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The crossing that has been designed to replace the Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, in New Haven, Connecticut, has the appearance of a cable-stayed bridge with unusually short towers and a deep deck. In reality, the structure is an extradosed prestressed bridge, the ﬁrst application of this innovative bridge design in the United States. By Steven L. Stroh, P.E., William R. Stark, and Joseph E. Chilstrom, P.E.
he centerpiece of the Interstate 95 New Haven Harbor Crossing Corridor Improvement Program—which includes the reconstruction of approximately 7 mi (11 km) of I-95 in New Haven, East Haven, and Branford, Connecticut—is the replacement of the bridge that carries the interstate over New Haven Harbor at the conﬂuence of the Quinnipiac and Mill rivers. This new bridge will be a signature structure for the New Haven area and is intended to live up to the name it will inherit from its predecessor, the Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge. The design of the new Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge includes plate girder approaches and a three-span main crossing that will be built as an extradosed prestressed bridge.Two alternative bridge designs are being fully developed for competitive bidding: a concrete extradosed prestressed bridge and a steel composite extradosed bridge.The latter is believed to be the ﬁrst design of its type in the world. In an extradosed prestressed bridge, external prestressing cables are installed above the bridge deck and are deviated by
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Civil Engineering August 2003
August 2003 Civil Engineering
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The new Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, right, will be the centerpiece of the Interstate 95 New Haven Harbor Crossing Corridor Improvement Program. The structure, an extradosed prestressed bridge, will look much like a cable-stayed bridge, but will have shorter towers and a relatively deep deck, below. Simple, clean lines in keeping with the structure’s role as a war memorial ﬁgure prominently in the ﬁnal form of the bridge, opposite.
could be designed with tower heights within the limits set by the Federal Aviation Administration.5 m). Each deck carries ﬁve lanes of traffic and has a variablewidth auxiliary lane as well as two 11. It was desirable to increase that span to 515 ft (157 m) to improve navigation. The concrete superstructure has modular expansion joints at the anchor pier locations. The top ﬂanges vary from 16 by 1 in. the superstructure is composed of two separate concrete box girder structures supported at their edges by the stay cables. The bridge was designed in accordance with the Standard Speciﬁcations for Highway Bridges. but the amount is less than in a true cable-stayed bridge.Bridge Elevation short columns above the piers. the concrete strength is 5.6 in. and it had the advantage of achieving the desired span length. however. The strength of the concrete in the concrete superstructure is 5. (600 by 100 mm).The vertical component of the stay cable force is carried by the cross frames. In the end the Connecticut Department of Transportation. cable stiffness.0 m ) Navigational channel The cast-in-place concrete superstructure is designed to be constructed via the balanced-cantilever method using a form traveler. (280 mm) depth spanning up to 19. the Recommendations for Stay Cable Design. In the towers and piers.800 mm) wide and varies in thickness from 1 to 2 in. Civil Engineering August 2003 1. issued by the Post-Tensioning Institute (pti). they also provide additional resistance to shear.9 m) deep web and are constant in depth.0 ft (18. based in Switzerland. the main longitudinal system for the superstructure is composed of three main steel box girders with vertical webs. Concrete members were designed for service load stresses and checked for ultimate strength. Moreover its appearance would go far in meeting the aesthetic desideratum of a functioning structure that also serves as a war memorial.The depth of the section is nominally 11. which in turn are dictated by the adjacent interchanges. (25 to 60 mm).0 m) thick edge beams.3 m) into the span at anchor pier 4. The concrete and steel alternatives are identical in layout. while the deck system provides the primary resistance to permanent and live loads. were used for the stay cable design. The stay cables are anchored in steel edge girders that are tied to the main steel box girders by a lateral bracing system August 2003 Civil Engineering in the plane of the girder top ﬂange and by heavy vertical cross frames. and deck stiffness.9 m ) Anchor pier 1 Tower 2 515.012.7 m ) 248. (400 by 25 mm) to 24 by 4 in.1 ft (157. and Installation.9 ksi (41 MPa).4 ft (5.8 ft (308.0 m) long main span and two 248. The resulting structure looks like a cable-stayed bridge with a low tower and a relatively deep deck.At the anchor piers the neoprene 56 57 . and the horizontal component of the force is distributed into the system through the lateral bracing system. Additionally. Steel members were designed using the load factor method and checked for overload and deﬂection under service conditions. which was completed in Japan in 1994. The extradosed prestressed bridge concept is generally attributed to Jacques Mathivat.1 m) into the span at anchor pier 1 and 14. (65 mm) asphalt overlay with a waterproof membrane.0 ft (5. Structurally. was used for the analysis of shrinkage and creep.9 m) of vertical clearance for navigation. The northbound and the southbound traffic are carried on separate decks separated by a 10 ft (3 m) open median. Because the prestressing cables are