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Time and Texture in Lutoslawski's Concerto for Orchestra and Ligeti's Chamber Concerto'

TimeandTextureinLutoslawski'sConcertoforOrchestraandLigeti'sChamberConcerto1

RosemaryMountain

Introduction Periodicityisanextremelypotentdevicewithdifferenteffectsandeffectivenessatvariouslevels.Themusicalmaterialwhich establishesregularityencouragesfocusonotherelements,whilesimultaneouslycontributingaspecificcharactertothemusic.Manymusical figuresinvolvesomeperiodicityatapulseorsubpulselevel,andoftentheseexistwithinahierarchicalstructure.Asperiodicitiesunderthreeor foursecondsaregraspeddirectly,theirincorporationintomusicalconfigurationshelpsrecognitionoffuturerecurrencesofthoseconfigurations. Bymaintainingacontrastintheperiodsofdifferentcoexistinglayersofmaterial,thecomposercanclarifythedefinitionofeachlayer,thusmaking theinterplayofthevariouslayersmoreaudible.Abasicandtraditionalstructuralfunctionofperiodicityistheestablishingofapulseframework. Traditionally,thisframeworkwasmanifestasametrichierarchy.Inadditiveforms,increasinglycommonincontemporaryworks,asinglepulse layermaybetheonlyunifyingforce.Ineithertype,theregularityislikelytoprovideabackgroundgridformoreirregularandexpressiverhythms. Inthecaseofmetricstylehierarchicalframeworks,theirregularitiesarefrequentlyattheforegroundlevel,resultingfromavarietyofsubdivisions ofthepulseor"superpulse"(thetermemployedhereforbarlengthperiods).Inaadditiveframework,however,irregularitiesaretypicallyat highergroupinglevels,asaresultofadditionormultiplicationofapulseorsubpulse.Thenumberoflayersexhibitingperiodicityandthespecific relationoftheperiodsinvolvedhaveaprofoundeffectonourperceptionofthemusic'scharacter.Contrastsarenotrestrictedtoasimple alternationbetweenconsonanceanddissonance.Theycanincorporatedifferenttypesanddegreesofdissonance,anddifferentspeedsand methodsformovingfromonearrangementtotheother. Astudyofperiodicelementsinmusicrequiresanappreciationofwhatconstitutesregularityintime,andhowwemeasurethat regularity.Suchtemporalissueshavebeenfacedbymanytheoristswhilesearchingforviableapproachestorhythmicanalysis.Althoughthe subjectoftimeprovidesafascinatingthemeforreflection,iteludesthesortofcleardefinitionwithwhichweliketodescribeourworld.Theeffect onmusictheoryhasbeenaproliferationofdifferentperspectives,rangingfromthestimulatingtotheconfusing.2Themostproblematicaspectof suchinvestigationsformusicisthattheexperienceofdurationappearstofluctuate,dependingontheindividualandonwhatisbeing experienced. Thepresentstudyexaminesfactorspotentiallyrelevanttoquestionsofperceivedduration.Thosefactorsincludethemanifestation ofperiodicities,andchangesinratesanddensitiesofperiodicactivity.Therefore,theresultsmaybeabletocontributetofurtherinvestigationof oursenseofexperienceddurationinmusic.Ornsteinproposedthatexperienceddurationrelatestotheamountofinformationordensityofevents containedwithintheduration.3Morerecently,ithasbeenproposedthattheamountofmentalprocessinginvolvedaffectsthesenseofduration.4 Stockhausen,Clarke,andTenneyhaves tress edtheimportanc eof c hange inv arious music alparameters as c onstitutings ignific ant information. 5 Thereis ev idenc eofinternalbody cloc k s,controllingthecardiovascularandnervoussystems.However,their relevanceformusicappearstobeinaidingthereproductionofrhythms,andthereforeappliestotheperformermorethanthelistener.6Amore accessibleclockmetaphorhasbeensuggestedbyBenjamin,whopointsoutthatcertainlevelsofperiodicitysuchaspulseandmetercan functionasabuiltinclockforthemusic.7 Thereisincreasingevidencethatourreactiontocertainratesofperiodicityinmusicisfundamentallylinkedtomotoractivityand otherphysiologicalprocesses.Allhumanspossesscertaininnermechanismswhichoperateatverysimilarlevelstothoseofotherhumans. Examplesincludebreathingrates,heartbeats,musclecontractionsandneuronactivity.8Thelinkbetweenbodymechanismsandourperception ofmusicalrhythmsappearstobebasedalmostentirelywithinasmallrangeofperiods.Weseemmostconfidentinidentifyingrhythmic configurationswhichdonotexceedtheshortperiodoftimereferredtoastheperceptualpresent(generallyestimatedasnolongerthanten. seconds 9Thereisalowerboundaryaswell:ourdiscriminationweakensconsiderablyfordurationsunderaboutonetenthofasecond.The relativelengthofdurationswithinthisbandof0.10"to10"canbesens eddirec tly.They areprobablyimprintedas temporalpatterns directly tomemory,whereasourperceptionoflongerdurationsisalmostentirelydependentonourmentalorganizationoftheshort components.10Theprocessingrequiredtoapprehendlongerdurationsdependsontheexperience,education,mood,andmentalstrategiesofthe individual.Itisdoubtlessatthisstagethatthevarietyofexperienceddurationsoriginates. Forthepurposesofthisstudy,Iconceiveoftimeasreferringdirectlytotherateatwhichchangeoccurs.Sincechangeoccursat differentratesindifferentphenomena,theperceptionoftimedependsonthespecificphenomenonbeingobserved.Achangeoffocusisprobably amajorfactorcontributingtothesenseoffluctuationinourexperienceofduration.Suchachangeisaslikelytoinvolveashiftinatemporalor parametricfocusasinafocusofscene.11Ordinarily,wehavemultiplereferencesavailabletoourconsciousnessaswearesurroundedby manyphenomena,eachchangingatitsownrate.Everythinginourenvironmentevolvesorexistsatarateortempoaccordingtoitsownnature eachhasitsowninternalrateofgrowthanddecay.Throughinteractionwiththeenvironment,welearnaffectstheperceptionoftimeinmusic. Oneofitsmoreobviousresultsistoslowdownthepassageofevents,sometimestothepointofnearimmobilityandevenwhenvolleysofrapid projectionsofsoundtendtoincreasethespeedofthepassageofevents,theperceptualsenseofthemotionremainsessentiallynondynamic." "TheStructureofTime,"p.145.Todistinguishdifferentphenomenafromeachotheraccordingtotheirrateofchange.Thisstrategyleadsusto apprehend(andtosomeextent,predict)thebehaviorofvariousthings.Themoreperiodicandtheslowerevolvingthingsaretheeasiestto apprehend.12 Thoughmostphenomenadonotexhibitastrictperiodicity,manypossessausualrangeofmovement.Oceanwavesarriveatthe shoreataslowerorfasterspeeddependingonconstantssuchaslandformation,andvariablessuchasweatherandtides.However,theyalways arriveattheshorewithincertainlimits:theyareneverasslowasoneeverytenminutesorasfastasoneeverysecond.Awalkingpaceis similarlyvariablebutoccurswithinlimitsdictatedbytheconfigurationofthehip,lengthofleg,muscletone,coordination,etc.Thestartlingand oftencomicaleffectofwatchingtimelapsephotographyclearlyillustratesourknowledgeoftheselimitsbyshowingeventswhichchangeat excessivelyfastrates.Familiarphenomenathusbecomemeasuresbywhichonecanjudgethemovementordegreeofchangeinotherthings.

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Thereforeourperceptionofthingsinvolvesasenseofrelativetemporalities.Inaddition,mostofushaveatsometimeoranothermeasuredour familiarexperiencesbyclocktime.Theneutralityoftheclockthusprovidesanindicationoftherelativerateofchangeofdisparateevents.In music,however,weusuallyignorereferencesoutsidetheperformanceitself.Inelectronicmusic,eventhephysicalactionsofperformanceare oftennolongeravailableasreferences. Werecognizeatableasbeingastableobjectinourvisionbecauseeachtimetheroomisscanned,thetableimageremains unchanged.Minskyhaspresentedaveryplausibleexplanationofoneaspectofourmusicalperceptionbydrawingaparallelwiththisvisual strategy.Hesuggeststhatcertainlevelsofperiodicityinmusiccancreatethefeelingofthepersistenceofamusical"object".Thefigurebeing repeatedcorrespondstoanimage,andthesamenessofthatfigureateachpassconfirmsitsstability.13Thisanalogyiseasiesttoconfirmwith ostinatofigures,butseemsapplicabletomanyinstancesofrepetitionsinmusic.Forexample,aphraseisoftenfollowedbyanotherwhichstarts offinthesamewaybutendsdifferently.Thelistenercanquicklycomparethedifferencesbymentallyplacingtheprofileofthesecondphraseon topofthefirst. MusicbycomposerssuchasVarseoftenprovokediscussionof"spatial"imagesinmusic.14Structuressuchasostinati(which relyonperiodiccomponents)createtheimpressionof"objects"whichremainstaticintime.Suchacompositionalaimisquitedifferenttothemore organicgrowthofmusicalideastypicalofearliercenturies,whenthemusicwasdesignedtochangeatratesmoreattunedtothefluctuationof humanemotions.Itisacharacteristically20thcenturyideatocreatesonicshapesthatdonotcatertothehumanaudiencewithitstraditional modesoflisteningandanticipation.Thesoundssimplyexistinauralspace,availabletobeheardbyanyonewhoiswithinlisteningdistanceatthe time.Inaddition,thelackofdirectedmotioncontradictstheintentionusuallyimplicitinbeginningsandendings,andsuchpassagescanimplyan indefinitedurationextendingbeyondtheworkitself. Epstein'ssuggestionthat"musicstructurestime15seemscompatiblewiththeconceptoftimedescribedabove.Bygrantingeach musicalcompositionanidentitycomparabletoothermoretangibleevents,thelistenercanperceivetimeasdemonstratedthroughitsparticular rateofchange.Theextremeflexibilityandunpredictabilityofchangeinmusicexplainsthegreatdiversityintemporaldurationsexperiencedwhile listening.Insomemodernpolyphoniccompositions(includingthosestudiedbelow)thelistenercanperceivethecoexistenceoftwoormore musical"forms"whichdevelopatindependentratesandportrayindependentcharacteristics.Thisaspectisthefundamentaldifferencebetween truemultistrataworksandamorestylizedpolyphonywhichwascommonwithintraditionalpieces.Inthelatter,theinterwovenlinesare generallyunderstoodasbeingpartsofthesamematerial.Theimpactofmanytwentiethcenturyworksisduetotheirunabashedpresentations ofdisparateeventsinsomecasestheworksaredesignedspecificallytodepictmultifacetedenvironments.16 Returningtothequestionofexperiencedduration,itmaybeseenthatdifferingperceptionsofdurationresultfromacombinationof factors.Therateatwhichtimeunfoldswithinthephenomenonbeingperceivedisaffectedbythemanneranddegreeinwhichtheperceiveris following,anticipating,orparticipatinginthatunfolding.Inaddition,thespecificrateatwhichthephenomenonisunfoldingwillbeperceived relativetothereferenceratesoftheperceiver.Indaytodaylife,anindividualisusuallyawareofmorethanonephenomenonatatime.The profoundeffectofmusiconanindividual'ssenseofexperienceddurationmaywellbeduetothetendencyforalistenertoignoreoutside referencesandgivefullconcentrationtothatoneexperience.Becausetherearenophysicalobjectsinvolvedtosuggestfamiliarratesofmotion bysize,weight,character,etc.,therangeofmotionismuchlesspredictableinmusicthaninmostothertypesofphenomena.Infact,thenon physicalityofmusicmakesitanidealplacetorepresentorevokethetemporalaspectsofanyandallkindsofphenomena,whetherhuman emotions,pastoralimages,chaos,orthegrowthanddecayofanimaginedorganism. Musicisbewilderingtoanalyzeintermsoftimepreciselybecausetemporalcharacteristicsarepresentedintheabsenceofa tangiblephenomenon.Withalmosteverythingelse,timecanbeunderstoodasthewayinwhichthatparticularphenomenonunfolds,whereasin music,itmightbesaidthatthereisnothingbuttheunfoldingitself.Aparallelcouldbefoundinhumanemotions,whichalsohavenotangible presence.Thisparallelmayexplainthesuitabilityofmusicforportrayingandeveninducingemotioninhumans. Formanyofus,partofmusic'sappealisthatwecanforgettherelentlesspaceoftimedefinedbyourworkingschedule.Thecomposer presentsamoreunpredictablepaceofeventswhichmaintainsourinterestbyitsvariety.Itwouldbeadauntingtasktodefine,orevendescribeto universalsatisfaction,thesenseddurationofeachmusicalphraseinawork.However,thecurrentstudymaypermittheinterestedreaderto understandsomeofthefactorswhichdifferentiateonefiveminutesegmentfromanother.

PeriodicityinTextureandTexturalStrands Periodicityinmusicoccursonvarioustemporallevels,fromthatofthesubpulsetolargescaleformalstructure.Atcertainrates,regular recurrenceofelementsisoneofthemostimmediatelydiscerniblepropertiesofawork.Itcaninfluenceoursenseofgroupingandcontributetoour discriminationofformalstructure.Researchinthecognitivescienceshasdemonstratedtheexistenceofperceptualtendencieswhichoperatein ourdiscriminationofgroupingandsegregationinmusicalcontexts.Ithasalsoestablishedtheexistenceofperceptualboundarieswhichaffectour interpretationofmusicalphenomena.Relevantperceptualinfluencesfallintothemainareasofmemoryprocessing,Gestaltpsychology,auditory streamingandfusion,perceptionofpolyrhythms,andassociativelinksandlimitingperceptualthresholdswhichaffectourreactiontospecificrates ofperiodicities.Onerelevantthresholddeterminesourabilitytodiscriminatebetweensimilarperiods,whileothershelpdefinetheregionsofpulse andornamentation. Investigationshowsthatourperceptionofperiodicityalterssignificantlywithfairlyminorchangesinrateforthisreason,Ihavefoundit usefultogroupmusicalperiodicitiesinto4ranges:ornamental/textural,pulse,superpulseandlargescale.Thelevelofpulseisthemostdirectly associatedwithmotormovementandusuallyliesintherangeof0.5"1.5"(orinmusicalterms,intherangeq=40,toq=120).Superpulseisthe pulsegroupinglevel,correspondingtothatoftraditionalmeter,andusuallyliesintherangeof1.5"to4.5".Perceptionofregularityatthislevel beginstobeaffectedbythemusicalcontents.Atthelargescalelevel(periodslongerthan4.5")limitsoftheshorttermmemory (estimated around10")imposeasignificantres tric tionandmentalorganizationisfundamental.Thereforetheperceptionoflongerperiodicities dependsnotonlyonthemusicalcontextbutalsoonitscodificationbythelistenertheexperience,education,moodandmentalstrategiesofthe individualarethereforecrucial,andthesenseofdurationcanvarygreatly. Rhythmsfasterthanthepulserange(below0.5")canbegroupedinatextural/ornamentalcategory,wheretheyfunctionmoreinthesense ofcreatingtexturalortimbralvariety.Trillsandtremolosarefamiliarexamplesofthefasterendofthisscale.Withdurationsbelowca.0.05",our

