I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y

March | April 2013 Transforming aquaculture production using oxygenation systems

International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

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Nutritional benefits of using Processed Animal Proteins (PAPs) in European aquafeeds
by Eric De Muylder1 and Geert van der Velden2

fter the BSE crisis in the EU in late 2001, processed animal proteins (PAPs) were banned from utilisation in feeds for aquaculture and livestock. Some products were re-introduced in 2005 (blood products, milk products, hydrolyzed proteins, gelatin) as they did not pose any risk of transferring BSE to consumption animals. Meanwhile the bulk of processed animal proteins was used for other applications and exported to markets outside Europe. The ever-increasing cost of fishmeal has caused important increases in fish feed prices. It is therefore logical that fish feed producers continuously look for alternatives, but all other potential protein sources are becoming scarce and expensive. The re-introduction of PAPs into European aquafeeds, effective on June 1, 2013, would help the European aquaculture industry to solve part of the raw material problem.


on a allocation according to economic value of meat and by-products), plus energy for transporting the by-products and drying of the material. Aquaculture is often criticised for using more fish than producing fish (FIFO>1). The re-introduction of PAPs provides a chance to lower the FIFO considerably. Apart from sustainability, also nutritionally, PAPs are the first proteins sources to be used to replace fishmeal, for a number of reasons:

acid), which act as attractant and palatant in aquafeeds.

Digestible proteins
Digestibility varies a lot between different PAPs and is affected by quality of raw materials before drying and drying method. We can observe that good quality PAPs show digestibility levels which are as high as the highest quality fish meals. (Table 2)

High protein and amino acid content
PAPs are rich in most essential amino acids except methionine. They are particularly high in arginine and other water soluble amino acids (proline, glycine, and glutamic

Partially soluble proteins
Both fishmeal and PAPs contain important amounts of water soluble proteins, in the form of peptides or longer chains. These water soluble proteins are highly digestible, but also will improve the attractibility and

Table 1: Table of composition of feather meal, poultry meal and meat and bone meal in comparison with the requirement of gilthead sea bream, rainbow trout and salmon

Feather meal Crude protein amino acids (in % of CP) arginine Histidine Isoleucine leucine Valine lysine Phenylalanine Meth+Cyst threonine tryptophan 7,0 0,8 4,9 8,2 7,4 2,4 4,9 4,9 4,8 0,7 85

Poultry meal

Meat and bone meal 50 6,9 1,7 2,8 5,3 3,7 5,0 3,3 2,1 3,0 0,6


Gilthead sea bream 38-46 5.0

It would also reduce considerably the carbon footprint of aquafeeds, since these protein sources are locally available and will partially substitute imported soybean meal from the Americas and fishmeal from Peru and Chile. The carbon footprint of PAPs is much lower than the footprint of vegetable meals (Figure 1). Also the emissions related to land use and land use change (LULUC) are higher for vegetable meals. The carbon footprint of poultry meal originates from the production of the by-products (based

63 6,7 1,8 3,5 6,3 4,9 5,7 3,6 3,0 3,6 0,9

35-45 3.3-5,1 1,6-1,8 2,0-2.3 3,6-4.0 2.9-5,3 4.0-5,0 4,1-5,3 2,4-4,0 1,8-2,2 0,5-1.4

5.0 4.0 0.6

14 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2013


Figure 1: Carbon footprint of poultry meal and three vegetable meals per tonne of products (Ponsioen & Blonk, 2010) palatability of aquafeeds. Highly digestible protein sources are essential in formulating larval and starter diets for fish. Palatability of diets becomes increasingly important when diets are formulated to contain less fishmeal, but more vegetable proteins. to increase the availability of phosphorus. The phosphorus present in meat and bone meal and poultry meal has a higher availability. As a consequence, the faeces of fish containing more animal proteins will contain less phosphorus which will find its way into the environment. This excreted phosphorus can cause eutrophication. This is particularly a problem for cage farming, and trout farming in flow through ponds. Europe for human consumption are carnivorous species. Their ability to digest fibers is limited. Vegetable protein source are generally high in fiber content, while animal proteins contain very little amounts of fibers.

