]ion.ent which paid. and changing . ih. headed by the Sultan all tells was atterid- the different trades and artifans. vaders. was a plough drawn by painted en with gilded hori«. Next. refcmbles more a father prcfiding in a numerous family of children . and fpecul^tive.iping in the next field in perfetl tranquillity. was to ferve God : while the prefentinhabitants of Perfia have principles which lead them to defpife work . ir not wonderful that the aniicnts fnould defcribe the Indians as a raoft •happy race of men. that while it lyfis. as 1 have been informed by petfons well acquaintcy. the humanity.'C. Before the original inftitctions of I^idla were fubverted by foreign inthe indulhy of the hufbandx-aii on which every mcinber of the his lands comir. E.dia. one of the gre.] that while tv^o uncommo<i.e fhould act asTnen doiti a conquered country or in winter quarters . — change. and attached to hafinefs . and Fir(l." See his recond'volurae. Thefe maxims and regulalions* of. See A — Appc'uiiK to Dr. without caring for futuri'y. Strabo.unify depended for funhftence v/as as fecure. that is to fay. and lUe very tranquilly under their el^ers^ whom they choofe as msgiftr^res .

(who was the firfl: chief of the nation * *) all the Emperors without exceptiooa even to this day. ihey fucceflively follow 1iis ex- fuHOws the. the extent and quality of his Jands . which generally iearrcfponds with the beginning of March. and an infinite number of mandarins accompany him. in prefence of the E. . This prince in great.A ®n P ? S N D I X. or Ihould he in any manner deferve more diftinguifhed mar^ks of regard than the reft. afilfled^by prefence of a great number the magiftrates of their of the laborers of their refpecall tive provrinces. glory in being the firf^ laborers of their empire. ar?d the cuU ture of the earth confidcred as the nobleft of all employments. who not perceinng arnong their chilJrcEi any one to mount a throne which virtue alone ought to inherit. and never remember to have beheld any of the ceremonies invented by mtn with half the pleafure. who confers honorary titles on them above their fellow laborers. I have feen this opening of the grounds at Canton . * * The Chinefe agriculture has at the fame time other encoursgements. the. takes hold of the handle of the plough. and attended by the la- borers of ihe province. wfth a complaifant air hav-ing delivered the plough to the mandarins. . * * * The Emperor laying afide his joyal robes. .whole length of ample. when the laws of the great Creator were ftill held in remembrance. * * * The ceremony concludes vs^iih the diftribution of money and pieces of ftufFamong the laborers there prefent . Frora Fouhi. . h uhnec^iTarr"' - . defraying his journey with dignity at the expence of his empire % he receives him into his palace . Emperor of China. the Sfteeiuh day of the firft moon in every yearj. ceremonies are performed on the fame days in all the provin- ces of the empire. The Chineie hidory has carefully prefejved an anecdote of generoflh^ jn twoof the ahtient Emperors. diftinguifl-ied by honorable titles ?nd loaded with benefits and favors. the moft ad^ive of whom * liDifh the remaining labor. Chinefe annals. bv the viceroys. ihe EiTsperor repairs again in proceflion . * * * This empire was founded by lahorgrs in thcfe happy times. Thefe names Emperor. \fi\\tv\ they have fuSciently labored and manured their grounds. and begins the fowing ef the fields. . the nusiber of his children.?iperor. Every year the viceroys of the provinces fend to court the names of fuch laborer? as have~ diftinguifhed themfelves in their employments. The fame departments. interrogates him with regard to his abilities. according lo the happinefs of jcankind durit^g very long Ir their memory held ia th« higheS vesei^tloi. in perIbn performs the ceremony of opening the grounds. . Jf any man has made an important difcovery which may influence the improvement of agriculture. to diftinguifh Pekin. the Emperor invites hiaj to are prefeuted to the the parties. * * Some time afi^r. in. and the general occupation of all. porap proceeds to the field appointed for the ceremony : the princes of the ir^geri-al family. always accompanied with ceremony. his age. and (urns up feveral the field : then. advanced jeigns : the Thefe 'aborers. . then difmilTes him to his plough. named as their fucccflbrs two fimple ij ftill laborers. the prefidents of the five great tribunals.

