1729. Samuel 1727.

Samuel Fancourt: Fancourt: The The Greatness Of The Greatness Of Divine Love Vindicated: The Divine In Three Letters. Love Vindicated: In 1642. John Owen: A Three Letters Display of Arminianism . 2nd Edition

1732. Samuel Fancourt: An Appendix To A Letter To The Reverend Mr. Norman. In Two Parts. Shewing, First, That The Eternal Certainty Of Contingent Events Cannot Be Proved; But That The Contradiction To It Is True And DeCalvinist John Owen, monstrable. Secondly, 1730. Samuel complained that some Fancourt: Apol- That The Several Arguearly Arminians were ments, Whether From ogy: Or, A Letopen theists, including ter To A Friend; Reason Or Revelation, Offered By The Rev. Mr. James Arminus pupil, Setting Forth Bliss, Mr. Norman, And Johannes Corvinus , who The Occasion, The Nameless Author, In Progress, And signed the Five Articles Importance Of Defence Of It ,Are Weak And Inconclusive. By of Remonstrance The Present Samuel Fancourt. The Controversy 400 Calcidius Second Edition.

1818 Adam Clarke, Commentary On the Bible, specifically his

1828. James Jones: An Inquiry Regarding The Popular Notion of An Unoriginated , Infinite , And Eternal Prescience.
1831 Adam Clarke Discourses on various subjects 1834 Richard Dillon, Prevailing Religious and Philosophical Opinions Investigated

Open Theism Timeline

1892 L.D. McCabe: Prescience of Future Contingencies an Impossibility

1820. James note on Acts 2.47 Bromley : An Essay on Divine Pre1785 John Wesley science or, The published Foreknowledge "Of the foreknowlof God Viewed edge of God, exIn Connection tracted from a late author" . Wesley re- with The printed an extract Liberty of Man from Ramsey’s PhiIn His Moral losophical Principles Action in his Arminian
Magazine .

1866. William Robinson: Biblical Studies. 1828. Onesimus: “Defence of a Letter Includes a Chapter on 1874. T.W. Brents (1823-1905). The Gospel Plan of Salvation Divine ForeknowlTo Dr. Adam Clarke, 1879 Thomas Crompton (Canadian Methodist 1878 L. D. McCabe, edge, he states scripBeing A Reply To professor and pastor ) authored a two part ture does not affirm The Foreknowledge of God and The ‘Observations’ essay titled “Divine Foreknowledge , Moral the popular view of Cognate Themes in Philosophy of Euphronius Agency, And The Contingency of Salvation” divine foreknowledge which appeared in the Primitive Methodist and Theology. Quarterly Review

1868 William Taylor :The Election of GraceProminent Methodist missionary. The Election of Grace includes two chapters on the subject of foreknowledge. “God hath a perfect knowledge of all existing things, however remote or minute; but the unborn acts of the human will are not existing things as yet.” Taylor University in Indiana is named after William Taylor.

1885 J.J. Smith: “Duration As Applied To God.” Wilford’s Microcosm. Smith advances several arguments against the “eternal now” concept.

1885 J.J. Miles: “Am I? Or Am I Not?” Wilford’s Microcosm. Miles challenges the “eternal now” concept.

1898. D.W. Simon. Reconciliation By Incarnation. “But if anything is true, it is true that man is free; if he is not free, all is Maya, What, then, is the alternative?---Surely, that God has constituted a creature, the actions of which He can only know as such when they are performed. In presence of man, to a certain extent, even the Great God condescends to wait; nay more, has Himself so ordained things that He must wait, inquiring, What will he do?”
1890. Joel Hayes : The Foreknowledge of God; or The Omniscience of God Consistent with His Own Holiness and Man’s Free Agency. 1899 J. S. Breckinridge, defended McCabe in The Methodist Review and predicted that the number of individuals believing in Open Theism would increase.
1900 H. J Zelley, Nescience of God, Zelley believed that it was not inconsistent with God’s perfect nature, not to know the future acts of God’s free agents.

1889.Joseph Lee wrote an article advocating open theism which appeared in the March 1889 issue of the serial publication THE GENERAL BAPTIST MESSENGER in Poplar Bluff Missouri.

