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OLED An OLED (organic light-emitting diode) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic

compound which emits light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor material is situated between two electrodes. HISTORY The first observations of electroluminescence in organic materials were in the early 1950s by A. Bernanose and co-workers at the Nancy-Universit, France. Device performance was limited by the poor electrical conductivity of contemporary organic materials. This was overcome by the discovery and development of highly conductive polymers. The first diode device was reported during 1987. This resulted in a reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency and led to the current era of OLED research and device production. WORKING PRINCIPLE A typical OLED is composed of a layer of organic materials situated between two electrodes, the anode and cathode, all deposited on a substrate. The organic molecules are electrically conductive. These materials have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors, and therefore are considered organic semiconductors.

Schematic of a bilayer OLED: 1. Cathode (), 2. Emissive Layer, 3. Emission of radiation, 4. Conductive Layer, 5. Anode (+) During operation, a voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. A current of electrons flows through the device from cathode to anode. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine forming an exciton,

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is commonly used as the anode material. Metals such as barium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions. TYPES OF OLED's Bottom or top emission Transparent OLEDs Graded Heterojunction Stacked OLEDs Inverted OLED ADVANTAGES Lower cost in the future Light weight & flexible plastic substrates Wider viewing angles & improved brightness Better power efficiency: an inactive OLED element does not produce light or consume power. Response time OLEDs can also have a faster response time than standard LCD screens. DISADVANTAGES Current costs OLED manufacture currently requires process steps that make it extremely expensive. Lifespan The biggest technical problem for OLEDs was the limited lifetime of the organic materials Color balance issues Additionally, as the OLED material used to produce blue light degrades significantly more rapidly than the materials that produce other colors, blue light output will decrease relative to the other colors of light Water damage

Water can damage the organic materials of the displays. Therefore, improved sealing processes are important for practical manufacturing. Water damage may especially limit the longevity of more flexible displays. Outdoor performance As an emissive display technology, OLEDs rely completely upon converting electricity to light, unlike most LCDs which are to some extent reflective. Power consumption While an OLED will consume around 40% of the power of an LCD displaying an image which is primarily black, for the majority of images it will consume 6080% of the power of an LCD. COMMERCIAL USES OLED technology is used in commercial applications such as displays for mobile phones and portable digital media players, car radios and digital cameras among others. LEDs have been used in most Motorola and Samsung colour cell phones, as well as some HTC, LG and Sony Ericsson models. Nokia has also introduced some OLED products.