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abilitytodistinguishthespecificorderofasetofpitchesisalmostnil,andthereforeitbecomesmisleadingtospeakofrhythmperse17. Itisincreasinglyevidentfrompsychologicalinvestigationthatperiodicityontheornamentationlevelisofaslightlydifferentkindfrom thelevelofpulse,andsubstantiallydifferentfromthatoflongerdurations.Withapredilectionforexploringboundariesofperc eption,20th c enturyc ompos ers hav eex perimentedwithus ingthesevery fas tperiodicitiesinnewways.Examplescanbefoundintheworks analyzedbelow.ThethemeofLutoslawski'sCappriccio,forexample,hasacuriousqualityarisingfromaboundarycrossing.Itsoundsslightly likeatapeplayedatthewrongspeed,duetothefasttempoandthehighregisteremployed.Itmovesataratetypicallyreservedfor ornamentationandtexture,butcannotbeheardaseitherbecauseithasthepitchandrhythmiccontourofamelody.Theeffectfocusesattention, asthelistenermustconcentrateinordertodeciphertheinformation.Ligetialsoenjoysplayingwiththeboundariesofperception,ashereveals whilediscussinghisworkContinuum:
I...rememberedthataharpsichordwasmosttypicallyaninstrumentwithanoncontinuoussound....Ithoughttomyself,whataboutcomposingapiece ofmusicthatwouldbeaparadoxicallycontinuoussound...thatwouldconsistofinnumerablethinslicesofsalami?Aharpsichordhasaneasytouchit canbeplayedveryfast,almostfastenoughtoreachthelevelofcontinuum,butnotquite(ittakesabouteighteenseparatesoundspersecondtoreachthe thresholdwhereyoucannolongermakeoutindividualnotesandthelimitsetbythemechanismoftheharpsichordisaboutfifteentosixteennotesa second)....Theentireprocessisaseriesofsoundimpulsesinrapidsuccessionwhichcreatetheimpressionofcontinuoussound.18

Thefastratesofornamentationarealsofoundinthecontextoftextures.Theeffectproducedisthatofalayerofsoundwitha characteristicpitchanddensity,butcontainingsurfacefluctuationprovidedbyquickmovementbetweenelements.Periodicitiesare,sometimes involvedinoneormorecomponentstrands,andoftensuchperiodicitiescreaterhythmicdissonanceontheforegroundlevel.Evenwhenstrict periodicitiesarenotpresent,therangeofdurationsmaybesufficientlyrestrictedthattheycanbeusefullypresentedbyanaveragerateof recurrence.Inotherwords,periodicitiescanserveasamodelfortexturalconstruction. ThecompositionoftexturalpassageswaschampionedbycomposerssuchasXenakis,Stockhausen,andLigetiastheysearched fornewwaysoforganizingsonicmaterial.Stockhausenpromotedtheterm"statisticalfield"torefertothesituationwherecharacteristicssuchas timbre,duration,andregisterremainedsimilarthroughoutapassage.19Thetermaccompaniedanewcompositionalapproachwherebythe composerwouldselecttheprecisewayinwhichspecificpropertieswouldbedistributedamongvariousinstruments.20Thetexturalapproach wasaveryappropriateoneformanytwentiethcenturycomposerswhowishedtomovebeyondtraditionalusesofharmonyandmeterwhile retainingadegreeoflargescalecontrol.Itpermittedthecomposertoestablish"global"propertiesforeachtextureandthentoconstructformal designsthatwouldproducevaryingtypesanddegreesofcontrast.Contrastsintimbre,dynamiclevel,durations,register,etc.couldbeextended tohigherlevels.Forexample,apassageincorporatinghighcontrastsinseveralparameterscouldbejuxtaposedwithoneoflowcontrast.For composerssuchasLigetiandStockhausen,suchanapproachtocompositionprovedconducivetofascinatingdesigns. Ligeti'sideaswereinfluencedbyhisrealizationthatattemptstoserializedurationscouldresultinanundifferentiatedrhythmic shape.21Whenaseriesofdurationsaredistributedwithequalfrequencyoveragivenperiodoftime,theresultingtexturescomposedofthesame mixofdurationscanproduceablanddurationalprofile.Becauseweemployamodeoflisteningthatextendsbeyondadjacentpairsofnotes,the effectofthecontrastbetweentwodurationscanbedulledbyalackofcontrastbetweenadjacentgroupsofdurations.Choosingtolistentoa passagetexturallyoftenrequiresafurtherbroadeningofthetemporalfocus.Insuchacase,thelistenerreceivesdatafromalongertimeperiod beforecodifyingit.Sincenoncodifieddataisretainedonlyintheshorttermmemorybuffer,thattimeperiodisrestrictedbythelimitofthe perceptualpresent.However,thecomposercanhelpthelistenerextendthetimeperiodbyminimizingtherateofinformationpresentedbythe music. Ligetiwasparticularlyinterestedintheperceptualboundaryofca.0.05",belowwhichtheearcannotperceivedistinctorderof pitches.22HefollowedKoenig'sexamplebyexperimentingwiththisboundary,thoughKoenigworkedwithelectronicsoundsandtechniques whileLigetipreferredtheacousticmedium.Theaimwastocombinesoundsatspeedsfasterthan0.05",therebyproducingchangesthatwould causeslowoverall"transformationsinthe'molecularstate'ofsound."23ThisobservationgaverisetoLigeti'sfondnessforforegrounddissonance inthetextural/ornamentalregion.Heexplains:
Sinceyoucannotplayaninstrumentfastenoughtoproduceasuccessionofnotesatarateoftwentypersecond,Ibuilttherhythmicshiftsintothe music.Forinstance,twentyfourviolinswouldplaythesametunebutwithaslighttimelagbetweenthem.Thefigurationswerealmostidenticalbutnot quite.24

Inatexturalpassage,aparticularstateofdensitiesandproportionsisoftenmaintainedforasufficientlylongperiodoftimethat perceivedchangescanbeunderstoodasamodificationofthebasicstate.WorkssuchasAtmosphereswereinfluentialintheirpresentationin texturalpassagesofunprecedentedlength.TheminimalmovementexemplifiedbythemusicofSteveReichalsohadconsiderableinfluencein traininglistenerstolisten"texturally".Certainothercultures,suchasthatofIndonesia,havelongtraditionsofmus ic whic hwewould c ons idertex tural.Someearly ex amplesoftextureintwentiethcenturyWesterncompositionsweredirectlyinfluencedbysuchmusic.25 Becauseoftheprominenceofextendedtexturalpassages,themodernconceptoftextureoftenconveysthenotionthatthereissimilarityin severalparametersforarelativelylongtimespan.However,suchsimilarityisnotaprerequisite.Anycomplexsoundwillconveyasenseof texturewhentheearhasdifficultyinsegregatingthecomponentparts.Lutoslawski'sthirdmovementcontainsapassagewherethe"textures"are separatedbyrestsandlastforafewsecondsonly,producingaforegroundrhythmbytheirpatternofoccurrence.26Despitethebrevityofthese burstsofsound,thesimilarityoftheirconstructiontoothermoreclearlytexturalpassagesearnsthemthedescriptionoftexture.Thesimilarity betweenthevariousfragmentsgivesaclearimpressionoftheexistenceofalongertexturalfabricfromwhichshortpieceshavebeencutand pasted. Ligetiisoneofthemastersofmaintainingandmanipulatingtexturesoverextremelylongperiodsoftime,uptoseveralminutes' duration.StrikingexamplesoflengthytexturesarefoundinworkswhichprecedehisChamberConcerto,butthelatterworkisparticularly appropriateforthepresentstudybecauseofthedesignofitsthirdmovement.Thatmovementpresentsseveraltextureseachconstructedbythe samemeans:multipleperiodicitiesoverlaidincloseandcomplexrelationstoeachother.Althoughthemovementisbynomeansstatic,it containsnodiscernablemelodies(withtheexceptionofafewsustainednotesnearthebeginning).Instead,eachvoicefunctionsasacomponent ofoneofthevarioustextures.Attentionissustainedbytheinterplayoftheperiodicitiesofthecomponentlayers,bypitch/registralmovement throughoutaspecifictexture,and,onalargerscale,bycontrastbetweenthevarioustexturesinvolved.Texturalpassagesofsimpler constructionwillbeexaminedfirst.ThoseofLutoslawski'sworksarefrequentlypresentedinthemoretraditionalfunctionofabackdroptomelodic material.Thesecanbedividedintotwodistincttypesoftextures,eachcreatingadifferentperceptualeffect.Onetypeoperatesinrhythmicunison

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andproducestheeffectoftexturethroughascontinuousdifferentiationinpitchandtimbre.Theothertypecreatesforegrounddissonancethrough anoverlayofdifferentpulsesubdivisions,orbymoreadditivemeanssuchasthecontinuousrepetitionofaveryshortfigure. Asetoftextureswhichexhibitrhythmicconsonance,andoftenrhythmicunison,occursinthethirdmovementofLutoslawski's ConcertoforOrchestra.Thetexturesprovideacomplexbackgroundforafamiliarthememovingprimarilyinlongnotes.27Theyareoftwotypes: sparseshortsegmentsofquarternotesplayedbylowerstrings(pizzicato)andbrass(excepthorns,seeExample1),anddenser,longer segmentsplayedalternatelybyhornsandwoodwinds(seeExample2)..Thedensertexturesexhibitaninterestingconstruction,aseach instrumentplaysonlytwopitchesyetthecompositeeffectproducestwolayers:oneofrepeatedstaticchordsandtheotherofachordalline movingupanddown.

Example1:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,III,598599/60560628
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

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Example2:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,,III,600601
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHagen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

Thesamesetoftexturesreturnsinm.659ataslightlyfastertempo.Thistime,themelodiclineisreplacedbyalinewithsimilar profilebutwithoutthedetailofthepreviousstatement,encouragingthelistenertofocusmoreattentionontheaccompanyingtexture.The passageismuchlonger(24"),hasmoreinnercomplexity,andincorporatessomeinternalshiftingofpatterns.Initially,mostinstruments participate,butgraduallythetexture,thins,thoughtheeighthnotepulseisalwaysarticulated.Thereductionofactivityinthetextureis compensatedforbythetransformationofastaticpulseinthelowerinstrumentsintoanascendingchromaticline(Example3).

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Example3:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,Ill,659665.
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

Apassageofthreebars'lengthinLutoslawski'sworkseemstexturaldespiteitsbrevityandrelativelylongdurations,becauseit exhibitstemporalsymmetry.Thissymmetryindicatesaclosedsystemratherthanagoaldirectedpassage,andthecarefuldovetailingof recognizableharmonicpatternsconveysthischaracteristictothealertlistener.Onelayerofsustainednotesinthehornsisthebackgroundfor threeotherlayers.Togethertheyproduceasimplecompositerhythmofaquarternotearticulationwhichalignswiththemelodicmaterial.Three groupsofinstrumentsplaydissonant,internallysymmetrical,durationpatterns(Example4).Thepitchpatternsofeachgroupformharmonies which,thoughinternallyconsonantandbeginningonaperfectfifth,alsoexhibitdissonanceduringthethreebarsthatrelationshiphelpsmaintain theirindependence.


ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

Example4:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,Ill,593595

Texturesconstructed through a superpositioning of different subdivisions are considerably denser than those exhibiting rhythmic consonanceontheforegroundlevelsuchasthosejustdescribed.ThreerelatedpassagesinthefirstmovementofLutoslawski'sworkpresentan interestingopportunitytostudybothtypeswithinasimilarframework.Ineachcase,theyaccompanytheslowsecondthemeofthemovement.At (5),twolayersoftextureeachmoveineighthnotes.Althoughthepivotsinthescalarfiguresoftheclarinetcoincidewithrestsintheoboefigure, thatrelationshipisobscuredbyaccentsintheoboelinewhichprecedethoserests.Asthepivotpointsprovidetheonlyplausibleaccentpointin the clarinet line, a "Type B dissonance" results.29 In combination with the relatively uncommon grouping length of five eighths, the (irregular) insertionofsomeshortergroups,andthedifferenceincharacterofthecontours,considerableirregularityisaudible(Example5).

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Example5:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,I,4145
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

Example6:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,I,6466
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

Example7:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,I,103108
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

Atthenexts tatementofthesalv etheme,arelatedbutmorec omplex accompanyingtextureisconstructed(Example6). Dissonanceisextendedtotheforegroundlevelbythesimultaneouspresentationofdifferentsubdivisionsofthedottedquarternote.Ontheother hand,thecoincidingofthosesubdivisionsemphasizesthepulse.ThescalarpatternWhichappearedat(5)ineighthnotesnowappearsin sixteenthnotes.Itmaintainsthesameperiodoftimebetweenpivots,andthuscoversamuchgreaterdistanceinregister.Theotherlayerplayed bytheoboeat(5)nowappearsincanon.Thetwopartsofthecanonc anbec learlyheardas distinc tlay ers ,bec aus etheac cents and thedifferenc einpitch/registrallevelpreventthemfromfusing.Anotherfigureinthe'celliandbassoonsemphasizesthedottedhalfdurationby sequentialpitchpatterns.Asthislinemovesmainlybystep,itissimilartotheclarinetlineofthepreviousstatement.Therefore,thechangingofthe clarinetmovementfromeighthstosixteenthsmayhavebeenacrucialmoveinmaintainingsegregation.Thelyricalthemeiseasilydistinguishable fromthevarioustexturallayersbyitstempo,itslyricalnature,andbyitsrecognizabilityfromthepreviousstatement. Atthethirdstatement(11),theshortestdurationinthetexturereturnstotheeighthnote,sotheonlyforegrounddissonanceisa2:3ratioof twodivisionsofthedottedquarter.Thistimethetextureisveryfull,duetoalackofrests,parallelharmoniesinthestrings,andaslowsustained

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lineintrombonesinadditiontotheforegrounddissonances(Example7).Thedistinctionbetweenfigureandgroundtendstoreverseinthis passage,owingtoanincreaseinactivityinthegroundandthefamiliarityofthethemeitself.Thedifferentlayersofthetextureareindividually modulatedbydynamicshapingorharmonicthickening,therebyemphasizingtheirindependence.Subsequently,thevariouslinesareinterrupted byanincreaseofattackdensityandadecreaseinpitchmovement.Thisinterruptionservesinpartasananacrusistoamajordownbeatofthe theme. Thechoralesectioninthethirdmovementofthesameworkcontainsmoreexamplesofaccompanimenttexturecharacterizedby foregrounddissonance.Thefirstfullstatementofthistextureisatmm.715.Celesta,harps,piano,andpercussionallrepeatpatternswhicheach provideadifferentsubdivisionofthehalfnoteintheratio3:4:5(Example8).Theeffectisareinforcementofthehalfnoteperiodand,withtheaidof thepercussionrolls,athickeningofthetexture.Thepianoandcelestapatternsalsoarticulatethetwobarperiodthroughrepetition.Thisgrouping providesasubtlecontinuationofthetwobarperiodalreadyestablishedandtherebyhelpsmaintainthevibrancyofthehemiolaeffectofthe choraletheme.Thesubdivisionsareatquiteafastrate,fallingwithinthetextural/ornamentalzone.Theirfunctionastextureisthereforeeasily grasped,asthedensityofnoteattacksistoohightoperceiveasrhythminitself.Intheprecedingsectionswherepianoandharpeachplayed alone,theyperformedquintupletsratherthanslowerrates.The.higherdensitythushelpsestablishthetexturalfunctionfromthefirstentry. Afragmentedtextureoccursasanaccenttoavariationofthepassacagliathemeinthethirdmovement(Example9).Thepassagefirst occursatm.802,andislaterrepeatedatm.822withaslightchangeinthefinalbars.Textureisproducedbythesuperpositioningoftrills,tremolo, andfastmovingtripletfigures.Whatmakesthistextureunusualisitsshortdurationsanditsfunctionasornamentonalargerscale.Thesegments areseparatedbymuchsparserwriting,sothereisaconsiderableaccentresultingfromtheinitiationofeachtexturalfragment.Sincethe componentpartscannotbedistinguished,however,thetexturalfragmentisgraspedasonesingle,ifprolonged,anacrusistothefollowingbeat. Thiseffectisreinforcedbyadramaticcrescendointhehorns,andbytheperiodicityofthetexture'srecurrence.

