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Products of Socialization

Social Science I Second Sem., SY 2010-2011 UP Visayas

Personality
The set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring, enduring and that influence her or his interactions with, with and adaptations to the environment.

Is personality a product of
Nature
traits and characteristics are inherited from ones biological parents

Nurture
includes all environmental influences (both before and after birth) : family, peers, neighborhoods, schools, society, and culture

Genotype
Genes (inherited from parents)

Phenotype
Observable physical & behavioral characteristics of a person

How heredity and environment work together:


1) Reaction Range
Conventional term for a range of potential expressions of a hereditary trait. Example : body size 2) GenotypeGenotype-Environment Interaction
The portion of phenotypic variation that results from the reactions of genetically different individuals to similar environmental conditions

How heredity and environment work together:


GenotypeGenotype -Environment Interaction
Refers to the effects of similar environmental conditions on genetically different individuals Example : pollen and dust on allergic individuals
Tendency of certain genetic and environmental influences to reinforce each other

3) GenotypeGenotype-Environment Correlation
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How heredity and environment work together:


GenotypeGenotype -Environment Correlation

a. Passive Correlation
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Parents provide both genes and environment People respond to the childs genotype differently, depending on the childs genotypes
A person creates or seeks out a particular environment

b. Reactive/ Evocative Correlation


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c. Active Correlation
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What makes siblings so different?


Nonshared environmental effects - The unique environment in which the child grows up, consisting of distinctive influences or influences that affect one child differently than another

Sigmund Freud: Structure of Personality


Id : Reservoir of Psychic Energy
- pleasure principle - primary process thinking

Ego: Executive of Personality


- reality principle - secondary process thinking

Superego: Upholder of Societal Values and Ideals

Interaction of the Id, Ego, and Superego

Psychosexual Stages of Development


- For Freud, the first few years of life are decisive for the formation of personality - psychosexual sexual urges drive the acquisition of psychological characteristics

Psychosexual Stages of Development


1. Oral Stage
First 18 months of life Main sources of pleasure are the mouth, lips, and tongue
Eating : biting and chewing

Fixation: smoking, drinking, over eating

Psychosexual Stages of Development


2. Anal Stage
Eighteen months to 3 years Anal sphincter is the source of sexual pleasure (the child expels, and retains, feces) Toilet training
Anal retentive child holds back and become constipated Anal expulsive child is messy and disorganized

Psychosexual Stages of Development


3. Phallic Stage
3-5 years discovery of the genitals pleasure is derived by touching the genitals awakening of sexual desire directed outward: opposite sex parent
Oedipus complex (Electra Complex) sexual desires for the parent of the opposite sex and a hostile desire for the parent of the same sex

Psychosexual Stages of Development


Phallic Stage
Castration anxiety fear of castration Induces a repression of the sexual desire for the mother and hostility toward the father Identification allows the vicarious satisfaction for childs sexual impulses
Process through which the child takes on the values of the parent

Repression of the Oedipus Complex causes the superego to undergo its final development.

Psychosexual Stages of Development


Phallic Stage
Penis Envy among females Freud concluded that women do not develop the strong moral superegos that men do Anatomy is destiny gender development begins with childrens unconscious reactions to anatomical differences

Psychosexual Stages of Development


4. Latency Stage
Around 6 years to puberty Little psychological development occurs during this stage Infantile amnesia the inability to remember anything from the first few years of life

5. Genital Stage
Puberty to adulthood Sexual energy is located in the genitals and eventually is directed toward sexual intercourse

Carl Rogers Concept of the Self


Human beings have the tendency to move towards growth, maturity, and positive change. Actualizing Tendency
A tendency toward fulfillment or actualization of all the capacities of the organism; an organism chooses to grow

Carl Rogers Concept of the Self


The self
Or self-concept Consists of all the ideas, perceptions, and values that characterize I or me A well-adjusted person has a self-concept that is consistent with his or her thoughts, experiences, and behaviors.

Carl Rogers Concept of the Self


Ideal Self
Our conception of the kind of person we want to be The closer the ideal self is to the real self, the more fulfilled and happy the individual becomes

Carl Rogers Concept of the Self


Unconditional Positive Regard
Being given the sense that one is being valued by parents and others even when their feelings, attitudes, and behaviors are less than ideal.

Conditional Positive Regard


The child is only being valued when he or she behaves, thinks, or feels correctly

Theory of Social Behaviorism


- by sociologist George Herbert Mead - Highlighted inward thinking
- Humanitys defining trait

Self part of a persons personality consisting of selfself-awareness and selfself-image


Product of social experience
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Development of the Self


(by Mead)

1. The self develops solely through social experience 2. Social experience consists of the exchange of symbols 3. Knowing others intentions requires imagining the situation from their perspectives 4. Understanding the role of the other results in self-awareness
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Theory of Looking- Glass Self Lookingby sociologist Charles Horton Cooley LookingLooking-glass self the image people have of themselves based on how they believe others perceive them

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Theory of Looking- Glass Self LookingSignificant others shape an individual


SIGNIFICANT OTHER Someone who influences a person Parent, sibling, spouse, best friend

Self as subject, and object


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Theory of Looking- Glass Self LookingStep 1 : the person imagines that a significant other perceives him/her in a certain way Step 2 : the person imagines that the significant other makes a judgment about him/ her based on that perception Step 3: the person forms a self-image based on how he/she thinks the significant other sees him/ her
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Theory of Looking- Glass Self LookingGeneralized other


Widespread cultural norms and values that a person use as references in evaluating him/herself

Multiple self
Because of abuse
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