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PART I. INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale In the process of worldwide industrialization, the needs for studying English become more and more inevitable. Especially for the knowledge of the specific job, translators must understand deeply all the skills of the job and must be ready for the translation into second language if necessary. In Vietnam, anyone coming into career, he or she must prepare all the knowledge of job not only in Vietnamese but in English as well. Deriving from translating technical documents of the paint company, the researcher realizes the mistakes in translating paint documents which made by himself or by his colleagues Certainly, in order to get the skills of translation better, anyone who works as translators should analyze thoroughly the mistakes and find out the solutions to correct and avoid in the future. 2. Aims of study and research questions Analysis on semantically terminological mistakes in the paint document translation of specific purpose English is a very complicated matter for the researchers, especially for the translators in the field of paint terminology in particular and in English in general. The study aims at: - Finding out the mistakes in translating paint terminology from English into Vietnamese with the specific evidences. - Suggesting the solutions to the problems to improve the current situation of translating and avoid mistakes in the future. Thanks to these ideas, the researcher will be aware of some suitable ways to avoid the mistakes and correct themselves at work. * Some research questions deducted from the study are as follows: - What are the mistakes that the translators make when translating the documents?

- What are the solutions to these problems? 3. Scope of study In this study, it is impossible to cover all the mistakes - concerning matters. The researcher just focuses on the documents that he has been translated from English into Vietnamese basing on his experience on the paint document translation. And from comparison with another 15 translators in 5 sheets of technical documents, the researcher takes the most popular examples that he has observed, he recognizes three of the most common mistakes in the translated documents as follows: - At word level: Resin (cht to mng) is a kind of gelled solution to be the main component of paint constitution. (Someone translates resin into nha.) Vehicle (cht mang, dung mi dn) = solvent + binder resin (Someone translates vehicle into phng tin.) - At sentence level: Technology of Haiphong Paint is under the license of Chugoku-Japan. Vietnamese sentence must be Cng ngh Hi Phng bn quyn ca hng Chugoku Nht Bn, but some translators take in Vietnamese as Cng ngh ca cng ty Sn Hi Phng l theo li xng ca hng Sn Chugoku Nht Bn. - At paragraph level Of the paint researches that are important not just to the quality of paint but to water environment, free copper and tin antifouling technologies are improved more and more, which is the best way of reducing the fouls which hold under the marine vessels, which are releasing activated biocides that creates antifouling process through the stages of hydrolysis. The result should be Trong s nhng nghin cu v sn quan trng khng ch i cht lng sn m cn vi mi trng bin, cng ngh chng h khng cha hp cht c thic v ng c ch trng ci tin. Phng php tt nht ny l gii cc cht chng h v to nn qu trnh chng h thng qua cc giai on thy phn The investigated issues in relation to the research are as follows:

- A general view of paint technical and other documents - An analysis of the meanings of all the paint terminology and the mistakes created in translation. 4. Methods of research Initializing the study, the researcher take advantages of some methods which help him do the research in the right direction. There are two methods the researcher uses are survey coming from documents observation and statistics applied with analysis and synthesis. Encouraging two above methods, the researcher carries out the corresponding tasks as - Collecting and classifying examples and - Comparing the usage of language between Vietnamese and English 5. Instruments for data collection, subjects Deriving from the career, the researcher finds the subject of the study and makes an effort to deal with. It is obvious that working as a translator of the paint documents, the researcher has ever got the difficulties in the job. Mistakes and how to correct them in translating, which is the reason for the subject. The two data collection instruments used in the study are Description of experience and Description of observation. * Description of experience To fulfill this study, the researcher has worked at Haiphong Paint Join Stock Company for over 3 years. The experience he can get is through such all the documents he has done with in translation as Technical data sheets, paint specifications, catalogue, and color collection cards, etc. And some international documents which are related to the Paint Marketing and paint checking are ASTM (American Standard for Testing Measurement), ISO (International Standard Organization), and JIS (Japanese International Standard), TCVN (Vietnamese Standard).

Paint companies websites are also the resources for the researcher to do the study. There are so many paint companies in the world. In the fact of worldwide economy, the competition among companies is higher and more technological, and the information must be updated regularly and immediately. That is the reason why website is a useful instrument to get the information the most easily. * Description of observation The researcher is professional in the field of paint, especially paint document translation. To help himself be able to understand all the phenomena of paint checking and inspection, the researcher has ever been trained on paint production, checking and inspection at Technical center in Japan (2 months), in the laboratory of Haiphong Paint Joint Stock Company (1 year) and in Technical Service Department (over 2 years). All these things can improve the knowledge of the researcher in both English and Vietnamese deeply, which can help the researcher understand and translate paint documents into a second language easily. 6. Methods of data analysis and presentation The data or documents for this study are analyzed and shown in the methods of - Overviewing of all the documents and finding out the general mistakes; after that, - Basing on the research methodology and some kinds of analysis, the researcher shows the document in the form of the assessment and classification of all the documents. 7. Structure of thesis Apart from the acknowledgement, table of content and appendices, the thesis is composed of three main parts: Part 1. Introduction includes the rationale, aims of study and research questions, scope of the study, method of research with instruments for data collection, the subject, methods of data analysis, and presentation.