Example8:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,III,715717
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Example9:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,III,804813
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

ThethirdmovementofLigeti'sChamberConcertoisfulloftexturalvariety.Sincethevarioustexturesarecreatedthroughthe superpositioningofdifferingperiodicities,themovementprovidesanexcellentmodelforanalysis.Itpresentsaseriesoftextures,withoverlaps betweenafewofthem.Eachtextureinvolvesseveralinstrumentseachplayingapitchrepeatedatacertainperiodicrate.Thepitchmovementis veryrestricted,eitherremainingononepitchormovinginasingledirectionbysmallintervalsorthroughglissandi.Thetexturesarecontrastedby severalmeans:thespecificinstruments,pitches,pitchmovement,anddynamiclevelsinvolvedtherateofreiterationandtherelationshipofthe periodsproduced.Ligetidescribestheresultingtexturesas:


thetypelabeled'likeaprecisionmechanism'...characterizedbyaspecificrhythmicalconfiguration:astate...representedinterms,notofa'smooth',but ofa'finegroundcontinuity,sothatthemusicisseenasifthroughanumberofsuperimposedlattices.30

Theninedistinguishabletexturesinthemovementarelistedinexample10andnamedalphabetically.Thesecond,eighth,andninthare specialcasestheothersaredescribedinthefigurewiththerangeofperiodsemployedonaforegroundlevel.Despitethecentralroleof periodicitiesintheformationofthetextures,orperhapsforreasonsofbalance,thereisnoapparentperiodicrelationshipbetweentheoverall durationsofthevarioussections. Thefirst47"ofthemovement(uptom.12)canbeconsideredaspresentingonedistincttexture,thoughitcontainsthree distinguishablesublayersduetovariationsintimbreanddurations.Eachinstrumentpresentsaseriesofpitches(Example11a)eachpitchis reiteratedavariablenumberoftimesbutalwaysquickly,andinitiatedbyanaccent.Eachinstrumentstartsindependentlyandexhibitsdifferent groupingrhythms.Theoveralltextureismodifiedbyprogressivewideningofthepitch,timbre,anddurationchoices.Initially,timbreisrestrictedto woodwinds,pitchtoaunisonE,anddurationstothirtysecondnotes(0.125").Theoveralleffectisofafinegrainedtexturewithirregular punctuationfromthepatternofaccents.31Graduallyaclusterisproducedaseachinstrumentmovestothenextnoteoftheseries.A"rhythmic cluster"isalsoproduced,asthenewdurationsareinitiallyeither7or9notespersecond,"temporallyadjacent"tothe8notespersecondrateof theoriginalsubdivisions(Example11b).Piano,strings,andharpsichordentersoonafterwards .Thoughlinkedtothewoodwindlay erby pitchandduration,they aredifferentiatedbytimbreandbymuchbrieferpausesbetweengroupsofnotes.Pianoandharpsichordmaintainthe fastreiterationswhilethestringsintroduceslightlyslowerdurations.Thesharingofthesamepitcheslinksthethreelayersbutperceptualfusionis thwartedbythefadingoutofthewoodwinds.

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Example10:Ligeti,ChamberConcerto,IIISchematicRepresentation
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Example11:Ligeti,ChamberConcerto,IIITexture"A"mm.45,911
B.Schott'sShne,Mainz,1974.AllRightsReserved.UsedbpermissionofEuropeanAmericanMusicDistributorsCorporation,soleU.S.andCanadianagentforB.Schott'sShne,Mainz.

Afterca.6",thedoublebasscreepsinwithasustainedDplayedasaharmonic.Theremainingpitchesoftheserieswhichfollow theDaresimilarlyintroducedassustainednotesinclarinetandflute.Togethertheyproduceaclusterwhichcontinuessoundinguntiltheendof thepassage.Althoughthesenotesareobviouslycontrastedfromtherapidreiterationsoftherestofthetexture,theirdurationsaresolongthat theyconsiderablyexceedtheperceptualpresent.Therefore,withinafewsecondstheytendtofadeintothebackground,addingcolortothe texture,ratherthanmovementorcontrast.Moreprominentarethereiteratednotesintroducedbythestrings.Beingslightlylongerindurationthan thepreviousarticulations,theyeffectivelyslowthepace.Inmm.811,thelongerdurationscombinewithrepetitiontoenablethelistenertohearthe 5:4:3dissonanceofthestringpatterns.Thepatternscoincideeverybeat,initiallyarticulatinga1secondperiodanddelineatingatempochange bycoincidingtentimesthroughoutarallentandobeforedyingaway .(Example11c). TextureChasastructuresimilarinmanyrespectstotheprecedingpassage,butres ults inquiteadifferenteffect.All instruments (ex c eptdoublebas s )s tartsimultaneously,thesubdivisiondurationsareshortened,theregistralrangewidened,andtherests omitted.Allinstrumentsplayslowdescendingand/orascendingchromaticlines(Example12).Duringthepassage,thenumberofinstruments changingpitchatanyonetimegraduallyincreases.Thewideregistralspanisdefinedimmediatelybyoctavedisplacementsofthestartingpitch. Eachinstrumentmovestoitsnextnoteatanindependenttime,butthechangeofpitchisnotaccentedasitwasinTextureA.Uniformlysoft dynamics,mediumdurations,andsimilararticulationsincreasethetendencyforthevariouspartstofuse.Asthepreciserateofreiterationis chosenbytheindividualperformer,asubtledissonanceofattacksproduceswhatthecomposerdescribesas"a'granulated'continuum".A strikingcharacteristicofthistextureistheincorporationofglissandi.Thestringglissandiarequiteslow,takingupto3"tomovethedistanceofa semitone.Bycontrast,thetromboneremainsonitsfirstpitchforalmostoneandahalfminutes,thentakesonly5"foraglissandocoveringa majorsixth.Botharequiteaudible,butthetromboneglissandoismoreprominentduetoitsspeed.

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Example12:Ligeti,ChamberConcerto,IllTexture"C"2327.

TextureCcontinuesforalmostafullminute,althoughitslast20"overlapswithTextureD(Example13a).Thenewlayerisquite distinct,asitisintroducedbythedoublebassfortissimoatthesignificantlyslowerrateof3persecond(0.33").Theotherstringsabandontheir participationintheprevioustextureandjoinin,alsoatfortissimo,exhibitingavarietyofarticulationsincludingthesharpattackofthe"Bartok pizz.".Eachgroupofnotesinthistextureisassignedadifferentbutrelativelyslowrateofrecurrence,varyingfromperiodsofca.0.2"to0.67" (example13b).Ligetinotatesthevariousrhythmsindifferenttempiaswellasbydifferentsubdivisions.Thisstrategyproducesanextremely complexrelationshipbetweentheinstruments,withvirtuallynocoincidingofattacks.

Example13aandb:Ligeti,ChamberConcerto,IllTexture"D"3239

Tex tureEbeginswith s tac c atis simo , moltos ecc o reiteratedc hords inharpsichordandthenpiano.Theperiodsoftheir durationsmediatebetweenthoseofthewoodwindsandthestringstheirattackscreatea5:6dissonancecoincidingeverybeat(ca.0.91").The similarityoftheirdurations,articulation,andpitchaggregatescontributetotheirfusionandtotheirsegregationfromtheotherinstruments.Texture Frepresentsanotherinstanceofa"granulatedcontinuum".Itconsistsofstringpizzicatochordsplayedsoftlybut"asrapidlyaspossible",creating afrenziedeffectwhichcannot(andshouldnot)bedissociatedfromtheactualstateoftensionintheperformer.32Theincorporationofslow glissandionthemiddlenoteofeachchordisreminiscentofTextureB. TextureGbeginsatm.42whenseveralinstrumentspresentamuchslowerreiterationofveryshortnotes,allonthesamelow

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pitch.Arathercomicaleffectisproducedbythecontrastofthelowregisterandslowarticulationwiththeprecedingfrenziedtextureinthe strings.Thesenseoftextureischallengedbythe(relatively)longperiods,whichtendtomakethenotessoundasdistinctentitiesratherthanas grainsinacontinuum.Itisthereforepossibletoperceiveanirregularrhythmiclineresultingfromthecompositepatternofnotes.Thedurations areoutsidethetextural/ornamentalregion,sotohearthemasfusedintoonelayerinvolvesaconsiderablestretchingoftemporalfocus.Afocus ononespecifictimbrewillenhancethelistener'sabilitytohearthelinesasindependentandperiodic. After14",fivemorevoicesjoininsimultaneously.Togetherwithtwonotesaddedtothepianopart,theyproduceaclusterinahigh register.Thenewentriespresentperiodsslightlyfasterthanthoseofthelowerlayer,butslowenoughtosuggestaconnection.Thisinterpretation isreinforcedbythepianolink,whichplaysitshighnotesinthesamerhythmasitslowones.Theregistralgapcreatesanoddeffect,stretching thefusion/fissionboundary(Example14).Afterafewseconds,someinstrumentsbegintoslowdownwhiletheothersmaintaintheiroriginalpace. Theeffectisquitestartling,creatingaslightperceptualdizzinessandcausingasegregationoflayers.Theinstrumentswhichslowdown theoreticallydosotogether,butsincetheyareplayingintricatesubdivisionsatdifferentrates,thereisampleopportunityforminorvariations whichcancausefurtherperceptualblurring.33Inaddition,thefirstrallentandocoincideswiththefinalglissandiintheviolaandcelloastheyfinish thepreviouspassage.

Example14:Ligeti,ChamberConcerto,IllTexture"G"mm.4647

Atm.50,violinsenteratffpossible(pizzicato)andca..13"later,violaandcellosimilarlyallplaynotesbelongingtothehighcluster alreadysounding.SuchabeginningisreminiscentofTextureB,withanexchangeofregisters.ViolinsI&IIshouldtheoreticallybeconsonantwith tromboneandhorn,asthoseinstrumentsareatthesametempo,andplayingmultiplesofthesamesubdivisions.However,thereisnoinsurance thattheywillstartinphase,andinfactasthebrassaremaintainingtheirowntempi,itislikelythattherewillbesomediscrepancy.Ligetiis naturallyawareofthistendency,andinstructs:


Theplayersleftbytheconductorontheirownkeepasaccuratelyaspossibletotheirindividualtempo...however,sincetheycannotmeasurethetempo, butonlyestimateit,tempofluctuationsmayoccur.Synchronizationofthe(nonconducted)partsisnottobestrivenforinfact,slightshiftsinthemetre arewelcome.34

Again,theoreticallyonly,'celloandpiccolohavethesameperiodicity.Morelikelytobeperceptibleistherelationofattacksinharpsichordand piano:whenharpsichordreachesel=40theyshouldbeina1:1proportion.35Thisalignmentshouldbecomeaudiblebecausenomatterhow inaccuratelythepartsarealigned,thepartswillconvergemomentarily.Suchanapproachingunisoncaneasilyattractattention. Thelastsectionofthemovementconsistsoftrillsandsharpattackswhichtogetherformaslightlyunevenpatternofpulsesonthe samehighpairofpitches(D6/Eflat).Therearetwopossibleinterpretations.Ononehand,theirregularitylinksthispassagetotheirregular accentsofthefirsttextureofthemovement,andthuscontributestoasenseofclosure.Inadifferentcontext,thisinterpretationwouldlikelybethe onlyplausibleone.However,thecontextofthemovementsuggeststhatthesefewnotesaredelineatinganother(verysparse)textureproduced byoverlappingperiodicities.Thepassagemaythereforebeinterpretedasseverallayersofperiodicitymovingquiteslowlyinandoutofphase. Despitethefactthattheintervalsbetweenattacksinthesametimbrearenotstrictlyperiodic,theyareeasilyinterpretableasslowingdown.The compositepatternisnotregular,butcanbesensedasincreasingthedurationsbetweenattacks.Ineitherinterpretation,thesparsenessofthe textureconveysadispersalofenergyappropriatetotheendofamovement.

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TherearenumerousinstancesinLigeti'sworkwheretwoormorelinesareeasilyperceivedasformingonedistinctlayerthese passagessharesomepropertieswiththetypesoftexturealreadyexamined.However,inmanycasestheresultanttexturesareconfinedtoa narrowpitchband,andexhibitacollectivemodulationinshape,notedensity,dynamics,etc.Thereforetheyexistinastatesomewherebetween textureandmelodyandcanbemoreeasilythoughtofas"texturalstrands".Whensuchstrandscoexist,theirinterplaycanproducea resemblancetocontrapuntaldesign.Anexaminationofthesestrandsprovidesaninterestingsurveyofperceptualeffects,especiallythose involvingfusionandfission.Evenconfiningourselvestoastudyofthosewhichexhibitsomeperiodicitygivesavarietyofexamplesforperusal.

TherearenumerousinstancesinLigeti'sworkwheretwoormorelinesareeasilyperceivedasformingonedistinctlayerthesepassages sharesomepropertieswiththetypesoftexturealreadyexamined.However,inmanycasestheresultanttexturesareconfinedtoanarrowpitch band,andexhibitacollectivemodulationinshape,notedensity,dynamics,etc.Thereforetheyexistinastatesomewherebetweentextureand melodyandcanbemoreeasilythoughtofas"texturalstrands".Whensuchstrandscoexist,theirinterplaycanproducearesemblanceto contrapuntaldesign.Anexaminationofthesestrandsprovidesaninterestingsurveyofperceptualeffects,especiallythoseinvolvingfusionand fission.Evenconfiningourselvestoastudyofthosewhichexhibitsomeperiodicitygivesavarietyofexamplesforperusal. Inthemiddleofm.19ofthefirstmovement,forexample,harpsichordandpianoentersimultaneouslywithapp"cadenza"figureto beplayedasfastaspossible.Themotorskillsoftheperformersandthedifferingactionsofthetwoinstrumentensurethattheywillnotbein rhythmicunison.Nevertheless,thesimultaneousentries,thesimilarityofthefiguresandthesharingofthesamepitchrangeanddynamiclevel ensurethattheycanbeheardastwotwistedstrandsofthesamelayer.Subsequentpairsofentriesinthestringsplayingverysimilarlinesforma typeofcanon(Example15).Similarpassagesoccurlaterinthemovementsuchasatm.29whenallstringsexceptdoublebassplayPrestissimo, senzatempo,inaverynarrowpitchband.There,allfourbeginsimultaneouslyandmovetogethertosulponticello,thenordinario,thensultasto thetimbralshiftsfusethefourtogetherfirmly.

