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Economic assessment of desilted sediment in terms of plant nutrients equivalent: A case study in the Medak district of Andhra Pradesh
Padmaja KV, Wani SP, Agarwal Lav and Sahrawat KL 2003. Economic assessment of desilted sediment in terms of plant nutrients equivalent: A case study in the Medak district of Andhra Pradesh. Global Theme 3: Water, Soil and Agrodiversity Management for Ecosystem Resilience. Report no. 4. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 24 pp.
SAT eJournal | ejournal.icrisat.org
August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1
An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
In southern India, water tanks are an integral part of village settlements. These tanks take care of villagers’ needs of water for domestic and agricultural purposes. Over the years, with sediment deposition the water storage capacity of these tanks has been considerably reduced. During 2001, the Government of Andhra Pradesh initiated ‘Neeru-Meeru’ (Water and You) program under the Water Conservation Mission. Under the program, desilting of over thousand village tanks in various districts was undertaken. In one such exercise, a study was taken up in Medak district to assess the economic feasibility of such a massive scale desilting operation and the quality of the sediment material which was used for adding to the fields. The study showed that the tank sediment contained 30% to 71% silt and clay. The organic carbon (C) content varied from 5.4 g C kg-1 to 27.2 g C kg-1 suggesting large variation in the eroded material. The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content of the sediment samples varied from tank to tank and also with the depth of sampling indicating the variation in the management practices not only in different catchments but also over the time in a given catchment. The N content in the sediment samples varied from 340 mg N kg-1 to 1760 mg N kg-1 sediment with an average N content of 719 mg N kg-1 sediment. This value is almost double of the soil N content in the nearby fields. Similarly, the P content, microbial counts, organic C and microbial biomass C of the sediment varied across the tanks. Based on the economic value of N and P plant nutrients returned to the fields, the average benefit-cost (B/C) ratio of desilting works was calculated to be 1.17. This is in addition to other primary benefits such as increased rainwater storage, groundwater recharge, water availability, restoration of biological activity and return of high value organic C to fields for improving crop productivity. Addition of sediments back to the agricultural lands not only returns back the nutrient-rich fine fractions with high C values but also restores the soil microbial biodiversity in the system. The data obtained from 21 tanks was used for extrapolating results to the entire district in which a total of 78 tanks were desilted in the ‘Neeru-Meeru’ initiative. The approach used for extrapolation utilised the N and P composition of sediments from the nearest available sediment value. An average value of sediment analysis from 2 to 3 nearest tanks was used to compute for other tanks in the district. The overall mean N, P and organic C content in the sediments was calculated to be 730 mg kg-1 sediment, 357 mg kg-1 sediment and 11.64 g C kg-1 sediment respectively. In the district, a total of 246831 tons of sediments from 78 tanks were desilted and addition of these sediments back to farms would return 183 tons of N, 86 tons of P and 2873 tons of organic carbon. On an average, the B/C ratio for the desilting operations from water tanks based on the economic plant nutrient value (N and P content) of the district was calculated to be 1.23 which reflects a positive benefit for the cost incurred in the ‘Neeru-Meeru’ program. Application of sediment desilted from the water tanks to agricultural fields appears to be a economically viable option for returning N, P nutrients along with organic C back to the soil. The methodology used for extrapolation could be upscaled and used for computing sediment yield, nutrient content and their economic value. Scientific studies along these lines provide an insight for land managers and policy makers to evaluate the existing management strategies and take appropriate decisions. 1
SAT eJournal | ejournal.icrisat.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1
these land-based resources are being exploited with inappropriate technologies. Non-point source pollution of surface and groundwater has been linked to agricultural practices. Therefore. Runoff water carries along nutrients and fine organic matter particulates from agricultural lands. removal of sediments from tanks is a relevant approach for rainfed farming systems.icrisat. The use of qualitative studies of the lost soil. Soil erosion is common during the heavy downpour. During surveys. With an environmental dimension added to sustainable productivity in the semi-arid ecoregions. feed and fiber on a sustainable basis. this has led to problems like soil erosion. Qualitative assessment followed by quantification of parameters together help to understand the effects of land use on its degradation. There has been an increase in activities that are not consistent with sustainable development. which is characterized by low and erratic rainfall patterns. As 70 per cent of agriculture is rainfed in dry areas. irrigation and decreases the water storage capacity of tanks. assessing the quality of runoff is of high priority because runoff water can cause chemical pollution. the inputs used in farming have been detected in both surface and ground waters.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . The approach to soil loss and its impact on productivity is different for agronomists and hydrologists. Sustainable agricultural productivity depends on soil and water. With conventional assessments of soil loss measurements. water and vegetation are basic resources of life. conservation of rainwater is essential to meet the growing demand for food. excessive water runoff. This problem is common in Vertisols and other soils with high clay content. may be another approach for this purpose. This is further burgeoned with sedimentation. it is hard to link soil losses with yield decline. Runoff can also take place when the intensity of rainfall exceeds the percolation rate and when soil surface is saturated with water. Modern agricultural practices depend on commercial fertilisers to supply plant nutrients.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Introduction Soil. which gets deposited as sediments in the tanks. loss of plant nutrients. For rainfed farming system there is a need to capture significant amount of rainwater. With an increase in population. which are the most important natural resources. 2 SAT eJournal | ejournal. Rainfall occurs as torrential downpours and is highly erratic in the dry ecoregions. An environmental approach with integration of different processes in the ecosystem needs to be studied. which is generally lost as runoff and deep drainage. which causes interference with drainage. However. These in turn have led to decline in crop yields and food security. Runoff from the agricultural lands leaves the land unproductive and promotes land degradation. Hence. Water is a limiting natural resource in the semi-arid tropics (SAT). land use. deposition of sediment in tanks reduces its capacity and also hampers the additional water storage in the rainfed areas. Analysis and interpretation of results from such studies in isolation does not provide plausible solutions to the problems of sustainability. This stored water can be used for supplemental irrigation. Runoff occurs in situations where the intensity of rainfall exceeds the infiltration rate which leads to surface flow and ponding of water. increasing crop productivity and resource-use efficiency. Often the sources and pathways of nutrients moved by sediments in the runoff are difficult to fully identify. water scarcity and downstream flooding.