Part 2. Development consists of three chapters: Chapter 1. Literature review discusses the definition of translation, the functions of translation, importance of developing translating skill and the main reasons for translating mistakes. Chapter 2. Description of selected documents basing on the analysis of characteristics of paint terminology. Chapter 3. Mistake analysis, recommendations for mistake correction Part 3. Conclusion involves a brief summary of main points, some conclusions induced from the results of the study, limitations of the study and some suggestions for further study

PART II. DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter focuses on the theoretical knowledge concerning semantically terminological mistakes in the paint document translation of specific purpose English including factors affecting the translation for the people who read and write the paint technical documents. 1.1. What is translation? Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text, likewise called a "translation," that communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translated is called the "source text," and the language that it is to be translated into is called the "target language"; the final product is sometimes called the "target text." (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation). And, Translation consists of producing in the target language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, firstly with respect to meaning and secondly with respect to style. Nida (1959) Often it is rendering meaning of signs, symbols (both verbal and non-verbal) by means of other signs, symbols in the same language or in other languages. Common sense tells us that this ought to be simple, as one ought to be able to say something as well in one language as in another. On the other hand, it may be seen as complicated, artificial and fraudulent, since by using another language, the language user may be pretending to be someone he/she is not. Hence, working in translation has its own interests and its own excitement. Since a translator works on a text, he/she is always trying to extent his/her knowledge and improve his/her means of expression, he/she is always pursuing facts and words, so a satisfactory translation is always possible, but a perfect or ideal translated version may never be obtained. 1.2. Functions of translation Translation functions as a means of communication and information transferring. It is used for multilingual notices in public places, for instructions issued by companies, for technical staffs where it is too often produced from the native into the foreign language by

natives as a matter of nation pride, for official documents such as treaties and contracts, for reports, papers, articles, correspondence, textbooks or for technical documents of for advertisement, bidding folio, studying specific materials, etc. to convey information, advice and recommendations for every branch of knowledge. Its volume has increased with the rise of new technology, the increase in the number of new inventions in science and the growth of the terminology. In the field of paint, sometimes we read a technical document, it is really a meaningful word for the daily conversation but it can not be applied for the technical matter. For example the word Heavy duty, may be understood Nhim v nng n, but in all paint documents, we must understand like Industrial paint. And this well-known example is repeatedly reminded by all translators as a valuable experience of profession, especially when translating such semi-technical terms. Translation is greatly demanded for the need of common understanding among companies and technicians. Millions of books and texts translated everyday help to transfer ideas, notions, customs, and beliefs in the paint field to the others. These are absorbed and considered in various directions and lead to the common agreement at different levels, either fully or partly accepted. HOW MANY FORCES PULL A TRANSLATION According to Peter New mark, a text may be pulled in ten different directions:

1. Source language writer 2. Source language norms 3. Source language culture 4. Source language settings and tradition

9. The truth (the facts of the matter) 5. Target language readership 6. Target language norms 7. Target language culture 10. Translator 8. Target language settings and tradition

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Matters discussed in this study are involved in directions 3 and 7 between English and Vietnamese. 1.3. Importance of developing translating skill Although translating skill has been cared by anyone who is related to the reading and writing foreign language technical documents, there are still many problems in reading and writing, especially in translating. These problems are the results of the translators unawareness of the translating skill. Therefore, this section is going to discuss the importance of translating the paint document along with the analysis of the knowledge for the translators of paint technical documents. For the purpose of analysis, language has been divided into different skill areas. These can be discussed in the framework of how we can understand our first language. A child can first learn to practice language by speaking, combined with listening. Then, when school begins, children learn the skills of reading and writing. As the child grows in their language ability and use, the different skills are most often integrated with each other so that they are being used in coordination with each other. Thanks to these skills coordination, the understanding of a language will be developed and can be improved day by day.

In the same way, the understanding of a foreign language can be built up and developed by learners. They can practice a foreign language day by day to create a new habit an understanding of a foreign language. That is why the translating skill can be improved when they read the technical documents daily. After reading and listening, the translator responds and understands. Just think of all English documents you read in one day and compare with the documents in Vietnamese. Which do you understand more of? Of course, Vietnamese is the answer but if you can understand English as well as Vietnamese, you must practice English translating in daily life. In a company, while a staff is reading an English document, he may also understand and translate it into Vietnamese immediately. A qualified translator must have good background knowledge of the career in both languages - Vietnamese and English. The meaning of technical terminology is conveyed and understood in contexts. Furthermore, it is also a requirement that a qualified translator has capability or skills of translating so as to transfer messages from Vietnamese into English and vice versa. For the purpose of foreign language translating, some translators have memorized hundreds of words and many grammar rules, but they still cannot translate well. Many people can read and understand the English technical documents but when they translate from Vietnamese into English, they cannot. It is true to say that being able to read all the words in a sentence is quite different from being able to comprehend or understand and analyze the technical terminologies and the English grammar with meanings. This is very much like children, when they can read out all the words in the document but they cannot understand what the meanings of the words are. Moreover, the translators who have not much exposure to some rarely-used words, they may forget the meaning. They have no solutions to remember these words, which are easy to understand for all the learners of English as a second language. But how they can remember these words depends very much on how often they practice using them or writing them down in the memory books. In general, all the activities of the translator are aimed to how they can understand technical terms and translate a technical document into another language. All they have to do is to have both the knowledge of their specialism or career and the ability of the second language understanding.