Example15:Ligeti,ChamberConcerto,Imm.1725
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Formingacontrasttothe"canonicentry"inthestringsisatexturalstrandpresentedbythewoodwinds(example16).Althoughthe woodwinds'layerincorporatesdynamics,pitches,andshortdurationssimilartothoseofthestrings,itisreadilyperceptibleasadistinctstratum. Onefactorwhichcontributestothesenseoffissionisamoremeasuredrhythmicnotationwhichremovesthefranticnessofperformance associatedwiththedirective"asfastaspossible."Inaddition,alegatoarticulationcontributestothedifferenceincharacter.Mostnoticeably,the woodwindsbeginsimultaneouslyandcontinueinrhythmicunison,presentingastronglyunifiedtexture.36Therhythmicunisonisespecially strikingasitinvolvesverysubtlevariationsofageneralregularitythenumberofsubdivisionsperbeatdiffersbyonlyonefromthatofthe neighboringbeats.Asthedurationofthenotesisalteredfromonebeattothenextbylessthan0.02",theeffectcouldbeconsideredcomparable tomicrotonalshiftsinpitch. Thefactthatthethreeinstrumentsexhibitidenticalfluctuationlinksthemevenmorefirmlythaniftheywereplayingamorerigid periodicity.Itimpliesacommonmodulator,andisthussimilartotheeffectofthetimbralshiftsinthestringpassagedescribedabove. Theeffectofslightrhythmicvariationsinahorizontalcontextisfundamentallydifferentfromslightvariationsinvertical arrangements.Thelatterappliestosituationsinwhichsimultaneoussubdivisionsofabeatdifferbyonlyonefromeachother.Theeffectwas discussedwithreferencetoTextureAofthethirdmovementintermsofa"rhythmiccluster."Aslightvariationinthehorizontalrealmproducesa rubatoeffectandblursasenseofbeat,whileslightverticaldeviationscansubtlyarticulatethepulsebutblurtherhythm.Inthelattercase,the numberofattacksperbeatincreases.Suchanincreaseinnotedensitychangesthetexturetoanopaqueone,whilethecoincidingofattacksat thebeginningofeachbeatcansubtlyemphasizethatperiod.

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Example16:Ligeti,ChamberConcerto,Imm.2223
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Atm.31ofthefirstmovement,woodwindsentersimultaneouslyonasustainednote(Example17).Whentheydobeginmovingthey areinrhythmicunisonforonebeat,beforedivergingslightly.Thebeginningunisonstrengthenstheirfusion,whichisotherwiseslightlyweak becausetherateofmovementisslow.Thedifferencebetweenaquintupletsubdivisionandasextupletatq=60isca.0.03",andthedensityof attacksisamere1016perbeat(andpersecond).Thelistenermaythereforebeabletoperceivethespecificrhythmofthe5:6and5:6:7ratios. Furtherfusionisprovidedbyabriefunisonpause,aswellasbyacommondynamicshaping. Inm.39ofthesecondmovement,ahighpitchedclustersuddenlyappearsatIfinsixinstruments.Theinstrumentsaretightlyfused, movingquiteerraticallywithanalternationofveryfastmovementandsustainednotes,allaccentedandconfuoco.Asthelinecontinues,the activityincreasesuntilthesustainednotesaredroppedaltogetherandthemovementbecomesrelentlessinregulardurationsofca.0.11". Graduallythevolumedecreasesanddurationslengthenuntiltheyarealmost1.5".Thepassageisapproximately1'30"initsentirety,withthe slowingdownbeginninghalfwaythrough.Theeffectoftheregularityandtheabsenceofdissonancebetweenmm.5058isquitestrikinginthe contextoftheoverallarhythmicnatureofthiswork.Thepassageisfollowedbyaverybriefepisodeoffurtherperiodicity,contrastedbyspeed:the fourupperstringsplayveryfastnotes(ca.0.09"duration)inrhythmicunison.

Example17:Ligeti,ChamberConcerto,Imm.3034

PeriodicityintheDelineationofTexturalStrata Oneofthemainpurposesofthisstudyhasbeentoinvestigatetheinteractionofstrataincomplexworks.Afewofthemorestriking examplesofmultiplestratagiveanideaofthewayinwhichthecomposerscreateaneffectofseparationbetweenlayers.Thedistinctionbetween stratum,layer,andstrandisnotalwaysclearlydefined,butIreservetheiruseinthediscussionforphenomenaofveryfastratesofpresentation. However,thestudyofauditorystreamingcanalsobenefitfromanunderstandingofourmodesofperceptionforlargers c aleorganiz ations.It emphas iz es ourtendenc y togroups oundsby theirinterconnectednessratherthanbycoexistenceintime.Wecaneasilyadopta "horizontal"listeningapproachwhenthecontextencouragesit.37ThedevelopmentofharmonyinWesternmusichasfocusedattentiononvertical combinationsharmonicstructureisaresultofcarefuldesignwhichcanoverrideamorenaturaltendencytosegregatecomponentstrandsby registralsegregation,dynamicvariation,etc.Bregmansuggeststhattheauditorysystemisdesignedtointegratesoundsthatprobablyarosefrom thesamesource.38Theaudibilityofstratificationonalargerscaledependsonthesuccessofthecomposerincreatingandmaintainingdistinction betweenlayers,andontheinterpreters'abilitytoemphasizethosedistinctionsasnecessary. Contrastatsomelevel(s)isessentialtothedelineationofstrata.Itmightthereforeappearthatthemostefficientwayof differentiatinglayersistohavethemcontrastedinasmanywaysaspossible:byregister,pitchcollection,durations,articulation,dynamics,and timbre.Extremesofcontrastinallparameters,however,wouldproducetediumandlackofformalcoherence.Moretypically,afewparametersare contrastedwhileothersretainsimilarity.Registralseparationisoneofthekeyfactorsofdelineationinauditorystreaming,andfiguresprominently inmanycasesofstratification.Itsroleinstratificationissimplytheconverseofits(Oleintextures,wherethesharingofthesameregistralband enhancesfusion.Ifthereisalignmentatthelevelofpulseandsuperpulse,acontrastofdensityornoteactivitybetweencomponentlinesdoesnot necessarilyproducesegregation.Amelodicpas sagemay ex hibitaninterloc k ingdes igninwhic hs omeinstrumentsarerestrictedtoa

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reinforcementofimportantpitchand/orrhythmicstructureofamelody,whileothershaveahighdensityofnotesintheformofembellishment. However,nonalignmentatthelevelsofpulseand/orsuperpulsebecomesasignificantfactorinencouragingastratifiedmodeofhearing.The worksexaminedhereincorporatepassageswhoselayersaredifferentiatedbyavarietyofmethods.Insomecases,thedistinctionbetween layersissubtle,andbecomesblurredatcertainpoints.Thisattributeshouldnotbeinterpretedasafailuretoachievestratification,butratherasa sophisticatedwayofprovidingvarietyanddepthwithinthestructure. AclearstratificationoccursinthesecondmovementofLutoslawski'swork,atm.311(Example18).Themainthemeispresentedinthe trumpets,andquasilegato.Itincorporateslongsustainednotesandafewshortdurationsinitiallypresentedinatypeofneighbornotefigure.The phrasesareofirregularlength,buthaveacommondenominatorofadottedhalfduration,andanaveragelengthoffivedottedhalves.Thefigure isquiterecognizableandeasytodistinguish.Contrastingsharplywiththisthemeisaboldangularfragmentproceedinginshortregulardurations. Itrecursperiodicallyatfirst,buttheperiodofrecurrenceisdissonantwiththegroupinglevelsofthetheme.Thetwostratabegintogether,but withinacoupleofreiterationsofthebrassfigure,itbecomesapparentthatthereisnocorrespondencebetweenthetwo.Furtherdissonance occursatsubdivisionlevelsasoboesandclarinetspresentaslowlydescendingline.Thatline,clearlyaudibleduetoitsstepwisemovement, presentsadupledivisionofthehalfnoteperiod.Althoughthemainthemeisnotperiodic,itsgroupingsseemedconsonantwiththetriple subdivisionearlier,andareunlikelytobereinterpreted.Thecomplexitiesofthispassagecontinueasthemainthemeistreatedquasicanonically andnewlayersalsoappear.Althoughthenumberoflayersincreases,thedurationsincorporatedinthenewfiguresarecloselyrelatedtoexisting durations.Thus,theyformlinkswiththeotherlayersonthelevelofpulseorsuperpulse,presentingvarietythroughgroupingorsubdivision levels. ThepassacagliainMovementIIIofthesameworkpresentsafascinatingexampleofanextendedmultistratasection.ThePassacaglia properlastsforalmostsixminutes(tom.562),andisclearlyseparatedfromthenextsectionofthemovement.Duringthistime,thegroundof8 bars'lengthisheard18times.Thepassacagliathemeispresentedinvariousorchestrations,incorporatesasteadyregistralclimb,andhasa dynamicshapewhichrisestoitshighestlevelsonthetenth,fourteenth,andfifteenthstatements,thendecreasesquicklyintheend.Thedynamic increaseisnotgradual,butstepped:eachofthefirsttenstatementsincreasesthedynamiclevelonthefirstbeatofthefirstbar.Thishelpsthe listenermaintaintrackofthepassacagliatheme.

Example18a:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,II,307314
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Example18b:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,II,323327
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Example18c:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,II,3113124
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

Thereissomevariationinthetempo,andthechangesdonotcoincidewiththebeginningsofgroundstatements.Thisisjustone indicationofthediscrepancybetweenthegroundandtheothercoexistingmusicalmaterial.AlthoughStuckyreferstotheseotherthemesas "variations,"Ifeelthatisamisleadingterm.39Itimpliesaconnectionwhichseemsantithetictothenatureofthepassage.Whatisstrikingabout thissectionistherefusalofthecomposertoweavethedisparateelementstogetherintoawhole.Onlythefactthatwehearthemsimultaneously linksthemtogether.Theterm"variation"seemsmoresuitableforlatersectionsofthemovement,wherethegroundthemeitselfissubjectto variationsinrhythm,articulation,etc. Thevariousfragmentsandmelodieswhichappearduringthisfirstsectionexhibitawidevarietyofcharacteristics(Example19). Periodicityrarelyextendstoalevelbeyondthatofthesuperpulse.Mostofthefragmentssharethesamepulseasthatofthe3/4meterofthe passacagliatheme.Thisresultsina2:3dissonanceeverytimethethemereachesoneofitsduplebars(fourthandeighth).Moresignificant dissonanceresultsfromalackofalignmentbetweenthegroupinglevelsand/orsubdivisionsofthefragmentswiththos eofthepas s ac aglia theme.Anex ampleis atm.498(Ex ample19h)whereaclearlyarticulatedhalfnoteperiodismarkedlydissonantwiththedottedhalf periodicityofthetheme.Morefrequently,irregulargroupingsofthefragmentsproducethedissonancewiththeregularityofthetheme.The(Oleof periodicityisoftenthatofcreatingaspecificforegroundtexture,asvariousfragmentsexhibitdifferentsubdivisionsofthequarternote,fromtriplet eighthstosextupletsixteenthsandthirtysecondnotes. Muchofthedissonanceofthissectionseemsjarringpreciselybecausethereiscontinuousexpectationofalignment.Such expectationisreinforcedbypatternrecurrence,whichoftensuggestsaperiodicstructurewhichdoesnotthenmaterialize,duetotruncations, extensions,interruptions,orevenabruptchange(seeExamples19c,e).Theexpectationofalignmentcanalsoarisefromatemporaryalignment ofaccentsorphrasestructurebetweenfragmentandground.Forexample,alinewhichfinishesquietlyonthedownbeatofm.479seems appropriate,andthusleavesthelistenercompletelyunpreparedforastridentfluttertonguechordwhicharrivesonthesecondbeatofthatbar (Example19f).Whenthechordoccursagainonthesecondbeatofthenexttwobars,alistenermaytrytoreinterpretitasrelatingtotheground's meterinanoffbeatpattern.However,thatinterpretationhastobeabandonedwhenthechordfailstoappearagainforseveralbars.

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Example19:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,III,excerpts
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

Thelackofalignmentbetweentheinitiationofthefragmentswiththoseofthegroundstatementsseemsparticularlyimportantin creatingsegregation.Theonlyplacewherethereseemstobealignmentisatm.538,wherethesixteenthstatementofthepassacagliatheme begins.Theotherstratumarrivesatasuperpulseperiodonthedownbeat,andthetexturechanges.However,dissonanceisestablished immediatelyintheformofadottedhalfpulse,andastrongdownbeatarrivestwobarslater,whichindicatestheindependenceofthetwostrata. Severalofthefragmentsoverlapwitheachother,andusuallyproducemoredissonancebytheirlackofalignment.Thatdissonance isusuallyaresultofirregulargroupings,andanyharshnessisperceivedmorefromtheirindividualrelationshiptotheground.Atm.530however, twofragmentspresentaharshTypeBdissonance(Example19k).Eachisgroupedbyfour,atadisplacementofoneeighth.Thisrelationship linksthemmorecloselytoeachotherthantothetheme,withwhichtheyarebothdissonant.Asummaryofthenonalignmentpatternsofthe fragmentsandthethemecanbeseeninExample20. Ligeti'sworkcouldbecharacterizedasajuxtapositionandlayeringofvarioustypesoftexture,andassuchincorporatesnumerous

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instancesofmultiplestrata.Manyofthesearequitebrief,butwelldefined.Timbreanddensityaretwoofthemostcommonlycontrasted parameters.Thedegreeofcontrastisoftennotverymarked,andinsomecasestheblurringofdistinctionbecomesamajorelementofthe design.Inthefirstmovement,forinstance,atexturewhichbeginsinthewoodwindsinm.8ispassedtothestringsandthenprovidesa backgroundtoahornphrase(Example21).Thestringsmoveinirregulardurationsrangingfromasixteenthtojustoveronequarter.The resultantdensityaveragesaboutsixattackspersecond.Inm.18,tromboneandcelestaenterwithveryshortburstsofnotes"asfastas possible,"whilethewoodwindsplayslightlylongerburstsabitmoreslowly.Inthefollowingbar,thedens ityofthewoodwindtex ture increas es duetoanincreas einsubdivisionsandmoreoverlapofvoices(Example22).Inthemiddleofthatbar,pianoandharpsichordbegin veryfastcadenzas,echoedbytwogroupsofstringsinacanoneffect.Thewoodwinds,whichstoppedplayinginm.20,beginagaininm.22with anothertexture,atspeedssimilartothosetheyleftbutmuchmoreunified,astheybegintogetherandplayinrhythmicunison(seeExample16 above).Thefactthatmanyofthesetexturesarecloselyknit(i.e.temporallydenseandconfinedtoanarrowregistralband)definesthemquite clearly,andallowsthelistenertoperceivetheinterplayoftextures.Inaddition,thedurationsofthetexturesthemselveshelpdelineatethevarious strata.Inthepassagejustmentioned,thewoodwind/stringtexturecontinuesfor48"whilethetrombone/celestaandshortwoodwindfragments lastforamere8".Itmightbemoredifficulttomaintaintheseparationbetweenthelayersiftheywerebothpresentforthefull48".Theeffectof simultaneousinitiation,whichhasafusingtendency,islikewiseconducivetothedistinguishingofonelayerfromanother:thewoodwindentryat m.22issufficientlyunifiedthatitdoesnotreadilytoleratemergingwithanotherexistingtexture.

