! #$%& '()*+ ,- $ .

,/$0
.1, 2&34&(3$(&* #156* '&7)$6 !8)%& $% $ 9,)0: ;&&0
$0* ;1&0 '(,44&*

<+ =$0& >56:)0

')//$3+
In hei own woius, Pat tells hei stoiy. Pat abuseu chiluien sexually when she
was a young teen anu was a suivivoi of chilu sexual abuse. She stoppeu abusing
chiluien sexually when she ian away fiom home. I wiote this aiticle moie than 2u
yeais ago. Nany of the iueas aie ielevant touay. The appenuix contains a 2u1u
aiticle on theoiy anu case stuuies.
!8,)( (1& !)(1,3
}ane F. uilgun, Ph.B., LICW, is a piofessoi, School of Social Woik, 0niveisity of
Ninnesota, Twin Cities, 0SA. She has uone ieseaich on the meanings of violence to
peipetiatois foi many yeais. See Piofessoi uilgun's othei aiticles, books, anu
chiluien's stoiies on Amazon, iBooks, Baines & Noble, anu othei inteinet
bookselleis.

2
! #$%& '()*+ ,- $ .,/$0
.1, 2&34&(3$(&* #156* '&7)$6 !8)%& $% $ 9,)0: ;&&0
$0* ;1&0 '(,44&*
Pat is a S7 yeai-olu woman who abuseu chiluien sexually when she was a young
teen. The chiluien she abuseu weie hei two youngei biotheis anu seveial young
chiluien fiom families foi whom she babysat. She stoppeu abusing the chiluien foi
seveial ieasons, incluuing not wanting to uo to them what hau been uone to hei, not
wanting otheis to know she uiu such "hoiiible things," anu feai of being caught. The
abuse enueu when she ian away fiom home to get away fiom hei fathei's sexual
abuse of hei anu fiom the chaos of hei family life. This aiticle is in seveial paits. It
begins with a uesciiption of the usefulness of case stuuies, shows how pievious
ieseaich anu theoiy on the effects of chiluhoou maltieatment anu on iisk anu
iesilience infoimeu this case stuuy, places Pat within typologies of peipetiatois,
uesciibes the methou of ieseaich foi this stuuy, piesents the case stuuy itself, anu
then concluues with a uiscussion.
;1& ?%&-)60&%% ,- #$%& '()*5&%
Case stuuies aie useu ioutinely in euucating physicians, attoineys, anu
business people. They have pioviueu founuation knowleuge foi the uisciplines of
psychology, human uevelopment, family theiapy, psychotheiapy, psychoanalysis,
anthiopology, anu sociology (Feagin, 0ium & Sjobeig, l991; uilgun, 1994; uilgun,
Banuel, & Baly, 1992; Banuel, 1991). With much to iecommenu them anu having a
iich tiauition, case stuuies pioviue a founuation foi the uevelopment of new
knowleuge.
S
Case stuuies aie not useful foi estimating piobabilities, anu the finuings of a
paiticulai case aie not guaianteeu to fit any othei case. Anothei case on a similai
topic may have quite uiffeient chaiacteiistics. Case stuuies, howevei, aie highly
infoimative when they aie useu as souices of woiking hypotheses which can
pioviue cues anu uiiection in similai cases to clinicians, policy makeis, anu piogiam
planneis. Foi example, a case stuuy of Aunt Iua may not iepiesent the expeiiences
of all aunts, all Iuas, oi all women. The patteins in Iua's life, howevei, may be
helpful in unueistanuing the lives of otheis anu coulu be iepiesentative of the
themes in the lives of otheis. If Iua's case shows that she expeiienceu seveie
chiluhoou tiauma anu ieceiveu sensitive, on-going suppoit anu hei auult outcomes
weie positive, then it is ieasonable to assume that otheis with high suppoit anu
high tiauma can hope to oveicome some majoi effects of tiauma. In aieas in which
we have little knowleuge, case stuuies can leau to the uiscoveiy of exciting new
iueas that coulu have majoi iepeicussions foi pievention, inteivention, anu social
enhancement.
Case stuuies can pioviue emotionally evocative anu compelling uesciiptions
of how subjects see anu inteipiet theii life expeiiences anu ielationships anu how
they account foi theii own behaviois. Benzin (l989), foi example, saiu, "The
peispectives anu expeiiences of those peisons who aie seiveu by applieu piogiams
must be giaspeu, inteipieteu, anu unueistoou, if soliu, effective applieu piogiams
aie to be cieateu" |italics aie in the oiiginal textj (p. 12). Case stuuies can offei
insight into subjective expeiiences anu inteipietations anu can move otheis to
inuiviuual anu collective actions.
4
As cential as the peispectives of subjects may be, knowleuge fiom othei
souices can be helpful in inteipieting case stuuies. Reseaich anu theoiy anu clinical
anu peisonal expeiience aie valuable in helping to make sense of case stuuies anu
can pioviue auuitional guiuance foi piogiam uevelopment anu clinical inteiventions
(Allen-Neaies & Lane, 199u; uilgun, 1994). In the piesent ieseaich, the authoi's
pievious ieseaich anu ieseaich anu theoiy on iisk anu iesilience aie useu in the
constiuction of the inteiview guiue, in the wiiting of Pat's life stoiy, anu in the
inteipietation of Pat's life stoiy.
@5%A $0* @&%565&0B&
Why some people become peipetiatois of chilu sexual abuse anu some
people fiom similai backgiounus uo not is a question that has implications foi social
enhancement, pievention, anu inteivention. Being maltieateu in chiluhoou has
been iuentifieu as a majoi iisk factoi in the peipetiation of vaiious foims of
violence, incluuing iape anu chilu molestation (uilgun, 199ua, 199ub; uioth, 1979),
in the peipetiation of physical abuse anu neglect (Egelanu, }acobvitz, & Sioufe,
1988, anu in auult ciiminality (Wiuom, 1989). Kaufman anu Ziglei (l987) estimateu
that about one thiiu of peisons maltieateu in chiluhoou become peipetiatois.
These ieseaicheis suggest that while a significant numbei of maltieateu chiluien
become peipetiatois anu most peipetiatois weie maltieateu in chiluhoou, most
peisons maltieateu in chiluhoou uo not become pait of a cycle of abuse.
Exposuie to mouels of violence may be yet anothei iisk factoi. Witnessing
abuse of paients oi siblings appeais to have an effect similai to being a taiget of
abuse (}ouiiles, Nuiphy, & 0'Leaiy, 1989). Exposuie to poinogiaphy anu
S
iuealization of male sexual aggiession in peei gioups anu the mass meuia have been
linkeu to the peipetiation of violence (Nieuzian, 1991). 0thei expeiiences, such as
chiluhoou losses anu abanuonment, chemical abuse in families, family uislocations,
anu natuial uisasteis may also be iisk factois foi violence, even in the absence of
eithei oi both chiluhoou maltieatment anu exposuie to mouels of violence. It is
likely that violence iesults fiom a combination of iisk factois anu not one factoi in
isolation.
Since not all peisons with one oi all of the possible iisk factois foi violence
become violent, this suggests the existence of positive meuiatois, often calleu
piotective factois. These factois aie associateu with positive outcomes when
inuiviuuals aie exposeu to iisks foi negative outcomes (Nasten, Best, & uaimezy,
199u). In my pievious ieseaich, among those factois which uistinguisheu those
who sexually abuseu chiluien fiom those who uiu not weie the piesence of a
confiuant ielationship (uilgun, 199ua, 199ub, 1992), the ability to expiess thoughts
anu feelings, anu iesponsiveness to the wishes, thoughts, anu feelings of otheis.
These factois appeaieu to be piotective against the uevelopment of sexually abusive
behaviois. In ielateu ieseaich, similai factois have been iuentifieu as piotective
(Nasten et al, 199u; Sioufe & Ruttei, 1984; Weinei, 1982, 1989).
While exposuie to the iisk factois of chilu maltieatment anu othei foims of
violence may not leau uiiectly to the peipetiation of violence, this exposuie places
inuiviuuals at iisk foi othei negative effects. A histoiy of being maltieateu is a iisk
factoi foi initial anu long-teim mental health pioblems. Anxiety, uepiession,
chemical uepenuency, uifficulties in inteipeisonal ielationships, leaining
6
uisabilities, aggiession, angei, self-appiaisals of low self-woith, eating uisoiueis,
anu sexual uifficulties aie associateu with chilu maltieatment. Chiluien who have
been maltieateu have moie behavioial anu emotional pioblems than chiluien not
iuentifieu as maltieateu (Biieie, 1992; Biowne & Finkelhoi, 1988).
;CD 2@D'DE; ';?F9
The piesent stuuy is a life stoiy of a woman who abuseu chiluien sexually
uuiing hei auolescence anu appaiently stoppeu. Its puipose is to show the iisks,
piotections, anu outcomes of this woman's life histoiy in oiuei to pioviue cues anu
uiiections, anu, theiefoie, woiking hypotheses foi uealing with othei similai cases.
The piesent stuuy is quite uistinct both in its goals anu its methous of ieseaiching
those goals. Nost ieseaich on chilu sexual abuse involves a much laigei sample, is
conceineu with numbeis anu quantification, anu seeks to geneialize to laigei
populations. We know so little about how peisons uevelop violent behavioi anu
why they stop. Stuuies which focus on inuiviuual lives anu the inteipietations
inuiviuuals constiuct of theii lives anu which aie theoietically-baseu show gieat
piomise foi auuing to oui knowleuge base. Pat, the subject of the piesent case
stuuy, hau many of the iisk factois anu some of the piotective factois iuentifieu in
the ieseaich. She also hau multiple auveise outcomes. The themes in hei life
illustiate anu auu to ieseaich anu theoiy on iisk anu iesilience.
;+4,6,:5&%
In the Nathews, Natthews, anu Speltz (l991) typology of woman
peipetiatois, Pat woulu fit the categoiy of inteigeneiationally pieuisposeu sexual
offenuei anu woulu paitially fit the teachei¡lovei categoiy. The thiiu categoiy, that
7
of male coeiceu, is not appiopiiate. Pieuisposeu offenueis come fiom families with
an extensive histoiy of abuse ovei geneiations, which was the case foi Pat. As hei
life histoiy shows, she saw heiself as being close anu nuituiing to hei two youngei
biotheis, anu this is similai to the Nathews et al's teachei¡lovei type.
She also woulu fit the ciiteiia foi a sexually compulsive auolescent sex
offenuei, as uesciibeu by 0'Biien (l984), whose othei categoiies incluue naive
expeiimenteis, unuei socializeu chilu exploiteis, uistuibeu impulsives, sexually
aggiessives, anu peei-gioup influenceu. Pat fits two of uilgun's (1992) seven
categoiies: the takei anu the lovei. As she says in hei life histoiy, she simply took
sex fiom hei victims, especially the chiluien foi whom she babysat, as if they weie
theie foi hei use, showing no iegaiu oi iationalizing foi a time the effects of hei
behaviois on the chiluien. She saw heiself as gentle, kinu, anu nuituiing with hei
two youngei biotheis when she abuseu them, anu she theiefoie fits the uilgun's
categoiy of lovei as well. Categoiies she uoes not fit incluue avengei, conqueioi,
playmate, anu soulmate.
GD;CHF
I inteivieweu Pat foi foui houis, using a inteiview guiue baseu on my
pievious ieseaich (uilgun, 199ua, 199ub; 1992a; 1992b; uilgun & Connoi, 1989)
anu on ieseaich anu theoiy on iisk anu iesilience. Pat uesciibeu in uetail hei
expeiiences in hei family of oiigin anu how she faieu ovei time in othei social
gioupings such as extenueu family, peei gioups, anu men. We uiscusseu hei sexual
histoiy anu hei inteipietations of majoi events in this histoiy. Exposuie to violence
as a taiget anu as witness anu hei own peipetiating behavioi weie uiscusseu.
8
Pat's life histoiy account was not focuseu on veiifiable, public facts but on
hei inteipietations--which can be quite piivate--anu how she accounteu foi hei life.
A significant finuing of the piincipal investigatoi's pievious ieseaich is that an
inuiviuual's account can make a gieat ueal of sense to the inuiviuual but can be
mystifying to outsiueis. uilgun anu Connoi (l989), foi instance, uiscusseu the
ieactions of a peipetiatoi of chilu abuse when, aftei a public speech on being a chilu
molestei, a woman askeu, "Bow can you uo such things to babies." Be was shockeu
anu askeu, "Biun't she know those chiluien weie objects to me (p. 2Su)." Be saiu he
uiu not unueistanu the stiaight woilu. In theii accounts, theiefoie, subjects ieveal
theii taken-foi-gianteu woilu that foi outsiueis may be mystifying.
The inteiview of the piesent ieseaich was tape iecoiueu, tiansciibeu
veibatim, anu coueu in oiuei to iuentify the patteins of iisk, piotective factois such
as confiuant ielationships, anu outcomes. Finuings of the case stuuy aie piesenteu
in naiiative foim, as a stoiy (Polkinghoine, 1987). I euiteu the tiansciipt of the
inteiview using the categoiies of the inteiview guiue, a usual methou in life histoiy
ieseaich (Boguan & Biklen, 1992).
2!;I' ';H@9
Ny name is Pat. I'm S7. Ny fathei sexually abuseu me anu my biotheis foi
as long as I can iemembei. Be was physically anu emotionally abusive, too. Ny
fathei's fathei was an alcoholic, anu my fathei swoie he nevei woulu be. You know,
he's kinu of one of those uiinkeis that is so in contiol you can't ieally tell. Be uiinks
but I've nevei seen him uiunk that I'm awaie of. I've nevei seen him ieally uiink.
Ny mothei is veiy much an alcoholic.
9
Ny mothei is an alcoholic anu useu pills. She was moie auuicteu to pills
when I was giowing up, anu an alcoholic now. She was 14 when she got involveu
with my uau, anu he was 2u. So what is that. Bow many yeais uiffeience.. I just
founu out how olu she was. Now, they weien't maiiieu at 14 but, you know, steauy
anu that kinu of stuff.
F3):%J @)0050: !K$+J 2%+B15$(35B C,%45($65L$(5,0%
I ian away a lot between 11 anu 1S, but I uiun't live anywheie else but with
my family. Aftei age 1S, I was in six oi seven fostei homes--ielative placements anu
othei fostei homes. I liveu on the stieets on anu off, too. I was in psychiatiic units
quite a bit befoie 19, age 19. I went into uiug tieatment, but they was always just
oveiuosing anu kept me in foi a few uays anu leting me out.
I went into uiug tieatment when I was 17. I uiun't ieally have a pioblem
with alcohol. I hau a pioblem with uiugs. I was in inpatient, six anu a half months.
0utpatient, two anu a half yeais. uou, I coulun't list the theiapies I've been in. I was
in tieatment until I was Su anu then I've not been in since I was Su. I was a speeu
fieak so I wasn't eating because of speeu, anu then aftei that emotions causeu me
not to want to eat, anxiety, anu then I oveiate, too. You know so I, I've kinu of
gotten, I've useu it. I've not ieally abuseu alcohol. I've abuseu uiugs.
I staiteu iunning away as soon as I felt olu enough. To get out of the house.
You know so it was something I'u always thought of but just uiun't, even when I
staiteu at 1u, 11 yeais olu. I was too young to iun away. When I ian away, like
once I hau to stay in a boy's shack, anu the boys hau sex with me. Bo you know what
I'm saying. It was like theie was always that as a payment foi staying in theie. Sex.
1u
I iemembei it was a hoiiible expeiience foi me. The fiist time I ian away anu
stayeu in the shack, anu the boys went out theie. I uon't know if it was all of them oi
one of them, but I uo iemembei it. Bo you know what I'm saying. I uo iemembei
that, that it felt bau to me that I coulun't get away fiom it anywheie. Bo you know
what I'm saying. It was like theie was nowheie to go.
#,0-5*$0(& @&6$(5,0%154%
I mean, I basically feel ieally alone. Although I have some suppoit, but it was
ieally a pioblem when I was young. I've always soit of hau one goou fiienu. I was
veiy insecuie alone. If I hau a goou giilfiienu, I coulu walk uown the hall at school. I
uiun't feel so scaieu. I knew I was all iight if I hau at least one fiienu. 0thei than
that, I thought othei people woulu see how weiiu I was. Fiienus sit aiounu anu talk
about kissing }ohnny anu those kinus of things that I coulun't hanule, you know. So,
I'm suie I pickeu a fiienu that uiun't uo that. Anu what uo you uo. You say, "Well,
my fathei kisses me." You know what I mean.
I woulun't tell my fiienu eveiything. I nevei tolu hei about my family. Yeah, I
hau at least one peison, yeah. I uiu tell about my fathei's sexual abuse when I was
1S. I ian away because I felt big enough. I thought it uiun't mattei if I liveu on my
own. I thought I coulu live on my own. I ian away to a giilfiienu's mom's who hau
moveu out of the city into the countiy. I felt safe theie. It was away fiom my little
hometown.
Telling hei mothei about the abuse. I tolu hei mom anu she calleu up my
mom anu askeu my mom to come out anu tolu my mom. Ny memoiy was that I
nevei went back aftei that othei than one time to confiont my fathei. Ny mom uiu
11
sit uown with me anu my, my sistei anu, anu my sistei came out at that time anu
saiu, "Yes, he uiu uo something to me," but she woulun't talk about it, you know. Ny
mom uivoiceu him. Be was maiiieu again befoie the uivoice was final. Ny
stepmothei is 1u yeais youngei than him. I uon't get along with my stepmothei.
Fiist time she tolu. Ny fiienu Nike was the fiist peison I tolu about my
fathei. I was piobably aiounu 14. The only peison until I finally tolu my, my
giilfiienu's mom. We useu to talk a lot, a lot, but he talkeu about his family. Bis
fathei hau hung himself, committeu suiciue, anu Nike founu him. Be came fiom a
ieally ciazy, ciazy family. So that's why we weie so close. I coulu ieally accept him,
anu he coulu accept me. I nevei thought he was ciazy. Bo you know what I'm
saying. I nevei was afiaiu of him. I nevei thought he'u huit me. That's what I
thought. Be useu to tell me about iaping giils, anu I uiun't know whethei to believe
him. I think he's in piison foi iape.
M$/56+ C5%(,3+ ,- !8)%&
Ny mom tolu me she was abuseu by hei fathei. She tolu me when I went thiough
talking about all my stuff, about my fathei anu about my uncle's molestation of me.
Ny mom tolu me that she was also molesteu by my uncle. What's so funny about it
was that my mom was an auult telling me that. She was an auult when he uiu that.
Yeah, he took hei, he took, he, he was supposeu to give hei a iiue home. Ny fathei
wasn't theie. Be took hei way out somewheie anu attempteu to be sexual with hei,
anu she just saiu, "You take me home now oi I'll walk." She pioceeueu to walk oi
something anu then he took hei home. So it uiun't happen, but she saw, she saw
12
that as hei being a victim which I just tolu. Theie's so much that it can easily slip my
minu, all this stuff.
Tolu gianumothei eveiything. Ny gianufathei was an alcoholic. I mean my
uau hau to leain that behavioi somewheie. I talkeu to my gianumothei who--this
was not that long ago like thiee yeais ago--this was his fathei, oi his mothei. She
was 9S yeais olu anu, my whole family anu extenueu family ostiacizeu me. They
kinu of uiu that since I ian away, since I was ieal young. When I went to see my
gianumothei when she was 9S, she askeu me why my fathei anu I weie having
pioblems. I tolu hei. I felt she was ieauy to heai eveiything, wanteu to heai
eveiything. Theie was the big thing going, "Nevei tell youi gianumothei--she'u
uie." I felt that she was asking me, anu I tolu hei. Anu she uiu uie shoitly aftei that,
but she hau hau a long life. She pioceeueu to tell me how hei husbanu was veiy
abusive anu an alcoholic anu physically abusive of hei.
She coulun't tell me he was sexually abusive but I'm suie he piobably was.
Theie's always these stoiies. I uon't iemembei my gianufathei because he uieu by
the time I was maybe five oi something. Ny gianumothei eventually in latei life