400 1642

1727 1729 1730 1731 1732 1741 1748

1785 1811 1818 1820 1825 1828 1829 1830 1831 1834 1839 1843 1846 1866 1867 1868 1874 1875 1877 1878 1879 1882
1846 Joseph Barker





1890 1892
1893 H. C. Burr, Prescience of Future Contingencies . Argued that the future volitions of Adam were unknown to God






1830. Jon Bonsall: Essay in agreement with Essay on the Attribute of Knowledge in God, John Bonsall’s view of Considered on the Foreknowledge 1829. James Jones: Moral Freedom and Divine Grounds of Both Reason and Revelation. C1867 James 1727. Samuel Fancourt: 1732. Samuel Fancourt. Benevolence 1839 Robert Bartley, Morison, Founder of 1818. Verax: A Let1825. John Briggs (17881824). The The Greatness Of Divine The Greatness Of The ter to the Rev Divine Love Love Further Vindicated George Burder, Edi- Remains of John Briggs (1825). In- Short Essays in Verse the Evangelical cludes essays on the Origin of Evil on Foreknowledge Union Denomination in Vindicated: In Three In Reply to Mr. Millar’s tor of the Evangeliand The Foreknowledge of God. and Predestination. Scotland and Foundcal Magazine Letters. “Principles of the “The doctrine of ing editor of The 1811. Edward Pearson: Twelve Lectures. Reformed Churches”.

1730. Samuel Fancourt: What Will Be, Must Be; Or, Future Contingencies No Contingencies. Or, A Short Review And Fair State Of The Points In Controversy

1741. (Anonymous) An 1748 Andrew Ramsey Essay on the Divine Philosophical Principles of Prescience , And Man’s Natural and Revealed Religion. Free-Agency

1877. A pro open theist 1875 J. P. LaCroix, article by J.M. titled LaCroix presents “ a “The Knowledge of God careful but conin Relation to the Fudensed translation from the revised ture” appeared in The Evangelical Reposiedition of (Richard) tory: A Quarterly Rothe’s masterMagazine of Theologiwork, Theological cal Literature. Ethics.”

1883. to 1884 Isaiah L. Kephart , Prominent professor in the Church of United Brethren of Christ. From 1889 until his death in 1908 he was the editor of the denominational periodical, Religious Telescope. “The Freedom of The Will” This series of articles, and an article by Timothy Williston titled “Thoughts Respecting the Eternal I AM-No.2 “ precipitated an extended debate about God’s foreknowledge in Wilford’s Microcosm. Kephart argued for the “open theism” position. Most of the opposing articles were written by Williston.

1896 J . Wallace Webb, Foreknowledge and Contingency. Webb wrote the nonexistence of a fact will always prevent the divine mind from knowing its a fact
1894 S. Hubbard Were all answers to prayer provided and allotted from eternity? The actions of moral agents cannot be known until they are determined by the agent.

1941 Gordon Olson, The Foreknowledge of God. Significant influence in Agape Force and Youth with a Mission 1960-1980’s. Olson influenced Clark Pinnock as early as 1975.

1729, An Essay Anonymous Supporter of Concerning Liberty, Fancourt: The Free-Agency Grace, And Pre- of Accountable Creatures science. Examined with Candour, 1731 J. Greenup: A and Defended in Several Letters : Being a Full Reply Vindication of to the Most Material Human Liberty

LaCroix wrote “ No one, as far as we eternal foreknowlknow, has presented “On the principles of reason it may be doubted edge….is repugnant Evangelical Repository the view of the divine whether God has a foreknowledge of those actions of Quarterly to human reason…” non-foreknowledge his intelligent creatures in which they are free; and I of the actions of free 1874 Hans Martinsen, am not aware of its being affirmed in Scripture that he creatures with more has. On the contrary I am of opinion that such an af1843. Billy Hibbard. Lutheran Theologian cogency and earfirmation implies what it would be impious to suppose Memoirs of the Life and Bishop of Zealand, nestness than the in Scripture an evident contradiction; for it implies and Travels of B. author of Christian late lamented no less than that an event is at the same time both cer- Hibbard, Richard Rothe.” nd Dogmatics 2 edition tain and uncertain”

1882. L.D. 1884 B.F. White: “Foreknowledge in a New Light.” Wilford’s MiMcCabe: Divine Nescience crocosm. “God being infinitely perfect, must have perfect knowlof Future Con- edge. The perfection of knowledge is only absolutely found in tingencies A Ne- knowing things as they are. Moral character being necessarily cessity, Being An Introduction To hinged on conditions , that is, on obedience or disobedience. “The Foreknowl- God’s knowledge would be imperfect to know unconditionally edge of God and that which He made conditional, and that which in its nature is Cognate necessarily conditional. God’s knowledge, either present or fuThemes”.

1891 W. G. Williams, Paul’s Epistle to the Romans in the Methodist Review, March 1891. Williams argued that the future choices of free agents must be unforeseen.

1894 William Major,God can only foreknow contingent events as contingent and uncertain. Major belief that prayer can change God’s purposes.

ture, only demonstrates its absolute perfection in knowing condiTimeline prepared by Thomas J. Lukashow for the Open Theism Conference April 2013 tional things conditionally, and unconditional unconditionally.”