Example20a:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,III,mm.434379
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

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Example20b:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,III,498543
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYork,Inc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

Example21:Ligeti,ChamberConcerto,Imm816,1418
B.Schott'sShne,Mainz,1974.AllRightsReserved.UsedbpermissionofEuropeanAmericanMusicDistributorsCorporation,soleU.S.andCanadianagentforB.Schott'sShne,Mainz.

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Example22:Ligeti,ChamberConcerto,Im.19
B.Schott'sShne,Mainz,1974.AllRightsReserved.UsedbpermissionofEuropeanAmericanMusicDistributorsCorporation,soleU.S.andCanadianagentforB.Schott'sShne,Mainz.

PulseandSubPulse Pulseandsubpulsearepresentthroughoutmostofthetwoworksanalyzed.Significantlongtermpulsesusuallyarisefromthe compositerhythmofseverallayerswhichformarhythmicconsonanceonthelevelofpulseorsubpulse.

ConcertoforOrchestra TheadditivestructureofmanyofthethemesinLutoslawki'sworksuggeststhatpulsemightfigureprominentlyinhiswork.However,one characteristicofseveralthemesofhisworkisacontrastbetweenveryshortandverylongdurations,andinsuchcontextsanaudiblepulsecould interferewiththeeffectofthesustainednotes.Incaseswhereapulseisincorporatedintoatheme,theexistenceofanotherlayerwhichis dissonantonseveralhierarchicallevelsoftenobscurestheoriginalpulse.Therefore,althoughpulsemayhelpdelineatetheseparationoflayers,it isnotperceiveddirectlyasastructuralcomponent. Theworkdoesopen,however,withanovertpulse.Itispresentthroughoutthe"A"sectionsoftheABAformofthefirstmovement.The pulseisarticulatedintheformofadroneonF#,andisreiteratedforoveroneminuteevery0.75".Itscessationsignalstheendofthefirstsection, anditsreentryconfirmsthereturnoftheopeningmaterialinm.125.Thispulseprovidesastabilizerfortheirregularlengthofthetheme'sphrases: aperiodicitywhichisconsonantwithmostofthevariousmodulesandwithasparsepatterninthebrass.Thefewinstancesofdissonance betweenthemeandpulseareoftheforegroundvarietyinthenatureofsyncopationanddisplacedaccent. Whenthepulsestopstwobarsbeforethe"B"section,itmaywellsoundinthelistener'smindthroughthesixteenthnotemotionandeven intothefirstbarofthenewtheme.However,irregulargroupingsofeighthnotesinthenextbar(example5)interferewiththementalsustainingof thatpulse.Whenthedottedquarternextappears(mm.5256),itsduplegroupingisnewandthusdoesnotimmediatelysuggestarecurrencea subsequentpatterninthebrasscomposedoflengtheningdurationsobliteratesanyremainingfeelingofpulse.Thedottedquarterperiodreappears onlysubtlyinacomplextextureatm.64asthelevelofconsonanceoftwopatternswhicharedissonantatlowerlevels.Section"B"continuesin thisstylethroughout:manyfiguresremainalignedwithadottedquarterpulsebutgroupingsresultingfromaccents,contours,andrepeating patternsworkagainstitsaudibility.Onlywiththereintroductionofthe"drone"inm.125isthepulsefirmlyreinstatedasastructuralunit. ThroughoutmuchoftheCapriccioofMovement'Iandthereturnofthatmaterialattheendofthemovement,thereisanunusuallyfast pulseofaquickquarternoteatca.0.35".Thisiscomplementedinthemajorityofthesectionbyasuperpulseofadottedhalfnote(ca.1.0").The prominenceofthequarternotepulserecedesinthemiddlesection,duetolatentandovertconflictinggroupings.Adissonantdottedquarterpulse appearsfirstasalatentgroupinginm.200,andthenbecomesovertwiththeprominententryofthethirdthemeinm.208.Later,afiveeighths patternoccurssimultaneouslywiththequarternotegrouping.Inaddition,theoccasionalintroductionofahalfnoteperiod,thoughconsonantwith thequarter,stronglydisturbstheestablishedsuperpulse,andthereforethreatensthegeneralmetricstability.Thequarternoteisabsorbedintothe dottedhalfpulseoftheAriososection,whichprovidesthecommondenominatorofthetwodissonantstrata.Thequarteritselfisarticulatedby hornsandtrombones.However,increasinguseofthedottedquarterinotherlayerscreatesadissonancewhichemphasizesthedottedhalfasthe levelofconsonance.OnlythereturntotheCapricciosectionreinstatesthequarternotepulse. AlthoughtherearecomponentsinthevariousstrataofthePassacagliawhichcanbeconsideredascreatingapulselevel,itisoften difficulttodeterminewhichlevelwouldbeinterpretedasapulsebythelistener,duetotheshiftingofattentionfromoneleveltoanother.The grounditselfincorporatestwobarsdividedbytwoandsixbarsdividedbythree,sothesuperpulseperiodofthebaritself(ca.2.6")maybe sensedasaslowpulsethroughout,ifonemaintainsthegroundasreference. Thisperiodisreinforcedinlatertreatmentsofthepassacagliatheme.Atm.570(62),thehalfnote(ca.0.56")becomesthepulse,andthe4 eighthnotefigureswhichdefinethehalfnoteperiodeachrepresentonebar'sworthoftheground.Later,atm.852,thepulse,thistimeadotted quarter(ca.0.44")againrepresentsonebar'sworthoftheoriginal.

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However,thenextvariation,atm.876,owesmuchofitsapparentlopsidednesstothefactthattherhythmicpatternsnolongercorrespond totheoriginalpresentation.Everysecondoccurrenceofanotewhichwasoriginallyonadownbeatisnowclearlyinanupbeatpositionasthethird noteofatriplet.Theperiodisagainthatofthehalfnote,thistimeattherateofca.0.52".Thesameperiodismaintainedatm.903(97),butthe rhythmisneutralizedbytheregularityofthesubdivisionandthecompressionoftwobarsworthoftheground'spitchesintoonehalfnoteperiod. Thismeansthatalthoughnoneoftheoriginaldownbeatsareinupbeatpositions,alternateonesareonweakbeats.Thefirstvariationreturnsat m.953foronefinalstatementatthebreakneckspeedofhalfnotepulseatca.0.38". ChamberConcerto InthethirdmovementofLigeti'swork,thereareseveralpassageswherevariouspulsescoexist.Inmm.4258,theratesof periodicitiesseemparticularlyfavorabletotrackingthepulseofoneoftheslowerinstruments,andhearingtheothersinrelationtoit(Example 14).Thelengthofthepassageitself,andtheabsenceofothermoreprominentmaterial,providesthelistenerwiththeopportunitytochoose whichpulsetotrack,andthentochangefromonetoanotheratwill.Ofcourse,itisalsopossibletoavoidfocusingonanyoneinstrumentand followthecompositetextureinstead. IntherestofLigeti'swork,pulsedoesnotfigureveryprominently,thoughitdoesariseinsomepassagesasthefirstlevelof alignmentofforegrounddissonance.Inmostofthesepassages,theresultantpulsedoesnotcontinueformorethanafewseconds,anddoes notlinkwithothercoexistinglayersoradjacentpassages.Thereforepulsedoesnothaveasignificantfunctionexceptasacomponentofthat particulartexturalfragment.However,asimilarpassageinthefourthmovementdiffersfromtheothersbyitsextensiveduration(almostanentire minute),andbyitslackofdistractors.Thepassageconsistsofanincreasingnumberofinstrumentsplayingavarietyofsubdivisionsofthebeat. Thematerialwhichdoesnotbelongtothatlayerconsistsmainlyofsustainednoteswhichdonotclashsignificantly.Thepulseisstillnotvery strong,though,mainlybecausethecontoursofthevariouscomponentpartsformpatternswhichdonotcoincidewiththebeat.Asthese c ontours bec omemorejagged(mm.4250)andthepatternsbec omemoreregular(mm.46,49),thesenseofpulsebecomes obliterated. Inambiguouscases,interpretationcanweighttheperceptualeffect.Otherwise,theemphasisonthesuperpulseperiodcanhelp unifythestructure,sincethoseperiodsemphasizethealignmentofthemeandaccompaniment.Insimpletextures,periodicitiesareusuallyquite easytonoticeandemphasiscanmakethemtooblatant.Incomplextextures,however,stressingtheperiodicelementsespeciallyatthepulse andbarlevelcanhelpthelistenerorganizethevarietyofdata. LargeScaleStructure Afteracarefulstudyoftheperiodicitiesofdifferentworks,itseemsclearthattheformalstructureemergesmostoftenfromthe degreeofcontrastbothwithinandbetweenpassages.Therolesofperiodicityinthelargescalestructureofthesetwoworksarechieflymanifest attheforeground.ThisbearsoutobservationsbyClarke,whosuggests:
Intonal/metricmusic,formalboundariesareconveyedbymeansofrelativelyabstractmusicalproperties(e.g.cadence,keychange,melodicrepetition).In contemporarymusicmotivicrepetitionmayfunctioninthesameway,buttheabsenceofagenerallysharedsetofcompositionalproceduresindicatesthat rathermoreimmediateparametricchanges(e.g.changesinregister,pitch,density,timbre,rateofactivity)areprobablydecisiveinestablishinglargescale boundaries.40

Amainfactorindelineationofstructurewastraditionallyprovidedbytheappearanceorreappearanceofatheme.Evenin contemporaryworks,theappearanceofafamiliarthemeorgestureremainsaverystrongindicatorofstructure.Periodicityoftenhasa fundamental(Oleinpromotingourrec ognitionofatheme.Whenapitch/rhy thmconfigurationisrecognizedasadistinctidentity,itwill emergequicklyfromanysurroundingmaterial.41Inmostcases,athemewillbeginatitsbeginning,andthusimplyinitiationofanewsection.42 Structurecanbewelldelineatedbymeansofveryaudibleboundaries,oritcanemergefromamorefluidmetamorphosisfromone sectiontoanother.Audibleboundariescanbeimmediateorstretchoverashortperiodoftime.Animmediatelyperceptibleboundaryislikelyto incorporateasuddenchangeinperiodicstructureorotherparameters.Adifferentsensecanarisefromananticipatedboundary,wheretensionis decreasedgraduallytowardstheboundaryandgraduallyincreasedagainintoanewsection.Thisisamoretraditionalapproach,andis compatiblewiththeperceptionofhierarchicallyorderedperiodstructure.However,therearemanysignalsforadecreaseintensionwhicharenot dependentonhierarchicalmetricorganization.Rhythmicfactorsincludeadecreaseintemporaldensity,aresolutionofrhythmicdissonance,and alesseningofcontrasts.

ConcertoforOrchestra Lutoslawski'sworkshowsavarietyoftechniquesforcreatingstructuralboundaries.Broadlyspeaking,thefirstmovementisthe mostclearlyandsimplysegmented,whilethethirdhasmorevarietyofsectionlengthsandwaysofdemarcatingthem.Theworkincorporates manythemesandfragmentswhicharereadilyidentifiable,andthereforetheappearanceorreappearanceofanyofthesecanservetosignalthe beginningofanothersection.Lutoslawskialsomakesextensiveuseofcontrastintheotherparametersoftexture,timbre,temporaldensity, registeranddynamics.Pitchstructureislesscontrastedthanmostotherparameters,andcouldbethoughtofasaunifyingforce.Thisisvisible notonlyinthepredominantuseofthepassacagliathemethroughoutthethirdmovement,butalsointhetransformationofthesecondthemefrom MovementII,andofthethemefromMovementIintoanewthemeinMovementIII(example23b),andinthecloserelationshipbetweencontours infragmentsfrommanyofthethemes.43

Example23a:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,I,mm.4043
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYorkInc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

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Example23b:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,Ill,mm.597614
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYorkInc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

ThefirstmovementoftheConcertoforOrchestraisinaclearABAform.TheAsectionsarefugalandarethereforeundivided,exceptby thevariousentriesofvoices.Afigureinthehornsisperiodic,butdissonantwiththeotherstratathisdissonanceisnotacuteduetotheshort durationofthefigureitselfandthelengthoftheinterveningrests.Thedronepulseprovidescontinuitythroughout.Thetwobarboundarybetween themainsectionsAandBisclearlydelineatedthroughalogarithmicincreaseinnotedensity,combinedwithanincreaseofdynamics,followedby abriefsilenceofca.0.50".Thechangeisheightenedbytheabsenceofthestringstimbreandpulsereiterationduringthosebars. TheBsectionsaremuchmorecomplex,andconsistofseveralsubsectionsofthreebasictypesinthegeneralformabcabca.The firsttwostatementsofthe"a"themeandtextureareroughlythesameduration(ca.2Tand25"),whereasthethirdstatementistwiceaslong(ca. 54").Theinterveningmaterialcorrespondsexactlytothesedurations:itlastsforca.27"thefirsttimeandca.56"thesecondtime,however,the listenerismorelikelytobeawareofthedifferenceswhichfillthosedurationsthanoftheirequivalence.ContrastbetweenthesubsectionsofB involvesdensityofnoteattacks,changeofperiodlengths,andlevelsofrhythmicdissonance.Inaddition,therepetitionofentiresubsections createsexpectationsofparallelstructuringandtherebyallowsthelistenertoanticipateboundaries. MovementIIisinseveralsections,andhasabasicAABAform.Bothsectionsinvolvemultiplelayers,butthe"A"sectionsare muchmoresegmented,whilethe"B"sectionisunifiedbythepresenceofaslowmelodictheme.The"A"sectionsinvolverepetitionofelements onawiderangeoflevels,fromthequarternotetolargesections.Ahighdegreeofirregularityofgroupingstructureisbalancedbyanearly constantarticulationofabarperiod(ca..1.0")andbynearlyexactrepetitionatimmediateorlaterpointsinthemovement.Eac h"A"c onsists ofthesubs ec tions abc deb whic hares c arc elyalteredontheirreappearances. The"a"themehasaslightlyetherealqualitythatisreminiscentofapassageinthefinalmovementofthecomposer'sstring quartet.44Itcausesthelistenertostraintocatchthemusic.Thiseffectisaresultoftheextremespeed,relativelyhighregister,andverysoft dynamics.Therateatwhichthethememovesisnormallyassociatedwithmoreornamentalrolessuchasembellishment.Aninterpretationof ornamentalfunctionishoweverpreventedbythedefiniteshapeofthethemeandtheabsenceofanyotheractivity.Thatshapeisemphasizedby thefourrepeatedsixteenthsatthebeginningofeachphrase,andthrownintogreaterreliefbythesuddenrestsandirregularphraselengths. Nevertheless,thelistenermaynotgraspthestructureforthefirstfewphrases,duetothespeedofpresentationanditsnovelty.Thereissome compensationforthiseffectbytheincorporationofahighdegreeofredundancyineachphraseandbetweenphrases(Example24). Themainperiodicaspectwhichdelineatessection"a"fromtheprecedingmovementandfollowingsubsectionistheveryfast durationswhichoperateinisolationtoconveythetheme.Subsections"b,""c,""d,"and"e"aredifferentiatedrhythmicallymainlybygrouping structure,whichbecomesincreasinglymorecomplex(Example25.)The"d"and"e"subsectionseachcontaindissonantlayers.Thoseof"d" alignonthetwobarlevel,whilethoseof"e"aremoredissonantbutexhibitsomealignmentattheperiodofteneighths.Afinalstatementofthe "b"subsectionisextendedbyfragmentsandrestsintoanincreasinglysparsetexturewhichdisturbsthesenseofpulseandculminatesin silenceofabout1"beforeconvergingsixteenthlinesreturnustothe"a"subsectiononcemore. Apartfromaquasicanonicadditiontothe"a"subsection,andafivebarextensionto"d,"therepetitionoftheentiresectionis scarcelychangedexceptfororchestration.Thecomplicatedjuxtapositionofperiodicitiesandirregulargroupingshelpsmaintainthevitality throughtherepetition,whileconverselytherepetitionhelpsthelistenergraspthemoresubtlerelationshipsbetweenthevariousrhythmic structures. Assubsection"b"exhibitstheclearestarticulationofthedottedhalfsuperpulse,itisappropriatethatitprecedesthemiddle section(B)ofthemovement.Asdiscussedinthedelineationoftexturalstrata,theperiodofthedottedhalfisthecommondenominatorofthetwo strataattheopeningofthatsection.Therefore,thecontrastbetweensectionsAandBexistsnotonthelevelofthesuperpulse,butratheronthe groupinglevelsandthroughthecontrastindurations.ThemelodyatBincorporatessustainednotesandstrong.Thisprovidesfurthercontrast whentheAsectionreappearswithitssixteenthnotemovement.Thefinal"b"subsectionofthemovementhasextrabarsinsertedbetweenthe barlengthfragments.Theseframeanunusualpianissimopercussionpassageformedoutofincreasinglyshorttimbralpalindromesinquarter notes.Theinsertedbarseffectivelyslowthemotion,asisappropriatetotheendofamovement.

