Indonesia Deepwater exploration and development outlook in the perspective of petroleum engineering student.

Hafidz Wibby Ramadahan, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional ”Veteran” Yogyakarta

Abstract The government of Indonesia plans to develop an exploration and production in deepwater since the first product sharing contract signed in the end of 1997 which is rapak block and followed by ganal block at February 1998. it was a big turning point at that moment for a national sustainable energy grand design beside of the renewable energy for example geothermal. The realatation of those two blocks is This paper focuses on the concept deepwater exploration and development as in general, but the limitation of this study is how could indonesia as the archipelago country to develop a deepwater sector and maximize its potention. Based on study and exploration activities, in indonesia especially in the eastern part has a more reserves, mainly deepwater project. For those reason Indonesia has a strategic position in the perspective of oil and gas company. So that Indonesia as the owner of the land and sea must arrange a better regulation including exploration and development.

Introduction Deepwater exploration has been developed fast especially during 2007 and the first half of 2008 because of high oil price. Though deepwater was once prohibitively expensive, related to the oil price in that time, made the economics of deepwater drilling feasible. Oil's collapse during the 2008 financial crisis has killed the margins of many in the industry, but demand for deepwater rigs is still high. The developing of deepwater is not only because of high oil price but also the need and global demand for the energy. Since a research about how many is the global proven reserves early 2009 established, shows 10% from 1.342 trillion barrel is deepwater proven reserves (its about 100 billion barrel). In country such as Indonesia, which the total amount of production rate not over 1 million barrel per day, it is important to find a new proven reserves in order increasing national production rate as the main purposes and fulfill national demand

of oil and gas. In general Target those are production rate over 1 million barrel per day then one of these solution is developing deepwater exploration based on survey that have been done. As long as Indonesian government has a strong commitment to raise their own production rate, deepwater exploration will be trending in the future. Indonesian deepwater exploration. In country such as Indonesia with less commitment to capitalism than United States also leverage its monopolistic ownership position by having its national oil company in this term Pertamina own an interest in the concessions. That enables both financial opportunity for its national company plus transfer to the country. So that in the future, Indonesia can maintain its own natural resources in this term oil and gas. And also the development technology such as deepwater become a concern. Begin with exploration and ended with the production. As exploration is the point that oil business started. The need of

These are built from reinforced concrete. Floating systems. a well in an untested area. The name of the field is west seno field. these are made of tubular steel members and are fixed to the bottom with pilling . and FPSOs. Eight to 16 wire or synthetic rope and chain combination moor the hulls to seabed. These consist of ship shape. began at the end of 1997. product sharing contract Rapak was signed follwed by Ganal product sharing contract signed at February 1998. and subsea systems. weighted at the bottom to keep them upright. Third is floating productin systems (FPS’s). these structures physically sit on the bottom. Steel pipe tendons hold the hulls below their natural level floatation. Wire or synthetic rope and chain moor them in place. in most case. floating production unit (FSU). and export pipeline 2 x 12” x 62 km. fixed to the sea floor. Identifying the prospect In some case. Fixed to the sea floor. And also the collaborators which is consist of scientist. Chevron indonesia built a facilities on that filed which consist of tension leg platform (TLP) supporting 28 dry free well. All four have to be moored in place with tendons or wipe rope and chains in order to stay connected to the wells below. compliant towers sustain more lateral deflection than the more massive and rigid fixed platforms.exploration geologist are increase. production capacity about 150 mmscfd with current production 60 to 70 mmscfd. First deepwater operation in indonesia was did on August 2003 by chevron indonesia. engineers. and support a deck. They are held in place either by the sheer weight of the structure or by steel piles driven into the sea bed and affixed to the structure. moored and tethered floating system. Indonesia deepwater development Deepwater has been developed for more than 15 years. These consist of a jacket and a deck. The jacket is the tall. Like the fixed platform. These have floating hulls made of buoyant columns and pontoons. keeping the tendon in tension and the hulls in place. The group includes the following. it is located at makassar strait. These get their flotation from large diameter cylinder. or a semisubmersible hulls with production facilities on board. Second is spar platforms. these include TLPs. Third is gravity platforms. First is tension leg platforms (TLPs). and drilling rigs Second is compliant towers. and professional. hiring a geophysical service company to acquire additional seismic data make sense. gravity platforms rely on gravity to hold them in place. First is fixed platforms. This field is classifed as gas production with the data as following. processing. the existing seismic data is enough to identify specific prospect with high enough probability of success to warrant drilling a wildcat. With their resulting weight. more likely in shallow water than deep. TLPlike. However. spars. vertical section built from tubular steel members and is locked to to the seabed by driven piles. and interpreting the data may take 12 to 18 months. crew quarters. Depht of drilling about 1000 m water depth and 60 km offshore. FPS’s are quite free to move both . Development system choice The options available to develop and produce oil and gas in water a thousand feet or more deep fall into three broad group. Acquiring. The topside or deck placed on top has production equipment. Especially in the deepwater technology require more petroleum studies about that. especially in the deepwater. by design. Gravity platforms are used in up to 1000 ft of water. FPS’s. but the seabed has to be especially firm to ensure no creep over time.

has met challenges and opportunities which faced by not only government as decision maker in this term represent by BP migas. They have moored with rope and chain. i can conclude that : • More petroleum studies in deepwater at indonesia are needed to determine potential estimates. an offloading (FPSOs). Tulsa Oklahoma. Technical aspect. Gordon Sterling. especially in indonesia. accumulated for later transport by shuttle tankers. so only wet trees can be special equipment to accommodate the risers that get the oil and gas from the sea floor wet trees to the production facilities on the deck. • Refrences Deepwater petroleum exploration and production a non technical guide William L.more time from discovery to first commercial production probably 8 to 10 years Service availabillty. Like large crude oil volumes.should support and be partner in maintaining the investment for regional area of indonesia Beside of those challenges. reservoir configuration and deepwater exploration in this term drilling into the sea with depth for more than 1000 m water depth. but also industry as an object of policy and subject must follow the rule of policy that it have agree with and applied in their own authority field.worldwide deepwater drilling rig availabillty is limited Regional autonomy. sorage. pennwell coporation:2003 . Choosing development systems Selecting the right development systems involves assessment of the usual list of physical circumstances-water depth. Richard Pattarozzi. access to oil transportation and separately. Less competition. Strong government support. made from either converted tankers or new construction. These have large ship shapes. those are. The possibilites to meet an abnormal condition in an extreme condition such as water depth. Subsea systems can be set in any depth water. gas transportation-plus the constraints placed by the local government and the institutional preferences of the investing operator. Discussion Talked about how deepwater technology have developed and started into exploration step. Leffler. The systems include connection by flowlines and risers to fixed or floating systems that could be miles away. this option can have single or multiple wellheads on the seafloor connected directly to a host platform or to a subsea manifold. And the last is floating platform. There are several challenges. slope rugosity. there are several opportunities that cuold be take. and peculiar geological condition. high pressure. Commercial aspect.laterally and vertically. Conclusion From the research and literature study that have done. Subsea systems. those are.

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