liveu with his biothei. It's ciazy. It ieally was ciazy. Theie was these stoiies about
him being ieally attacheu to my sistei anu about giving hei money anu money
always unuei hei plate. So I think, you know, just fiom the things that I pickeu up I
ieally think he was piobably sexually abusive with my sistei.
.5(0&%%&* 21+%5B$6 !8)%& ,- G,(1&3
Fiom the time I iemembei, my mom got beat up by my fathei. She was like
five feet he was like six feet something. She was five feet, 98 pounus most of my life,
1S
a veiy tiny woman. Punctuieu eai uiums, neivous bieakuowns. Be was pietty, ieal
violent with hei. I nevei thought she loveu him oi anything like that.
@&6$(5,0%154 K5(1 G,(1&3
Ny ielationship with my mothei is all iight in the sense that I'm not so neeuy
of hei. I ieally neeueu hei foi a long time anu ieally hateu hei because I was so
empty. As an auult, I ieally tiieu to get those neeus met which she coulun't meet
because they weie chilu's neeus. You know, I neeueu hei when I was a chilu but I
still caiiieu that into auulthoou. Since I've met my own neeus anu taken caie of
those little kius anu, I uon't, I feel we get along much bettei. I still see hei as much
youngei than me emotionally anu in oui ielationship. Even in conveisation she acts
youngei. She sees heiself youngei than me.
She's still stuck at 14. That's about the age I woulu say. She's neat foi a 14
yeai-olu. If I wanteu hei to be a mom she coulu nevei uo that in any way. I think my
fathei puts us uown. I uon't think he loveu hei. She was beautiful, anu he possesseu
that. Ny mom was a cheeileauei, a batonist oi whatevei you call those, majoiettes.
She was, she was pietty neat, anu hau a neat, you know stiaight A stuuent, that kinu
of stuff, until my fathei finally came in anu took hei away fiom all of it.
@&6$(5,0%154 K5(1 M$(1&3
uiowing up, he was a monstei, to me always. Now I see him as a little boy, a
selfish little boy. Be ieally only caies about his own neeus. Be was a veiy goou-
looking guy also in his pictuies, you know, his youngei uays. I think he just thought
he was hot, you know. I think he sexually abuseu othei people anu piobably his
14
sisteis. I mean, I ieally think that he is sexually compulsive, anu, you know, he
uoesn't have any bounuaiies. Be coulu be a muiueiei.
I thought he killeu my youngei biothei, the one that uieu when he was 2. I
ieally believeu he killeu him when I went thiough tieatment anu all that because it
was a ieal painful kinu of thing foi my mom, this ueath of this kiu, you know. I was
ieally like, "Yeah, why is it so painful he uiun't live that long." See I'm not--uon't get
me wiong--but I'm talking about--0h, I thought it might have been because it, it was
like, uou, I iemembei when I was 12 yeais olu my mom still going to that giave anu
mouining anu ciying. Bo you know what I'm saying. It was just too much giieving.
Be hau this heait pioblem oi something, anu he hau been in the hospital anu
hau suigeiy, valve suigeiy oi something. I'm not exactly suie, some meuical
pioblem, anu they fixeu it, anu she tolu me the ieason why she giieveu ovei him so
much was because she nevei expecteu him to uie. You know, she was just taking
him home fiom the hospital, oi he hau just, she hau just left the hospital. Be was in
goou shape, anu they calleu hei by the time she got home anu saiu that he hau uieu.
So it was like nevei expecting it. It was like a suuuen ueath. I tenu to believe hei,
but just the fact that I thought my fathei killeu the, the kiu.
!-3$5* M$(1&3 .,)6* N566 G,(1&3 $0* C&3
I was afiaiu he was going to kill my mom. Be sent hei to the hospital many
times, yeah. Yeah, it was pietty violent. I woulu tiy to stop it, which my mom tells
me she uiu with hei mom anu uau, that she woulu be the one that the stepsisteis
woulu say, "You go in theie anu you bieak it up," you know. I askeu my mom why
she stayeu with my uau because he was such an animal, fiom the time I iemembei
1S
him, anu she saiu it was just like that. Bei mom anu uau fought like that too anu it
was just the way life was to hei, anu she uiun't know any uiffeient, anu once she
tiieu to leave him but she hau five little babies, anu she askeu hei mom if she coulu
come home, anu my gianuma tolu hei, "You maue youi beu--you lay in it." Anu
that's the way it was back then.
I ieally uiun't unueistanu why she stayeu with him. I beggeu hei to leave
him. A lot of times. I nevei tolu hei about the sexual abuse. She was such a victim
anu hau so much pain, anu I was afiaiu my fathei woulu kill me. I coulun't imagine
telling my mom anu living theie. You know what I'm saying. Theie was just no out
of the family foi me. I maikeu the calenuai waiting foi the yeais to get out of theie,
you know.
M$/56+O.5*& !8)%& $0* E&:6&B(
0ne time at a big family get-togethei at my gianumothei's, my fathei spilleu
giavy on me, anu I still have the scai. Like, like all hot giavy. I ieally thought he uiu
it on puipose. Be piobably uiun't but in my minu again, I ieally believeu he uiu. Be
huit me bauly in fiont of eveiybouy, anu they uiun't uo anything. In fact they, they
nevei even took me to a uoctoi, anu I was huit. I mean I'm suie it was like seconu
uegiee buins, I mean it was ieally bau. In fact, foi yeais it stayeu uaik, anu uaik,
you know uaikei than all my skin. Right heie but it always hau that maik aiounu it.
G$%()38$(5,0
I useu to mastuibate a lot as a kiu, anu I ieally got into mastuibating with
objects that huit me. Bo you know what I'm saying. That, that physically woulu
huit my genital aiea, anu, you know, my fantasies aien't of like having a penis put in
16
veiy gently anu nice anu soft anu sweet anu caiessing. Theie of, moie of a
aggiessive kinu of sex. Bo you know what I'm saying. So I uon't think they'ie
violent in teims of I uiun't see myself getting, you know, although the thought of
being tieu up anu stuff like that, I've also hau those fantasies, um of being a victim,
those kinu of fantasies, but nothing like getting cut up, oi anything like that. I
woulun't have a man in my minu, just the, you know just the objects. Bo you know.
uetting that ielease. It woulu just be, I mean, it woulun't take much to, to get
me tuineu on, anu I almost have to fantasize those things to, to be able to have an
oigasm, oi to ielease myself in any way. With othei men that woikeu that way, oi
with women, when I was with women once. I went thiough that peiiou when I was
with some women. Ah, I woulu have to pictuie being with a man. Bo you know
what I'm saying.
!8)%& 8+ H(1&3%
I was not only abuseu by my fathei but I was abuseu by my stepgianu,
stepgianufathei. Ny mothei's stepfathei. I was abuseu by one of my uncles who
was my uau's sistei's husbanu. That sistei in paiticulai is ieally messeu up anu
uefinitely in hei behavioi is a victim. I was iapeu also. The fiist time I was iapeu, I
was 18. I uiun't know him. I took a iiue with him, hitchhiking, me anu a giilfiienu.
She got iapeu also. It was a knife, knife, knife at the thioat situation. They uiaggeu
hei one place, uiaggeu me one place. They just left us afteiwaius anu, thank uou, I
mean, you know, that was not the woist. The woist was the feai foi oui lives.
Then one othei time while I was hitchhiking, same thing, me anu hei.
17
I was piobably 19. It was two guys. They weie veiy physically violent. They useu,
"Let's go smoke a joint." They took us uown in a swamp place. When I useu to iun
away, I useu to have sex a lot with guys in exchange foi having a place to sleep. It
seems sex was just expecteu wheievei I went. Since I went thiough tieatment I
haven't been iapeu oi anything aftei that.
H3:$%/% ;13,):1 !8)%&
I hau a lot of sexuality issues to ueal with, piobably staiting at seven oi eight,
maybe befoie, piobably all my life. Well, I think I was uoing what my fathei uiu.
See, I got into hostility with my fathei's sexual acts too. When he woulu be on top of
me anu stuff I woulu, I woulu, uou what was it, lost it. Be woulu like, when I was
ieal, ieal young he woulu put his penis in between my legs, anu I woulu, um, come. I
mean I woulu feel pleasuie. I woulu, you know, anu I uon't know if it woulu be come
back then. Bo you know what I'm saying.
I woulu have kinu of a ielease fiom that, anu so my mastuibation was a lot
like that. I was tiying to give myself that same ielease, which was also what I uiu
with those young kius. I was tiying to give myself that same ielease. Yeah. Anu it got
to be wheie I coulu just put my legs togethei ieally tightly anu get that ielease. Bo
you know what I'm saying. So, so it was just, you know, theie weie uiffeient foims
of mastuibating, but I was auuicteu to it. Putting something between my legs anu
squeezing was pietty much the main way.
!8)%& ,- <3,(1&3%
Theie's a lot of isolation in my family. I felt close to my biotheis. Ny two
youngest biotheis. I ian away with them once. I took them. I was going to piotect
18
them fiom my fathei, but, of couise, I got caught. Then I hau tempoiaiy custouy of
both of them, anu I got Luke into theiapy with one of my theiapists. Be nevei
continueu theiapy but he went in foi a session with me wheie I tolu them I was
sexually abusing him when he was young. Five, six, seven. Fonuling, just touching.
Sleeping with, touching. Soit of a nuituiing, thing. It wasn't like, like my fathei. It
wasn't violent oi thieatening oi scaiy anu you know those kinu of bau things, but it
was something I felt guilty about.
!8)%& ,- #156*3&0 '1& <$8+%$(
I also sexually abuseu kius I babysat, which ieally fieakeu me out because
they weie like babies, young kius, you know what I'm saying. veiy young. This
ieally gave me some clues to what happeneu to me when I was that young, because I
have no memoiies, of foui, five, six, you know as fai as touch.
I woulu manipulate theii vaginal aiea, anu I woulu mastuibate aiounu them.
Yeah, it's ieally a stiange thing, but it was anothei whole peisonality. I uiu it quite
often uuiing my teenage yeais. Not, I mean not, I uon't think it was foi yeais but I,
like, maybe like at 12 yeais olu. It was like foi a yeai, anu then I just quit. I abuseu
kius fiom maybe, maybe two uiffeient families, 1S to 2u times. I mean I, I'u guess
about that. I tiieu to get the same ielease fiom those kius that I got fiom
mastuibation.
'(,4450:
I ieally uon't know why I stoppeu abusing kius. I ieally uon't know.
Piobably because I staiteu acting out sexually. Piobably mastuibating moie myself.
I was ieally afiaiu of getting caught. I think as my biotheis got oluei, I just uiun't
19
want to be sexual with them when they weie oluei, but I piobably was sexual with
them up till I left home at 1S. I wanteu to stop, too, because I uiun't want to uo to
anybouy what was uone to me.
Feeling no contiol. I uiun't like not having contiol ovei it. It was like once
you thought about getting that ielease you went aftei that ielease. I, I think I just
mastuibateu moie. I think one of the little giils uiu tell hei mothei. I think that hei
mothei uiun't have me babysit anymoie foi that ieason. That scaieu me. I maue me
feel sick. You know, it maue me feel sick insiue--like that she'u know I uiu such a
hoiiible thing. I that that hau a big pait in my stopping.
C&3 <3,(1&3 !%%$)6(&* 1&3 M35&0*
Ny biothei Luke, when I hau custouy of him, this is why I got him into
theiapy. 0ne of my ioommates woke up to him touching hei in the miuule of the
night. That's ieally what happeneu with my fathei, anu it fieakeu me out. So I got
him into theiapy. So you know he hau a lot of that kinu of behavioi. I felt guilty. I
felt like I uiu it, you know. I hau a lot of issues with that, but I uon't think I uo now. I
soiteu out what my pait in that was. Bis sexuality ieally hau a lot to uo with my
fathei. They nevei tolu me, my two youngei biotheis, that my uau evei toucheu
them. I'm assuming that because my oluei biothei tolu me, anu he coulun't ieally
tell me. Be just saiu, "Yeah, he uiu."
I felt piotective towaiu my youngei biotheis, momish, kinu of like a mom. I
wanteu to give them a bettei life, that kinu of closeness, like my biothei at one of
my biothei's funeials. Be was killeu in a motoicycle acciuent. I think it was suiciue.
At Luke's funeial, my othei biothei, the young one, you know, steppeu out anu we
2u
weie outsiue, anu it was kinu of haiu foi me because it's the fiist time I'u seen my
fathei anu my ielatives foi yeais. Ny ielatives. Ny ielatives uiun't even know who
I was. You know what I mean. They haun't seen me since I was a little giil. They
iejecteu me because of my behavioi pioblems. So it was a haiu situation but my
biothei took me out anu saiu, "We know why he uieu."
You know, so that kinu of closeness. You know, it was nevei talkeu about but
theie was a feeling that we, we knew what it was about, anu I felt soiiy foi them
because they weie the youngest in it. You know what I mean. Like I liveu with it so
many yeais, anu my uau uiu things with my oluei biothei, like thieaten to tie his
penis in a knot if he uiun't quit wetting the beu. So eveiy foim of punishment was
veiy thieatening anu veiy sexual, thieatening his manliness, his whatevei. I felt
veiy piotective of them because of my fathei's punishments. I coulun't stanu to see
them ciy. Theie was so much pain. Theie was so much pain.
<3,(1&3 G,6&%(&* G,(1&3
Ny mothei calleu me when I was like 2S oi 24 about 1u oi 1S yeais ago,
something like that, anu tolu me that my biothei Luke hau just molesteu hei, anu
when she calleu me, anu this is the one that's ueau now, Luke, when she calleu me I
was veiy awaie of how she still saw heiself as the victim. What it was, she was
uiunk, anu she woke up to him having sex with hei. That was so tiaumatic foi hei. I
iemembei hei calling me anu telling me. That was veiy tiaumatic foi hei anu his
ueath. You know, she's nevei been the same, evei been the same since he got killeu.
I'u kinu of known that my biothei hau pioblems because I hau hau him
befoie that. Bo you know what I'm saying. Anu, when I'u tolu you that he hau uone
21
that to my ioommate. Be hau to have only been 18, though. Seventeen. Be hau to
have been 17.
'&7 K5(1 $ 2&&3
As fai as sex, I hau sex foi the fiist time when I was 1S. That same yeai a lot
of things happeneu foi me, such as iunning away. Yeah, now I might be wiong, you
know. I mean it may have been at the enu of 14. Anu it was the fiist time that I hau
sex with a boy since my fathei. Anu befoie that my boyfiienus woulu tiy to have sex
with me anu it just was not something a giilfiienu anu a boyfiienu uiu. To me. You
know what I'm saying. Something you waiteu till you weie maiiieu was the only
thought I hau about that. I uiun't ieally even connect what was going on with my
fathei. You know what I'm saying.
Sex with a peei was hoiiible. Then when I uiu, when, when he was out of the
pictuie I felt like I coulu have sex, then I uiu. I hateu it. It was hoiiible. I hau a bau
expeiience because the guy that I hau sex with I was ieally close to befoie we hau
sex. Then we hau sex anu I misseu my peiiou anu I went to a uoctoi anu founu out
that, he saiu I was piegnant. The boy uenieu it. It was the only boy I'u evei been
with so. Be tolu his mom it coulu have been anybouy. Bis mom tolu my mom that.
So it was veiy huitful. Then I went, I was, I was put in a unweu mothei's home.
That was the beginning of my not evei living with my family. In that unweu
mothei's home I founu out I wasn't piegnant.
I uon't, you know I, I uon't think I evei ieally likeu it with my fathei.
Theiefoie, I uiun't ieally like it with boyfiienus. It was something that I uiu, anu
then, then I soit of just became a piostitute, I think.
22
23,%(5()(5,0
I staiteu piostituting foi uiugs, money. I woulu go anu just, well, you know,
it was a foim of piostitution befoie 18. You know, wheie you just hau sex foi uiugs
anu stuff like that. Aftei 18 it was pietty foimal. I'u go to the bais anu pick up men
that weie like businessmen. uo to a motel. They'u pay me, anu then I'u go, anu I got
enough to uo some uiugs. I'u tell them. I'u go iight up to them, anu they askeu me if
I wanteu, you know, I guess I kinu, you know, theie's kinu of an auia you put out,
anu they'u come up to me, anu I'u tell them I was a junky anu I neeueu a fix. You
know, a junky was just a teim that you useu back then. I uiun't uo heioin. I was a
speeu fieak, but it was the same thing. I shot up uiugs. So I tolu them that, anu
we'u go have sex. They'u give me the money. I'u get my uiugs anu that was it. You
know so I uiu that foimally. In fact I, I went back to it aftei I went thiough
tieatment. 0ne time in my tiavels I ieally neeueu some money, anu I ueciueu that I
coulu uo that.
'&7 $0* G&0
I neeu to have sex with men, kinu of moie than anything, too. I lookeu
foiwaiu to it. You know it was, tuineu me on oi. You know what I'm saying. I uon't,
physically it tuineu me on to think about piostituting. I was a piostitute on anu off
foi a long time, just to have sex with men. Bo you know what I mean. It was, totally
uiffeient, yeah. Well, my fantasies, sexual fantasies weie always violent. Bo you
know what I, I've woikeu thiough a lot of that, anu just being able to let them be
theie to get iiu of them. Bo you know. So I uon't know maybe just acting out
fantasies, anu it's being kinu of like a piostitution situation. Like I saiu, you can
2S
eithei be a fuithei victim anu let them take contiol oi you can take contiol, anu it
was a way to contiol men sexually. Naybe it, to me it was like offenuing.
It was piobably, you know, if I, if I woulun't have piostituteu I piobably coulu
have been an offenuei in othei ways, but to me it was just being just like my uau.
Exactly. I mean that's how I acteu in it, anu I was moie aggiessive than passive. I
woulu just ueciue what we weie going to uo. Bo you know what I'm saying. Bow
we weie going to have sex, when we weie going to have it. I just uiu it, yeah, but I
took contiol of my peison anu my auia anu my, you know. I'm tiying to think. I'u
pietty much talk to them about theii sexuality maybe. Put them on the spot. Bo you
know what I'm saying.
Yeah, it woulu be in my questioning of them anu being aggiessive about it
anu letting them know what I was willing to uo anu what I wasn't willing to uo. You
know that kinu of stuff, which I uon't think was tiue when I was young, but when I
chose to go back as an auult I hau contiol, anu that's why I uiu it, too, is I wanteu
contiol. I uiun't want to be the victim.
That was a haiu issue foi me when I went thiough tieatment. Like, I'u, you
know, I'u hitchhike ovei to my tieatment centei foi outpatient afteicaie. Some guy
woulu pick me up, of couise, anu say he wanteu to feel my tits foi 4u uollais anu I
coulun't uo it because I was in a tieatment piogiam.
I went back to piostitution foi six months. I neeueu the money. But I ieally
iealizeu that I uiun't want to be that peison that hau to look at eveiy man as a uollai
sign anu uiun't want to have all that angei that I hau to have.