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1.4. Reasons for translating mistakes There are, in fact, many things that contribute to the success of translators. The followings are some typical factors affecting translating English documents. 1.4.1. Subjective causes A translation of high quality must be the work of a skillful translator. To be able to produce good translation, the translator must be competent in both the source and target languages and have extensive background knowledge of different fields. 1.4.1.1. Insufficient language competence First and foremost, the practice of translation belongs to the linguistic realm. Thus, the primary reason of a poor translation must be the insufficiency of the translators language competence. The incompetence may be of Vietnamese, the target language in English Vietnamese translation, and/or of English, the source language. * Insufficient target language (Vietnamese) competence Before becoming a translator, one must be a good writer. That is to say that he/she is capable of using his mother tongue effectively to express the ideas. Translation, hence, is most of the time direct consequence of a poor or insufficient target language competence. In the English Vietnamese translation, the target language is the Vietnamese language. Vietnamese is known for its sophisticated grammatical rules on which not all Vietnamese people hold appropriate knowledge. In fact, only a few Vietnamese translators excel at their own mother tongue, let alone students who are still learning to become translators. Language incompetence can be observed in the areas: the vocabulary and the grammatical structures. Insufficient knowledge on either of the two areas may lead to translations of poor quality. Noticeably, many would-be translators learning at university nowadays do not know a remarkably large number of specific Vietnamese words are often used in technical documents. This causes limitations in their practice of translation when they work for a company, especially when the text strictly requires proper writing style. Finish term

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likes these, as observed, in shipbuilding field, it means hon thin (complete a ship). In this case, it is very easy to translate into Vietnamese because it has the same meaning of the daily life when we do something okay. But in paint field, it means sn ph (the last paint layer in the painting system). Some unskilled translators tend to use one neutral word to translate all words of similar meaning in English for they are unwilling to improve their Vietnamese vocabulary. They do not have in mind that academic English should be translated into academic Vietnamese and vice versa. This requires all translators to ceaselessly enlarge their vocabulary, especially academic ones, which quite a few Vietnamese people lack. Vietnamese grammatical structures are just as diverse as that of any other language, sometimes even more. Most Vietnamese people can intuitively use these structures but fail to connect them with certain foreign language, hence cannot translate naturally. Besides, Vietnamese language users are known for over-using commas instead of conjunctions, and run-on sentences. Overcoming these weaknesses is crucial to the improvement of English Vietnamese translations. * Insufficient source language (English) competence It is easy to learn English but it is difficult to master it. The more you learn, the more complicated you find English is. Almost all English Vietnamese translators are native Vietnamese or overseas Vietnamese; therefore, it is difficult for them to have an expertlike English vocabulary as well as grammatical structures. Some people think that lack of English language competence is justifiable for Vietnamese translators because it is not their mother tongue. To my mind, this is a totally erroneous opinion. To better the quality of translation, translators must master both the source and the target languages. In other words, before becoming a translator, a person must first and foremost be a bilingual. Just like Vietnamese, English contains many word layers, formal or informal. Lack of vocabulary in any of these layers may cause serious mistakes of a translated text. Along with a considerable basic vocabulary that can be used in texts neutral in stylistics, translators must equip themselves with terminology vocabulary so as to be as flexible as possible in their translation. Most Vietnamese unskilled translators lack both

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the academic words in their English vocabulary. On the other hand, they tend to abuse the words and phrases they know and risk making themselves sound improper in certain contexts. For example, comparing between a sentence in English: Technology of Haiphong Paint is under the license of Chugoku-Japan. and in Vietnamese Cng ngh ca cng ty Sn Hi Phng l theo li xng ca hng Sn Chugoku Nht Bn. In the process of translation, there are wrong habits of the translator. First is Haiphong Paint and Cng ty sn Hi Phng because the translator always considers Haiphong Paint Company is unique. That is why, as anything about Haiphong Paint is about Haiphong Paint Company. And the same thing in License and li xng. Maybe, Li xng is the borrowing word which has been used so much by the translator that he forgets the original meaning of license to be bn quyn. So Vietnamese sentence must be Cng ngh Hi Phng bn quyn ca hng Chugoku Nht Bn. License as you know, has some meanings such as giy php, cp quyn, bn quyn, bng cp, chng ch, ng k. But in this case, Haiphong Paint Company has been authorized from Chugoku Company to produce and sell paint products. The meaning giy php seems to be used for the laws documents and for registration. But this sentence has been used for advertisement to show the power and authorization. So, we should understand the suitable meaning like bn quyn. Finally, it is critical to understand that the sufficiency in both languages is not enough for a translator. He/she needs to flexibly compare and contrast, be aware of the differences between the two languages so that he/she can easily find an equivalent whenever necessary or at least know how to make himself/herself understood when encountering untranslatable concepts. The art of translation requires a lot more than proficiency in languages. This may explain why bilingual people are not always good translators. One of the other crucial criteria is the terminology, without which the translation would be made with mistakes. 1.4.1.2. Inadequate terminology In fact, this includes competent knowledge of almost all aspects, such as religions, traditional customs, social norms, and historical awareness. In paint industry, we must understand all kind of paints: paint for ships, for offshore projects, for industry, for architecture, and so on. Or other fields related to the paint industry such as construction, shipbuilding industry, traffic road, etc. This kind of combined knowledge can be gained

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along with the process of learning English and learning translation. Nevertheless, only a few translators are aware of this. As a result, after graduating from universities, students know just a little about the companies today and these companies are related to each other. This is also the main cause of the so-called disaster of the translation art. It is crucial that translators also pay much attention to their own language, the Vietnamese language. Delving deeper into this colorful technology, we will see that it is not easy to be an expert in various Vietnamese techniques. Vietnamese people know about this but the knowledge they acquire, without their own efforts to explore new things, is obviously inadequate. Recently, there is a great spreading of learning English of the office staffs who are working at banks, hotels or companies. One of the big problems here is that office staffs can do everything in Vietnamese but if there are any documents in foreign language or even they must contact with foreigners, they get into so much difficulty. 1.4.2. Objective causes 1.4.2.1. Linguistic differences between English and Vietnamese The English language belongs to the Indo-European language family, and the Vietnamese language belongs to the Austro-Asiatic family. Therefore the two languages have various differences in terms of vocabulary and grammatical rules. However, with a view to clarifying one important objective reason of mistakes in English Vietnamese translation, some prominent variances are mentioned below: English grammar is very inflexible compared to other languages. English goes by very strict structures while the Vietnamese language is much more flexible. For instance, the Vietnamese language does not always use articles and the rules are not as clear as those of the English language. Some English vocabulary is peculiar. A word in English may mean a lot of other words in Vietnamese. For example, you may translate the word primer as sn lt, sn chng r, sn lt phn xng, sn lp 1, sn lp nn, depending on the context.