inclined. this system behaves very differently from a cablestayed bridge. The basic role of the stay cables in a cable-stayed bridge is to provide an elastic vertical support that carries most of the permanent and live loads.6 ft (28.9 m) long side spans. The existing bridge at this site has a 387 ft (118 m) main span.These girders each have a 9.5 ft (3. It is anticipated that the schedule will require the use of four travelers so that the cantilever operations can proceed from both towers simultaneously. A cable-stayed structure was considered but was ruled out because of tower height limitations imposed by an adjacent airport. At tower 2 and the anchor piers the center bearing is guided longitudinally and the outer bearings are free to translate in all directions.0 m) over the supports. An extradosed bridge.8 to 110. Pot bearings are used at all supports.At tower 2 the center bearing is guided longitudinally and the outer bearings are free to translate in all directions.This freedom in selecting the load distribution is the fundamental distinguishing feature of an extradosed prestressed bridge. Testing.The span layout was selected to provide the necessary horizontal navigational distance and to minimize any uplift on the side span piers while keeping the extradosed prestressed spans out of the curved alignment of the adjacent approach spans. The edge girders each take the form of a box section built up from two fabricated channel sections that are laced together by bolted plates on both top and bottom. The overall width of each deck varies from 94.9 ft (2. and the northbound and southbound structures are each supported by three bearings at each support. which provided project funding and oversight.The ﬁnal riding surface is a 2.000 kN) for the center bearing at each tower. Typically this type of bridge utilizes concrete box girder construction. The bottom ﬂange is longitudinally stiffened with two T stiffeners. The web is 0. and the Federal Highway Administration.9 ft (75.1 ksi (35 MPa). published by the International Federation for Structural Concrete. The alternative steel superstructure has modular expansion joints at the anchor pier locations. At tower 3 the center bearing is ﬁxed and the outer bearings are guided transversely.The basic role of the cables in an extradosed prestressed bridge is to impart horizontal prestressing to the deck.140 kips (54. Diaphragms are provided in the inner cells only at the supports.The designer of an extradosed prestressed bridge is free to apportion the permanent and live loads between the cables and the girder based on cable and tower geometry.6 m) shoulders. which serves as a transitional type between girder bridges and true cable-stayed bridges. (20 mm) thick and is stiffened longitudinally. Three pot bearings are used at the tower supports and two neoprene bearings and a steel shear lock are used at the anchor piers.8 m) between the box ﬂanges. The Japanese experience with this bridge type. A concrete diaphragm is provided in the outer tr iangular cell at each stay cable location.8 in. issued by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (aashto).8 ft (3. Moreover. each having a 515. and the deck slab is transversely posttensioned. This arrangement results in relatively low fatigue stress in the cables and allows them to be stressed to levels close to those in traditional prestressing. as well as in the deck of the steel alternative. which owns the bridge. the CEB-FIP Model Code for Concrete Structures. of Phoenix.9 m ) Tower 3 Anchor pier 4 248. is that it can be quite economical for spans ranging in length from 400 to 600 ft (120 to 180 m). The deck slab in the steel alternative is cast-in-place concrete with an 11 in. Ballast concrete at the ends of the bridge within the box girder cells counteracts uplift forces and eliminates the need for mechanical hold-down devices. Twenty of these are located in Japan. The stay cables are anchored in 3. while 70 ksi (483 MPa) steel is used for selected negative-moment regions in a homogeneous conﬁguration.7 m). The maximum bear ing reaction is 12. Some 25 extradosed prestressed bridges either have been completed or are currently under construction around the world (see table on page 64).9 to 33. This concrete extends 6. deepening to 16. the bottom ﬂange is 150 in.9 ft (75. In the steel alternative.3 ft (1.The world’s ﬁrst extradosed prestressed bridge is reported to be the Odawara Port Bridge. however. determined that the extradosed prestressed bridge type best met the design conditions.The cross frames and lateral bracing are built up from standard channel and angle sections. and the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Speciﬁcations were used for strut-tie analysis.1 ft (157.9 ft (75. The final riding surface is an asphalt overlay with a waterproof membrane.The strength of the structural steel is 50 ksi (345 MPa).1 ft (4. At tower 3 the center bearing is ﬁxed and the outer bearings are guided transversely. there are transverse external tendons at the stay locations that anchor in the edge girder and are deﬂected through the two central webs. The bridge provides 62.(3. but a plate girder structure would not have been able to attain that length because of the structure depth limitations imposed by the approach grades. In the concrete alternative. The estimated cost of the extradosed bridge was within 10 to 15 percent of that of the plate girder option. The selection of the extradosed prestressed bridge type for the New Haven Harbor crossing was the outcome of a detailed study that also considered cost and appearance. The cables are therefore subject to substantial fatigue loading.The section is longitudinally posttensioned with tendons internal to the concrete.5 ft (2.