icrisat. 4 and 5. this study was taken up with the following objectives. chemical and biological parameters of sediment from different water storage tanks in Medak district of Andhra Pradesh. economic valuation of such a massive scale of desilting operation is not available. the government officials with technical backstopping from ICRISAT scientists selected Medak district in Andhra Pradesh. There is enough information on effect of sediment application on crop yields and improved soil properties. Following the meet. Farmers transported the sediment to their fields on their own. 2. on a pilot basis. phosphorus (P) and organic carbon (C) returned to agricultural fields and economic valuation of sediment in terms of cost of N and P nutrients • To assess the differences in quality and terms of physical. Fig 1. India. bearing the transportation and labour cost for application. The specific objectives were: • To quantify the amounts of nitrogen (N). the Andhra Pradesh government provided mechanical diggers to the villages for removal of sediment. Wargal mandal. Under this program. The sequence of events during the desilting operation and application of tank sediment are shown in figures 1. The water conservation mission’s ‘Neeru-Meeru’ (Water and You) program took up desilting of village tanks during the dry season for increasing water storage capacity. Objectives The overall goal of the present study was to assess the economic feasibility of desilting operation by quantifying the amount of plant nutrients returned to agricultural fields through sediment application. In order to assess the economic feasibility of desilting operation under ‘Neeru Meeru’ program. the tanks were cleared off the sediment deposited and large amounts of desilted materials were available for farm use. 3. Desilting work at Reddykunta tank. In the process. Medak district. However. policy makers and various government departments associated with water conservation.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . 3 SAT eJournal | ejournal.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Background The Andhra Pradesh government’s Water Conservation Mission during 2001 adopted an approach to bring together watershed experts.
Fig 3. Raikode mandal. Patancheru mandal. Medak district.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . Medak district.icrisat. Manual removal of sediments by farmers in Lakdaram village.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig 2. Transportation of sediment by farmers in Kotha Kunta tank. 4 SAT eJournal | ejournal.
An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig 4. 5 SAT eJournal | ejournal. Desilting work by digger at Peddacheruvu tank. Application and spreading of tank sediment in the field by a farmer.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 .icrisat. Fig 5. Medak district. Narsapur mandal.
org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 .750 N at 500 m MSL in Andhra Pradesh. Seventy-seven sediment samples up to 90-cm depth in these tanks were collected. The details of the tanks and their location are given in Table 1. Tank No.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Methodology Medak district located at longitude 78. rainfall and distribution of soil types in Medak district. A district scale effort began where sediment samples were collected during March 2001-May 2001 from 21 tanks spread out in 11 mandals in the district (Fig 6).Peddapur Masaipally Krishnapur Pothereddypally Yenigandla Lingapur Chipal thruthy Thirmalapur Edulapally Dharpally Kaslapur G. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Mandal Sangareddy Sangareddy Kondapur Sadasivapet Sadasivapet Sadasivapet Alladurg Alladurg Alladurg Alladurg Andole Kalher Kulcharam Kulcharam Narsapur Narsapur Narsapur Yeldurthy Shankarampet Shankarampet Alladurg Village Goudicherla Yeranoor Merepally Atmakur Veltoor Enekepally Muslapur Marvelly Chilver G. Table 1.Peddapur Name of the Tank Annual rainfall (mm) during 2001 Soil type 752 752 650 639 639 639 683 683 683 683 816 782 465 465 794 794 794 567 623 623 683 Sandy loam Sandy loam Clay loam Clay loam Clay loam Clay loam Clay loam Clay loam Clay loam Clay loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Clay loam Kudi Cheruvu Edula Kunta Kotha Kunta Rahul Cheruvu Pedda Cheruvu Kotha Cheruvu Nadayani Kunta Regode Cheruvu Komantlavani Kunta Gollai Kunta Govram Cheruvu Krishnapur Tank Chandra Kunta Damara Cheruvu Komati Kunta Pathi Kunta Damara Cheruvu Pedda Cheruvu Bathkamma Cheruvu Chintala Cheruvu Thimmana Cheruvu 6 SAT eJournal | ejournal. Dominant soil types are sandy loam and clay loam in the 11 mandals of Medak district under study (Table 1). Patancheru for analysis. while black soils (Vertisols and associated soils) are found in small patches in depression areas of the district. India. The benefit-cost ratio calculated is the apparent value and indicates only cost of desilting operation and value of silt as source of N and P nutrients.250 E and latitude 17. was selected for the study.icrisat. The samples were analyzed for physico-chemical and biological properties by following the standard methods (Table 2). Location of water tanks. Apparent benefit-cost ratio: The valuation of nitrogen in the sediment is based on the cost of urea fertilizer and fertilizer equivalent value of phosphorus is based on the cost of diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer at the existing rates. The soils in Medak district are mostly sandy and gravely shallow type of red soils (Alfisols). These sediment samples were air-dried and processed at the ICRISAT.