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On the contrary, a Vietnamese word sn has many meanings in translated English case such as film, coating, paint, varnish, bitumen, lacquer, layer ; or mu sn is the same as specimen, sample, panel depending on the context. English, especially American English, has a tendency to convert nouns to verbs. This is problematic for speakers of the Vietnamese language who cannot as easily convert nouns to verbs. For examples: a word weather you write down in the form of gerund weathering in the sentence Testing method for coating weathering. It can be said for sure that if anyone who knows little about paint field, he/she is more likely to translate into Vietnamese like this: Kim tra th qu trnh phong ha ca mng sn. This problem comes from inexperienced translators. It is completely correct if it is translated into Vietnamese Phng php th bn thi tit ca sn. The word phong ha is only inferred from the translator who does not know the method and the properties of paint. They think Weathering is the decomposition of Earth rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the planet's atmosphere, in Vietnamese: Phong ha l qu trnh ph hy , t v cc khong vt cha trong khi tip xc trc tip vi mi trng khng kh (http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phong_h%C3%B3a). Paint is also test under the condition of weather influence, but for the qualified translator, he/she must take in that weathering is a testing method for the paint under all the natural and human factors influence happening in the environment. All of these peculiarities of English grammar often make it difficult for non- native English speakers to get a full command of the language. It is also difficult when it comes to translating English writing into other languages. 1.4.2.2. Career differences For a translator, the understanding of the terminology in the job he/she translate is very important. He/she can translate everything but sometimes correctly or incorrectly. The technicians cannot fully understand it until they look at the translated handouts. Therefore, only by understanding which career he is in, and which terminology he uses can a translator make the technician understand the handouts. Translation is not simply a linguistic transformation of texts, but it is also a rendering of career concepts from one language to another. Some careers are in the same row such as Marine time,

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Shipbuilding, Construction or Banking, Inspecting, Stock Exchange. Unless a translator is capable of breaking through decayed barriers of his own career competence and opening his mind to new and sometimes alien concepts, his translation cannot be considered successful. To conclude this chapter, it is noteworthy that despite many challenges when translating from English to Vietnamese and despite the actual untranslatability, be it linguistic or cultural, skilled translators still can, and must, find their own ways to overcome them to produce a high quality re-creation, not merely a rough combination of words, for the sake of pure language (Venuti, 2000). In other words, there are always strategies for certain mistakes correction. More details will be discussed in Chapter 3 about translation strategies and how to avoid mistakes.

CHAPTER 2. DESCRIPTION OF SELECTED DOCUMENTS This chapter presents the necessary understandings of the paint terminology and its characteristics, and the documents as well as three types of mistakes will also be described. 2.1. Main characteristics of language of paints 2.1.1. Terminology According to Wikipedia (http://wikipedia.com/terminology), terminology is defined as the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. Not to be confused with "terms" in colloquial usages, the shortened form of technical terms (or terms of art) which are defined within a discipline or specialized field. The discipline Terminology studies among other things how such terms of art come to be and their interrelationships within a culture. Terminology; therefore, denotes a more formal discipline which systematically studies the labeling or designating of concepts particular to one or more subject fields or domains of human activities, through research and analysis of terms in context, for the purposes of documenting and promoting correct usage. This study can be limited to one language or can cover more than one language at the same time (multilingual terminology, bilingual terminology, and so forth) or may focus on studies of terms across fields.

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Terminology is not connected to information retrieval in any way but focused on the meaning and conveyance of concepts. "Terms" (i.e. index terms) used in an information retrieval context are not the same as "terms" used in the context of terminology, as they are not always technical terms of art. 2.1.2. Characteristics of paint terminology 2.1.2.1. Origin of terminology Terminology of paint lies in the area of science and technology. The system of terminology of science and technology is often Latin words such as: otorhinolaryngology, electro-encephalography, Homo sapiens, biocide, acrylic, epoxy, alkyd, etc or comes from Latin: to assert, to state, to declare instead of the verbs to say, to contaminate instead of the verbs to soil, to purify instead of the verb to clean.

2.1.2.2. Variants of terminology * Dialects Dialect is commonly used in a community, a group of people or a specific field. One of the most characterized variants in English technical documents is geographical dialect between English language of British English and of American English. Take these examples relating to the dialect of British English and American English: British English Depot Flammable Gear level Mobile phone Polystyrene * Register Register is one kind of language variants used for one specific situation, especially in the field of paint. In three parameters of register which are Field, Tenor and Mode, Field is a variant used for reflective language to emphasize terminology. In the field of paint translation, it is very difficult to translate from English into Vietnamese because English in technical documents has been developed for a long time in the developed countries with high technology. The challenges in Vietnamese here must be finding out the field of American English Terminal Inflammable Stick shift Cell phone Styrofoam

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meaning which has the same one with the long development history of English technical documents. The most typical examples are words "user-friendly", "environment-friendly", "family-friendly", long-live performance which have different meanings and are translated generally into Vietnamese "thn thin vi ngi dng", thn thin vi mi trng, "thn thin vi gia nh", Bn mi vi thi gian. Besides, some terms are rarely used and cannot be found out in the dictionary of Oxford such as polymer ester silyl, silance", cellosovle, solvesso.