24
!8)%5P& Q&%85$0 @&6$(5,0%154%
I also pickeu veiy abusive women to be with, ielateu to that veiy aggiessive
lesbian type woman, you know, anu I'm involveu with a woman now. We've been
fiienus foi 1u yeais but we'ie not gay. I mean I'm not. I just quit using that label,
anu I uon't have sex with hei. You know what I'm saying. It's not a sexual thing.
It's just a ieal companionship.
I know I wanteu to talk to you because I auu a uiffeient something. I coulu
have maybe been a veiy seveie abusei.
FR'#?''RHE
Pat's account of hei life shows that she hau many iisk factois anu some
piotective factois. Bei piotective factois appeaieu to have been sufficient to leau
hei to stop abusing chiluien sexually. She saiu she uiun't want to uo to otheis what
hau been uone to hei, but concein foi the chiluien's well-being appeaieu to come
much aftei she stoppeu--she saiu she felt guilty about hei effect on Luke aftei Luke
molesteu one of hei fiienus. Bei piime conceins uuiing auolescence appeaieu to
have been what othei people thought of hei, feai of getting caught, anu feai of the
lack of contiol she hau. At the time of the inteiview, she wanteu to believe that hei
sexual behaviois with hei biotheis weie nuituiing anu close anu not violent like
hei fathei's abuse. This appeais to be uenial, iationalization, anu minimization.
The numbei of iisks in hei life weie multiple--physical, sexual, anu emotional
abuse anu neglect fiom hei fathei; witnessing physical anu emotional abuse of hei
mothei; witnessing sexual thieats anu theiefoie abuse of hei youngei biotheis;
chemical abuse on the pait of both paients; inteigeneiational sexual, physical, anu
2S
emotional abuse on both siues of the family; peiceiveu iejection by hei extenueu
family; anu seveial placements in auolescence. Bei mothei may have been
incapacitateu by the abuse she ieceiveu, anu she was not a positive iole mouel foi
Pat, anu Pat mentioneu no otheis.
Pat also hau some piotective factois. Theie piobably was some positive
ielationship between Pat anu hei mothei because when she tolu hei mothei about
the sexual abuse, hei mothei believeu hei anu uivoiceu hei fathei. She coulu
confiue in hei gianumothei, anu even bioke the family iule of "piotecting" the
gianumothei fiom bau family news to tell hei gianumothei about hei fathei's
abuse. Bei gianumothei not only uiu not punish hei foi these uisclosuies, but she
iecipiocateu by telling Pat of the family's histoiy of maltieatment. Pat saiu always
hau one fiienu. In auolescence, this fiienu seiveu to piotect hei fiom
embaiiassment anu a sense of alienation, although she uiu not confiue to hei fiienu
about hei family. She confiueu in a male fiienu, who, in many ways, was a
counteipait who talkeu about iaping women anu who may have been in piison foi
iape at the time of the inteiview. Whethei this ieinfoiceu hei willingness to shaie
peisonally painful mateiial is not cleai.
She showeu many common effects of multiple iisk factois: iunning away,
chemical abuse, juvenile anu auult piostitution, sexual compulsivity, possible sexual
iuentity confusion, eating uisoiueis, vulneiability to fuithei sexual abuse,
iuentifying with hei fathei's sexual aggiession in hei thinking about how she
inteiacteu with hei johns, anu unueistanuable cognitive uistoitions about the
natuie of human ielationships. Sexual abuse of chiluien may be moie common than
26
we now know among auolescent giils who have suffeieu multiple foims of
maltieatment in the absence of amelioiating influences.
She may have hau sufficient piotective factois to help hei cope with
tenuencies towaiu the uiie outcome of having a life-long caieei of sexually abusing
chiluien. Yet, at the time of the inteiview, she was continuing to ueal with some
seveie effects of hei multiple iisk factois. Some of the effects aie hei thinking anu
behavioi in ielationship to piostitution, the eithei¡oi of being eithei a victim oi
victimizei, hei seeing hei abuse of hei biotheis as nuituiing as opposeu to hei
fathei's violent abuse, anu hei continual linking of sexual behaviois with violent
fantasies.
This ieseaich will auu to the unueistanuing of iesilience, uefineu as coping
with, iecoveiing fiom, oi oveicoming auveisity (Nasten et al, 199u). The case stuuy
of Pat shows that although positive meuiatois, oi piotective factois, may counteiact
some of the most uestiuctive aspects of exposuie to iisk factois, peisons so exposeu
may not completely oveicome the effects of such exposuie. Peisons with fewei iisk
factois anu moie piotective factois than Pat may bettei fit the so-calleu "vulneiable
but invincible" categoiy uevelopeu by Weinei (1982), but it is likely that even a
small numbei of iisk factois anu a laige numbei of piotections may still iesult in
some seiious anu, peihaps, hiuuen effects iesulting fiom exposuie to auveisity.
@DMD@DE#D'
Allen-Neaies, P., & Lane, B.A. (l99u). Social woik piactice: Integiating qualitative
anu quantitative uata collection techniques. !"#$%& (")*+ ,-+ 4S2-4S8.
27
Boguan, R., & Biklen, S.K. (l992). ./%&$0%0$12 )232%)#4 5") 26/#%0$"7 (2nu eu.).
Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Biieie, }.N. (l992). 84$&6 %9/32 0)%/:%; Newbuiy Paik, CA: Sage.
Egelanu, B., }acobvitz, B., & Sioufe, L.A. (l988). Bieaking the cycle of abuse. 84$&6
<212&"=:270+ S9, 1u8u-1u88.
Feagin, }.R., 0ium, A.N., & Sjobeig, u. (Eus.). (l991). > #%32 5") 042 #%32 30/6?. Chapel
Bill: 0niveisity of Noith Caiolina Piess.
Finkelhoi, B., & Biowne, A. (l988). Assessing the long-teim impact of chilu sexual
abuse: A ieview anu a conceptualization. In L.E.A. Walkei (Eu.), @%769""* "7
32A/%& %9/32 "5 #4$&6)27 (pp. SS-71). New Yoik: Spiingei.
uilgun, }ane F. (l986). Sexually abuseu giils' knowleuge of sexual abuse anu sexuality.
B"/)7%& "5 C702)=2)3"7%& D$"&27#2+ E+ 2u9-22S.
uilgun, }ane F. (l988). Becision-making in inteiuisciplinaiy tieatment teams. 84$&6
>9/32 F G2H&2#0+ EI+ 2S1-2S9.
uilgun, }ane F. (l988). Self-centeieuness anu the auult male peipetiatoi of chilu sexual
abuse. 8"702:=")%)? J%:$&? K42)%=?+ EL+ 216-2S4.
uilgun, }ane F. (1988). Why chiluien uon't tell: Feai of sepaiation anu loss anu the
uisclosuie of chilu sexual abuse. G2M <23$H73 $7 N"/04 <212&"=:270+ O+ 16-2u.
uilgun, }.F. (l99ua). Factois meuiating the effects of chilu maltieatment. In N.
Buntei (Eu.), K42 32A/%&&? %9/326 :%&2 (pp. 177-19u). Lexington, NA:
Lexington Books.
28
uilgun, }.F. (l99ub). Resilience anu the inteigeneiational tiansmission of chilu
abuse. In N.Q. Patton (Eu.). J%:$&? 32A/%& %9/32 (pp. 9S-1uS). Newbuiy Paik,
CA: Sage.
uilgun, }.F. (1992a). Befinitions, methouologies, anu methous in qualitative family
ieseaich. In }. F. uilgun, K. Baly, & u. Banuel (Eus.). ./%&$0%0$12 :204"63 $7
5%:$&? )232%)#4 (pp. 22-S9). Newbuiy Paik, CA: Sage.
uilgun, }.F. (1992b). Bypothesis geneiation in social woik ieseaich. B"/)7%& "5
!"#$%& !2)1$#2 P232%)#4+ E-+ 11S-1SS.
uilgun, }ane F. (1994). A case foi case stuuies in social woik ieseaich. !"#$%& (")*+,Q+
S71-S8u.
uilgun, }ane F. (1994). Avengeis, conqueiois, playmates, anu loveis: A continuum of
ioles playeu by peipetiatois of chilu sexual abuse. J%:$&$23 $7 !"#$20?+ R-+ 467-
48u. Leau aiticle. Repiinteu in Richaiu Tewksbuiy & Patiicia uagne (Eus)
(2uuuS; <21$%7#2 %76 621$%703T >7 %704"&"H?. Los Angeles: Roxbuiy.
uilgun, }ane F. (199S). We shaieu something special: The moial uiscouise of incest
peipetiatois. B"/)7%& "5 U%))$%H2 %76 042 J%:$&?+ -R, 26S-281. V2%6 %)0$#&2;
uilgun, }ane F. (1996). Buman uevelopment anu auveisity in ecological peispective,
Pait 2: Thiee patteins. J%:$&$23 $7 !"#$20?+ RR+ 4S9-S76. V2%6 %)0$#&2.
uilgun, }ane F. (1996). Buman uevelopment anu auveisity in ecological peispective:
Pait 1: A conceptual fiamewoik. J%:$&$23 $7 !"#$20?+ RR+ S9S-4u2. V2%6 %)0$#&2;
uilgun, }ane F. (2uu4). A stiengths-baseu appioach to chilu anu family assessment. In
Bon R. Catheial (Eu.), @%769""* "5 30)233+ 0)%/:% %76 042 5%:$&? (pp. Su7-
S24). New Yoik: Biunei-Routleuge. W$71$026+ =22) 9&$76 )21$2M26S
29
uilgun, }ane F. (2uu6). Chiluien anu auolescents with pioblematic sexual behaviois:
Lessons fiom ieseaich on iesilience. In Robeit Longo & Bave Piescott (Eus;S+
8/))270 =2)3=2#0$123 "7 M")*$7H M$04 32A/%&&? %HH)233$12 ?"/04 %76 ?"/04 M$04
32A/%& 924%1$") =)"9&2:3 (pp. S8S-S94). Bolyoke, NA: Neaii Piess. ($71$026+
=22)+ 9&$76 )21$2M26
uilgun, }ane F. (2uu8). Liveu expeiience, ieflexivity, anu ieseaich on peipetiatois of
inteipeisonal violence. ./%&$0%0$12 !"#$%& (")*+ RWIS+ 181-197;
uilgun, }ane F. (2u1u). Reflections on 2S yeais of ieseaich on violence. P25&2#0$"73T
G%))%0$123 "5 X)"5233$"7%& @2&=$7H+ 16(4), Su-S9;
uilgun, }ane F., & Teiesa N. Connoi. (1989). Bow peipetiatois view chilu sexual abuse.
!"#$%& (")*+ ,Y+ S49-SS1. Repiinteu in the 0.S. Aii Foice hanubook on family
violence anu in the Tiaining Nanual of CoineiBouse, a chilu sexual abuse
evaluation centei, Ninneapolis, NN.
uilgun, }ane F., & Elizabeth Reisei. (199u). Sexual iuentity uevelopment among men
sexually abuseu in chiluhoou. J%:$&$23 $7 !"#$20?+ RE+ S1S-S2S. V2%6 %)0$#&2;
uilgun, }.F., Baly, K., & Banuel, u. (Eus.). (l992). ./%&$0%0$12 :204"63 $7 5%:$&?
)232%)#4. Newbuiy Paik, CA: Sage.
uilgun, }ane F. Chiistian Klein, & Kay Pianis. (2uuu). The significance of iesouices in
mouels of iisk, B"/)7%& "5 C702)=2)3"7%& D$"&27#2+ EY+ 627-646.
uilgun, }ane F., & Lauia S. Abiams (2uuS). uenueieu auaptations, iesilience, anu the
peipetiation of violence. In Nichael 0ngai (Eu"#$ @%769""* 5") M")*$7H M$04
#4$&6)27 %76 N"/04T X%04M%?3 0" )23$&$27#2 %#)"33 #/&0/)23 %76 #"702A0 (pp. S7-
7u). Toionto: 0niveisity of Toionto Piess W$71$026+ =22) 9&$76 )21$2M26S
Su
uilgun, }ane F., Banette }ones, & Kay Rice. (2uuS). Emotional expiessiveness as an
inuicatoi of piogiess in tieatment. In Naitin C. Caluei (Eu.), Z:2)H$7H
%==)"%#423 0" M")* M$04 #4$&6)27 %76 ?"/7H =2"=&2 M4" 32A/%&&? %9/32 (pp. 2S1-
244). Boiset, Englanu: Russell Bouse.
uilgun, }ane F., & Alankaai Shaima (2uu8). Chilu sexual abuse. In }effiey L. Euleson
& Claiie N. Renzetti (Eus.) Z7#?#&"=26$% "5 C702)=2)3"7%& D$"&27#2 (pp. 122-
12S). Thousanu 0aks, CA: Sage.
uioth, A.S., with Biinbaum, }. U27 M4" )%=2. New Yoik: Plenum.
Banuel, u. (1991). Case stuuy in family ieseaich. In }.R. Feagin, A.N. 0ium, & u.
Sjobeig (Eus.), > #%32 5") 042 #%32 30/6? (pp. 244-268). Chapel Bill: 0niveisity
of Noith Caiolina Piess.
}ouiiles, E.N., Nuiphy, C.N., & 0'Leaiy, K.B. (l989). Inteipeisonal aggiession,
maiital uiscoiu, anu chilu pioblems. B"/)7%& "5 8"73/&0$7H %76 8&$7$#%&
X3?#4"&"H?+ S7, 4SS-4SS.
Kaufman, }., & Ziglei, E. (l987). Bo abuseu chiluien become abusive paients.
>:2)$#%7 B"/)7%& "5 [)04"=3?#4$%0)?+ -R+ 186-192.
Nasten, A. S., Best, K. N., & uaimezy, N. (l99u). Resilience anu uevelopment:
Contiibutions fiom the stuuy of chiluien who oveicome auveisity.
<212&"=:270 %76 X3?#4"=%04"&"H?+ I+ 42S-444.
Nathews, R, }.K. Natthews, & K. Speltz (l991). Female sex offenueis: A typology. In
N.Q. Patton (Eu.), J%:$&? 32A/%& %9/32T J)"70&$72 )232%)#4 %76 21%&/%0$"7 (pp.
199-219). Newbuiy Paik, CA: Sage.
S1
Nieuzian, N. (l991). \"?3 M$&& 92 9"?3T \)2%*$7H 042 &$7* 920M227 :%3#/&$7$0? %76
1$"&27#2; New Yoik: Boubleuay.
0'Biien, N. (l984, Nay). Auolescent sexual offenueis: An outpatient piogiam's
peispective on ieseaich uiiections. Papei piesenteu at the 1Sth Annual
Chilu Abuse anu Neglect Symposium, Nay 2S, Keystone, C0.
Polkinghoine, B.E. (l988). G%))%0$12 *7"M$7H %76 042 4/:%7 3#$27#23; Albany: State
0niveisity of New Yoik Piess.
Shaima, Alankaai & }ane F. uilgun (2uu8). What peipetiatois say about chilu sexual
abuse. C76$%7 B"/)7%& "5 !"#$%& (")*+ ]QW,S+ S21-SS8.
Sioufe, L.A., & Ruttei, N. (l984). The uomain of uevelopmental psychopathology.
84$&6 <212&"=:270+ --, 17-29.
Weinei, E.E. (l989). Bigh-iisk chiluien in young auulthoou: A longituuinal stuuy
fiom biith to S2 yeais. >:2)$#%7 B"/)7%& "5 [)04"=3?#4$%0)?+ -Q+ 72-81.
Weinei, E.E. (l982). D/&72)%9&2 9/0 $71$7#$9&2T > &"7H$0/6$7%& 30/6? "5 )23$&$270
#4$&6)27 %76 ?"/04; New Yoik: Ncuiaw-Bill.
Wiuom, C.S. (l989). Boes violence beget violence. A ciitical examination of the
liteiatuie; X3?#4"&"H$#%& \/&&20$7+ EL]+ S-28.