.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 Fig 6. Location of different tanks in 11 mandals of Medak district. India.icrisat.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 SAT eJournal | ejournal. Andhra Pradesh.
Wani et al. Property Total N Total P Mineral biomass C Particle size texture analysis Organic C Microbial population Test Modified Kjeldahl digestion Perchloric acid digestion method Chloroform-fumigation and incubation Bouyoucos Hydrometer method Dry Combustion Method Primacssc TOC Analyser. 1982 Zuberer 1994. Results Sediment samples from tanks were analyzed for particle size composition. Parkinson 1994. organic carbon. Fertilizer inputs The chemical fertilizers commonly used are urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) for supplying nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients to crops.icrisat. Highest rainfall of 816 mm (Table 1) was recorded in Andole mandal where Govram Cheruvu is located and lowest rainfall of 465 mm was recorded in Kulcharam mandal where Chandra Kunta tank is located. 1994 Bouyoucos 1962 Nelson & Sommers. the farmers apply 50 kg N and 60 kg P ha-1. Bacteria. paddy and sugarcane are the principal crops grown during the rainy season (Kharif) in the district. Crops grown Sorghum. the amount of chemical fertilizer application is accordingly reduced and additional amount of N is applied through urea. Depending on the availability of farmyard manure (FYM). However. Actinomycetes – Nutrient Agar Reference Dalal et al.Nutrient Agar 2. cotton. 8 SAT eJournal | ejournal. maize. Fungi – Potato Dextrose Aga 3. Jenkinson 1988. When FYM is available. during 2001 the district received a total rainfall of 679 mm. total P and microbial population enumeration following standard methods (Table 2).An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 2. groundnut. jowar. Wellington & Toth 1994 Rainfall The average annual rainfall received in the Medak district is 873 mm. blackgram. the farmers apply FYM at a rate of 10 to 12 t ha-1 biannually. During the postrainy season (Rabi).org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . pigeonpea. total N. greengram. Skalar Serial dilution and Spread plate method 1. On an average for agricultural crops. maize. 1984 Olsen & Sommers 1982 Jenkinson & Powlson 1976. castor. Methods of analysis for properties determined on air-dried soil samples passed through 2-mm sieve. blackgram and greengram are grown on stored soil moisture on Vertisols or with supplemental irrigation.
the sediment is mostly in the form of suspension. Fig 7. the fine sand in the samples ranged between 12 % and 53 %. on the other hand when the velocity of the flow of water during runoff is higher the movement of the gravel pebbles and bigger fractions of the soil takes place.5 g C kg–1 sediment. Organic carbon Tank sediment samples from 0-15 cm depth were studied for the organic carbon levels whose values ranged from 5. rainfall intensity.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Texture of the sediment Texture analysis of sediment samples provide an estimate on the relative fraction size in the sediment from the surrounding areas where the finer fractions of soil eroded are carried along runoff and deposited in the tanks. while silt and clay amounts ranged between 30 % and 71 %.4 g C kg–1 to 27.2 g C kg–1 sediment (Fig 7). The texture analysis revealed that the composition of the sediment deposited in the tanks varied widely within the district reflecting on the soil type. crop cover and organic matter content of the soils in the catchment area. Lowest organic carbon value of 5. 8 and 5 recorded organic carbon values lower than 6. In this study. When the sediment comes from fine-grained soil such as alluvial clay or heavy textured soils.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . Organic carbon in Medak tank sediment. However. This texture analysis indicates the nature of areas from where the sediment originated. 7.2 g C kg–1 sediment was recorded in Tank 3 (Kothakunta Tank of Merepally village. Tank numbers 17.4 g C kg–1 sediment was recorded in Tank 17 (Nadayani Kunta Tank of Aldurg mandal).icrisat. topography. 9 SAT eJournal | ejournal. Highest organic carbon value of 27. Kondapur mandal).