1) 21.2) 7. a fatigue stress range of 5. with the aid of an erection truss that spans between the anchor pier and tower foundations.7 to 22.S. Civil Engineering August 2003 In the design for the new Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge.6 m) Minimum 5 lanes at 11.2 (2.5 m) 400 (121.4 (30) 98.6 (13) 27.9) 172 (52. f´s being the ultimate strength of the strand. the same number of strands is used for all cables in each alternative.1) 42.0 (18) 54.6 m) Name Odawara Blueway Saint-Remy Tsukuhara Kanisawa Karato (Okuyama) Sunniberg Shikari Mitanigawa Daini Second MandaueMactan Miyakoda River Yukizawa Matakina (Haneji) Suriagegawa dum Nakanoike Sajiki Pakse Hodu Ibi River Kiso River Yubikubo Shinkawa Hukaura Himi Shin-Meisei Pearl Harbor Memorial aMeters in parentheses. ﬂoated into position. Access inside this frame is provided for inspection and maintenance. they can be proportioned for a prescribed portion of (continued on page 87) 58 59 .8 (3) 11.0 (7) 21.3) 86.4 (5) Year Completed 1994 1996 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2004b Cross Section: Steel Alternative (Top) and Concrete Alternative (Bottom) 11.8 ft (3.2 (22) 42.5) 35.4 (10.7 (5.2 (2.5 (3.4 (5) 11.6 ft (28.1 to 6.1 (17.5) 28.7 m) bearings have a sliding surface of polytetraﬂuoroethylene (ptfe) and stainless steel that is free to translate in all directions.0 ft (7.9) 305 (92.The central 330 ft (100 m) of the main span is preassembled on barges. The tower legs are hollow and made of cast-in-place concrete.1) 9.0 m) 16.8 ft (3.5) 7.2) 7. tower 3.6 (29.The side span girders are extended into the main span approximately 100 ft (30 m) by cantilevering.4) 54.4) 590 (179.8 (10.7 MPa) for the steel alternative.The reduction of allowable stress for stay cables is in recognition of the fatigue demands on the strands in a stay cable application.7 to 22.8 to 110. The stay cables for an extradosed prestressed bridge.3 (22.3 (6.9) 590 (179.3) 49. The stay cables are consequently slightly inclined from the vertical.0 MPa) for the concrete alternative and 1. The foundations are 7.6) 30.5 (3.1 (9.8 (10) 98.9) 328 (100) 891 (271.8) 295 (89.1 (4) 9. whereas pti specifications allow a fatigue stress range for stay cables of 16 ksi (110 MPa).9) 607 (185) 436 (132.8–20) 95.3) 50.9 ft (2. In addition to the in-service load conditions.4) 276 (84.3 (12.5 (3.7 (6) 16.1–32. In recognition of this difference with respect to cable-stayed bridges.8) 13.4 (30) 72. The stay cable design for both alternatives is based on seven-wire.2) 21. Next the stay cables are installed and stressed to their ﬁnal force.5 (3.5) 9.5) 26. (500 mm) 16.3 (6. The extradosed bridge concept gives the designer the flexibility to apportion the stiffness.6 (26.8) 40.1 (4) 10.2) 18. The steel alternative is constructed to carry all of the permanent loads noncompositely.1 (10.9 (8. For example.1 (29) 26. The outer sheath is coextruded with a white coating.4) 30.7 ksi (11.4 ft (3.8 (17) 59.6 m) 19. rather.8) 60. At this point the structure can support itself by the steel grid alone.2 (9. Based on a review of the literature from Japan and on a correlation of the fatigue performance of strands at various stress levels.8) 401 (122.9) 459 (189.8 (3) 10. The maximum stress level in typical stay cables is limited in accordance with pti speciﬁcations to 0.5 (8.5) — 9.9) 233 (71) 359 (109.8 (3.9 to 33.1 (22) 55.6 (2) 11.2 (2.5 (3.3) 13.9) 52. as in conventional steel bridges. a higher initial cable stress is typically allowed for extradosed prestressed br idges.5) 41.1 (16.1 (4) 13. The shafts are 121 ft (37 m).6 (20) 37.2–65.5) 95.3 (6.9 (2.6 m) 11.7 (6) 16.8) 47.5) 52.5) 9.1) 199 (60. The twin