and affable. f dijcharged during the odrninifiration of E-. cefury toobferve hew muc^sxamples fach as thcfc honor and animate agncuhure.. with A>me through all their operaworlJ.] for fuch numhcrs ? Do the * * ?--To fulve my clou >Ts I traprovinor.^. denomination. i \ . /• recommended in all it our belt authors* inforrr. turning to advantage every to every other fpecics produce the raoft inconaderable crop.. generally lay out rive the preference to fuch grounds as we licuated with refped to water.rfement. lands in a ftate of nature. .-Such is the fyftecn natural nor artificial ^ that the Chinefe h. cf cnlture that 0^ yrain. polfefs any fecret fnce fin Chin.ions of the rpanunng their fowing them in inch of ground which can the proper fcafun./.and dra^n for his reimbv. is to he the farre .n rc!u!cd upon memory. unpaid . long re^mavua le '.APPENDIX. cf every They fow all their lands with graw . cf Ihe EnglKh tranflation. njucre finally ^a.t the f^JIy and net the been Jinced'Jperfed through ha've n^hich Seas. m I'nd coi>firmed by the experi-one ey'tremity of their e<. I introduce jnyfeU amcrg the hborers . . The Chin?fe laborer would coidider n.pire to the other. nourifhment of cattle.Indies. Vf. So?72e pariicnlars rrfped'mg Chlne/e agriculture* Poivre) can the er. h confenuently by f.fides hay . have not the Icaft conception o\ falloiving. Enftern the ^ants of 7/.^fayt. polite. among a Che #9(1 aaeniive to their inlerell.* nnd gnin for multiplying who are in xzTh thefielHs.. . 3 Deautitul and the panier brated little pcribrmancs. appears This fyftem of culture. celeSee Travfls of a Philofophr hy M. thst as bv far the moft important. le Poi.refrj} dcpojtted in exchange h. f. for additional the b. ineadows .r the molt fertile.fM.'l ii i^}i)crlont coIfeHory of letiji Pol'vre v:a. our common laborers ^^t acciiainted with •{urprifed. as it would grain will yield as much p-a^.r:h produce fubfiftr. le Pol'-jre . .mply in to a conftderable depth. fpare can thefuWnanceof m. 'lurgst. Thej ^.lh the of that nee coicernin. and sr. have produced o{ too in plentiful (eafons.. (hare of learning atul knowgeneral. ^ ^^ tbu amiable man.of which. le Chincfc.r. never allowlnp their lands the flighteft repofe.v what art (fays the fame xM. article excepted. I examine and purfuc them k^f e . of all nalions in the world people cncecffouT thoufand yearp. the Ufe. the laO.-but how much muR our European are tarmers be when thty and . A'^r. and ohferve that i5elds jadicioufly.o for the advantage of the grain. are properly being and low tihich lying They affirm that a field fown w.ed "^ •^- . Nothe JjU of France u.eadow.n . Vi ihe prcleni work puhlifhed a new ediiion'i'n 1797+* No. ploughing thew their fecret conhfts f.ve no meado^^. .imfl. of which they adhered to irorri UzW portion for the animal creation. eafv. and preferring .