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Example24:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,IImm.173189
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Example25a:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,IImm.189210
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Example25b:Lutoslawski,ConcertoforOrchestra,IImm.210222
ReprintedbyPermissionofEditionWilhelmHansen/ChesterMusicNewYorkInc.(ASCAP)AllRightsReserved.

Thebeginningofthepassacagliadoesnotexhibitverymarkedcontrastwiththeendofthepreviousmovement,astheregisterand dynamicsarethesame.Thefactthatthelastnoteofthesecondmovementandthefirstnoteofthethirdarebothdoublebasspizzicatoindicates thatthislackofcontrastisquitedeliberate.Theboundarybetweenthetwomovementsisthereforecreatedbythelackoftensionthepassacaglia themeremainsverylowindensityforthefirsteightbars.Asdiscussedabove,thepassacagliaclearlymanifestsahighdegreeofactivityonboth largeandsmallscales.Itendsonaverylowlevelofenergy,bothintemporaldensityandindynamics. Theremainderofthethirdmovementisveryactive,withmanydifferentlayersandjuxtapositions.Therearemanysilenceswhich donotfunctionasstructuralboundariesbutratherasinterruptions,thusaddingtensiontothepassage.Theseinterruptionscorrespondto"gaps" mentionedbyLerdahl&JackendoffandBenjamin,45inwhichtheinternalmeasuringofdurationstops,andisrestartedonlyonhearingthenext sound.Theopeningofthesectionfollowingthepassacagliaisanintroductiontothistechnique.Anopeninggestureisrepeatedthreetimeswith interveninggapsofsilencebeforethethemebegins.Thistechniqueaccumulatessignificantamountsofpotentialenergytobereleasedwiththe downbeatofm.570.Thereasonablyfastrateofperiodicityinthegesturesaccentuatesthegapstherateofnoteattackscombinedwiththe registraldistancetraversedimplyacertaindegreeofenergy,andthusimplythestrengthoftheopposingforcewhichiscapableofstoppingthe forwardmotion.Acommentbythecomposeraboutadifferentwork(Mi7parti)seemsequallyappropriatehere:
thewayitisrepeatedthreetimes,seemsintunewiththepsychologicalflowoftheform.Oneneedstodrawadeepbreathbeforetacklingapiecewhich isplayedwithoutabreakoverquitealongstretchoftimethebeginningisrepeatedthreetimesforthepiecetogathermomentum.Thisdeviceofnot quitereachingtheclimaxisoftenusedincompositionswhichneed'deepbreath'.It'seasiertorememberandabsorbsomethingnewifthissomethingis repeatedfromthebeginning.It'saclassicaltrick.46

Fourlayersarepresentatthebeginningofthesecondsectionofthisfinalmovement:thefirstvariationofthepassacagliatheme,a quarternotequasiostinato,theeighthnotefigurefromtheopening,andirregularlyspacedchords.Theseareallconsonantatthelevelsof quarterandhalfnotes,butdissonantathigherlevelsduetoirregulargroupings.Boththeostinatoandthepassacagiiavariationtendtobegrouped eitherbytwoorthreehalves,delineatedbypatternrepetition.Theothertwolayersaremoreirregular.Asthefigurefromtheopeninghasan anacrusiccharacter,itconveysanticipationofadownbeat.Thechordsaremorejarring,astheypresentequivalentaccents,butwithoutwarning. Afterabout45",mostofthemotionisinterruptedbyathreebarpalindromictexture(example4above).Itservestofocusthelistenersattentionfor theupcomingchange,althoughonebaroftheformerpassageintervenesbeforethatchangetakesplace.Abriefrestisthefirstsincethegapsof theopening,andinthiscasedoesserveasanindicatorofaboundary.Thenewsectioniscontrastedinitiallybyacompletechangeindurationto unaccompaniedhalfnotes.Atthedownbeat,awelldefinedtexturalpassagebeginsasaccompanimenttothetheme.Thetexture(example1 above)movesineighthsandquarters,whereasthethememovesmainlyinlongdurations.However,theinnerconsonanceofthetextureandthe lackofsimilaritybetweenperiodsseemstosoftenthesenseofdissonance,despiteaclearstratification,andsothissectionprovidesastrong contrasttotheprecedingone. Thesamethemeandaccompanimentappearagainatm.659(aboutoneminutelater).Afterthefirststatement,thereisatypeof bridgepassagewhichestablishesgroupingperiodsanticipatingthoseofthesubsequentpassage.Themelodyisrepeatedfourtimeswithan extensiononthefourthbar.Apartfromapossiblesenseofindirectdissonanceprovidedbythealternationofmeters,thereisnodissonanceinthis passage.Theremainingpartofthepassageismuchmoredevelopmental,andinvolveslayering.Firstthisisconfinedtofragmentsofthe precedingtheme,butinm.646averyaudibledescendinglineappearsinhalfnotesinthebrass.Theperiodicqualityandrateofpresentation(ca. 0.5")contributesignificantlytotheaudibilityoftheline. Thesecondpresentationofthemeandtextureleadstothechoraletheme.Thetexturegrowssparseruntil,inm.675,thepatterns ceaseandthepulseismaintainedbytheflutes(eighthandquarter)andtrumpets(halfnote).Themelodiclinehasreacheditsfinalnotesandis heardonlyintheviolins.Aftertwobars,halfnotesareperiodicallysubstitutedfortheeighthnotemovementintheflutesaftertwomorebarsall eighthsandquartersdisappear,leavingonlyrepeatinghalves.Thisprocedureeffectivelyslowsthepulsefromeighthtohalf,inpreparationforthe firstappearanceofthechoraletheme. Thechoraleispresentedincounterpointwithanotherfastermovinglyricaltheme,whichisaccompaniedbyincreasinglycomplextextures (example8).Duetoahighlyredundantphrasestructureineachofthetwothemes,andafixedrelationshipbetweenthetwo,thedissonances betweenthemseemquitemild.Theyconsistmainlyoftexturalsurfacedissonances,canonicimitationofthesecondarytheme,andaninternal irregularityinthephrasestructureofthechoralethemeitself.Thechoralesectionlastsforoveroneandahalfminutesinitsfirststatementthe entirephraseisrepeatedthreetimes,withthehemiolaofthelastphraseextendedfarthereachtime,accompaniedbytexture.Itappearsagain towardstheendofthework(atm.922),butisstatedonlyonceatthatpoint.Inthatfinalstatement,theextensionisnotassubstantialasbefore, butthemainthemeitselfisaccompaniedbymuchmoreintricatetexturesinplaceofthesecondarytheme. Therestofthemovementischaracterizedbypreviouslyheardmaterialinvariousdevelopmentaltreatments,withvariousdegreesofdissonance andvariousdensitiesofnoteattacks.Areductionoftensionprecedesachangeoftextureinm.903.Thistexturebeginswithaslowquasicanonic passageinalowregisterandgraduallyoverhalfaminuteandthroughavarietyoftexturaldevicesgrowstoashrilltremoloinwoodwindsand strings.Thetremolochordcoincideswiththefinalreferencetothechoraletheme.Finally,anabruptchangeiscausedbythereturnofanostinato figureatPresto,withirregularpunctuationbytheopeninggesturefigure.Thisisfollowedbyasuddenanddramaticchangeofdurations,fromca. 0.09"toca.1.3",forafewseconds,beforeafinalrushinshortdurationstothefinish. ChamberConcerto Ligeti'sworkexhibitsconsiderablefluidityofstructuralform.However,thereareinstancesofverystarkboundaries.Theoverallshapeof eachmovementexhibitscontrastonseverallevels.Thefirstmovementbeginswithanextremelyrestrictedregistralrange:allinstrumentsplayin thesamemidrangecluster.Thereisaslightlywiderrangeofcontrastindurations,andthedurationalvaluesaremedium.Asimilarimageis producedbyalongertemporalfocus:theoveralldegreeofcontrastforthefirstminuteismedium,withseverallittleincreasesinactivitymirrored byfewer,greaterincreases.Forexample,aburstofactivityoccursatA,asthestringsenterwithamuchwiderrangeofdurationsandarticulation thisdisappearsquicklyandabalanceis"restored"byareductionindegreeofcontrastforthenextseveralseconds.Similarly,themelodic fragmentplayedbythehornpresentsaverymarkedcontrastinduration,andleadsintoasectionofmarkedcontrastintheoppositedirection,with veryshortdurationsinthewoodwinds.Withtheinitiationofthe"canonic"entrypairs,thedurationalcontrastisagainsharplyreduced,butthisis balancedbythehighrateofactivity

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Therangeoflargescalecontrastgraduallyincreases,andthedegreeofcohesionbetweencomponentsofeachlayerseemsto increase.Thestringslayerbecomesveryloudandimmediatelyverysoft,beforeturningintounisontrills.Thetensionaccumulatingfromthe restrictionsofthenarrowregistralbandisthusfurtherincreased,andthelistener'sattentionisfocusedinanticipation.Suddenlyinm.38,all instrumentsplayanEflatinasixoctavespread.Inretrospect,itseemsanobvioussolutiontothebuildupofenergy,but.itisstillratherstartling, andcertainlydramatic.Thesonorityclearlyannouncesachange,asitwouldbedifficulttoconceiveofareturnaftersuchagesture.Thetensionis builtupagainslightly,bysheerrefusalofthesonoritytodisappearovera45"period,althoughthetextureisenrichedbyafewaddedtones.Abrief multistratapassagefollows,beforethetexturereducesagaintoasinglestrand.Thistimethelayeriscomposedofarumblinginaverylow registralband,asrestrictedasthatoftheopeningbutwithadifferenteffect,duebothtothemuddinessoftheregisteritselfandtothefastperiodic ratesandheterophonyemployed.Themovementendswithatexturewhichiscomprisedoffourlinesexhibitingconsiderableforeground dissonance. Thesecondmovementbeginswithcontrastinactivity,intheformofanothersustainedsonority.Thisisnotasstarkastheopen octavesofthefirstmovement,andchangesmorequickly.Soon,anothermorecomplextextureemerges,involvingallinstrumentsforovera minute'sduration.Itischaracterizedbyagreaterdegreeofcontrastindurationalvaluesalthoughitisstillconfinedtoamediumspanofdurations, thefluctuationsbetweentheextremesaremuchfasterthaninthefirstmovement.Thetextureendsconventionallywithareductionindensity,until onlyafewinstrumentsareplayingsustainednotes.Achangeinpitchesanddynamicsleadstoexpectationsofanewsection.Thecontrastis startlingbecausebyrepeatingagesturefromthefirstmovementintheformofanothersustainedsonority,thoughthistimeitisatritoneinsteadof pureoctaves.Thenexttexturebeginsasaleapfromthissonoritytoahighcluster,andaratherstridentpassagebeginswhichischaracterizedby rhythmicunison.Theactivityinthislayerincreasesanddecreasesagain.Accompanyingthereductioninconstantactivityisalooseningofthe registralbandlimits,andasenseofreleasingtensionisexperiencedasthepitchesbecomemorediscernablebytheirseparation.Abridge passageisformedbythesuddenchangeinstringdurationstoafastbutperiodicrhythmicunison,leadingtothefinalchordwhichclosesthe movement. Thethirdmovementcontrastswiththefinalsustainedsonorityofthepreviousmovementbyitsfastreiterationoffixedpitches.Asthe entiremovementisconstructedofperiodicreiterationsatvariousrates,itcouldbesaidthatthereislittleinternalcontrastofdurationswithinany onestrandinashortperiodoftime.However,thereisconsiderablevarietyinthespecificrateofthevariousperiods,theoveralllengthofthe varioustextures,intheoverlapofthosetextures,andinthegroupingdurationsproducedbyaccentsofgroupinitiations,dynamics,andpitch changes.Thesimilaritybetweenthevarioustexturesinthismovementprovidescontrastatthehigherlevelwiththeothermovements. Thesparsetextureandnotatedsilencewhichendthethirdmovementaddanemphasistotheactivebeginningofthefourth.The constantforegrounddissonanceofthepreviousmovementisalsocontrasted,through\arhythmicunisonofthirtysecondnotesintwoclarinets.In retrospect,therelativelackofdifferentiationinsomeparametersofthethirdmovementisapreparationfortheextremesofcontrastprovidedinthe finalone.Thefirstminuteofthemovementischaracterizedbylongwarblingphrasesinvariouspairsofinstrumentsandatvariousrates,all relativelyfast.Apauseinthismovementisprovidedbytrillsinharpsichordandpianoalone,leadingtoastrangeduetwithbassclarinetplaying veryfastperiodicdurationswithdoublingonpiccolofiveoctavesabove.Thisstranddevelopsintoathickertexture,thoughwithoutcontrastof durationalvalues.Ahorn/piccolocadenzaemergesfromthistextureatthesametimeasthepianistbeginsafrantichammering.Thecadenzais fullofdurationalandpitchcontrasts,andisquiteeasilydistinguishablefromthepiano.However,itisoutlastedbythepiano,whichplaysfor severalsecondsalonebeforestoppingsuddenly,tobereplacedbythedoublebass's"feroce,impetuoso"line.Thelineartexturewhichbeganthe movementisthusreestablished,andalthoughthecontourbecomesincreasinglyjagged,itturnsintoarpeggiofigures.Inconjunctionwiththe periodicityonthesubpulselevel,thesefigurescontributeastaticqualitywhichbalancetheextremesofmovement.Asbefore,thelinesbecome trillswhichreducetheactivityand,beingthistimeinamidrange,helpreleasethetensionasthemovementdrawstoaclose.Anextremelyloud andferocegestureinthewoodwindsisansweredbyaveryaudibletromboneglissandoandafewalmostinaudibleoscillationsonwoodwindsand keyboards.