!22DEFRS
;1&,3+ $0* #$%& '()*+ @&%&$3B1
<+ =$0& MT >56:)0
UVWV
Case stuuy ieseaich is impoitant because of its contiibutions to theoiy. A
case stuuy is an intensive look at an inuiviuual unit. The unit can be composeu of a
S2
single entity, such as one peison, oi it can be composeu of multiple entities, such
maiital paitneis in one family unit. The stuuy of a single unit incluues stuuies of
businesses, social seivice agencies, hospitals, couit cases, anu state anu national
goveinments. These lattei kinus of cases aie calleu complex case stuuies because
the single unit has multiple entities within it anu ieseaicheis have focuseu theii
investigations on these multiple entities. The sample size of case stuuy ieseaich can
iange fiom one to hunuieus.
A single case stuuy of an inuiviuual is as viable as a complex case stuuy oi
multiple case stuuies when the analysis is of high quality, is well uocumenteu, anu
contiibutes to theoietical unueistanuings. A single well-analyzeu anu well-
uocumenteu case stuuy can upenu existing theoiy, oi at least begin the piocess of
unueimining existing theoiy.
Foi example, a iecent stuuy of meuical cases pioviueu enough eviuence to
suggest that some patients long uiagnoseu as having Lou uehiig's uisease may
actually have uieu fiom the effects of concussion. The stuuy involveu the
compaiison of the biain pioteins of thiee athletes with a histoiy of concussion anu
thought to have uieu of Lou uehiig's uisease with the biain pioteins of 12 peisons
thought to have uieu of Lou uehiig's uisease.
The ieseaicheis founu that the biain pioteins of the thiee athletes uiffeieu
fiom those of the peisons in the compaiison gioup. A single case casts uoubt on
existing theoiy anu opens the uooi foi stuuies to ieplicate the case. Successive
ieplications of single cases builu stiongei eviuence foi alteinative explanations; that
is, foi new theoiies.
F&-505(5,0 ,- ;1&,3+
In case stuuy ieseaich, theoiy is uefineu as statements of ielationship
between two oi moie vaiiables. An example of a theoiy is the following: concussions
can leau to biain uegeneiation whose symptoms aie similai to those of Lou uehiig's
uisease. Statements that iepiesent theoiy aie baseu upon eviuence foi the viability
of the concepts of the theoiy anu of the ielationships between them. Thus, the
ieseaicheis investigating Lou uehiig's uisease baseu theii conclusions on copious
case mateiial.
SS
Woiking theoiies aie statements of ielationships among two oi moie
concepts wheie ieseaicheis have not piesenteu eviuence foi the viability of the
concepts anu of the ielationships between them. Reseaicheis typically use woiking
theoiies in the couise of ueveloping theoiy as they select theii samples, collect uata,
anu analyze uata. Something has to guiue the uecisions they make as they uo sample
selection anu collect anu analyze uata. What guiues these uecisions aie woiking
theoiies.
Neuical ieseaicheis on Lou uehiig's uisease hau a woiking hypothesis about
Lou uehiig's uisease that involveu ielationships between a histoiy of concussion,
biain uegeneiation, anu symptoms of Lou uehiig's uisease. In oiuei to test this
woiking hypothesis, they hau to select compaiison gioups in oiuei to test theii
woiking hypothesis.
Sometimes ieseaicheis use the teim 4?="0423$3 oi M")*$7H 4?="0423$3 as
synonyms foi woiking theoiy. They use M")*$7H 4?="042323 the same way they use
the teim M")*$7H 042")$23. To complicate matteis even fuithei, the teims 4?="0423$3
is useu to name the statements of ielationships that ieseaicheis ueiive fiom theii
initial conceptual fiamewoiks anu that they test in the couise of uoing the ieseaich.
As soon as they use these hypotheses in the conuuct of ieseaich, they become
woiking hypotheses. These aie complicateu iueas that iequiie ieseaicheis to be
able to think flexibly anu expansively.
Q50A% (, #,0B&4()$6 M3$/&K,3A%
Reseaicheis soonei oi latei link theii theoiies, hypotheses, woiking theoiies,
anu woiking hypotheses to ielateu ieseaich anu theoiy. Some case stuuy ieseaich
begins with conceptual fiamewoiks baseu on peivious ieseaich anu theoiy anu
sometimes also on piofessional anu peisonal knowleuge. Reseaicheis uevelop
hypotheses fiom conceptual fiamewoiks. They fuithei uevelop anu test these
hypotheses in the conuuct of the ieseaich.
In some instances wheie ieseaicheis begin with conceptual fiamewoiks,
ieseaicheis might not ueiive hypotheses fiom the conceptual fiamewoik. Insteau,
ieseaicheis uevelop woiking hypotheses aftei they have begun theii ieseaich. To
S4
uo this, they take open-enueu appioaches in theii effoits to unueistanu inuiviuual
cases. Eventually, they uevelop woiking hypotheses.
Finally, some case stuuy ieseaich uoes not begin with conceptual
fiamewoiks at all, but insteau ieseaicheis uevelop woiking hypotheses thiough
open-enueu ieseaich. 0nce they have woiking hypotheses, they then ielate the
woiking hypotheses to existing ieseaich anu theoiyT
No mattei when ieseaicheis ueiive theii hypotheses, they must show how
finuings contiibute to existing ieseaich anu theoiy, challenge existing ieseaich anu
theoiy, anu¡oi pioviue eviuence foi the mouification of existing theoiy. The meuical
ieseaicheis stuuying Lou uehiig's uisease uiu just that. Theii finuings consist of the
theoiies they have uevelopeu, the eviuence that suppoits theii theoiies, anu the
links between the theoiies, the eviuence, anu pievious ieseaich anu theoiy.
In applieu fielus, ieseaicheis must also show the implications of theii
finuings foi piactice. In the stuuy of Lou uehiig's uisease, foi example, the
ieseaicheis iecommenueu when athletes show symptoms of Lou uehiig's uisease
that physicians also iecommenu that physician exploie the hypothesis that the
athletes may have othei uegeneiative uiseases besiues Lou uehiig's. It makes sense
that when patients piesent with symptoms of Lou uehiig's uisease that meuical
peisonnel take a uetaileu histoiy that incluues histoiy of heau tiauma.
G,3& F&($56 ,0 .,3A50: ;1&,35&% $0* #$%& '()*+ @&%&$3B1
As the pievious uiscussion shows, case stuuy ieseaich is theoiy-guiueu
ieseaich anu theoiy uevelopment ieseaich. The thiee ways that ieseaicheis
uevelop woiking hypotheses have names. When ieseaicheis begin theii ieseaich
with a woiking hypothesis¡theoiy ueiiveu fiom theii conceptual fiamewoik, this is
calleu analytic inuuction (AI) oi ueuuctive qualitative analysis (BQA), which is an
upuating of AI. Case stuuies that begin with theoiy go back foi at least 1uu yeais to
the pioceuuies useu at the Chicago School of Sociology.
These initial hypotheses help focus the ieseaich anu thus guiue the conuuct
of the ieseaich, as in selecting samples, guiuing the questions anu the focus of
obseivations, anu in inteipieting finuings. The ieseaicheis who stuuieu Lou
uehiig's uisease useu woiking hypotheses to guiue theii stuuies in this way.
SS
Reseaicheis continually ievise theii woiking hypotheses to fit theii
inteipietations of the finuings. Revisions occui as ieseaicheis look foi cases anu
instances within cases that might contiauict oi auu new uimensions to theii
woiking hypotheses. This is calleu negative case analysis. Reseaicheis typically uo
AI¡BQA when theii goal is to test anu uevelop alieauy existing theoiy oi when they
want a cleai focus at the onset of theii investigations.
Beginning with a cleai focus has many auvantages, incluuing making use of
the liteiatuie ieview that most ieseaicheis conuuct befoie they begin theii ieseaich
anu also to test any iueas ieseaicheis uevelopeu fiom piofessional anu peisonal
expeiience. Bisseitation committees anu funueis iequiie liteiatuie ieviews anu
cleai foci. Theiefoie, ieseaicheis anu stuuents who want to uo case stuuy ieseaich
typically uo liteiatuie ieviews anu begin theii stuuies with woiking hypotheses.
When ieseaicheis uevelop theii woiking hypotheses in the couise of uoing
the ieseaich, this pioceuuie has the name H)"/7626 042")?. The uses of theoiy in
giounueu theoiy aie almost iuentical to the pioceuuies of AI¡BQA. 0nce
ieseaicheis uoing giounueu theoiy have uevelopeu woiking hypotheses that guiue
theii ieseaich, they seek to test anu uevelop it fuithei.
uiounueu theoiists typically use theoietical sampling, which is a way of
selecting the next case to stuuy baseu upon what uiiections the ieseaicheis want to
go in the uevelopment of theii woiking theoiies¡hypotheses. When ieseaicheis uo
not use theoietical sampling in the conuuct of giounueu theoiy, they have to explain
how theii methou of sample selection seiveu the puipose of fuithei ueveloping
theii theoiy.
Reseaicheis who uo an initial ieview of the liteiatuie anu then being theii
ieseaich with no hypotheses to test aie uoing a viable kinu of stuuy. 0nce they
uevelop theii woiking hypotheses, theii pioceuuies aie similai to those of uT anu
IA¡BQA.
As ieseaicheis uevelop anu test woiking hypotheses, they must be awaie
that theii geneial stoie of knowleuge anu the liteiatuie ieview piimes them so that
ceitain theoiies anu iueas aie moie salient in theii minus than otheis. Thus, while
giounueu theoiists to be open-enueu in iuentifying woiking hypotheses, they also
S6
aie moie likely to notice phenomena that aie alieauy salient. Reseaicheis aie nevei
blank slates.
uiounueu theoiists have a name foi piiming, which is theoietical sensitivity.
In uoing giounueu theoiy, the assumption is that ieseaicheis have a wiue iepeitoiie
of knowleuge of theoiies. While this may be so foi seasoneu ieseaicheis, it is not the
case foi most new ieseaicheis. Thus the moie focuseu appioacheu of AI¡BQA may
woik bettei foi new ieseaicheis.
.35(50: ?4 #$%& '()*+ @&%&$3B1
When ieseaicheis wiite up case stuuy ieseaich, they uesciibe the
pioceuuies they useu foi ueveloping, testing, anu ievising woiking hypotheses.
They then uocument the eviuence on which they base the final veisions of theii
woiking hypotheses. Next, they show how theii woiking hypotheses aie similai to,
auu to, contiauict, anu foice mouification of existing theoiy.
Stiong conceptual skills anu capacities foi abstiact ieasoning aie iequiieu
foi this kinu of analysis. In shoit, the finuings of case stuuy ieseaich incluue the
theoiy ieseaicheis have uevelopeu, the eviuence that suppoits the viability of the
theoiy, anu what the theoiy contiibutes to existing knowleuge. In applieu fielus,
ieseaicheis also make suggestions foi how finuings can be useful in piactice,
policies, anu piogiams.
#6$%%5B D7$/46&% ,- #$%& '()*+ @&%&$3B1
The theoiies of Fieuu, Piaget, anu Eiickson aie baseu on case stuuies. They
uiu intensive investigations of inuiviuual units, who weie peisons. They extiacteu
fiom these case stuuies abstiact concepts anu piinciples. They showeu the
giounuing of these abstiactions thiough the piesentation of case mateiial. They
uesciibeu theii ieason. Thiough these effoits, they piouuceu theoiy that
ievolutionizeu unueistanuings of human uevelopment.
Case stuuies aie the founuation of many uisciplines. Laboiatoiy expeiiments
aie case stuuies. Nuch of meuical, legal, social woik, anu clinical psychology
euucation is baseu on case stuuies. Stuuents, with the guiuance of piofessois, take
intensive looks at inuiviuual units in oiuei to ueiive lessons oi woiking hypotheses
about these cases.
S7
They then use these woiking hypotheses to help them unueistanu
subsequent cases. They stuuy the chaiacteiistics of the subsequent cases anu uo the
best job they can to see how theii woiking hypotheses help them to unueistanu anu
to make uecisions about these subsequent cases. Piofessionals built theii expeitise
when they extiact geneial piinciples fiom case stuuies, test these piinciples on
subsequent cases, anu when the piinciples fit, use these piinciples to guiue theii
piactice. Thioughout theii piactice with inuiviuual cases, piofessionals continually
monitoi whethei theii thinking anu juugments fit the paiticulaiities of the cases.
! E,(& ,0 Q$0:)$:&
The language of social ieseaich can be confusing to newcomeis. Foi example,
the teim #"7#2=0 is a synonyms foi 1%)$%9&2s. uiounueu theoiists seek coie
concepts, which aie the builuing blocks of hypotheses anu theoiies. As shown in the
pievious uiscussion, the teims 4?="0423$s anu 042")? may be useu inteichangeably
anu which teim to useu uepenus upon context. The notion of conceptual fiamewoik
is confusing, too.
Typically #"7#2=0/%& 5)%:2M")* iefeis to the entiie fiist section of a pioposal
oi ieseaich iepoit, enuing at the methous section. Some ieseaicheis, howevei, use
the teim #"7#2=0/%& 5)%:2M")* to stanu foi initial hypotheses anu sometimes foi
woiking hypotheses anu woiking theoiy, anu even foi the final veision of a theoiy
that is pait of the iesults of the ieseaich. Again, the contexts in which the teim is
useu pioviue some clues as the meanings useis intenu.
Some othei useful teims aie concept-inuicatoi mouel anu fiist anu seconu
oiuei concepts. Concepts in the concept-inuicatoi mouel aie abstiactions fiom
inuicatois. Inuicatois aie uesciiptions of paiticulai conciete social piocesses. Fiist
oiuei concepts aie uefineu in the same way as inuicatois. Seconu-oiuei concepts
aie uefineu the same way as concepts in the concept-inuicatoi mouel.
The iueas of concept-inuicatoi anu fiist anu seconu-oiuei concepts aie
impoitant in case stuuy ieseaich. In iepoiting finuings, ieseaicheis must piesent
theii theoiies, which aie baseu on concepts, anu the eviuence foi theii theoiies,
which aie inuicatois oi fiist-oiuei concepts. Situating finuings within existing
S8
ieseaich anu theoiy is the next step in builuing case stuuy finuings. The final step is
composeu of iecommenuations foi fuithei ieseaich anu applications.
F5%B)%%5,0
Case stuuy ieseaich is valuable because of its contiibution to theoiy. Without
iefeience to theoiy, case stuuies pioviue anecuotal infoimation. In othei woius,
case stuuies only have value in ielationship to cuiiently helu unueistanuings anu
piactices.
Case stuuy ieseaich is uifficult. Reseaicheis must have supeiioi conceptual
skills. They must be able to apply concepts anu hypotheses to paiticulai situations,
to extiact concepts anu hypotheses fiom paiticulai situations, to use eviuence to
mouify woiking hypotheses anu to uevelop new woiking hypotheses, to explain
how they uevelopeu the theoiy, to wiite theoiy cleaily, to piesent the eviuence that
suppoits theii contention that theii theoiy is viable anu cieuible, anu ielate the
theoiy they uevelop to what is alieauy known.
If ieseaicheis begin with a conceptual fiamewoik, they must be able to
iuentify the iange of ieseaich anu theoiy that is ielevant to theii topic, unueistanu,
categoiize, anu synthesize this infoimation, anu, in AI¡BQA, ueiive hypotheses fiom
the conceptual fiamewoik. They then must fuithei uevelop anu test theii initial
hypotheses, seek uisconfiiming eviuence, keep tiack of the changes they make in
theii woiking hypotheses anu the uata that leu them to make changes. They then
have to situate theii finuings in what is alieauy known In choosing to uevelop
woiking hypotheses while engageu in the ieseaich, in the style of giounueu theoiy,
ieseaicheis must have skills that aie similai to those of ieseaicheis who begin theii
stuuies with hypotheses.
!8,)( (1& !)(1,3
}ane F. uilgun, Ph.B., LICSW, is a piofessoi, School of Social Woik, 0niveisity
of Ninnesota, Twin Cities, 0SA. See Piofessoi uilgun's othei aiticles, books, anu
chiluien's stoiies on Amazon Kinule, iBooks, anu Sciibu.com foi a vaiiety of e-
ieaueis anu mobile uevices.
@&-&3&0B&% X M)3(1&3 @&$*50:
S9
Biyant, Antony & Kathy Chaimaz (Eus.), K42 !%H2 4%769""* "5 H)"/7626
042")?. Thousanu 0aks, CA: Sage.
Coibin, }uliet & Anselm Stiauss. (2uu8). \%3$#3 "5 ^/%&$0%0$12 )232%)#4T
K2#47$^/23 %76 =)"#26/)23 5") 6212&"=$7H H)"/7626 042")? (Siu eu.). Thousanu 0aks,
CA: Sage.
Covan, Eleanoi Kiassen (2uu7). The uiscoveiy of giounueu theoiy in
piactice: The legacy of multiple methous In Antony Biyant & Kathy Chaimaz (Eus.),
K42 !%H2 4%769""* "5 H)"/7626 042")? (pp. S8-9S). Thousanu 0aks, CA: Sage.
Benzin, Noiman (1997). Coffee with Anselm. ./%&$0%0$12 J%:$&? P232%)#4+ EE
WE F IS+ 1-S. http:¡¡www.sciibu.com¡uoc¡27SS26S6¡Coffee-with-Anselm
Ellet, William. (2uu7). K42 #%32 30/6? 4%769""*T @"M 0" )2%6+ 6$3#/33 %76
M)$02 =2)3/%3$12&? %9"/0 #%32 30/6$23; Baivaiu, NA: Baivaiu Business School.
Espino, Nichelle N., Susana N. Nuñoz, & }uuy Naiquez Kiyama (2u1u).
Tiansitioning fiom uoctoial stuuy to the acauemy: Theoiizing tienzas of iuentity foi
Latina sistei scholais. ./%&$0%0$12 C7^/$)?+ E]WELS+ 8u4-818.
ulasei, Bainey & Anselm Stiauss (l967). K42 6$3#"12)? "5 H)"/7626 042")?;
Chicago: Aluine.
uilgun, }ane F. (1992). Bypothesis geneiation in social woik ieseaich. B"/)7%& "5
!"#$%& !2)1$#2 P232%)#4+ E-+ 11S-1SS.
http:¡¡www.sciibu.com¡uoc¡4Suuuu17¡Bypothesis-ueneiation-in-Social-Woik-
Reseaich
uilgun, }ane F. (199S). Eiik Eiikson anu case stuuy ieseaich. Cuiient Issues in
Qualitative Reseaich, 8(1), 1-2. http:¡¡www.sciibu.com¡uoc¡S841481S¡Eiik-Eiikson-
Case-Stuuy-Reseaich
uilgun, }ane F. (1994). A case foi case stuuies in social woik ieseaich. !"#$%&
(")*+ ,Q+ S71-S8u.
uilgun, }ane F. (2u11). Couing in ueuuctive qualitative analysis.
http:¡¡www.sciibu.com¡uoc¡47SS1S2S¡Couing-in-Beuuctive-Qualitative-Analysis
uilgun, }ane F. (2u1u). A piimei on ueuuctive qualitative analysis as theoiy
testing anu theoiy uevelopment. http:¡¡www.sciibu.com¡uoc¡SS8862SS¡A-Piimei-
on-Beuuctive-Qualitative-Analysis-as-Theoiy-Testing-Theoiy-Bevelopment
4u
uilgun, }ane F. (2u1u). Nethous foi enhancing theoiy anu knowleuge about
pioblems, policies, anu piactice. In Katheiine Biiai, }oan 0ime, Roy Ruckueschel, &
Ian Shaw, K42 !%H2 4%769""* "5 3"#$%& M")* )232%)#4 (pp. 281-297);
uilgun, }ane F. (2u1u). The powei of the case.
http:¡¡www.sciibu.com¡uoc¡S6u79uu1¡The-Powei-of-the-Case
uilgun, }ane F. (2uuS). Qualitative ieseaich anu family psychology. B"/)7%& "5
J%:$&? Psychology,19(1), 4u-Su.
NcKee, Ann C., & Bianuon E. uavett, et al (2u1u). TBP-4S pioteinopathy anu
motoi neuion uisease in chionic tiaumatic encephalopathy. B"/)7%& "5
G2/)"=%04"&"H? F ZA=2)$:270%& G2/)"&"H?+ ]QWQS, 918-299.
Steinbeig, Robeit }. (2uu9). 8"H7$0$12 =3?#4"&"H? (S
th
eu.). Belmont, CA:
Wauswoith.
Stiauss, Anselm (1992). A peisonal histoiy of giounueu theoiy. Qualtiative
Family Reseaich, S (2)J 1-2. http:¡¡www.sciibu.com¡uoc¡446S9994¡Anselm-Stiauss-
Wiites-A-Peisonal-Bistoiy-of-uiounueu-Theoiy-0thei-Aiticles
Tiacy, Saiah }. (2u1u). Qualitative quality: Eight "big-tent" ciiteiia foi
excellent qualitative ieseaich. ./%&$0%0$12 C7^/$)?+ E] WOS+ 8S7-8S1.
Yin, Robeit K. (2u1u). 8%32 30/6? )232%)#4T <23$H7 %76 :204"63 (4
th
eu.).
Thousanu 0aks, CA: Sage.