** him time. others light . and in thofe towards the fouthj'five in two years.— The Chinefe perpetually their grounds thofe falts and juices fame manures as we do. fome individual perhaps might be in danger of perifhing with hunger. during ihs there a? with us. when you behold the water of the river. fome ' ihoufands of years that they have been converted to the ufes of agriculofe the ture. every thing produced by the earth is rcconveyed to it with the greateft care into whatever (hape the operations of nature or art may have transformed if. whica here and there they plant in arbors . the Chinefe maintain a number of horfes. At Csntcn and froni one extremity of the empire to another. and you cannot with-hold your admiration. which glides by the foot of the mounlainj raifed from terrace to terrace even to the fumn>it. bean^. for fuftenance. The tDoU reeky hjil?. the reft bad . The fteepell mountains even are rendered accefUlIe. which is carefully preferved in evt^iy houfe and fold to the beS: advantage : in a word. All thefe grounds even in gravel. which in France and other places they turn in- to vineyards or totally negled. and flints every where predominate. but above all they make great that [namely human] which we throw into our rivers ofe of urine. enriched wlih she juices of that which defcends in its roomf Without ixeidows. yield annually two crops . * * '9^ The i This ii like the method Jo much talked of in ths Enghjh Mofeum Rufli<um. buSalofj. even of rice . by means of a funpie portable raachii^e which two men vviih eafe. the caaa]. others with roots. lands where clay. are there compelled by dint of induRry io produce grain. tiaaSoQii and put iii mQ" * lion. which feem to reai their heads to heaven. but they * * would imagioG it a fia againft humanity to enc'eavcr to procure by cultivation an agreeable li* qjor. to cure the ** fubfidence of chalk. Thefe animals are fed fome with ftraw . * * * alfo coraiTiOn fait. occafiin k)rrepofeat a certain fixed period cf lands in general are not fuperior to ours : Ycu fee fome excel lent grounds.e J:r/a<t »f 'hi partidss ofchs(k sm^lojed far maums^ E^ . xa if A Chfncfe the earth laborer has cculd not but fmile. in order to reftore t3 which an unremitting produftion is are acquainted confuining. Every one oi thsfe terraces yields anni:aily a crop of fome kind of grain. without one fingle fallow feafon. you informed that — The Chinefe foils (Irong. the northern provinces. They with marl : they en:iploy and all forts of animal dung." or the drfc^nt biiovj t!. and for manure. others nriiddling. and grain of every kind. they fupply the deficisncy by tutning up the ground with the fpade to a great depth which brings up to the furface * * a new foil. When their manures are at any time fcarc?. lime. afhes. and lands where fand. whiift from the want of that grain which this vineyard might have produced. or the fountain. The Chmcfcare acqaainred indeed with the vine. you obferve mountains cus info terraces j reprefenting at a diftance iramenfe pyramids divided into dilTerent ^--igts.APPENDIX. and other aninals of every fpecies for labor. : .

iws. than in sny other country in the world. deftineJ for paying reciprocal vifics . cefs peculiar to their labor. the immoveab4e fi>nndations of which have been laid deep by !he haad reafon alone. a paralytic ed with the moft fovcrcigti cente.e and the plenty confcquent on it to be attributed. ir. obferved that if in one corner of ine empire there was a man who did noth'>ng> there muft in another quarter be fome ons This wife noaxim is fixed in the brcaft deprived of the necelTaiies of l. . and the laft. and from iheis J. that this happy ftt . liounces a wife oiaxinm pronounces a law. it Is not to ihe (nrm of their plough. It iKuft chiefly be derived froo) their mode of governinet)i. and regarde*! as a n.eBtber. i ^ ' i F I N I . Every day ihc year is working day. dilated by nature to the firft of the human race and facrcdly preferved from generation to generation. which is confecrated lo the ceremoniai An idile rnan would be treatduties they pay to tl>eir anceftors. or their method of fjwiag. in a public inftrudion ex- horting the people tolabor.3fcU /. » . * * * An ancient Emperor of-China. except the firft. of every Chirefe j and with this people fo open to reafon. engraved in the hearts of a grg^' [Sec M.Tpt. he vi^ho pro. i i The Chlcde naticn is capaLIe of the moll ftupendous worki. 1 ? E U 1j 1. X. From thefe obfervations u is obvious that agriculture flourifhes in ChiYet it is not lo any prona mcT!. coeval almoft with the beginning of time.h. point of labor I oever obferved their equals in the woiU. le Foivre's woik as above 1 people.

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