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Carter,Elliott."MusicandtheTimeScreen,"pp.6388ofCurrentThoughtinMuUniversityofTexasPress,1976). ChildsBarney."TimeandMusic:AComposar'sView,"PerspectivesofNewMusic,15/2(1977):194219. Clarke,David."Structural,cognitiveandsemioticaspectsofthemusicalpresent,"ContemporaryMusicReview3/1(1989):111131. Clarke,EricC."LevelsofStructureintheOrganizationofMusicalTime,"ContemporaryMusicReview211(1987):211238. ____________________."Mindthegap:formalstructuresandpsychologicalprocessesinmusic,"ContemporaryMusicReview3/1(1989):113. ______________________."SomeaspectsofrhythmandexpressioninperformancesofErikSatie's'GnossienneNo.5',MusicPerception2/3,(1985):299328. __________________________."StructureandExpressioninRhythmicPerformance,"MusicalStructureandCognition,(1985):209236. Clifton,Thomas."MusicasConstitutedObject,"MusicandMan2(1976):7398. _________________________MusicasHeard:astudyinappliedphenomenology.NewHaven:YaleUniversity Press,1983. _______________________."SomeComparisonsbetweenIntuitiveandScientificDescriptionsofMusic,"Journal ofMusicTheory19(1975):66110. Clynes,Manfred,andJaniceWalker."NeurobiologicFunctionsofRhythm,TimeandPulseinMusic,"inM.Clynes(ed.):Music,Mind,andBrain,171216.(New York:PlenumPress,1982). Cogan,Robert,andPozziEscot.SonicDesign.EnglewoodCliffs,N.J.:PrenticeHall,1976. Cooper,Grosvenor,andLeonardB.Meyer.TheRhythmicStructureofMusic.Chicago:TheUniversityofChicagoPress,1960. Cowell,Henry.NewMusicalResources.NewYork:SomethingElsePress,1969(originallypublishedbyKnopf,1930). Davidson, Barbara, Roderick P. Power, and Patricia T. Michie, "The effects of familiarity and previous training on perception of an ambiguous musical figure," Perception&Psychophysics41/6(1987):601608. Deutch,Diana."MemoryandAttentioninMusic,"MusicandtheBrain(eds.Critchley&HensonLondon:Heinemann,1977):95129. ____________________."OrganizationalProcessesinMusic"inM.Clynes(Ed.):Music,Mind,andBrain(New York:PlenumPress,1982):119136. _______________________."ThePsychologyofMusic,"chapter9(pp.191224)ofHandbookofPerception10 (PerceptualEcology),ed.EdwardC.CarteretteandMortonP.Friedman,1978. Doob,LeonardW.PatterningofTime.NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1971. Dowling,W.Jay."Aimingattentioninpitchandtimeintheperceptinofinterleavedmelodies,"Perception&Psychophysics41/6(1987),642656. _______________________"Dichoticrecognitionofmusicalcanons:Effectsofleadingearandtimelagbetweenears,"Perception&Psychophysics,23(1978), 321325. Dowling,W.Jay,andEdwardC.Carterette,eds.TheUnderstandingofMelodyandRhythm,specialeditionofPerception&Psychophysics41/6,June1937. Edlund,Bengt.PerformanceandPerceptionofNotationalVariants:AStudyofRhythmicPatterninginMusic.Uppsala:ActaUniv.Ups.Studiamusicologica UpsaliensiaNova,series9,1985. Epstein,David.BeyondOrpheus:StudiesinMusicalStructure.Cambridge,Mass.:TheMITPress,1979. __________."OnMusicalContinuity,"TheStudyofTime4(1981):180197. __________..'TempoRelations:ACrossCulturalStudy,"MusicTheorySpectrum7(1985):3471. Erickson,Robert."NewMusicandPsychology,"ThePsychologyofMusic,pp.517536.SeeD.Deutsch. __________.SoundStructureinMusic.Berkeley:Univ.ofCaliforniaPress,1975. __________."TimeRelations,"TheJournalofMusicTheory,7:2(1963):17492. Essens,P.J.andD.J.Povel."Metricalandnonmetricalrepresentationsoftemporalpatterns,"Perception&Psychophysics37(1985):17. Fraisse,Paul.ThePsychologyofTime.NewYork:Harper,1963. ___________"RhythmandTempo,"ThePsychologyofMusic,ed.D.Deutsch,149180.Frances,Robert.ThePerceptionofMusic.TranslationbyW.Jay Dowling(Hillsdale,NewJersey:LawrenceErlbaumAssociates,1988)ofLaPerceptiondelaMusique,1958. Fraser,J.T."TheArtoftheAudible'Now',"MusicTheorySpectrum7(1985):181184.FrenchSt.George,Marilyn,andAlbertS.Bregman,"Roleofpredictability ofsequenceinauditorystreamsegregation,"Perception&Psychophysics46(1989):384386. Gabrielson,Alf."PerceptionandPerformanceofMusicalRhythm"inM.Clynes(Ed.):Music,Mind,andBrain(NewYork:PlenumPress,1982):159170. _________."Timinginmusicperformanceanditsrelationstomusicexperience"inGenerativeProcessesinMusic,ed.JohnA.Sloboda(Oxford:Clarendon, 1988):2751. Gibbon,John,andLorraineAllan,eds."TimingandTimePerception,"423(May1984)ofAnnalsoftheNewYorkAcademyofSciences. Gibson, J. J. "Events are Perceivable But Time Is Not," The Study of Time 2 (1975): 295 301. Gregory, Andrew H. "Listening to Polyphonic Music," PsychologyofMusic18(1990):163170..Griffiths,Paul.GyeirgyLigeti.London:RobsonBooks,1983. Hackman,WillisHaverstock.AClarification&ReconstructionoftheConceptofMeter....AnnArbor,Mich.:XeroxUniv.Microfilm,1975. Handel,StephenandJamesS.Oshinsky."Themeterofsyncopatedauditorypolyrhythms,"Perception&Psychophysics,30(1981):19. Harvey,Jonathan."Stockhausen:TheoryandMusic,"TheMusicReview29(1968):130141.HastyChristopherF."OntheProblemofSuccessionand ContinuityinTwentiethCenturyMusic."MusicTheorySpectrum8(1986):5874. ______________________."RhythminPostTonalMusic:PreliminaryQuestionsofDurationandMotion,"JournalofMusicTheory,25(1981):183216. Hatzis,Christos."Chronochroma."Interface(1979):7390.

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Hinton,andJamesAnderson,ParallelModelsofAssociativeMemory.Hillsdale,N.J.:LawrenceErlbaumAssoc.,1981. Hirsh,IraJ.,CarolineB.Monohan,KenW.Grant,andPunitaG.Singh."Studiesinauditorytiming:1.Simplepatterns,"Perception&Psychophysics47(1990): 215226. Holbrook,MorrisB.andPunamAnand."EffectsofTempoandSituationalArousalontheListener'sPerceptualandAffectiveResponsestoMusic,"Psychologyof Music,18(1990):150162. Howe,MichaelA.J.IntroductiontoHumanMemory:APsychologicalApproach.NewYork:Harper&Row,1970. Hyde,MarthaM."ATheoryofTwelveToneMeter,"MusicTheorySpectrum6(1984):1451.Ives,CharlesE.Memos,ed.JohnKirkpatrick.NewYork:W.W. Norton,1972. Jackendoff,Ray,andFredLerdahl."GenerativeMusicTheoryanditsRelationtoPsychology,"JournalofMusicTheory25/1(1981),4590. Jones,Daniel."SomeMetricalExperiments,"TheScore(June1950):3248. Jones,MariRiess."Atutorialonsomeissuesandmethodsinserialpatternresearch"Perception&Psychophysics30(1981):492504. Jones,MariRiess,MarilynBoltz,andGaryKidd."Controlledattendingasafunctionofmelodicandtemporalcontext,"Perception&Psychophysics32(1982), 211218. Kaminksa,Zofia,andPeteMayer,"Metamorphosis,migrationandmaterialization:shadesofillusionintheperceptionofmusic,"presentedatthe2ndInternational ConferenceonMusicandtheCognitiveSciences,Cambridge,England,Sept.1990. Kendall,RogerA.andEdwardC.Carterette.'Theeffectofmelodicandtemporalcontouronrecognitionmemeoryforpitchchange,"Perception&Psychophysics 41/6(1987):576600. KiellianGibert,Marianne."TheRhythmsofForm:CorrespondenceandAnalogyinStravinsky'sDesigns,"MusicTheorySpectrum,9(1987):4266. Kramer,JonathanD."MomentForminTwentiethCenturyMusic,"TheMusicalQuarterly64/2(1978):177194. _____________"NewTemporalitiesinMusic,"CriticalInquiry7(1981):53956. _______________________."StudiesofTimeandMusic:abibliography,"MusicTheorySpectrum7(1985):72106. ______________________."TemporalLinearityandNonlinearityinMusic,"TheStudyofTime5(1985):126137. _____________TheTimeofMusic.NewYork:SchirmerBooks,1988. Krebs,Harald."SomeExtensionsoftheConceptsofMetricalConsonanceandDissonance,"JournalofMusicTheory,31(1987):99120. Kupferman,Meyer."TheAcrobatofApollo,"specialissueofPerspectivesofNewMusic9&10(1971):141149. Lee,C.S."TheRhythmicInterpretationofSimpleMusicalSequences:TowardsaPerceptualModel,"MusicalStructureandCognition,pp.5369. Lerdahl,Fred,andRayJackendoff."Generativemusictheoryanditsrelationtopsychology,"JournalofMusicTheory25(1981):4590. ________________AGenerativeTheoryofTonalMusic.Cambridge,Mass.:MITPress,1983. ________________________"TowardaFormalTheoryofTonalMusic,"JournalofMusicTheory21/1(1977):1471. ________________"OntheTheoryofGroupingandMeter,"TheMusicalQuarterly,67(Oct.1981):486489. ________________"AnOverviewofHierarchicalStructureinMusic,"MusicPerception1(1984):229252. ________________Lester,Joel.TheRhythmsofTonalMusic.Carbondale,Ill.:SouthernIllinoisUniversityPress,1986. Lewin,David."SomeInvestigationsintoForegroundRhythmicandMetricPatterning,"MusicTheory:SpecialTopicsI,101137. Ligeti,Gyorgy."PierreBoulez,"DieReihe4(1960):3662. ___________________________.LigetiinConversation.WithPeterVarnai,JosefHausler,andClaudeSamuel. London:EulenburgBooks,1983. Lochead,Judy."Temporalstructureinrecentmusic,"TheJournalofMusicologicalResearch6(1986):4993. LoftusGeoffrey,andElizabethF.Loftus.HumanMemory:TheProcessingofInformation.Hillsdale,N.J.:HalstedPress,1976. Lutoslawski,Witold.Lutoslawski,ed.OveNordwall,trans.C.Gibbs.Stockholm:EditionWilhelmHansen,1968. ________________,inconversationwithBAlintAndrasVarga.LutoslawskiProfile.London:ChesterMusic,1974. ________________________,inconversationwithTadeuszKaczynski.ConversationswithWitoldLutoslawski, trans.YolantaMay.London:ChesterMusic,1972,trans.&rev.1984. MacKay,John.M.A.Thesis"AnAnalysisofMusicalTimeinSelectedWorksofGeorgeCrumb."Master'sThesis,McGillUniversity,1979. ________________________.SomePsychophysicalandPsychologicalAspectsoftheExperienceofDurationas RelatedtothePerceptionofMusic."ms. __________________________."SomeCommentsontheVisuaVSpatialAnalogyinStudiesofthePerceptionof MusicalTexture,"extempore1/2(1981):3958. ___________________________."OnthePerceptionofDensityandStratificationinGranularSonicTextures:An ExploratoryStudy,"Interfacevol.13/4(1984)pp.171186. McAdams,Stephen."Music:Ascienceofthemind?,"ContemporaryMusicReview2(1987):161.

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_________________________"SpectralFusionandtheCreationofAuditoryImages"inM.Clynes(Ed.):Music, Mind,andBrain(NewYork:PlenumPress,1982):272298. Mayr,Albert."CreativeTimeOrganizationversusSubsonicNoises."Diogenes121(1983):4563. ________________________"SketchesforaLowFrequencySolfege."MusicTheorySpectrum7(1985):107 113. Meyer,LeonardB.EmotionandMeaninginMusic.Chicago:TheUniversityofChicagoPress,1956. _______________________.Music,TheArts,andIdeas.Chicago&London:TheUniversityofChicagoPress,1967. Minsky,Marvin."Music,Mind,andMeaning,"Music,Mind,andBrain(M.Clynes,ed.NewYork:PlenumPress,1982):119. Moles,Abraham.InformationTheoryandEstheticPerception.Urbana:UniversityofIllinoisPress,1966,trans.JoelE.Cohen,ofTheoriedel'informationet perceptionesthetique. Monahan,CarolineB.andIraJ.Hirsh."Studiesinauditorytiming:2.Rhythmpatterns,"Perception&Psychophysics47(1990): Mursell,JamesL.ThePsychologyofMusic.NewYork:W.W.Norton,1937. Narmour,Eugene.TheAnalysisandCognitionofBasicMelodicStructures:TheImplicationRealizationModel.Chicago:TheUniversityofChicagoPress,1990. Orlov,HenryF."TheTemporalDimensionsofMusicalExperience,"MusicalQuarterly,65(1979):368378. PerryCamp,Jane."TimeandTemporalProportion:theGoldenSectionMetaphorinMozart,music,andhistory,"TheJournalofMusicologicalResearch3,n.12 (1979):133176. Pike,Alfred.APhenomenologicalAnalysisofMusicalExperienceandotherrelatedessays.NewYork:St.John'sUniversityPress,1970. Pitt,MarkA.,andCarolineB.Monahan,"Theperceivedsimilarityofauditorypolyrhythms,"Perception&Psychophysics41/6(1987):534546. Povel,D.J.,andP.Essens,"Perceptionoftemporalpatterns."MusicPerception2(1985).411440.Reich,Steve.WritingsAboutMusic..Halifax:NovaScotia CollegeOfArtandDesignPress,1974. Repp,Bruno."ExpressiveMicrostructureinMusic:APreliminaryPerceptualAssessmentofFourComposers''Pulses',"MusicPerception6/3(spring1989):243 274. Reynolds,Roger.MindModels.NewYork:Praeger,1975. _______________________"Aperspectiveonformandexperience,"ContemporaryMusicReview2/1(1987): 277308. Rochberg,George."TheStructureofTimeinMusic:TraditionalandContemporaryRamificationsandConsequences,"TheStudyofTime2(1975):136149. Rothstein,William.PhraseRhythminTonalMusic.NewYork:SchirmerBooks,1989.Rowell,Lewis."TheCreationofAudibleTime,"TheStudyofTime4(1981): 198210. ______________"TheSubconsciousLanguageofMusicalTime,"MusicTheorySpectrum1(1979):96106. Sachs,Curt.RhythmandTempo:AStudyinMusicHistory.NewYork:W.W.Norton,1953. Sallils,John."Time,Subjectivity,andthePhenomenologyofPerception,"TheModernSchoolman48(May1971):343357. Schacter,Carl."RhythmandLinearAnalysis:APreliminaryStudy,"TheMusicForum4(1976):281334. ________________"RhythmandLinearAnalysis:DurationalReduction,"TheMusicForum5(1980):297232. __________."RhythmandLinearAnalysis:AspectsofMeter,"TheMusicForum,6(1987):159.Schuldt,AgnesCrawford."TheVoicesofTimeinMusic,"The AmericanScholar,45(1976):549559. Shaffer,L.H."RhythmandTiminginSkill,"PsychologicalReview89/2(March1982):109122. Skarda,ChristineA."AlfredSchutz'sphenomenologyofmusic,"TheJournalofMusicologicalResearch3(1979):75132. Sloboda,JohnA."ImmediateRecallofMelodies,"MusicalStructureandCognition,pp.143167.