A  Case  Study  of  a  Woman   Who  Perpetrated  Child  Sexual  Abuse  as  a  Young  Teen   and  Then  Stopped  
Pat  is  a  37  year-­‐old  woman  who  abused  children  sexually  when  she  was  a  young   teen.    The  children  she  abused  were  her  two  younger  brothers  and  several  young   children  from  families  for  whom  she  babysat.    She  stopped  abusing  the  children  for   several  reasons,  including  not  wanting  to  do  to  them  what  had  been  done  to  her,  not   wanting  others  to  know  she  did  such  "horrible  things,"  and  fear  of  being  caught.    The   abuse  ended  when  she  ran  away  from  home  to  get  away  from  her  father’s  sexual   abuse  of  her  and  from  the  chaos  of  her  family  life.  This  article  is  in  several  parts.    It   begins  with  a  description  of  the  usefulness  of  case  studies,  shows  how  previous   research  and  theory  on  the  effects  of  childhood  maltreatment  and  on  risk  and   resilience  informed  this  case  study,  places  Pat  within  typologies  of  perpetrators,   describes  the  method  of  research  for  this  study,  presents  the  case  study  itself,  and   then  concludes  with  a  discussion.   The  Usefulness  of  Case  Studies     Case  studies  are  used  routinely  in  educating  physicians,  attorneys,  and  

business  people.    They  have  provided  foundation  knowledge  for  the  disciplines  of   psychology,  human  development,  family  therapy,  psychotherapy,  psychoanalysis,   anthropology,  and  sociology  (Feagin,  Orum  &  Sjoberg,  l991;  Gilgun,  1994;  Gilgun,   Handel,  &  Daly,  1992;  Handel,  1991).      With  much  to  recommend  them  and  having  a   rich  tradition,  case  studies  provide  a  foundation  for  the  development  of  new   knowledge.       2  