This large amount of carbon in tank sediment would otherwise have been released to atmosphere. followed by actinomycetes and fungi which were lowest in population (Fig 8). Quantification of viable microorganisms in sediment recorded a higher and diversified population of the microflora. Standard methods and media were used for the microbial population counts (Table 2). Surface samples of 0-15 cm of the deposited sediment were taken for the microbial population count estimation. a high microbial population was recorded in sediment sample from the Tank 21. bacteria and actinomycetes population. farm cropping and soil history which have a direct influence on the quality of the tank sediment. A perusal of the results obtained for microbial population in general revealed that among the microflora.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The overall mean organic C value for the 21 tank sediment samples studied was 10. the bacteria were in highest number. organic carbon levels and nutrient availability influence the microbial communities. the bacterial population was found to be quite variable among the different sediment samples.icrisat. indicating qualitative and quantitative differences in the sediment. Maximum microbial population is found in region where soils have high moisture retention capacity. In general. the tank sediment samples were quantified for fungi. The actinomycetes and fungi population recorded as colony forming units (CFU) (< 5 x 104 CFU g-1) was similar in all the 21 tank samples under study. The bacterial population on an average varied between 20 x 104 CFU g-1 and 30 x 104 CFU g-1 of tank sediment. Enumeration of microbial population was done by serial dilution using spread plate technique. temperature. which is surrounded by clayey soils. which is optimum for the microbial activity. Loss of microbial diversity from fields is one of the important causes of land degradation through erosion. This will be recycled for increasing agricultural productivity through C mineralisation and the release of plant nutrients. Returning of tank sediments rich in biological counts would help in improving the microbial diversity and biological activity in farm soils thereby improving soil quality and crop production. The improved plant growth in turn would fix more C through increased photosynthesis resulting in increased productivity of farms and reduced CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. indicating that by desilting the tanks and adding the sediment to farms would return 520 tons of organic C. Hence. Microbial population The microbial activity is responsible for nutrient transformations and cycling. higher microbial counts were recorded from the sediment collected from tanks surrounded by soils with clay texture. In contrast. In the agricultural system. This wide variability in microbial population could be attributed to the nutrient status of tank sediment. Their qualitative and quantitative data indicate the sediment quality. a broad range of conditions like soil reaction. Organic C plays an important role in plant nutrition and the application of sediment with higher values would give increased benefits to the agricultural system by improving the soil quality and productivity. However. These results also indicate indirectly the quantified differences in the locations from where the sediment originated. resulting in increased concentration of atmospheric CO2.7 g C kg-1 sediment. 11. A comparatively low population counts were found in sediment samples from tank 7. 12 and 17.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . 10. A higher microbial population gives an indirect inference of higher moisture retention capacity in the substrate sediment as well as better nutrient availability. 10 SAT eJournal | ejournal.
nutrient availability. The influence of cropping systems. Soil Microbial Biomass Soil microbial biomass is an important component of the soil organic matter that regulates the transformation. The microbial biomass C in the sediment samples ranged between 140. the proportion of microbial biomass C to organic C was recorded to be 2. cycling and storage of nutrients.5 mg of biomass C per kilogram of sediment. Typically. biomass carbon ranges from 1% to 5% of soil organic carbon. generally expressed in milligrams of carbon per kilogram soil. Samples from tank 12 recorded the highest microbial biomass C (393. On an average. soil reaction. 11 SAT eJournal | ejournal.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . Microbial biomass is a part of the organic matter in soil that constitutes living microorganisms smaller than 5-10 µm3.89 per cent.5 mg C kg-1 and 393. The interest in estimating soil microbial biomass is related to its functions as a pool for subsequent delivery of nutrients. and other physico-chemical parameters on microbial activity is reflected in the microbial biomass values. The higher proportion values suggest that there will be greater and faster release of plant nutrients from the particular sediment samples.1 mg C kg-1 of sediment) and microbial population. Estimation of microbial biomass helps in monitoring the toxicity of pollutants and degradation of organic entities like pesticides and other agricultural chemicals. indicating a higher quality of the tank sediment.icrisat.5 mg kg-1 of sediment).An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig 8. The sediment samples recorded an average of 273. stabilization of soil and an ecological quality indicator. Microbial population in the tank sediment. role in structure formation.1 mg C kg-1 of sediment (Fig 9). Of the 21 tank samples 33 % recorded less than the mean value (273. The biomass C as a proportion of organic C varied in tank sediment samples indicating the qualitative content differences in the sediment samples (Table 3).
Organic Carbon (OC).0 6.3 339.org An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 3.6 15.9 10.1 4.6 2270.78 3.6 290.0 729.8 166.3 28.2 330.2 32.25 0.6 10.2 8.5 48777.1 296.8 228.2 273.6 1445.0 2785.32 3.0 5.18 2.2 1146.0 224.1 5.8 10.20 1.4 203.4 32.7 3016.3 28.0 1411.5 175.9 13.7 10.4 257.5 30.7** Amount of sediment (tons) 2460.7 341.0 4276.9 520.08 2.4 2166.02 3.4 2662.3 1218.98 2.1 393.6 7.9 323.27 2.6 343.46 3.8 5220.09 5.2 7.4 468.9 316. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Organic Carbon (g kg-1 sediment) 8.5 9.31 4.4 10.4 23.7 1298.9 20.51 2.icrisat.1 333.41 2.89** Name of Tank Kudicheruvu Edulakunta Kuthakunta Rahul Cheruvu Peddacheruvu Kotha cheruvu Nadayanikunta Regode cheruvu Komantlawaly kunta Gollai kunta Govram cheruvu Krishnapur tank Chandra kunta Damara Cheruvu Komati kunta Pathi kunta Damara Cheruvu Pedda cheruvu Bathkamma cheruvu Chintala cheruvu Thimmana cheruvu Total/Average Village Goudicherla Yerdanoor Merepally Atmakur Veltoor Enekepally Muslapur Marvelly Chilver G.69 4.7* Microbial Proportion Biomass C of MBC to (mg kg-1 sediment) OC (%) 272.24 2.3 14.1 14.2* Amount of Carbon (tons) 21.2 2970.91 2.5** 3.0 309.8 10.84 4.6 53.1 3001.0 1928.1 8.1 5583.7 5.0 165.7 34.4 5.SAT eJournal | ejournal.6 140.Peddapur Mandal Sangareddy Sangareddy Kondapur Sadasivapet Sadasivapet Sadasivapet Alladurg Alladurg Alladurg Alladurg Andole Kalher Kulcharam Kulcharam Narsapur Narsapur Narsapur Yeldurthy Shankarampet Shankarampet Alladurg 12 August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 * Total value ** Average value .05 3.Peddapur Masaipally Krishnapur Pothereddypally Yendgandla Lingapur Chipal thruthy Thirmalapur Edulapally Dharpally Kaslapur G. microbial biomass Carbon (MBC) and microbial C as proportion of organic C content of sediment samples collected from Medak district Tank No.9 17.0 745.4 8.2 1974.1 293.6 11.0 17.8 26.9 13.68 1.36 1.3 57.2 8.5 27.8 6.1 23.
