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**Lab 4 Lecture Notes
**

Nomenclature V air volume inside rocket p air pressure insider rocket patm atmospheric pressure Frod force on launch rod ( )c charge condition, start of Phase 1 ( )0 ﬁnal condition, end of Phase 1 ℓ Ae ρw m ˙w ue T length of launch rod area of launch rod and nozzle exit water density water mass ﬂow rate water exhaust velocity thrust

**Liftoﬀ Initial Condition Calculation
**

Phase 1 of the water rocket ﬂight consists of the rocket sliding up on the launcher rod, via the action of the pressure of the internal compressed air. Pressure-force work The launcher rod of cross-sectional area Ae feels the compressed-air pressure p on the inside, and the atmospheric pressure patm on the outside. The net axial force on the launcher rod is Frod = (p − patm )Ae (1)

which will in general decrease as the launch rod is expelled and the air partially expands as a result. The mechanical work performed by this force over the length ℓ of the rod must therefore be determined via a work integral over the axial distance z .

ℓ ℓ

W =

0

Frod dz =

0

(p − patm )Ae dz

(2)

**Using the relation Ae dz = dV , the integration is more conveniently performed over the volume change.
**

V0 V0

W =

Vc

(p − patm ) dV =

Vc

p dV − patm (V0 − Vc )

(3)

Evaluation of the remaining p dV integral requires knowing how the pressure p of the air in the rocket varies with its volume V . Assuming that the expansion is isentropic (i.e. both loss-free and adiabatic), the pressure and volume will then be related by the isentropic relation or

V0 Vc

pV γ = constant = pc Vc γ p = pc Vc γ V −γ

V0 Vc

(4) (5)

The p(V ) relation (5) can then be used to evaluate the integral in the work expression (3). p dV = pc Vc γ = V −γ d V (6) (7) (8)

1 pc Vc γ Vc 1−γ − V0 1−γ γ −1 Vc γ 1 pc Vc − V0 = γ −1 V0 1

Again using the isentropic relation we further replace the volume ratio in (8) with the pressure ratio. Neglect the air drag and the rod friction during this phase. the water mass ﬂow then follows from the simple channel mass ﬂow relation. both m ˙ w and ue will decrease during the ﬂight as the water is expelled and p decreases from the resulting air expansion. W = ∆(KE ) + ∆(PE ) (12) Note: You are to use this energy balance to determine the initial velocity V0 of the rocket at the moment it leaves the launcher rod. Rocket Thrust Calculation The thrust T of the rocket is given by the following momentum balance relation. V0 p dV = Vc 1 [pc Vc − p0 V0 ] γ −1 (10) The overall pressure-work integral (3) is then explicitly given as follows. m ˙ w = ρw ue Ae (14) 2 . Hence. The initial mass m0 is also known. p0 = pc Vc V0 γ (9) so that the pressure integral takes on a fairly simple form. W = 1 [pc Vc − p0 V0 ] − patm (V0 − Vc ) γ −1 (11) Energy balance The net work W on the launch rod shows up as the kinetic and potential energy change of the rocket during the expansion. T = m ˙ w ue (13) Both the water mass ﬂow m ˙ w and the exit velocity ue will depend on the instantaneous air pressure p. With ue determined. Note: You are to use the Bernoulli equation to determine ue as a function of the air pressure p and the nozzle exit pressure pe = patm . You may assume that all the quantities in (11) needed to compute the work W are known or calculated.

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