 

Case  studies  are  not  useful  for  estimating  probabilities,  and  the  findings  of  a  

particular  case  are  not  guaranteed  to  fit  any  other  case.    Another  case  on  a  similar   topic  may  have  quite  different  characteristics.    Case  studies,  however,  are  highly   informative  when  they  are  used  as  sources  of  working  hypotheses  which  can   provide  cues  and  direction  in  similar  cases  to  clinicians,  policy  makers,  and  program   planners.    For  example,  a  case  study  of  Aunt  Ida  may  not  represent  the  experiences   of  all  aunts,  all  Idas,  or  all  women.    The  patterns  in  Ida's  life,  however,  may  be   helpful  in  understanding  the  lives  of  others  and  could  be  representative  of  the   themes  in  the  lives  of  others.    If  Ida's  case  shows  that  she  experienced  severe   childhood  trauma  and  received  sensitive,  on-­‐going  support  and  her  adult  outcomes   were  positive,  then  it  is  reasonable  to  assume  that  others  with  high  support  and   high  trauma  can  hope  to  overcome  some  major  effects  of  trauma.    In  areas  in  which   we  have  little  knowledge,  case  studies  can  lead  to  the  discovery  of  exciting  new   ideas  that  could  have  major  repercussions  for  prevention,  intervention,  and  social   enhancement.       Case  studies  can  provide  emotionally  evocative  and  compelling  descriptions  

of  how  subjects  see  and  interpret  their  life  experiences  and  relationships  and  how   they  account  for  their  own  behaviors.    Denzin  (l989),  for  example,  said,  "The   perspectives  and  experiences  of  those  persons  who  are  served  by  applied  programs   must  be  grasped,  interpreted,  and  understood,  if  solid,  effective  applied  programs   are  to  be  created"  [italics  are  in  the  original  text]  (p.  12).    Case  studies  can  offer   insight  into  subjective  experiences  and  interpretations  and  can  move  others  to   individual  and  collective  actions.      

 

3  

 

As  central  as  the  perspectives  of  subjects  may  be,  knowledge  from  other  

sources  can  be  helpful  in  interpreting  case  studies.    Research  and  theory  and  clinical   and  personal  experience  are  valuable  in  helping  to  make  sense  of  case  studies  and   can  provide  additional  guidance  for  program  development  and  clinical  interventions   (Allen-­‐Meares  &  Lane,  1990;  Gilgun,  1994).    In  the  present  research,  the  author's   previous  research  and  research  and  theory  on  risk  and  resilience  are  used  in  the   construction  of  the  interview  guide,  in  the  writing  of  Pat's  life  story,  and  in  the   interpretation  of  Pat's  life  story.   Risk  and  Resilience     Why  some  people  become  perpetrators  of  child  sexual  abuse  and  some  

people  from  similar  backgrounds  do  not  is  a  question  that  has  implications  for  social   enhancement,  prevention,  and  intervention.    Being  maltreated  in  childhood  has   been  identified  as  a  major  risk  factor  in  the  perpetration  of  various  forms  of   violence,  including  rape  and  child  molestation  (Gilgun,  1990a,  1990b;  Groth,  1979),   in  the  perpetration  of  physical  abuse  and  neglect  (Egeland,  Jacobvitz,  &  Sroufe,   1988,  and  in  adult  criminality  (Widom,  1989).    Kaufman  and  Zigler  (l987)  estimated   that  about  one  third  of  persons  maltreated  in  childhood  become  perpetrators.     These  researchers  suggest  that  while  a  significant  number  of  maltreated  children   become  perpetrators  and  most  perpetrators  were  maltreated  in  childhood,  most   persons  maltreated  in  childhood  do  not  become  part  of  a  cycle  of  abuse.     Exposure  to  models  of  violence  may  be  yet  another  risk  factor.    Witnessing  

abuse  of  parents  or  siblings  appears  to  have  an  effect  similar  to  being  a  target  of   abuse  (Jouriles,  Murphy,  &  O'Leary,  1989).    Exposure  to  pornography  and  

 

4  

    Since  not  all  persons  with  one  or  all  of  the  possible  risk  factors  for  violence   become  violent.  1984.  1990a.     While  exposure  to  the  risk  factors  of  child  maltreatment  and  other  forms  of   violence  may  not  lead  directly  to  the  perpetration  of  violence.  among  those  factors  which  distinguished  those   who  sexually  abused  children  from  those  who  did  not  were  the  presence  of  a   confidant  relationship  (Gilgun.  this  suggests  the  existence  of  positive  mediators.  depression.  such  as   childhood  losses  and  abandonment.    Anxiety.  Sroufe  &  Rutter.    A  history  of  being  maltreated  is  a  risk   factor  for  initial  and  long-­‐term  mental  health  problems.    Other  experiences.  learning     5   .  1982.  even  in  the  absence  of   either  or  both  childhood  maltreatment  and  exposure  to  models  of  violence.    These  factors  are  associated  with  positive  outcomes  when   individuals  are  exposed  to  risks  for  negative  outcomes  (Masten.  the  ability  to  express  thoughts   and  feelings.     These  factors  appeared  to  be  protective  against  the  development  of  sexually  abusive   behaviors.  1990b.    In  my  previous  research.    In  related  research.  often  called   protective  factors.  1991).  1989).    It  is   likely  that  violence  results  from  a  combination  of  risk  factors  and  not  one  factor  in   isolation.  &  Garmezy.idealization  of  male  sexual  aggression  in  peer  groups  and  the  mass  media  have  been   linked  to  the  perpetration  of  violence  (Miedzian.   1990).  similar  factors  have  been  identified  as  protective   (Masten  et  al.  chemical  abuse  in  families.  family  dislocations.  Best.   chemical  dependency.  1992).  Werner.   and  natural  disasters  may  also  be  risk  factors  for  violence.  this  exposure  places   individuals  at  risk  for  other  negative  effects.  and  feelings  of  others.  and  responsiveness  to  the  wishes.  1990.  thoughts.  difficulties  in  interpersonal  relationships.

 eating  disorders.  is   concerned  with  numbers  and  quantification.  and.       Typologies     In  the  Mathews.  1992.   protections.  Pat  would  fit  the  category  of  intergenerationally  predisposed  sexual   offender  and  would  partially  fit  the  teacher/lover  category.    Children  who  have   been  maltreated  have  more  behavioral  and  emotional  problems  than  children  not   identified  as  maltreated  (Briere.    She  also  had  multiple  adverse  outcomes.    The  themes  in  her  life   illustrate  and  add  to  research  and  theory  on  risk  and  resilience.  and  Speltz  (l991)  typology  of  woman   perpetrators.  1988).  and  outcomes  of  this  woman's  life  history  in  order  to  provide  cues  and   directions.   and  sexual  difficulties  are  associated  with  child  maltreatment.    Its  purpose  is  to  show  the  risks.    Most  research  on  child  sexual  abuse  involves  a  much  larger  sample.  anger.    The  third  category.   THE  PRESENT  STUDY         The  present  study  is  a  life  story  of  a  woman  who  abused  children  sexually   during  her  adolescence  and  apparently  stopped.  therefore.  working  hypotheses  for  dealing  with  other  similar  cases.  had  many  of  the  risk  factors  and  some  of  the  protective  factors  identified  in   the  research.  the  subject  of  the  present  case   study.    We  know  so  little  about  how  persons  develop  violent  behavior  and   why  they  stop.  aggression.  Matthews.    Pat.  Browne  &  Finkelhor.disabilities.  self-­‐appraisals  of  low  self-­‐worth.  that     6   .  and  seeks  to  generalize  to  larger   populations.    Studies  which  focus  on  individual  lives  and  the  interpretations   individuals  construct  of  their  lives  and  which  are  theoretically-­‐based  show  great   promise  for  adding  to  our  knowledge  base.     The  present  study  is  quite  distinct  both  in  its  goals  and  its  methods  of  researching   those  goals.

of  male  coerced.  she  simply  took   sex  from  her  victims.    We  discussed  her  sexual   history  and  her  interpretations  of  major  events  in  this  history.  sexually   aggressives.  1989)   and  on  research  and  theory  on  risk  and  resilience.   She  also  would  fit  the  criteria  for  a  sexually  compulsive  adolescent  sex   offender.       7   .    As  she  says  in  her  life  history.  1992a.    She  saw  herself  as  gentle.    Pat  described  in  detail  her   experiences  in  her  family  of  origin  and  how  she  fared  over  time  in  other  social   groupings  such  as  extended  family.  she  saw  herself  as  being  close  and  nurturing  to  her  two  younger   brothers.  especially  the  children  for  whom  she  babysat.  and  peer-­‐group  influenced.    Pat  fits  two  of  Gilgun's  (1992)  seven   categories:  the  taker  and  the  lover.  1990a.    Exposure  to  violence   as  a  target  and  as  witness  and  her  own  perpetrating  behavior  were  discussed.  is  not  appropriate.  and  soulmate.  peer  groups.  conqueror.  under  socialized  child  exploiters.    As  her   life  history  shows.      Categories  she  does  not  fit  include  avenger.  and  men.  disturbed  impulsives.  using  a  interview  guide  based  on  my   previous  research  (Gilgun.   METHOD     I  interviewed  Pat  for  four  hours.   playmate.  which  was  the  case  for  Pat.  showing  no  regard  or  rationalizing  for  a  time  the  effects  of  her   behaviors  on  the  children.  and  this  is  similar  to  the  Mathews  et  al's  teacher/lover  type.  and  she  therefore  fits  the  Gilgun's   category  of  lover  as  well.  whose  other  categories  include  naive   experimenters.  and  nurturing  with  her   two  younger  brothers  when  she  abused  them.  as  if  they  were   there  for  her  use.    Predisposed  offenders  come  from  families  with   an  extensive  history  of  abuse  over  generations.  1990b.  Gilgun  &  Connor.  kind.  1992b.  as  described  by  O'Brien  (l984).

 too.     My  mother  is  very  much  an  alcoholic.  public  facts  but  on   her  interpretations-­‐-­‐which  can  be  quite  private-­‐-­‐and  how  she  accounted  for  her  life.  1987).    My  father  sexually  abused  me  and  my  brothers  for   as  long  as  I  can  remember.  as  a  story  (Polkinghorne.    I  edited  the  transcript  of  the   interview  using  the  categories  of  the  interview  guide.  and  my  father  swore  he  never  would  be.    I'm  37.      Findings  of  the  case  study  are  presented   in  narrative  form.  and  outcomes.       The  interview  of  the  present  research  was  tape  recorded.  discussed  the   reactions  of  a  perpetrator  of  child  abuse  when.  1992).  after  a  public  speech  on  being  a  child   molester.  and  coded  in  order  to  identify  the  patterns  of  risk.     A  significant  finding  of  the  principal  investigator's  previous  research  is  that  an   individual's  account  can  make  a  great  deal  of  sense  to  the  individual  but  can  be   mystifying  to  outsiders.    He  drinks   but  I've  never  seen  him  drunk  that  I'm  aware  of.    My   father's  father  was  an  alcoholic.  for  instance.    I've  never  seen  him  really  drink.  transcribed   verbatim.    In  their  accounts.  subjects  reveal   their  taken-­‐for-­‐granted  world  that  for  outsiders  may  be  mystifying.  a  usual  method  in  life  history   research  (Bogdan  &  Biklen.    He  was  physically  and  emotionally  abusive.  "How  can  you  do  such  things  to  babies?"    He  was  shocked   and  asked.  therefore.  "Didn't  she  know  those  children  were  objects  to  me  (p.  You  know.  a  woman  asked.    Pat's  life  history  account  was  not  focused  on  verifiable.    Gilgun  and  Connor  (l989).     PAT'S  STORY   My  name  is  Pat.  250)?"    He  said  he   did  not  understand  the  straight  world.   he's  kind  of  one  of  those  drinkers  that  is  so  in  control  you  can't  really  tell.         8   .  protective  factors  such   as  confidant  relationships.

 Running  Away.    After  age  15.    Do  you  know  what   I'm  saying?    It  was  like  there  was  always  that  as  a  payment  for  staying  in  there.  anxiety.    I  was  in    psychiatric  units   quite  a  bit  before  19.  but  I  didn't  live  anywhere  else  but  with   my  family.    God.     Outpatient.  steady   and  that  kind  of  stuff.  they  weren't  married  at  14  but.  I've  kind  of   gotten.  and  an  alcoholic  now.  too.    I  didn't  really  have  a  problem   with  alcohol.    She  was  14  when  she  got  involved   with  my  dad.     Drugs.  you  know.  six  and  a  half  months.    She  was  more  addicted  to  pills   when  I  was  growing  up.    I  was  too  young  to  run  away.     I  started  running  away  as  soon  as  I  felt  old  enough.    To  get  out  of  the  house.    Sex.      I've  abused  drugs.  even  when  I   started  at  10.  and  the  boys  had  sex  with  me.  I  was  in  six  or  seven  foster  homes-­‐-­‐relative  placements  and   other  foster  homes.  I've  used  it.  and  then  I  overate.  11  years  old.  too.    I  lived  on  the  streets  on  and  off.  Psychiatric  Hospitalizations       I  ran  away  a  lot  between  11  and  15.  like   once  I  had  to  stay  in  a  boy's  shack.    I  was   in  treatment    until  I  was  30  and  then  I've  not  been  in  since  I  was  30.    I  just   found  out  how  old  she  was.   My  mother  is  an  alcoholic  and  used  pills.    Now.  I  went  into  drug  treatment.       9   .    and  then  after  that  emotions  caused  me   not  to  want  to  eat.  age  19.  but  they  was  always  just   overdosing  and  kept  me  in  for  a  few  days  and  leting  me  out.     I  went  into  drug  treatment  when  I  was  17.      When  I  ran  away.     You  know  so  it  was  something  I'd  always  thought  of  but  just  didn't.  I  couldn't  list  the  therapies  I've  been  in.  two  and  a  half  years.    I  had  a  problem  with  drugs.  and  he  was  20.    I  was  in  inpatient.  I've  not  really  abused  alcohol.    I  was  a  speed   freak  so  I  wasn't  eating  because  of  speed.    So  what  is  that?    How  many  years  difference?.    You  know  so  I.