Nitrogen and phosphorus content in the sediment Fertilizer usage details provided by the state district officials reveal that mostly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are applied through diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer and only nitrogen was applied through urea fertilizer. The total P per cent in the sediment samples of different tanks ranged between 80 mg P kg-1 and 1120 mg P kg-1 of sediment. Sediment samples from tank 2.777 tons of sediment contained 34 tons of nitrogen and 15 tons of phosphorus . Nitrogen and P are the most important nutrients that contribute towards higher crop yields. It was observed that 50 per cent of the tank sediment samples had total P values higher than the mean value of 321 mg kg-1.19. In total.icrisat. The sediment samples were analysed for N and P contents. with an average of 321 mg of total P kg-1 sediment (Fig 10). reflecting greater economic feasibility in replacing the sediment back to agricultural fields. The nitrogen occurs in 13 SAT eJournal | ejournal. purine. Variability of microbial biomass C in the tank sediment.13. Relationship between nutrients and microbial population Nutrients such as N and P are required for synthesis of amino acids.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig 9. proteins. The total N content in the tank sediment samples varied from 340 mg kg-1 to 1760 mg kg-1 sediment with an average N content of 719 mg kg-1 which is two times more than the normal soil N content of the cultivated fields in the region. 48. Results show that nutrient (N and P) losses from the agricultural land were higher as reflected in the sediment N and P composition.11 and 3 recorded total N values greater than 1000 mg N kg-1 of sediment. which are important for microbial growth.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . pyrimidine nucleotides and certain vitamins. Highest N content was recorded in sediment samples from tank number 3 (Fig10).
each of which can be utilized by different microorganisms. Hence phosphorus.m to 14 SAT eJournal | ejournal.icrisat. which were high in N content. The volume of sediment removed in different tanks ranged from as low as 390 cu.6 tons of sediments. P) content. nature in a variety of oxidation states. Economics of removal of sediment from the tanks A direct positive correlation was found between amounts of sediment deposited in the tank to the rainfall received in the mandal. In Andole mandal. a direct positive relationship can be established between microbial population and nutrient (N. an economic feasibility for the desiltation process was required to be undertaken.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig 10. usually as inorganic phosphate. When a comparison of the bacterial population and N and P content in the sediment samples from tanks 20 and 21 were made. needs to be provided in considerable amount for the growth of microorganisms. the N and P contents were low. where the bacterial population was high. The nutrients in the tank sediment that were washed off from the fields are directly related to the agricultural practices adopted. also had a higher microbial population. It was found that sediment samples. Govram Cheruvu recorded 5583. This indicates that the nutrients could possibly be utilised for microbial assimilation or used for restoring the soil health.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . Hence. which received 816 mm of rainfall in 2001(highest in the district). Phosphorus occurs in living organisms chiefly as sugar phosphates in nucleotide and nucleic acids. Nitrogen and phosphorus content (mg kg-1) in the sediment deposited in different tanks in Medak district. As the quantities of sediment deposited in the tanks were huge. A similar positive relationship was found between P content in the sediment and the microbial population. This trend can be seen from the analysis of sediment samples from tank 3.
The nutrient content in terms of N and P retrieved from the sediment was considered to be the profit (benefit) as against the expenditure (cost) incurred in removing the sediment from the tanks (Table 5).777 tons.69. The quantity of sediment removed from different tanks amounted to 48. The total cost incurred in removal of this sediment amounted to Rs 5. Additionally the process of sediment application to farm lands that is rich in organic C will result in C mineralisation and higher nutrient availability thereby helping plant growth and greater fixation of C through Table 4. Cost incurred in removal of sediment from tanks of Medak district of Andhra Pradesh. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Volume desilted (cu. The value of sediment was quantified in terms of fertiliser equivalent costs.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 .An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4653 cu m. Benefit-cost ratio In order to check whether the task of sediment removal and their recommendations to apply to fields makes sense.icrisat. Tank No. the economic feasibility of such investment costs were estimated.m) 2050 621 1645 3564 4350 608 1204 955 2475 2320 4653 1891 1804 1606 2501 2218 2513 1015 1082 390 1176 40648 Amount of sediment removed (tons) 2460 745 1974 4276 5220 729 1445 1146 2970 2785 5583 2270 2165 1928 3001 2662 3016 1218 1298 468 1411 48777 Cost incurred (Rs) 28700 8694 23030 49896 60900 8512 16856 13372 34650 32480 65142 26488 25269 22489 35017 31063 35190 14218 15148 5460 16467 569041 Mandal Sangareddy Sangareddy Kondapur Sadasivapet Sadasivapet Sadasivapet Alladurg Alladurg Alladurg Alladurg Andole Kalher Kulcharam Kulcharam Narsapur Narsapur Narsapur Yeldurthy Shankarampet Shankarampet Alladurg Village Goudicherla Yeranoor Merepally Atmakur Veltoor Enekepally Muslapur Marvelly Chilver G.Peddapur Masaipally Krishnapur Pothereddypally Yenigandla Lingapur Chipal thruthy Thirmalapur Edulapally Dharpally Kaslapur G.777 tons.Peddapur Name of the Tank Kudi Cheruvu Edula Kunta Kotha Kunta Rahul Cheruvu Pedda Cheruvu Kotha Cheruvu Nadayani Kunta Regode Cheruvu Komantlavani Kunta Gollai Kunta Govram Cheruvu Krishnapur Cheruvu Chandra Kunta Damara Cheruvu Komati Kunta Pathi Kunta Damara Cheruvu Pedda Cheruvu Bathkamma Cheruvu Chintala Cheruvu Thimmana Cheruvu Total 15 SAT eJournal | ejournal. 041(Table 4). The total quantity of sediment from all the 21 tanks amounted to 48. The total cost incurred in removal of this sediment from tanks amounted to Rs 569.041.