2.2. Description of documents 2.2.1. Classifying the documents In this study, Paint technical documents can take from many places which can be either the paint specific documents or other documents such as projects, chemistry subjects, international standard books, construction documents in which there are the components of paint requirements. Apart from the ordinary documents used for daily conversation such as letters, contracts, etc. which are used not only in the field of paint but in other industries as well, there are many types of technical documents. - Advertisement: Catalogues, color cards - Technical documents: painting specifications, technical data sheets, safety data sheets, guidance of paint application, painting maintenance. - Certificates: product certificates, quality certificates - Bidding documents: painting systems applied for the projects, turnover reports - Documents for coating testing methods: coming form ASTM, JIS-K (Japan), ISO, TCVN. 2.2.2. Results from data collection

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This section presents the results collected from the survey and from observation of 15 translators who work with 5 types of documents. Of course, in each type of document, there are many sheets of documents which the translators work with everyday. In the limit of time and area of presentation, the researcher has worked with 75 sheets of technical documents. From the observation, three most common mistakes are found out; they are mistakes at three levels of word, sentence and paragraph. All of them are going to be discussed in the Chapter 3 after the analysis of the results in this chapter. So, study the below:

Mistake level Document Advertisement Technical documents Certificates Bidding documents Testing methods Table 2.2 (Note: N-never, R-rarely, O-often, S-sometimes, U-usually, A-always is frequency of mistakes) In the tables 2.2, N explains for mistakes of 0 translators O explains for mistakes of 0 - 2 translators S explains for mistakes of 2 4 translators U explains for mistakes of 4 8 translators A explains for mistakes of > 8 translators From the result of the survey, the some main points will be discussed as follows. * It is very important that the documents of advertisement and certificates get the lowest level of mistakes. This can be explained that these types of documents need to be shown in the world, especially to the customers who buy the paints products. The correctness must be highest, which helps the manufacturer get the belief from the customers. Word R A R S A Sentence R U N S O Paragraph R U N S O

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On the other hands, these types of documents are quite common and contain a few of technical words, or they are always in the specific form. That is why they are easy to be translated with so few mistakes. * The same explanation for the bidding documents. However, bidding documents are often longer than certificates and advertisement. They often include at least 5 pages, even 100 pages. It is the reason why the frequency of mistakes in all levels is the problem for the translators. * The differences in the documents of technology and testing methods are easily recognized. Most of these documents are only used for the technicians. They can understand all the documents, and they apply the knowledge to their experiments. However, in the translation between English and Vietnamese, the researcher discovers that these documents contain so many terms (technical words) that make the translators feel dizzy. If there is no practice in the field of paint, they cannot translate these types of documents. That is why the mistakes are unavoidable at all levels of word, sentence and paragraph. In general, this chapter reviews the mistakes levels basing on the characteristics of paint terminology. All types of document have been scanned by researcher in the appendix of this thesis. From the researchers survey, it has been revealed that the most common mistakes are at word level. Besides, the mistakes at sentence level and paragraph level are the important things that need taking care of and avoiding. Coming from these matters, chapter 3 will be discussed the way how to correct mistakes.

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CHAPTER 3. MISTAKE ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MISTAKE CORRECTION 3.1. Mistake analysis Take a look at these documents:

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This is the document coming from Japan. It supplies the information of one kind of paint. And this is Vietnamese version from an unskilled translator

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Comparing with the translated version of a skilled one:

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And now, I will analyze all the mistakes in the way of basing on the collected documents characteristics. In my opinion, there are three kinds of mistakes that the translators are more likely to make: 3.1.1. Incompetence in properties of paint For the best translators, the most important thing is terminology. However, terminology is used fluently or not, easy to be remembered or not, the translators must analyze deeply each related word to the field of paint in both English and Vietnamese languages. Study these examples: a. Some words can be translated Solvent (dung mi) A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. The most common solvent in everyday life is water. Most other commonly-used solvents are organic (carbon-containing) chemicals. These are called organic solvents. Solvents usually have a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, leaving the dissolved substance behind. Resin (cht to mng) is a kind of gelled solution to be the main component of paint constitution. Vehicle (cht mang, dung mi dn) = solvent + resin When looking at the word vehicle, we think it is like car, truck, or something relates to the moving machine. In fact in the field of paint, vehicle is a kind of chemical substance. The same as the word resin, in Vietnamese, we often consider it nha, which leads to wrong translation. Here are some other examples: Wall-paint (sn nc): is the same meaning with emulsion paint

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Hardener (ng rn): used to make the paint film be created in chemical reaction. (Someone that does not work in paint will translate cht lm cng) Silicon Coating: sn chu nhit Touch-up: Sn dm Striped coat: Sn lng b. Some words have no Vietnamese equivalent, therefore, cannot be translated into Vietnamese. Therefore, borrowing is very much likely a solution. In the technical documents, there are many new words which must be used in English original sound or word. For example: Base: the basing substance to constitute a coating Paste: a kind of coating substance is ready to replace coating with some added powders. Etching: is the coating of primer 3.1.2. Context matters Study these examples: Sn Hi Phng, nim t ho cng mi cng trnh bn mi vi thi gian In English: Haiphong paint, the proud with every project long live performance Cng trnh In English: Experience u t In English: Member It is clear to see that Cng trnh and Experience, as well as u t and Member is not correct translation. But in the context of advertising the experience of the paint projects which Haiphong paint has supplied. In this case, experience means all the projects in which paint product are used.