  I'm  sure  I  picked  a  friend  that  didn't  do  that.    I   didn't  feel  so  scared.  that  it  felt  bad  to  me  that  I  couldn't  get  away  from  it  anywhere.    Friends  sit  around  and  talk   about  kissing  Johnny  and  those  kinds  of  things  that  I  couldn't  handle.    My  mom  did     10   .    My  memory  was  that  I   never  went  back  after  that  other  than  one  time  to  confront  my  father.  I  basically  feel  really  alone.    I  was   very  insecure  alone.  I  could  walk  down  the  hall  at  school.    I  did  tell  about  my  father's  sexual  abuse  when  I  was   15.  but  I  do  remember  it.    I  knew  I  was  all  right  if  I  had  at  least  one  friend.  but  it  was   really  a  problem  when  I  was  young.  you  know.  "Well.    I  ran  away  to  a  girlfriend's  mom's  who  had   moved  out  of  the  city  into  the  country.    The  first  time  I  ran  away  and   stayed  in  the  shack.    I  ran  away  because  I  felt  big  enough.  I've  always  sort  of  had  one  good  friend.    I  thought  I  could  live  on  my  own.I  remember  it  was  a  horrible  experience  for  me.  So.  I   had  at  least  one  person.  and  the  boys  went  out  there.  I  never  told  her  about  my  family.    And  what  do  you  do?    You  say.    I  told  her  mom  and  she  called  up  my   mom  and  asked  my  mom  to  come  out  and  told  my  mom.    Although  I  have  some  support."    You  know  what  I  mean.    I  felt  safe  there.   my  father  kisses  me.     Telling  her  mother  about  the  abuse.    It  was  away  from  my  little   hometown.     I  wouldn't  tell  my  friend  everything.    I  thought  it  didn't  matter  if  I  lived  on  my   own.    Do  you  know   what  I'm  saying?    It  was  like  there  was  nowhere  to  go.    Other  than   that.  Yeah.  I  thought  other  people  would  see  how  weird  I  was.   Confidante  Relationships     I  mean.  yeah.    I  don't  know  if  it  was  all  of  them  or   one  of  them.    If  I  had  a  good  girlfriend.    Do  you  know  what  I'm  saying?    I  do  remember   that.

 he.     First  time  she  told.     Family  History  of  Abuse            My  mom  told  me  she  was  abused  by  her  father.  but  he  talked  about  his  family.    I  think  he's  in  prison  for  rape.  and  I  didn't  know  whether  to  believe   him.    What's  so  funny  about  it   was  that  my  mom  was  an  adult  telling  me  that.    She  told  me  when  I  went  through   talking  about  all  my  stuff.  and  Mike  found  him.  she  saw     11   .sit  down  with  me  and  my."  but  she  wouldn't  talk  about  it.    My   mom  divorced  him.   and  he  could  accept  me.    He  took  her  way  out  somewhere  and  attempted  to  be  sexual  with  her.  I  was  probably  around  14."    She  proceeded  to  walk  or   something  and  then  he  took  her  home.    So  it  didn't  happen.    My  friend  Mike  was  the  first  person  I  told  about  my   father.  "You  take  me  home  now  or  I'll  walk.    He  was  married  again  before  the  divorce  was  final.  and  my  sister  came  out  at  that  time  and   said.  committed  suicide.     My  mom  told  me  that  she  was  also  molested  by  my  uncle.  you  know.    I  never  thought  he  was  crazy.  a  lot.    She  was  an  adult  when  he  did  that.  my  sister  and.    My   stepmother  is  10  years  younger  than  him.    I  don't  get  along  with  my  stepmother.  he  took  her.  about  my  father  and  about  my  uncle's  molestation  of  me.  my   girlfriend's  mom.  he  took.  crazy  family.    My  father   wasn't  there.    The  only  person  until  I  finally  told  my.    That's  what  I   thought.  he  did  do  something  to  me.    He  used  to  tell  me  about  raping  girls.    Do  you  know  what  I'm   saying?    I  never  was  afraid  of  him.  but  she  saw.    So  that's  why  we  were  so  close.  "Yes.    He  came  from  a   really  crazy.     Yeah.    I  could  really  accept  him.    His   father  had  hung  himself.   and  she  just  said.  he  was  supposed  to  give  her  a  ride  home.    I  never  thought  he'd  hurt  me.    We  used  to  talk  a  lot.

        She  couldn't  tell  me  he  was  sexually  abusive  but  I'm  sure  he  probably  was.    There  was  the  big  thing  going.  my  mom  got  beat  up  by  my  father.   Witnessed  Physical  Abuse  of    Mother     From  the  time  I  remember.  she  asked  me  why  my  father  and  I  were  having   problems.  since  I  was  real  young.    It  really  was  crazy.  There's  so  much  that  it  can  easily  slip  my   mind.    She  proceeded  to  tell  me  how  her  husband  was  very   abusive  and  an  alcoholic  and  physically  abusive  of  her.  you  know.  98  pounds  most  of  my  life.   but  she  had  had  a  long  life.     12   .    She   was  93  years  old  and.  and  I  told  her.    My  grandmother  eventually  in  later  life   lived  with  his  brother.    She  was  five  feet.     Told  grandmother  everything.  They   kind  of  did  that  since  I  ran  away.    She  was  like   five  feet  he  was  like  six  feet  something.    It's  crazy.  wanted  to  hear   everything.    I  mean  my   dad  had  to  learn  that  behavior  somewhere.that  as  her  being  a  victim  which  I  just  told.  And  she  did  die  shortly  after  that.  just  from  the  things  that  I  picked  up  I   really  think  he  was  probably  sexually  abusive  with  my  sister."    I  felt  that  she  was  asking  me.  I  felt  she  was  ready  to  hear  everything.    I  told  her.  my  whole  family  and  extended  family  ostracized  me.  or  his  mother.     There's  always  these  stories.    There  was  these  stories  about   him  being  really  attached  to  my  sister  and  about  giving  her  money  and  money   always  under  her  plate.  "Never  tell  your  grandmother-­‐-­‐she'd   die.    I  talked  to  my  grandmother  who-­‐-­‐this   was  not  that  long  ago  like  three  years  ago-­‐-­‐this  was  his  father.  all  this  stuff.    So  I  think.    When  I  went  to  see  my   grandmother  when  she  was  93.    My  grandfather  was  an  alcoholic.  I  don't  remember  my  grandfather  because  he  died  by   the  time  I  was  maybe  five  or  something.

   He  was  pretty.  you  know.  she  was  pretty  neat.    She  was  beautiful.a  very  tiny  woman.    As  an  adult.    I  never  thought  she  loved  him  or  anything  like  that.    Since  I've  met  my  own  needs  and  taken  care  of   those  little  kids  and.  you  know  straight  A  student.  and  he  possessed   that.  you  know.         Relationship  with  Mother     My  relationship  with  my  mother  is  all  right  in  the  sense  that  I'm  not  so  needy   of  her.  I  needed  her  when  I  was  a  child  but  I   still  carried  that  into  adulthood.    Now  I  see  him  as  a  little  boy.  She's  neat  for  a  14   year-­‐old.  and  had  a  neat.  that  kind   of  stuff.  a   selfish  little  boy.  to  me  always.  real   violent  with  her.  nervous  breakdowns.    You  know.      My  mom  was  a  cheerleader.    Even  in  conversation  she  acts   younger.    Punctured  ear  drums.     She's  still  stuck  at  14.  majorettes?       She  was.    That's  about  the  age  I  would  say.    I  don't  think  he  loved  her.  I  think  he  just  thought   he  was  hot.  a  batonist  or  whatever  you  call  those.    I  really  needed  her  for  a  long  time  and  really  hated  her  because  I  was  so   empty.  I  really  tried  to  get  those  needs  met  which  she  couldn't  meet   because  they  were  child's  needs.   Relationship  with    Father   Growing  up.  his  younger  days.  he  was  a  monster.  I  feel  we  get  along  much  better.    until  my  father  finally  came  in  and  took  her  away  from  all  of  it.    If  I  wanted  her  to  be  a  mom  she  could  never  do  that  in  any  way.    I  still  see  her  as  much   younger  than  me  emotionally  and  in  our  relationship.    I  think  he  sexually  abused  other  people  and  probably  his     13   .      He  was  a  very  good-­‐ looking  guy  also  in  his  pictures.  I  think  my   father  puts  us  down.    She  sees  herself  younger  than  me.    He  really  only  cares  about  his  own  needs.  I  don't.

    He  had  this  heart  problem  or  something.  he   doesn't  have  any  boundaries.  which  my  mom  tells   me  she  did  with  her  mom  and  dad.  it  was   like.  I'm  not  exactly  sure.    He  was  in   good  shape.    Yeah.    and  they  fixed  it.      I  tend  to  believe  her.  and.  the  one  that  died  when  he  was  2.  some  medical   problem.  you  know.  she  was  just  taking   him  home  from  the  hospital.  and  they  called  her  by  the  time  she  got  home  and  said  that  he  had  died.  it  was  pretty  violent.  or  he  had  just.  the  kid.    I  asked  my  mom  why   she  stayed  with  my  dad  because  he  was  such  an  animal.    He  sent  her  to  the  hospital  many   times."    See  I'm  not-­‐-­‐don't  get   me  wrong-­‐-­‐but  I'm  talking  about-­‐-­‐Oh.  I  remember  when  I  was  12  years  old  my  mom  still  going  to  that  grave  and   mourning  and  crying.    I  mean.  and  she  told  me  the  reason  why  she  grieved  over  him  so   much  was  because  she  never  expected  him  to  die.  and  he  had  been  in  the  hospital  and   had  surgery.       Afraid  Father  Would  Kill  Mother  and  Her     I  was  afraid  he  was  going  to  kill  my  mom.  God.  this  death  of  this  kid.  I   really  believed  he  killed  him  when  I  went  through  treatment  and  all  that  because  it   was  a  real  painful  kind  of  thing  for  my  mom.  from  the  time  I  remember     14   .  I  was   really  like.  valve  surgery  or  something.  I  really  think  that  he  is  sexually  compulsive.      He  could  be  a  murderer.  "Yeah.  why  is  it  so  painful  he  didn't  live  that  long.  you  know.   but  just  the  fact  that  I  thought  my  father  killed  the.  "You  go  in  there  and  you  break  it  up.sisters.    You  know.  she  had  just  left  the  hospital.  yeah."  you  know.    Do  you  know  what  I'm  saying?    It  was  just  too  much  grieving.     So  it  was  like  never  expecting  it.  I  thought  it  might  have  been  because  it.    I  would  try  to  stop  it.         I  thought  he  killed  my  younger  brother.    It  was  like  a  sudden  death.  that  she  would  be  the  one  that  the  stepsisters   would  say.

 and  once  she   tried  to  leave  him  but  she  had  five  little  babies.    Right  here  but  it  always  had  that  mark  around  it.  and  she  asked  her  mom  if  she  could   come  home.  my  fantasies  aren't  of  like  having  a  penis  put  in     15   .  my  father  spilled   gravy  on  me.    I  begged  her  to  leave   him.    I  marked  the  calendar  waiting  for  the  years  to  get  out  of  there.    I  never  told  her  about  the  sexual  abuse.  He   hurt  me  badly  in  front  of  everybody.  for  years  it  stayed  dark.    I  mean  I'm  sure  it  was  like  second   degree  burns.  that  physically  would   hurt  my  genital  area.  you  know.  they   never  even  took  me  to  a  doctor.    In  fact  they.him.    In  fact.  I  really  believed  he  did.  and  they  didn't  do  anything.  and.    He  probably  didn't  but  in  my  mind  again.    A  lot  of  times.  "You  made  your  bed-­‐-­‐you  lay  in  it.     I  really  didn't  understand  why  she  stayed  with  him.  and  I  really  got  into  masturbating  with   objects  that  hurt  me.   Family-­‐Wide  Abuse  and  Neglect     One  time  at  a  big  family  get-­‐together  at  my  grandmother's.   you  know.  and  I  was  hurt.    You  know  what  I'm  saying?    There  was  just  no  out   of  the  family  for  me.  and  my  grandma  told  her.    Like.  and  she  didn't  know  any  different.   you  know  darker  than  all  my  skin.    Her  mom  and  dad  fought  like  that  too  and  it   was  just  the  way  life  was  to  her.    I  couldn't  imagine   telling  my  mom  and  living  there.  I  mean  it  was  really  bad.       Masturbation     I  used  to  masturbate  a  lot  as  a  kid.    She  was  such  a  victim   and  had  so  much  pain."    And   that's  the  way  it  was  back  then.  Do  you  know  what  I'm  saying?      That.  like  all  hot  gravy.    I  really  thought  he  did   it  on  purpose.  and  I  was  afraid  my  father  would  kill  me.  and  dark.  and  I  still  have  the  scar.  and  she  said  it  was  just  like  that.

   They  just  left  us  afterwards  and.  to  get   me  turned  on.    Do  you  know?     Getting  that  release.  me  and  a  girlfriend.  or   with  women.  I   was  18.   She  got  raped  also.  but  nothing  like  getting  cut  up.    The  first  time  I  was  raped.   those  kind  of  fantasies.  you  know.  more  of  a   aggressive  kind  of  sex.    The  worst  was  the  fear  for  our  lives.    Do  you  know  what  I'm  saying?    So  I  don't  think  they're   violent  in  terms  of  I  didn't  see  myself  getting.    They  dragged   her  one  place.   stepgrandfather?    My  mother's  stepfather.  knife  at  the  throat  situation.         Then  one  other  time  while  I  was  hitchhiking.  or  anything  like  that.    I  took  a  ride  with  him.  hitchhiking.  I  was  abused  by  one  of  my  uncles  who   was  my  dad's  sister's  husband.    I  went  through  that  period  when  I  was   with  some  women.  thank  God.  same  thing.    It  was  a  knife.  when  I  was  with  women  once.  me  and  her.  knife.    That  sister  in  particular  is  really  messed  up  and   definitely  in  her  behavior  is  a  victim.  or  to  release  myself  in  any  way.  to  be  able  to  have  an   orgasm.  I  didn't  know  him.  I've  also  had  those  fantasies.very  gently  and  nice  and  soft  and  sweet  and  caressing.  I   mean.  I  would  have  to  picture  being  with  a  man.  it  wouldn't  take  much  to.  dragged  me  one  place.    There  of.  although  the  thought  of   being  tied  up  and  stuff  like  that.    Ah.  that  was  not  the  worst.  just  the.     16   .  um  of  being  a  victim.    It  would  just  be.    and  I  almost  have  to  fantasize  those  things  to.    I  was  raped  also.    Do  you  know   what  I'm  saying?   Abuse  by  Others     I  was  not  only  abused  by  my  father  but  I  was  abused  by  my  stepgrand.    I   wouldn't  have  a  man  in  my  mind.  I  mean.    With  other  men  that  worked  that  way.  you  know  just  the  objects.  you  know.