03 0.79 0.95 1.03 0.8 5220 729.01 0.4 468 1411.SAT eJournal | ejournal.06 1.04 0.2 0.18 0.47 0.4 2166 1928.44 1.35 0.34 1.06 0.11 0.19 1.05 0.06 0.6 2270.1 3001.12 0.04 0.64 0.92 0.6 1445.43 3.24 1.2 2970 2785.47 1.07 0.Peddapur * Total value ** Average value .7 3016.07 0.91 1.03 0.08 0.14 1.02 0.23 0.2 1146.07 0.02 0.75 3. Tank No.09 1.84 0.04 0.03 0.5 48777.46 0.15 0.28 1.43 0.84 1.19 0.45 1.21 1.05 P% 0.06 0. Economic valuation of tank sediment in terms of plant nutrients returned to farms and benefit cost analysis of desilting operations.43 0.67 34.38 0.3 0.1 0.43 2.67 1.72 2.57 0.11 0.org An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 5.06 0.98 0.94* 14707 8100 37764 30217 21561 4124 6912 7849 2695 16650 69795 10365 25427 15509 23816 12445 11147 9008 15524 3271 7257 378240* P fertilizer equivalent (Rs) 11531 4332 41454 31274 29363 3707 3523 7522 11138 17755 27534 8088 6904 10846 24762 11982 4524 8684 12416 2808 5029 285174* B/C ratio 0.11 0.58 1.2* N in sediment (tons) 1.49 0.4 0.02 16 August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 Pothereddypally Chandra Kunta Shankarampet Dharpally Shankarampet Kaslapur Alladurg Total/Average G.2 1974 4276.02 0.01 0.Peddapur Masaipally Krishnapur Yendgandla Lingapur Chipal thruthy Thirmalapur Edulapally Tank Kudi Cheruvu Edula Kunta Kutha Kunta Rahul Cheruvu Pedda Cheruvu Kotha Cheruvu Nadayani Kunta Regode Cheruvu Komantlawaly Kunta Gollai Kunta Govram Cheruvu Krishnapur Cheruvu Damara Cheruvu Komati Kunta Pathi Kunta Damara Cheruvu Pedda Cheruvu Bathkamma Cheruvu Chintala Cheruvu Thimmana Cheruvu N% 0.75 1.27 14.7 1298.53 6.04 0.13* P in N fertilizer sediment equivalent (tons) (Rs) 0.11 0.1 5583.icrisat.3 1218.78 1.23 2.64 0.39 0.03 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Amount of sediment (tons) 2460 745.17** Mandal Sangareddy Sangareddy Kondapur Sadasivapet Sadasivapet Sadasivapet Alladurg Alladurg Alladurg Alladurg Andole Kalher Kulcharam Kulcharam Narsapur Narsapur Narsapur Yeldurthy Village Goudicherla Yerdanoor Merepally Atmakur Veltoor Enekepally Muslapur Marvelly Chilver G.04 0.66 0.02 0.15 1.83 1.17 1.05 0.37 0.62 1.4 2662.24 0.03 0.04 0.95 2.32 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.47 2.59 0.62 0.07 0.70 1.03 0.04 0.03 0.42 0.