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In the case of member, in fact, they are the members of Haiphong Paint Joint Stock Company, they are subsidiary companies. But up to now, they have been running independently from Haiphong Paint JS Company. Thats why, the capital which is invested from Haiphong Paint JC Company, is like shareholder.

3.1.3. Habit of English translator In this part, I would like to mention the bad habit of the translators which is repeatedly and unconsciously used. Take a look at the following examples: Cng ty c phn Sn Hi Phng thnh lp ngy 25 thng 01 nm 1960. Trn c s kinh nghim, cng ngh truyn thng c bit c chuyn giao cng ngh sn xut sn theo Lixng ca hng Chugoku Marine Paints In English: Haiphong Paint Joint Stock Company was established in 25th January 1960. Basing on the long-timed experience, special technology licensed from Lixang Technology of Chugoku Marine Paints of Japan We can see the bold words. Lixng is used very naturally because the translators always hear about the lixng from Vietnamese people who are not professional in English. These people often see the word license and they understand what it means. In fact, whenever they want to use it, they use the word lixng As a result, what is heard (the sound) becomes the word in writings. Moreover, when we look at the above paragraph, it appears that the grammar applied is something wrong. In English version, there is no Subject for the second sentence. The matter here is mistake in grammar. In general, there are many mistakes and misunderstanding in the process of translation. However, if the translators can not correct them immediately, it will become the big problems in the future. Basing the experience from the colleagues who work as qualified translators, the would-be translator must make an effort to correct the mistake basing on the basic grammar and career experience. Some suggested ways to correct the mistakes will be discussed in section 3.2. below.

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3.2. Recommendations for mistake correction It is highly recommended that translators and translation learners equip themselves with as many translation techniques as possible. They may be the strategies to overcome linguistic difficulties, or the tactics to make your translation widely accepted by target language readers in specific English terms.

3.2.1. Overcoming linguistic problems 3.2.1.1. Choose the right word At the level of words, problems can only be solved if the translator works hard to accumulate both his English and Vietnamese vocabulary to a level that he is capable of choosing the right word in any case to produce a natural translation. It is crucial for a translator to fully understand all the denotations and connotations of a word so that he can avoid making any loss of connotational meanings. To do that, he also needs flexibility in the use of words and does not translate mechanically basing on an English Vietnamese dictionary. Besides, the translator must avoid the rigid use of parts of speech with the following techniques: a. Translate English nouns with Vietnamese verbs or adjectives - Paint is a long-live performance product: Sn bn mi vi thi gian - It is a coating of cutting and weldability: l lp sn bn hn ct. - It is the shop with the red and green sign: l ca hng c bin hiu xanh . b. Plural form to singular form and vice versa Translation at word level includes the ability to proper switch between the plural form and singular form so that the translation best suits the mindset of Vietnamese readers. This is particularly noticeable as we deal with English uncountable nouns. The following examples are extracted from some paint translators. They have a relatively good sense of plural and singular form in English Vietnamese translation.

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English Resins, in pre-mixing with solvent and

Suggested Vietnamese version Cht to mng c trn vi cc loi

color pigment, are mixed in additives to dung mi v bt mu, sau nghin vi cc produce paint. ph gia to nn sn phm sn. Coating is created on the steel Lp sn c hnh thnh trn b mt surface, ensuring the properties of thp v m bo c cc ch tiu v ph, dy cng nh cc ch tiu c l v coverage, thickness as well as chemical and

physical. ha hc. Vietnam ink and paint Association is Hip hi sn mc Vit Nam vn ang in the process pursuing solutions of a tm kim gii php cho nhng ci cch cng number of technology improvement and ngh v tm m rng th trng. market achievement. Table 3.1. Switch between plural and singular form 3.2.1.2. Choose the right structure By structure, it is meant both the structure of the phrase and the sentence. At phrase level, translators should choose the best word order possible so that their translation would sound more Vietnamese. At sentence level, it is necessary not only to switch the positions of certain parts of the sentence but also to replace some structures unfamiliar to Vietnamese readers. a. Transpositions Transposition is a translation technique in which the translator reverses the order or place of certain words or phrases when necessary to improve the naturalness of the sentence. For example, when translating this English sentence into Vietnamese, you should make a transposition. Original version: Allow the proper drying time between coat for multiple paint systems and before exposure as required by the coatings manufacturer and include in the test. (ASTM D1014, 5.1) Suggested Vietnamese version:

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Trc khi thi cng cc lp sn theo ng yu cu ca nh sn xut hoc theo h thng sn nhiu lp cng nh tin hnh th nghim, cn xc nh thi gian kh c th.

b. Replacements Replace passive voice with active voice: Needless to say, most of the times, passive voice in the original English text should be replaced with active voice in Vietnamese. Observe the replacements in these sentences: Original version: After surface preparation, if the panels are stored prior to coating, precautions must be taken to preserve the clean surface. Suggested Vietnamese version: Sau khi chun b b mt xong, trc khi sn ln tm mu, chng ta cn ch gi sch b mt mu. Replace a complex sentence with two or more simple sentences (Splitting technique, or salami technique): It would be unnatural to try to translate an English long complex sentence to a Vietnamese sentence of the same structure. The excessive use of markers like m, ni m, etc. can make the sentence too complicated for an average Vietnamese reader to fully understand. For example, with sentences like Of the paint researches that are important not just to the quality of paint but to water environment, free copper and tin antifouling technologies are improved more and more, which is the best way of reducing the fouls which hold under the marine vessels, which are releasing activated biocides that creates antifouling process through the stages of hydrolysis, the solution is breaking it into smaller ones to translate. The result should be Trong s nhng nghin cu v sn quan trng khng ch i cht lng sn m cn vi mi trng bin, cng ngh chng h khng cha hp cht c thic v ng c ch trng ci tin. Phng php tt nht ny