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1Thispaperisextractedfrom"AninvestigationofPeriodicityinMusic,withreferencetothreetwentiethcenturycompositions:Bartok'sMusicforStrings PercussionandCelesta,Lutoslawski'sConcertoforOrchestra,andLigeti'sChamberConcerto."Ph.D.dissertation,UniversityofVictoria(CANADA)1993. 2Brower's"MemoryandthePerceptionofRhythm"presentsanexcellentsummaryoftheissues.Amoregeneralbutcarefullyarticulatedapproachcan befoundinEpstein'sBeyondOrpheus(ch.4),wherehecontrastsvariousviewsoftime:metricalwithexperiential,subjectivewithobjective,andchronometric withintegral.FullerramificationsofthephilosophicalaspectsofsuchdistinctionscanbefoundinClifton'sMusicasHeard(refertothebibliographyattheendof thearticle.) 3Ornstein,OntheExperienceofTime,passim. 4SeeforexampleBoltz,"TimeJudgments,"p.409.Cliftoncontributesaphenomenologist'sversion:"Theexperienceoftimeisratheramatterofthe amountofworkrequiredofconsciousnesstoconstituteameaning.""Musicasconstitutedobject,"p.84. 5Stockhausenreferstotheprocessesofalterationandthedensityofalterationi.e.thedegreeandrateofchange."StructureandExperientialTime,"p.64 andpassim.Orlovpresentsaprovocativediscussionofthewholeissueinhis"TheTemporalDimensionsofMusicalExperience"(passim).SeealsoBoltz, "Timejudgments,"pp.409410andpassimGabrielsson,"Timinginmusicperformance,"p.32Tenney,Meta+Hodos,p.14Clarke,"LevelsofStructure,"pp.229 230,232. 6AsummaryanddiscussionoftheconceptoftheinternalclockcanbefoundinShaffer,"RhythmandTiminginSkill,"pp.114ff.PovelandEssensalso suggestthatinternalclocksaregeneratedbythemusic("PerceptionofMusicalPatterns,"passim),butthefindingsofMonahanetal.suggestthatpolymetrical ornonmetricalstructurescaninterferewithsuchgeneration.("TheEffectofMelodicandTemporalContour,"passim).Clarkefeelsthattheabilitytoreproduce tempitoahighlevelofaccuracyconfirmstheoperationofaninternalclockingaugingdurations,thoughheproposesthatsuchaclockmayoperatein conjunctionwiththemodelofdurationmeasurementbyinformationcontent.("LevelsofStructure,"pp.222,231). 7Benjaminproposesamusicalclockcreatedbythepulse/meterregularity("ATheoryofMusicalMeter,"p.373).Rochbergtakesthisconceptonestep furthertopointoutthatasperiodiceventsinmusiccanprovidearegulatedflow,"thesuppressionofpulsationandperiodicityradically 8SeeforexampleMonahanandHirsh,p.229alsoClarke,"LevelsofStructure,"p.233Table1. 9Seefootnote22forasamplingofestimatesofthelengthoftheperceptualpresent,andotherperceptualboundaries. 10Thisconclusionhasbeenreachedbynumerouspeopleinthelastfewdecades,includingBenjamin(pp.403ff.)Berry("MetricandRhythmic Articulation,"pp.25,32)Clarke(op.cit.,231232)ClynesandWalker(p.174)Schachter("RhythmandLinearAnalysis,"pp.34)andTenney(Meta+Hodos, pp.40,7475). 11Parametricfocusmeansafocusonaparticularparameterofmusic,suchastimbre,pitch,orduration.Tenneypointsoutthataparametricfocus inappropriatetothepassagecanberesponsibleformuchofthelackofappreciationoftwentiethcenturyworks.Ontheotherhand,hepointsoutthat parameterswhichexhibitthehighestintensitywillnaturallyattractourattention.Meta+Hodos,pp.18,36. 12Forexample,rocksdonotchangenoticeablywithinahuman'slifetimeandsomostpeople(except,perhaps,geomorphologists)canaffordtotreat themasstaticforms.Thisconceptoftimeseemscompatiblewith,thoughnotthesameas,aphenomenologicalviewoftimeexpressedbyClifton:"time...isa measureofourimplicationwiththeeventsoftheworldaslivedin.Thebreadthanddepthoftimehavemoretodowithourrelationstoeventsthantoany absolutemeasurement.""Musicasconstitutedobject,"p.84. 13Minsky,"Music,Mind,andMeaning,"pp.89(andpassim.)SimilarconclusionsaremadebySchutz("Fragments,"pp.5455),thoughwithamore carefulappraisaloftheconflictofstabilitywiththetransitorynatureofmusic. 14SeeforexampleRochberg,"TheStructureofTime,"pp.143146. 15Epstein,BeyondOrpheus,p.55,and"OnMusicalContinuity,"p.182.

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16ExamplesincludethefairgroundatmosphereofStravinsky'sPetrushka,andthepresentationofthreemarchingbandsconvergingonthevillagesquare inIves'ThreePlacesinNewEngland. 17FurtherclarificationistobefoundinthePh.D.dissertation.See,inparticular,chapterIIforasummaryofperceptualinfluences,andchapterIllonthe characteristicsandfunctionsofperiodicityinmusic. 18Ligeti,"MetamorphosesofMusicalForm,"p.10. 19Foradescriptionofthecharacteristicsandoriginsofstatisticalfields,seeLigeti,"MetamorphosesofMusicalForm,"passimalsoStockhausen, "...howtimepasses...,"pp.15,30ff.Tenney,Meta+Hodos,pp.6768. 20Xenakiscombinedthisstageofthedecisionmakingwithprobabilitytheory,thusdevelopinghis"stochastic"music.SeeXenakis,"Towardsa Metamusic,"pp.3ff. 21Ligeti,"MetamorphosesofMusicalForm,"p.10. 22SeeClynesandWalker,p.174where"0.1Hzto8Hz,"isstatedtobetheregionofmusicalrhythm"Therhythmsmorerapidthan810persecond whichwecanexperienceareexperiencednotascomposedofindividualeventsbutascontinuoussensation,thatis,asaparticularkindofintegraloftheir dynamiccharacteristics."ibid.,p.175.Concerningestimatesoflowerboundariesofrhythmicperception(belowwhichrhythmicpatterns/temporalordering becomedifficulttodistinguish):Fraisse,quotedinButler,p.144setsalowerboundaryat0.5."McAdamsin"Music:aScienceoftheMind?"(pg.37)statesthat "twoeventsthataresimilarincharacterandarrivewithinabout2550millisecondsofeachotherwilltendtobeintegratedovertimeandperceptuallyfusedintoa singleeventwhereasthoseseparatedbymorethan50millisecondsareeasilyheardasseparateevents"Monaham,Kendall,andCarterette,(p.581)state that"Theabilitytoresolvepatternsintoseparatepitchesstartstodisappearatratesabove10notespersecond"Ligeti(ibid.),statesthelowerthreshold variouslyas"lessthanfiftymilliseconds"(Griffiths,p.26),"over20persecond"(LigetiinConversation,p.39)and"18separatesoundspersecondtoreachthe threshold,"(ibid.,p.22)Stockhausenputsalowerlimitat1/16"("...howtimepasses...")andputsmeter/rhythmbetweenca.of1/8and8seconds.("The ConceptofUnity,"p.43)andHackman(p.118)statesthat"soundsmustbeseparatedbyatleastonetwentiethofasecondiftheyaretobeperceivedas distinct."Iassumeheactuallymeansthattheattacksofsounds(interonsetinterval)mustbeseparatedbythatmuch.Concerningtheupperlimitsofa "perceivedpresent"Fraisse,quotedinButler,p.144,saysseldommorethan.5secondsReynoldsin"APerspectiveonFormandExperience,"states7 secondsinrarecasesHasty,in"RhythminPostTonalMusic,"putsthelimitoftheperceptualpresentat2"5",butsaysthatdueto'integrations'itcanextend to10",withamaximumof8to24pulses(pg.186).Healsosuggeststhataskilledmusiciansuchasatablamaster,forexample,"couldbecapableofsensing unitiesofmuchgreaterduration"andKramer(1988,p.371)envisionsanupperlimitfortheperceptualpresentat8"10". 23LigetiinConversation,p.39. 24Hecontinues:"Later1realizedthatthiswasnothingnew.ThestringpartsattheendofWalkure(Feuerzauber)aresuchthatnoviolinist[sic.]canplay them,allofthemmakemistakes,differentmistakesallthetime.Thesemistakesaddupandcreateafloating,fluctuatingpattern,i.e.Bewegungsfarbe.Technically, Atmospheresisbasedonthesameprinciple."ibid.,p.40. 25SeeforexamplethethirdmovementofDebussy'sStringQuartet,andthemusicofCharlesTomlinsonGriffes.TheParisExpositionof1889was reputedtohaveinfluencedseveralmusiciansofthetimebyexposingthemtomusicfromtheOrient. 26Seeexample9below. 27Thethemeisfamiliarbecauseitisavariationofthesecondthemefromthefirstmovement,presentedatmm.40,64,and100.Theprevious statementsarealsoaccompaniedbytextures,describedlaterinthisarticle(Example5). 28indicates"interonsetinterval.""Patt."indicatespatternlengthi.e.therepetitionofamelodicandorrhythmicmotive.

29Krebshasmadetheveryusefuldistinctionbetweendissonanceswhicharisefromgroupingsofpulseswhosecardinalitiesdiffer(TypeA)andthose whosecardinalitiesareidenticalbutoutofalignment(TypeB).SeeKrebs,"SomeExtensionsoftheConceptsofMetricalConsonanceandDissonance,"pp.103 ff. 30LigetiinConversation,135. 31Theaudibilityofthesubdivisions'periodscanbeobscuredbytheirregularityoftheentries,duetothesforzandoaccentonthefirstnoteofeachgroup. Thisismoreemphasizedincertainperformances,suchastheBoulezrecordingusedfortheaccompanyingexamples.Althoughthisproducesaninteresting effectandtiesinwiththeendofthemovement,theeffectisweakenedbytheharpsichord,bringingintoquestionthebenefitsofsuchaninterpretation.Because theharpsichordisunabletodifferentiatenotesbyvolume,itsperiodicityisquiteaudible. 32Inotherwords,itwouldnotsoundquitethesameproducedelectronically,becausewecanbothhearandimaginethedifficultyofproducingsuchan effect. 33Ligetirelatesthisprocesstotheanalogyofmachinerybreakingdown:"whatattractsmeistheideaofsuperimposingseverallevels,severaldifferent timegridsmovingatdifferentspeeds,andsoverysubtlyachievingrhythmicaldeviations.ThatiswhatImeanatwhenIsaidthemachinebreaksdown.,"LIgeti inConversation,p.108.
34Scoreto ChamberConcerto, p.80. 35Thepianoarticulatesaperiodof3xseptupletsixteenthsatatempoofh=60, whiletheharpsichordarrivesataperiodof2xseptupletsixteenthsatthe tempoofh=40.Eachoftheseproducesaperiodicityof0.43". 36Theimportanceof"onsetsynchrony"inpromotingperceptualfusionisdiscussedinMcAdams,"SpectralFusion,"pp.287289.

37 Much of the validity of Schenker's theories seems related to this perceptual tendency to group pitches which are registrally close together. The tendencycanalsobeviewedfromtheperspectiveoftheGestaltprincipleof"goodcontinuation"seeChapterIIofdissertation,forfurtherdiscussion. 38Bregman,"AuditoryStreaming,"p.392. 39InfactseveralaspectsofStucky'sdescriptionofthese"variations"(Stucky,pp.5455)seemsuspect.Hestatesthatthefirstfivevariationsareeach eightbarslong.However,thefirstpianosegmentspreadsoverfourteenbars.Thesecond"variation",whichIagreebeginseightbarsafterthefirst,doesnot

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stopbutevolvesinthewoodwinds.Asitdoesso,otherlayersofmaterialemerge,whichseemunrelatedtoit.Similarly,whathecallsvariationssixandsevenI interpretasbeingoneunit.Iagreethatanewsegmentbeginsinthesamebarasgroundstatement11,butastheirdownbeatsdonotcoincideexactly,Imaintain thattheyareextremelydissonanttocallthatpointanintersectionofthe"two"stratathereforeseemsabitarbitrary.Similarly,Idonotagreewithhisdescription ofm.530asbeinganotherpointof"coinciding"ofgroundand"variation."


40Clarke,"LevelsofStructure,"p.232. 41TenneyquotesKoffkaassayingthatafigureisdistinguishedby"agreater'energydensity',andbyahigherdegreeof'internalarticulation'thanthe ground."Tenney,Meta+Hodos,p.40. 42Somegesturessoundlikeopeninggestures,andevenintheabsenceofathemewillprovidethesamesenseofinitiation. 43CompareforexamplethefirstnotesofthechoralethemewiththefirstthemefromMvt.11andthelastfivenotesofphrasevofthemeIwiththelast9 notesofthepassacagliatheme. 44ItalsosharessomecharacteristicswiththeopeningofMendelssohn'sMidsummerNight'sDream. 45 LerdahlandJackendoff,"GenerativeMusicTheoryandItsRelationtoPsychology,"pp.6267,andBenjamin,"LevelsofMusicalStructure,"p.380. TenneyandPolanskyrefertothissametendencyin Gestalt termsofsegregationintheirdevelopmentofacomputerprogrammedesignedtoestablishbasic rhythmicgroupingsseetheir"TemporalGestaltPerceptioninMusic",p.209andpassim. 46Lutoslawski/Kaczy,p.83.

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