17 suggests that desilting operations are not only economically viable but also have additional benefits like environmental protection.64 g C kg-1 sediment. Conclusion Application of sediment desilted from the water tanks to agricultural fields appears to be a economically viable option for returning N.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ photosynthesis. there is a need for more complete elemental analysis of sediments for micro elements as well as likely pollutants (for e. Average benefit-cost ratio of 1.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . Extrapolation of results to the district The enormous task of desilting the water tanks deposited with huge amounts of sediments under the ‘Neeru-Meeru’ initiative was assessed through benefit-cost analysis. nutrient content and for assessing their economic value.62 and 3. The sediments of 78 tanks had an average organic C value of 11. P nutrients along with organic C to the soil for increasing nutrient availability and enhancing crop production.icrisat. In the district. Future research Depending on the availability of tank sediment and their nutrient content there is a case made for its proper utilisation through application to farm lands for increasing productivity and improving soil quality. The methodology used for extrapoltion could be adopted for computing the sediment yield. On an average.17 for all the 21 tanks under study (Table 5). The overall mean N content in the sediment samples was 730 mg kg-1 sediment and average P content was calculated to be 357 mg kg-1 sediment.23. improved soil quality and increased water storage. increased soil microbial bio-diversity. which reflects a positive benefit for the cost incurred in the ‘Neeru-Meeru’ program. a total of 246831 tons of sediments from 78 tanks were desilted and addition of these sediments back to farms would return 183 tons of N. However. Scientific studies along these lines provide an insight for land managers and policy makers to evaluate the existing management strategies and take appropriate decisions. Average values of sediment analysis from 2 to 3 nearest tanks were used to compute for rest of the tanks in the district (Table 6). Application of sediment back to the agricultural fields forms an improved agricultural management system that enhances and protects the soil quality resulting in improved production capacity of soil and reversing the process of land degradation. The approach used for extrapolation utilized the N and P composition of sediments from the nearest available sediment value. 17 SAT eJournal | ejournal.g. data obtained from 21 tanks were extrapolated to the entire district in which a total of 78 tanks were desilted.. If indirect additional environmental benefits are also estimated in the benefit component then there would be compounded benefit. pesticides). 86 tons of P and 2873 tons of organic carbon. For this exercise. The benefit-cost (B/C) ratio ranged between 0.44 and in the case of 50 per cent of tank desilting operations the B/C ratio was greater than one. the B/C ratio for the desilting operations from water tanks based on the economic plant nutrient value (N and P content) of the district was calculated to be 1. The benefit-cost ratio averaged to 1.
71 0.43 0.59 1.40 Continued ‘ Village Gadipeddapur Erraram Masanpally Bonal Alipur Gurralagondi Ramancha Dubbak Gambheerpur Peddagundavelly Gosanpally Dharmareddipally Gajwel Domadugu Kadpal Bibipet Machireddipally Venkatapur Marpadga Sirsingandla P.02 1.75 2.23 1.91 2.14 1.08 0.13 2.47 1.08 0.05 0.61 1.40 1.94 1.05 0.08 0.40 1.08 0.08 0.03 0. Economic valuation of tank sediment in terms of plant nutrients returned to farms and benefit cost analysis of desilting operations in Medak district Tank No Mandal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Alladurg Andole Andole Chegunta Chinnakodur Chinnakodur Chinnakodur Dubbak Dubbak Dubbak Dubbak Gajwel Gajwel Jinnaram Kalher Kalher Kohir Kohir Kondapak Kondapak Kondapak Kondapak Kondapak Kondapak Kondapak Kondapak Kulcharam Mirdoddi Name of tank Cost incurred (Rs) Amount of Nitrogen Phosphorus N in sediment in sediment in sediment sediment (tons) (%) (%) (tons) 1865 8175 8269 4010 5169 1440 1234 7342 3571 1179 944 1186 7344 4284 7198 3085 2387 902 3217 2138 1969 2278 3056 5599 4613 16281 2973 1571 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.17 1.02 0.63 B/C ratio 1.49 1.07 0.08 0.06 0.89 0.02 0.07 0.03 0.04 0. Masanpally Thogita JapthiNacharam Bandaram Kondapak Thogita Variguntham Mirdoddi Tirmancheru 21770 Peddacheru 95400 Gouravanikunta 96500 Brahmandlacheru 46800 JalCheru 60327 Peddarajcheru 16800 Mysammacheru 14400 Peddacheru 85680 Peddacheru 41674 Chowdaricheru 13758 Bandamcheru 11014 Pathacheruvu 13839 Pandavulacheru 85710 Rajannacheru 50000 Somancheru 84000 Rameshwaramcheru 36000 Nareducheru 27852 Venkatapurkunta 10526 Peddacheru 37544 Ooracheru 24945 Peddacheru 22981 Peddacheru 26585 Nallacheru 35666 Ooracheru 65345 Annareddicheru 53832 Pothareddikunta 190000 Peddacheru 34700 Peddacheru 18329 18 August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 .02 1.19 1.18 1.71 1.76 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.05 0.04 0.11 1.04 0.18 0.59 1.03 0.39 2.08 0.12 0.59 1.08 0.08 0.08 0.15 1.08 0.14 1.04 0.40 1.04 0.37 0.05 0.40 1.70 0.59 1.25 4.85 3.54 3.05 0.59 2.95 2.04 0.08 0.27 P in sediment (tons) 0.24 0.61 1.60 1.04 0.org An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 6.12 0.47 0.40 1.05 0.98 0.19 2.70 1.03 9.08 0.59 1.icrisat.09 0.08 0.03 0.40 1.34 3.40 8.30 1.51 3.00 5.20 1.61 1.58 0.95 0.63 2.06 1.40 9.40 1.SAT eJournal | ejournal.78 4.38 0.59 1.60 2.49 2.04 0.05 0.73 1.67 1.48 4.05 0.08 0.02 0.49 1.04 1.05 0.59 1.74 13.59 1.47 0.03 0.85 2.59 1.05 0.40 1.42 1.08 0.