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l gii cc cht chng h v to nn qu trnh chng h thng qua cc giai on thy phn 3.2.1.3. Dealing with linguistic untranslatability It is never easy to deal with linguistic challenges in translation, such as specific English words in documents. However, there are techniques that translators can apply when necessary for the untranslatability to some extent. This kind is very difficult unless you have a copious linguistic and even terminology. Consider the following short paragraph: Nowadays, customers prefer inorganic shop primer to epoxy shop primer because they have high weldabilily, heat resistant performance. Cerabond 2000 is the most effective shop primer coating. It is necessary to distinguish between Cerabond and Cerabest. Both are inorganic coating but Cerabond is shop primer type and Cerabest is looked as an anti-corrosive one. We visited 2 shipyards at Hiroshima where one kind of shop primer (Cerabond 2000) is applied only whereas other coatings are supplied by Hempel, KCC, NMK It would be rather unwise to translate it as: Ngy nay, khch hng a chung cc loi sn lt v c hn l sn lt gc epoxy bi chng c kh nng chu hn ct, chu nhit. Cerabond 2000 l loi sn lt hiu qu nht. Chng ta cn phi phn bit hai loi sn Cerabond v Cerabest. C hai loi u l sn lt v Cera best c c tnh chng r nhiu hn. Chng ti thm 2 nh my ng tu ti Hiroshima ni m Cerabond 2000 c thi cng trong khi cc sn ph khc l ca hng Hempel, KCC, NMK Shop primer and anti corrosive are the same, but in above case, we must understand the properties of paint which can only help to translate. 3.2.2. Overcoming terminology problems 3.2.2.1. Terminology competence To avoid mistakes over issues of terminology, translators should keep in mind that sometimes an effort to translate correctly is not as valuable as a suitable substitution. In any areas of a job, people get many difficulties to get acquainted with the

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terminology, even in Vietnamese. When we gets the Vietnamese words, we can not understand what it means, and we can not explain it in Vietnamese. For example, in construction, we say tm tuyn in Vietnamese. At first we hear it, we find it difficult to know how to use it. But when we say it in English center-line, easy to notice and can remember. In paint field, we often get the terms such as hm rn, hm khng bay hi Nonvolatile content, hm m - humidity, bn un bending, bn thi tit weathering, chng r - antirust, anticorrosive, chng h antifouling . Some unskilled translators tend to use one neutral word to translate all words of similar meaning in English for they are unwilling to improve their Vietnamese vocabulary. They do not have in mind that academic English should be translated into academic Vietnamese and vice versa. This requires all translators to ceaselessly enrich their vocabulary, especially academic ones, which quite a few Vietnamese people lack. Consider the meaning of the terminology, we find it easy to look for some English specific word has the meaning similar to the major use. For example, finish, undercoat, humidity, anti rust 3.2.2.2. Dealing with terminology untranslatability Untranslatability is unavoidable due to the numerous differences between the two languages. A translator, however, can resort to a number of translation procedures to compensate. a. Free translation In some studies, free translation is also called adaptation. According to Wikipedia, an adaptation is a translation procedure whereby the translator replaces the terms reality in the source text with a corresponding reality in the target text; this new reality would be more usual to the audience of the target text. For example, in the Vietnamese chemical documents, many proper names are modified so that it would at least sound familiar to Vietnamese readers. The names are presented in the following table: No. 1. English Chrome Vietnamese C rm

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2. 3. 4. 5.

Polyurethane Epoxy Alkyd Rubber Chlorided

P li u r than pc xi An kt Cao su clo ha

Table 3.2. Free translation of proper names All the above names are also the same as the original English because Vietnamese readers can immediately relate them to some image on their mind. It can be said that these names have been made Vietnamese. b. Borrowing Borrowing is not a new method. It has been discussed in many books on lexicology and translation. What the thesis wants to emphasize is the translation- loan, special kind of borrowings. Translation-loans are not taken into the vocabulary of another language more or less in the same phonemic shape in which they have been functioning in their own language, but undergo the process of translation. (Nguyn Mnh Hng & L Quc Hnh, 2003) Translation-loans do not only resolve problems of terminology untranslatability but also help increase one languages vocabulary. For instance, Vietnamese people are now familiar with terms like ngi chi (indicating a player in a gameshow), thn thin vi mi trng (environmental friendly), and nh hng khch hng (client- oriented). In fact, in paint constitution, many words must come from the English specific terms which makes the translators and readers be able to understand. For example, the words t l base v ng rn, sn lng In these examples, it is very difficult to take in if we translate base/harderner rate t l cht nn/ng rn or some time of the use of sn lng makes it more difficult for the readers to understand instead of stripe coat. c. Paraphrase and translators note We can see that the translators sometimes should employ the technique of paraphrasing (also known as periphrasis). Otherwise, it would be almost impossible for target language readers to comprehend the concepts unprecedented in their culture.

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On the other hand, the translator may keep the original word or phrase without paraphrasing, but then add a footnote or endnote to the target text providing additional information, pertaining to the limits of the translation, the terminology or any further explanation. This translators note helps readers better understand the text; nevertheless, it is generally considered a failure in translation attempt by many professional translators. The above-mentioned techniques are useful for translators when trying to compensate the untranslatability. Besides, translators can also use techniques like paraphrase or calque. However, these techniques cannot be used successfully without the translators willingness to diligently study with a view to gaining his terminology along with his linguistic competence.