northbound and southbound structures are supported on common towers.6 ft (5.0 (18. Each tower has three principal pylon legs extending above the deck and two additional intermediate columns below the deck level. between the cables and the deck. The stay cables are provided with viscous dampers to suppress cable vibration. do not need to be proportioned to carry the full vertical load component at each stay location. bYear Span (ft) a 11.1 (11.5) — 19.6 m) 11.2 (8) 23.5 ft (3.7) 30.8 (3) 16.6) Girder Depth (ft)a Minimum Maximum 7.7) 19.8) 31.8 (3) 9.9 ksi (27. Location Japan France Japan Japan Japan Switzerland Japan Japan Philippines Japan Japan Japan Japan Japan Japan Laos Japan Japan Japan Japan Japan Japan Japan Japan U.8) 11.8 to 110.5 (3.9) 94.5) 6.6 ft (5.8) Tower Height (ft)a 35.2 (2.5 (3.6 (16.8 (15.0 m) 11. The fatigue stress range for extradosed prestressed bridges is significantly lower than for cable-stayed bridges.6) 344 (104. 62 ft (19 m).5 (16) 68. a conservative allowable stress level of 0. low-relaxation posttensioning strands of grade 1860.5) 902 (274.5) 18.0 (10. and lifted into its ﬁnal location as a unit by strand jacks lifting off of the cantilevered girders.Extradosed Prestressed Bridges throughout the World Number of Spans 3 2 3 3 3 5 5 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 6 6 5 2 5 5 3 3 3 of bid. The shear lock at the anchor piers provides lateral restraint and unrestricted longitudinal movement. the maximum fatigue stress is 3.4 (5.7 (6) 19.9 m) 23.5) 13.3 (13.0 (12.8) 23.8 ft (3.The stays may be jacked either at the deck level or within the tower for both alternatives.5 (3.4 (5) 13.5–107.1 (4) 6.1 (29) 95.7 m) 11.45f´s.9 (21) 39.5) 38.8) 459 (189.8 ft (3.2 (8) 67.8 ft (3. At anchor pier 4 the shafts are approximately 171 ft (52 m) deep and are end bearing on rock.9) 459 (189.9 to 33.9 m) 94.3) 65.0 (7) 23. unlike those in a true cable-stayed bridge. The space between the inner surfaces of the tower legs is slightly greater than the width of the superstructure so that August 2003 Civil Engineering there is room for the latter. for the Odawara Port Bridge an allowable cable stress of 0.3 (5. The stay cables are anchored in steel frames that are encased in the upper region of the towers. The outer stay sheath is also detailed with a raised helical rib to help avoid excitations caused by wind and rain.1 (4) 10.6f´s was adopted.5) 55.6f´s for other load groups was adopted for this bridge. At the other locations the shafts rely on a combination of rock socket friction and end bearings.4 (12) 48.8) 469 (142.8 (3) 10.2 (2. The rock dips sharply along the length of the bridge from east to west.The side spans are erected ﬁrst.6 ft (28. For conventional prestressing the stress level is limited to 0. Then the concrete deck slab is poured and the barriers and overlay are constructed.8 (3.5) 19.7f´s per aashto.4 ksi (37 MPa) has been reported for the Odawara Port Bridge. The center pylon leg supports the cables for both the northbound and the southbound deck.6 m) Minimum 5 lanes at 11.5 to 5. The strands are of the same type used in typical posttensioning applications.5 (3.4) 8.The cable size is 27 strands for the steel alternative and 48 strands for the concrete alternative. then bundled into an outer polyethylene sheath. They are constant in cross section and elliptical in shape. and consequently the load distribution.5 (3.5 (9.5) 16.1 (16.2) 72.5) 34.2 (20. so that the deck slab may be replaced in the future.7 (11.8 (3) 9.0 (5.8 ft (3.3) 8.55f´s for aashto group I loading and 0.2 (15) 32.1 (16.0 (7) 57.5 (3.9) 374 (114) 426 (129.9 (2.3) 45.2 (2.0 (12.2 (2.2) 515 (156.5) 11.5 (14.5 (9.8) 590 (179.5) 12. For example. and anchor pier 4.7 in. Stay cable corrosion protection is provided by an ungrouted system consisting of greased strands encased in individual polyethylene sheaths.8) 33.5 to 16.4 m) diameter drilled shafts extending to sandstone bedrock.6 (14. each girder individually.5) 11.5 (16) 54.2 (9.6) 11. the structure is designed for the accidental loss of any stay cable under full live load or for the replacement of any stay cable under a restricted live load with appropriate levels of safety as speciﬁed by the pti speciﬁcations.1 to 6.5) 11.5) 74. and 56 ft (17 m) long at respectively tower 2.2) 9. Maximum Width (ft)a 31.
William R. northbound and southbound traffic will be rerouted into the ﬁnal conﬁguration.(continued from page 59) the load at each point where the cables are introduced into the deck. and it is expected that the project will be advertised for construction I in mid-2004. clean lines in keeping with the structure’s role as a war memorial ﬁgure prominently in the ﬁnal form of the bridge. Upon completion of the southbound bridge. the remaining capacity required for dead and live loads was provided by the stay cables.E. Analysis was conducted using computer software that considered the effects of shrinkage and creep of the concrete over time in addition to the time-related effects of the construction sequence for each alternative. For both alternatives the overall construction sequence calls for the new northbound structure to be constructed first while two-way traffic is maintained on the existing bridge. The new southbound bridge will then be constructed in the alignment of the previously existing bridge while two-way traffic continues on the completed northbound bridge. the steel girder was proportioned based on the available depth (using a constant web depth) and the maximum desirable plate sizes. Steven L. 2003. is a bridge engineer for the Federal Highway Administration in Glastonbury. The remaining required capacity for dead and live loads was provided by the stay cables. Florida. The ﬁnal design is scheduled for completion in December 2003. In the case of the Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge. The available moment capacities were thus established. (Circle 24 Reader Service Coupon) (Circle 25 Reader Service Coupon) August 2003 Civil Engineering 87 . Architectural input was included in the early stages of the design to assist in establishing the form and details of the bridge. held in Pittsburgh June 9–11. Joseph E.. the designer’s philosophy for proportioning the structure was as follows: For the concrete alternative.55f´s could be achieved. For the steel alternative.ASCE. Stroh.. now retired. Simple. This paper was presented as part of the 20th annual International Bridge Conference. M. and the existing bridge will be demolished. Stark. is a vice president and deputy director of surface transportation for URS Corporation in Tampa. Chilstrom. P. then the maximum desirable amount of internal longitudinal posttensioning for this section was established. P. Two-way traffic will then be shifted temporarily to the new northbound bridge. Aesthetic lighting that will simply and elegantly illuminate the main pylons is also planned. the concrete girder was proportioned based on the transverse requirements and the maximum depth based on grade restrictions. Connecticut.The stay cables were proportioned so that the same size cable could be used throughout and a constant ﬁnal force in the cables of 0.E. Based on these available capacities. was a principal engineer for the Connecticut Department of Transportation.
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