05 0.04 0.09 0.04 0.59 0.48 1.05 0.05 0.07** 0.04 0.67 1.48 1.18 1.03 0.70 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.48 1.40 0.23** Mirdoddi Kangal Mirdoddi Jangapally Narayankhed Gangapur Narayankhed Sanjeevanraopet Narayankhed Madwar Narayankhed Turkapally Narsapur Narsapur Narsapur Narsapur Papannapet Cheekode Papannapet Gandharpally Pulkal Muddaipet R.04 0.08 0.61 1.09 0.48 1.03 0.72 0.08 0.55 1.40 0.03 0.48 0.04 0.62 0.23 1.32 0.03 0.26 0.04 0.18 5.08 0.03 0.04 0.92 1.70 2.org An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 6.02 0.puram Tellapur Ramayampet Nandigama Ramayampet Chelmeda Ramayampet D’Dharmaram Ramayampet Katriyal Ramayampet Katriyal Shankarampet Shankarampet (A) Shankarampet® Kamaram Shivampet Peddagottimukkala Shivampet Donthi Shivampet Donthi Shivampet Peddagottimukkala Siddipet Narayanraopet Siddipet Narayanraopet Toopran Brahmanpally Toopran Toopran Wargal Majeedpally Zahirabad Shaikapur Total/Average 19 August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 * Total value ** Average value .04 0.87 0.40 1.05 0.10** Tank No Mandal 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Village Name of tank Peddacheru Peddacheru Ryalkal Chowdaricheru Peddacheru Turkacheru Ooracheru Rairaocheru Nallakunta Giddakunta Kaminicheru Medicheru Saicheru Somaicheru Ooracheru Peddacheru Chinnacheru Patancheru Ooracheru Bobbilicheru Kondalammacheru Konddalammcheru Bobbilicheru Malkacheru Peddacheru Ooracheruvu Peddacheru BoinammaKunta chinnacheru B/C ratio 1. Cost incurred (Rs) 3360 45299 36000 30000 8874 2135 6000 7000 20000 20000 26592 85600 4956 38000 21800 45500 48400 22100 45500 85700 42800 50000 65344 21980 42852 25564 84428 15627 37896 2880326* Amount of Nitrogen Phosphorus N in sediment in sediment in sediment sediment (tons) (%) (%) (tons) 288 3882 3085 2571 760 183 514 600 1714 1714 2279 7335 425 3256 1868 3899 4147 1894 3899 7344 3668 4284 5599 1883 3672 2191 7235 1339 3247 246831* 0.03 0.35** P in sediment (tons) 0.05 0.55 0.87 0.41 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.61 1.48 1.04 0.87 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.87 1.23 1.79 1.30 1.80 1.09 0.02 0.03** 0.47 0.03 0.30 1.03 0.73 2.87 0.62 1.13 0.04 0.05 0.12 1.33 1.41 0.09 0.75 1.56 1.70 0.37 2.09 0.15 0.07 1.09 0.10 3.03 0.84 0.39 3.03 0.65 3.87 0.39 3.35 0.83 1.C.69 1.02 0.40 0. Continued.53 2.97 1.08 0.87 1.87 0.14 1.70 0.83 2.62 1.08 0.SAT eJournal | ejournal.70 0.02 0.05 0.72 0.67 2.05 0.63 3.48 1.03 0.05 0.00 1.78 1.14 0.04 0.09 0.81 0.87 1.18 1.04 0.icrisat.04 0.40 1.49 0.56 1.09 0.23 3.14 2.09 0.
JS Angle and PS Bottomley. Part 2. 1453–1461. American Society of Agronomy. 269-290. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 15. Recovery and enumeration of viable bacteria. Mc Gill WB. In: Methods of soil analysis. JS Angle and PS Bottomley. Improved soil quality and barley yields with faba-beans. In: Methods of soil analysis. 329-350. Actinomycetes. JS Angle and PS Bottomley. Robertson JA and Thurstson JJ 1994. 539–579. 20 SAT eJournal | ejournal. Madison. Sahrawat KL and Myers RJK 1984. Total carbon. 119-144. American Society of Agronomy.An Open Access Journal published by ICRISAT ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ References Bouyoucos GT 1962. WI. RH Miller and DR Keeney. Soil Science Society of America. Haugen-Koyzra KL. In: Methods of soil analysis. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 74. eds RW Weaver. pp.icrisat. Madison. 75–84. ed JR Wilson. USA. organic carbon and organic matter. pp. Wallingford. eds RW Weaver. pp. Madison. Parkinson D 1994. Phosphorus. A method for measuring soil biomass. 403-430. Soil Science Society of America. Microbiological and biochemical properties. Part 2. 209–213. Filamentous fungi.org August 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 1 . 464-465. RH Miller & DR Keeney. Madison. pp. manure. Jenkinson DS 1988. eds RW Weaver. Chemical and microbiological properties. WI. Determination of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in soil. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. eds AL Page. USA. CAB International. The effects of biocidal treatments on metabolism in soil: V. Microbiological and biochemical properties. Oxon. Jenkinson DS and Powlson DS 1976. Wani SP. Soil Science Society of America. USA. eds AL Page. 368–386. Olsen SR and Sommers LE 1982. Agronomy Journal 54. USA. Nelson DW and Sommers LE 1982. UK pp. Microbiological and biochemical properties. Part 2. In: Methods of soil analysis. In: Advances in nitrogen cycling in agricultural ecosystems. Wellington EMH and Toth IK 1994. WI. Zuberer DA 1994. WI. pp. Dalal RC. forages and crop rotation on a gray luvisol. WI. USA. Madison. Part 2. Inclusion of nitrate in the Kjeldahl nitrogen determination of soils and plant materials using sodium thiosulphate. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 8. In: Methods of soil analysis.
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