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PART 3. CONCLUSION This chapter provides a conclusion for this thesis. Firstly, a brief overview and a summary of the main chapters are provided. Secondly, the strengths and weaknesses of the thesis are discussed. Finally, suggestion for further research and a final comment are made. 1. Summary of main points Since its very beginning, translation has not ceased to play its indispensable role of transferring messages across languages and cultural barriers. Although the practice of translation is honored for its noble task, huge efforts are needed to improve the quality of translations. Thus, the study on translation as the transformation of a written text in one language to that in another language has been carried out long before the formation of this thesis and undoubtedly will be continued ever after. What I attempt to do in this thesis is to contribute my humble study to that great research work by pointing out the mistakes in Paint technical documents to clarify English terminology and Vietnamese terminology that may trouble whom working in translation which is very close to my everyday work. This is to show translators, especially would-be translators who are still studying in various universities in Vietnam to become translation professionals, the potential traps they may get caught in when rendering English texts into Vietnamese in terms of technical documents. Peter Newmark wrote in 1988 about the three basic translation processes: a. the interpretation and analysis of the source language text; b. the translation procedure (choosing equivalents for words and sentences in the target language), and c. the reformulation of the text according to the writer's intention, the reader's expectation, the appropriate norms of the target language, etc.

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This thesis is concerned with only the third process, the reformulation of the text. In the course of this thesis, I have examined the previous literature on the theory of translation, especially ones on English Vietnamese translation. Then I looked at the semantically terminologies mistakes in the paint document translation of specific purpose English in detail. I outlined the analysis of this issue in three main parts on mistakes in translation, the causes and corrections. The causes of terminology mistakes in the paint document translation as discussed in Part 2 can be considered a classification of common mistakes that may make the translations get in trouble. Specific examples are taken from technical documents and bidding documents and from previously published books. By the classification and examples cited as well as the description of selected documents, I attempted to help readers of this thesis, especially would-be translators and inexperienced ones to be fully aware of what mistakes they may easily make before seeking ways to avoid them. Especially chapter 3, Part II of this thesis discusses the mistakes analysis and translation recommendations a translator may employ when encountering a difficult situation in which he may risk turning his translation into an wrong combination of words. Some of recommendations are emphasized for they are likely to help translators much in their professional practice; however, the others are briefly mentioned as they may have appeared frequently here and there in other publications. 2. Some conclusions induced from the results of the study Though there have been many books on English Vietnamese translation so far, few of them emphasize the mistakes occurring during the process of translation. This thesis, however, discusses in detail this phenomenon with relevant examples. It is organized in a way that helps readers find it easy to get the general ideas about the issue. In this thesis, people can find clear definitions and constructive suggestions for mistakes corrections. These are factors that may make the thesis stand out from other studies also touching on the issue. Furthermore, the author limited the types of mistakes mentioned to ensure they are popular ones that translators should pay the most attention to. Finally, the aims and scope of the thesis is consistent from the beginning to the end.

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3. Limitations of the study Although the thesis has been completed, there are some limitations in this study. Due to the limited time of research and the broad scope it is concerned with, issues mentioned are still somewhat general. Moreover, examples cited are limited due to the short-time exploration from the author and some books and articles sparsely collected. This does not cause any bias because the classification was carried out independently. But to some extent it may not be very diverse. 4. Suggestions for further study In the time to come, Vietnam will further integrate into the world economy and the opening economic policies will need the demand for communication in English, especially for the specifically technical companies. This progress requires translations of high quality, mainly from English to Vietnamese and vice versa. Thus, more studies should be carried out to identify and how to cope with common mistakes in these translations. Besides, studies on what can be called a pure Vietnamese language and how to maintain it through the processes of translation should be implemented. These studies are supposed to bring readers an overview of the contemporary situation of Vietnamese translated works, its strengths and limitations, and how to improve it. Digging into current publications to find common pitfalls recommended. In conclusion, I want to significantly contribute to the study of English Vietnamese translations in universities and on the media through this thesis. In my opinion, it can be considered a companion of all people who are seeking to improve their English Vietnamese translation skills as well as the quality of their translations. Hopefully, readers of this thesis can find it useful in their work and study or at least see it as a reference worth looking at. that may harm the quality of translations is

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REFERENCES

1. Bassnett, S. 2002. Translation studies. Rout ledge Taylor and Francis group. 2. Bi Tin Bo, & ng Xun Thu (1999 ). Interpreting and Translation Course Book. Hanoi: Education Publishing House. 3. Catchword (n.d.). Glossary of Naming Techniques and Linguistic Concepts. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from http://www.catch-word.com/glossary.html 4. Hunh Trung Tn, & Nguyn Ngc Tuyn (n.d.) Theory of Translation. Retrieved May 17, 2006, from http://www.ctu.edu.vn/coursewares/supham/ltdich/index.htm 5. L Huy Trng, ng nh Thin, & Trn Huy Phng (1998 ). A Grammar of the English Language. Hanoi: Education Publishing House. 6. L Vn S (2003). Translation and Grammar. Hanoi: Culture and Information Publishing House. 7. Newmark, P. (October, 1988). A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall. 8. Nguyn Quc Hng (2005). Hng dn k thut dch Anh - Vit . Hanoi: Social Sciences Publishing House. 9. Shei, C. (2002). Combining Translation into the Second Language and Second Language Learning: An Integrated Computational Approach. Doctoral dissertation, the University of Edinburgh, UK. Retrieved May 9, 2006,

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from http://www.swan.ac.uk/cals/staff/shei/phd2/thesis_revised2.htm 10. Venuti, L. (2000). The Translation Studies Reader. London: Routledge. 11. Wright, D. (2001). Yan Fu and the Tasks of the Translators (p. 4). Retrieved April 28, 2006, from www.wsc.uni-erlangen.de/pdf/wright.pdf