Presence of digestible P and Ca
Phosphorus digestibility is a major problem in aquafeed formulation. The phosphorus present in vegetable proteins is mostly trapped in phytine and is not available for the fish. Utilisation of phytase can be a solution

Lipid content as energy source, but not as source of essential fatty acids
One disadvantage of PAPs could be the presence of lipids with saturated fatty acids compared to unsaturated fatty acids in fishmeal. Lipids in fish nutrition have a role for provid-

Low fibre content
Most commercial fish species, cultured in

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March-April 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 15

Improvement by nature

Natural valuable ingredients for aqua feed
• Phosterol: a unique combination of natural cholesterol and phospholipids, an essential nutrient for shrimps • Hydrolyzed animal proteins for shrimp & fish feed: MucoPro & Gelko, highly digestible • Processed Animal Proteins for shrimp & fish feed: high protein alternative for fish meal (Porc meal 65, Porc meal 58, Poultry meal 65)


"PAPs are high quality protein sources. Their re-introduction into European aquafeeds will facilitate the formulation of high proteins fish feeds, since their availability is better than fishmeal"
ing essential unsaturated fatty acids (linolenic, EPA and DHA for salmonids and EPA and DHA for marine fishes) and as energy source. For fish species that can tolerate higher amounts of lipids in their diet, like salmonids, sea bream and sea bass, a combination of animal, vegetable and fish oil can satisfy both requirements, without altering the fatty acid content of the fish flesh. Diets contained 17 % Fish oil, 12 % fish oil + 5 % poultry oil or porc bone oil. In treatment Poultry oil/Fish oil, the fish receive first the diet with poultry oil and than the diet with only fish oil ing prices and scarcity of fishmeal, research is continuously searching for alternatives. This is often possible up to a certain level, but total replacement often results in growth loss, even though diets were formulated to contain the same amounts of essential nutrients for which the requirements are known. Replacing fishmeal by PAPs generally results in better results than replacing fishmeal by vegetable proteins. There are probably some unknown nutrients still to be discovered, which are present in animal proteins but not in vegetable proteins. Hydroxyproline, taurine and nucleic acids are some nutrients that has attracted attention recently by researchers, but their requirements still need further investigation. There are probably more nutrients to be discovered in the near future.

Presence of some nutrients which still need to be investigated
Due to the ever-increas-

PAPs are high quality protein sources. Their re-introduction into European aquafeeds will facilitate the formulation of high proteins fish feeds, since their availability is better than fishmeal. This will also help the strive towards more sustainable aquaculture. PAPs contain a lot of interesting nutrients and are a better alternative to replace fishmeal than vegetable protein sources. ■ More InforMatIon:
Website: www.sonac.biz 1CreveTec, eric@crevetec.be 2Sonac BV, geertvandervelden@sonac.biz

Table 2: Overview of Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) and Apparent Digestibility of Proteins (ADP) observed for Rainbow trout and Gilthead seabream compared to other protein sources

rainbow trout aDC lt fish meal Danish fish meal Hydrolyzed feather meal Meat and bone meal Poultry meal Soybean meal Soy protein concentrate Corn gluten 65,7-84 % 55,9-72 59,8-77 29,5-75,3 53,2 80-95 71,6-87 83-89 83-91 95,9 90,4 74,5-89,5 72,6 aDP 90,5

Gilthead sea bream aDC 71,8 48,8 aDP 87,5 95,8 51,6-57,7 35-79 80-89,9 86-90,9 90

16 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2013



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Transforming aquaculture production using oxygenation systems Nutritional benefits of processed animal proteins
– in European aquafeeds

– application in aquaculture nutrition

Towards aquafeeds with increased food security

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