   Putting  something  between  my  legs  and   squeezing  was  pretty  much  the  main  way.    Since  I  went  through  treatment  I   haven't  been  raped  or  anything  after  that.  I  think  I  was  doing  what  my  father  did.  when  I  was   real.    Do  you  know  what  I'm  saying?         I  would  have  kind  of  a  release  from  that.  Do   you  know  what  I'm  saying?    So.  which  was  also  what  I  did   with  those  young  kids.  It  was  two  guys.  I  was  trying  to  give  myself  that  same  release.    Well.    It   seems  sex  was  just  expected  wherever  I  went.  Yeah.    When  I  used  to  run   away.  come.  you  know.    He  would  like.  I  felt  close  to  my  brothers.  and  I  would.    I  took  them.    I  was  trying  to  give  myself  that  same  release.     Abuse  of  Brothers     There's  a  lot  of  isolation  in  my  family.   maybe  before.  lost  it.   "Let's  go  smoke  a  joint.  but  I  was  addicted  to  it.  and  so  my  masturbation  was  a  lot   like  that.  God  what  was  it.    They  used.  When  he  would  be  on  top  of   me  and  stuff  I  would.  probably  all  my  life.  and  I  don't  know  if  it  would  be  come   back  then.I  was  probably  19.  so  it  was  just.  real  young  he  would  put  his  penis  in  between  my  legs.      I  was  going  to  protect     17   .     See.    They  were  very  physically  violent.  probably  starting  at  seven  or  eight.  um."    They  took  us  down  in  a  swamp  place.  I  used  to  have  sex  a  lot  with  guys  in  exchange  for  having  a  place  to  sleep.  there  were  different  forms   of  masturbating.    I   mean  I  would  feel  pleasure.   Orgasms  Through  Abuse     I  had  a  lot  of  sexuality  issues  to  deal  with.    And  it  got   to  be  where  I  could  just  put  my  legs  together  really  tightly  and  get  that  release.    I  would.    I  ran  away  with  them  once.    My  two   youngest  brothers.  I  got  into  hostility  with  my  father's  sexual  acts  too.  you  know.  I  would.

 you  know  as  far  as  touch.  maybe  two  different  families.  15  to  20  times.  seven.  maybe  like  at  12  years  old.    I  mean  I.     I  would  manipulate  their  vaginal  area.     Abuse  of  Children  She  Babysat     I  also  sexually  abused  kids  I  babysat.    He  never   continued  therapy  but  he  went  in  for  a  session  with  me  where  I  told  them  I  was   sexually  abusing  him  when  he  was  young.    I  think  as  my  brothers  got  older.     Probably  because  I  started  acting  out  sexually.  of  course.  like  my  father.  I  mean  not.  and  then  I  just  quit.    Probably  masturbating  more  myself.  five.   Yeah.    I  did  it  quite   often  during  my  teenage  years.  Five.    It   wasn't  violent  or  threatening  or  scary  and  you  know  those  kind  of  bad  things.  I  don't  think  it  was  for  years  but  I.    I  tried  to  get  the  same  release  from  those  kids  that  I  got  from   masturbation.    Not.  touching.  I'd  guess   about  that.  six.  young  kids.    I  abused   kids  from  maybe.  thing.   Stopping       I  really  don't  know  why  I  stopped  abusing  kids.    Then  I  had  temporary  custody  of   both  of  them.  and  I  got  Luke  into  therapy  with  one  of  my  therapists.  because  I   have  no  memories.  but  it  was  another  whole  personality.  of  four.  six.  Sort  of  a  nurturing.    This   really  gave  me  some  clues  to  what  happened  to  me  when  I  was  that  young.  you  know  what  I'm  saying?    Very  young.     I  was  really  afraid  of  getting  caught.  just  touching.  and  I  would  masturbate  around  them.  but  it   was  something  I  felt  guilty  about.  Fondling.  it's  really  a  strange  thing.them  from  my  father.  I  just  didn't     18   .     Sleeping  with.  but.    It  wasn't  like.   like.  which  really  freaked  me  out  because   they  were  like  babies.      It  was  like  for  a  year.  I  got  caught.    I  really  don't  know.

 that  my  dad  ever  touched   them.    His  sexuality  really  had  a  lot  to  do  with  my   father.  and  he  couldn't  really   tell  me.  "Yeah.    One  of  my  roommates  woke  up  to  him  touching  her  in  the  middle  of  the   night.  you  know.  stepped  out  and  we     19   .  momish.    I  had  a  lot  of  issues  with  that.    I   wanted  to  give  them  a  better  life.  but  I  probably  was  sexual  with   them  up  till  I  left  home  at  15.    I  that  that  had  a  big  part  in  my  stopping.       Feeling  no  control.    That's  really  what  happened  with  my  father.    It  was  like  once   you  thought  about  getting  that  release  you  went  after  that  release.    That  scared  me.    So  I  got   him  into  therapy.   Her  Brother  Assaulted  her  Friend     My  brother  Luke.    He  was  killed  in  a  motorcycle  accident.want  to  be  sexual  with  them  when  they  were  older.  They  never  told  me.  because  I  didn't  want  to  do  to   anybody  what  was  done  to  me.  too.  but  I  don't  think  I  do  now."       I  felt  protective  toward  my  younger  brothers.  it  made  me  feel  sick  inside-­‐-­‐like  that  she'd  know  I  did  such  a   horrible  thing.    I  think  it  was  suicide.    I'm  assuming  that  because  my  older  brother  told  me.  my  two  younger  brothers.    I  didn't  like  not  having  control  over  it.  and  it  freaked  me  out.  kind  of  like  a  mom.  I  think  I  just   masturbated  more.  the  young  one.  I  felt  guilty.    that  kind  of  closeness.    like  my  brother  at  one  of   my  brother's  funerals.  you  know.    I   sorted  out  what  my  part  in  that  was.    I   felt  like  I  did  it.    I.  my  other  brother.    So  you  know  he  had  a  lot  of  that  kind  of  behavior.     At  Luke's  funeral.    I  made  me   feel  sick.    You  know.  he  did.  this  is  why  I  got  him  into   therapy.    I  think    that  her   mother  didn't  have  me  babysit  anymore  for  that  reason.  when  I  had  custody  of  him.    I  think  one  of  the  little  girls  did  tell  her  mother.    I  wanted  to  stop.  He  just  said.

   I   remember  her  calling  me  and  telling  me.  and  told  me  that  my  brother  Luke  had  just  molested  her.     I'd  kind  of  known  that  my  brother  had  problems  because  I  had  had  him   before  that.  so  that  kind  of  closeness.    I  felt   very  protective  of  them  because  of  my  father's  punishments.    So  every  form  of  punishment  was   very  threatening  and  very  sexual.  and   when  she  called  me.  and  my  dad  did  things  with  my  older  brother.  we  knew  what  it  was  about.    My  relatives  didn't  even  know  who   I  was.  his  whatever.    I  couldn't  stand  to  see   them  cry.  Luke.  she  was   drunk.    So  it  was  a  hard  situation  but  my   brother  took  me  out  and  said."         You  know.      What  it  was.  when  I'd  told  you  that  he  had  done     20   .    There  was  so  much  pain.  like  threaten  to  tie  his   penis  in  a  knot  if  he  didn't  quit  wetting  the  bed.    That  was  very  traumatic  for  her  and  his   death.  and  she  woke  up  to  him  having  sex  with  her.   Brother  Molested  Mother     My  mother  called  me  when  I  was  like  23  or  24  about  10  or  15  years  ago.    You  know.  and  I  felt  sorry  for  them   because  they  were  the  youngest  in  it.  There  was  so  much  pain.      My  relatives.   something  like  that.  "We  know  why  he  died.  ever  been  the  same  since  he  got  killed.  threatening  his  manliness.    Do  you  know  what  I'm  saying?    And.    You  know.were  outside.    They   rejected  me  because  of  my  behavior  problems.    You  know  what  I  mean?    They  hadn't  seen  me  since  I  was  a  little  girl.  and  this  is  the  one  that's  dead  now.  it  was  never  talked  about  but   there  was  a  feeling  that  we.  she's  never  been  the  same.  and  it  was  kind  of  hard  for  me  because  it's  the  first  time  I'd  seen  my   father  and  my  relatives  for  years.    You  know  what  I  mean?    Like  I  lived  with  it  so   many  years.  when  she  called  me  I   was  very  aware  of  how  she  still  saw  herself  as  the  victim.    That  was  so  traumatic  for  her.

   It  was  something  that  I  did.that  to  my  roommate.    Then  we  had  sex  and  I  missed  my  period  and  I  went  to  a  doctor  and  found  out   that.  then  I  did.    It  was  the  only  boy  I'd  ever  been   with  so.  I  hated  it.  I  didn't  really  like  it  with  boyfriends.  I  think.    To  me.    You  know  what  I'm  saying?       Sex  with  a  peer  was  horrible.    The  boy  denied  it.      I  mean  it  may  have  been  at  the  end  of  14.    Then  when  I  did.    I  had  a  bad   experience  because  the  guy  that  I  had  sex  with  I  was  really  close  to  before  we  had   sex.    Then  I  went.    In  that  unwed   mother's  home  I  found  out  I  wasn't  pregnant.   Sex  with  a  Peer       As  far  as  sex.  I  was  put  in  a  unwed  mother's  home.    Yeah.  I  was.     I  don't.  then  I  sort  of  just  became  a  prostitute.    That  same  year  a  lot   of  things  happened  for  me.     21   .  when.  you   know.    He  told  his  mom  it  could  have  been  anybody.  now  I  might  be  wrong.  though.    It  was  horrible.     So  it  was  very  hurtful.    I  didn't  really  even  connect  what  was  going  on  with  my   father.    His  mom  told  my  mom  that.   Therefore.  I  don't  think  I  ever  really  liked  it  with  my  father.    Seventeen?    He  had  to   have  been  17.    And  before  that  my  boyfriends  would  try  to  have  sex   with  me  and  it  just  was  not  something  a  girlfriend  and  a  boyfriend  did.    You   know  what  I'm  saying?    Something  you  waited  till  you  were  married  was  the  only   thought  I  had  about  that.  such  as  running  away.     That  was  the  beginning  of  my  not  ever  living  with  my  family.    and   then.  I  had  sex  for  the  first  time  when  I  was  15.    He  had  to  have  only  been  18.  when  he  was  out  of  the   picture  I  felt  like  I  could  have  sex.  he  said  I  was  pregnant.  you  know  I.    And  it  was  the  first  time  that  I  had   sex  with  a  boy  since  my  father.

 I  went  back  to  it  after  I  went  through   treatment.  You  know  it  was.  and  they  asked  me  if   I  wanted.  After  18  it  was  pretty  formal.    I  was  a  prostitute  on  and  off   for  a  long  time.  and  then  I'd  go.    Do  you  know  what  I  mean?    It  was.    You  know  what  I'm  saying?    I  don't.  kind  of  more  than  anything.  and  it's  being  kind  of  like  a  prostitution  situation.    I  didn't  do  heroin.   physically  it  turned  me  on  to  think  about  prostituting.  and  I  decided  that  I   could  do  that.  a  junky  was  just  a  term  that  you  used  back  then.  too.    Well.  I  shot  up  drugs.    I  would  go  and  just.  you  know.  well.  turned  me  on  or.    In  fact  I.  Go  to  a  motel.  you  know.  I've  worked  through  a  lot  of  that.  but  it  was  the  same  thing.    Do  you  know?    So  I  don't  know  maybe  just  acting  out   fantasies.  money.  you  know.  and  I  got   enough  to  do  some  drugs.  One  time  in  my  travels  I  really  needed  some  money.  you  can     22   .  where  you  just  had  sex  for  drugs   and  stuff  like  that.  sexual  fantasies  were  always  violent.   Sex  and  Men     I  need  to  have  sex  with  men.       So  I  told  them  that.    They'd  pay  me.    You  know.    I'd  tell  them.  I  looked   forward  to  it.   and  they'd  come  up  to  me.    I'd  go  to  the  bars  and  pick  up  men   that  were  like  businessmen.    Do  you   know  what  I.  I'd  go  right  up  to  them.  just  to  have  sex  with  men.    Like  I  said.    You   know.  my  fantasies.  I  guess  I  kind.    You   know  so  I  did  that  formally.    I  was  a   speed  freak.    They'd  give  me  the  money.   it  was  a  form  of  prostitution  before  18.Prostitution     I  started  prostituting  for  drugs.  and   we'd  go  have  sex.  totally   different.  yeah.    I'd  get  my  drugs  and  that  was  it.  there's  kind  of  an  aura  you  put  out.    and  just  being  able  to  let  them  be   there  to  get  rid  of  them.  and  I'd  tell  them  I  was  a  junky  and  I  needed  a  fix.

 and  that's  why  I  did  it.    Maybe  it.    You   know  that  kind  of  stuff.  yeah.  you  know.  it  would  be  in  my  questioning  of  them  and  being  aggressive  about  it   and  letting  them  know  what  I  was  willing  to  do  and  what  I  wasn't  willing  to  do.           That  was  a  hard  issue  for  me  when  I  went  through  treatment.  to  me  it  was  like  offending.  if  I.    I  didn't  want  to  be  the  victim.     Exactly.  is  I  wanted   control.    Do  you  know  what  I'm  saying?    How   we  were  going  to  have  sex.    Some  guy   would  pick  me  up.  when  we  were  going  to  have  it.  if  I  wouldn't  have  prostituted  I  probably  could   have  been  an  offender  in  other  ways.  I  just  did  it.    I  needed  the  money.    Like.     I  went  back  to  prostitution  for  six  months.  I   would  just  decide  what  we  were  going  to  do.    I  mean  that's  how  I  acted  in  it.  you   know.    I'm  trying  to  think.  I'd  hitchhike  over  to  my  treatment  center  for  outpatient  aftercare.  and  I  was  more  aggressive  than  passive.either  be  a  further  victim  and  let  them  take  control  or  you  can  take  control.  too.    Do  you   know  what  I'm  saying?         Yeah.  and  it   was  a  way  to  control  men  sexually.  but  to  me  it  was  just  being  just  like  my  dad.    but  when  I   chose  to  go  back  as  an  adult  I  had  control.  I'd.    Put  them  on  the  spot.  and  say  he  wanted  to  feel  my  tits  for  40  dollars  and  I   couldn't  do  it  because  I  was  in  a  treatment  program.     It  was  probably.    I'd   pretty  much  talk  to  them  about  their  sexuality  maybe.  you  know.  of  course.  but  I   took  control  of  my  person  and  my  aura  and  my.             23   .  which  I  don't  think  was  true  when  I  was  young.    But  I  really   realized  that  I  didn't  want  to  be  that  person  that  had  to  look  at  every  man  as  a  dollar   sign  and  didn't  want  to  have  all  that  anger  that  I  had  to  have.

 physical.    I  mean  I'm  not.  and     24   .     I  know  I  wanted  to  talk  to  you  because  I  add  a  different  something.  related  to  that  very  aggressive   lesbian  type  woman.   and  I  don't  have  sex  with  her.    She  said  she  didn't  want  to  do  to  others  what   had  been  done  to  her.  rationalization.  and  emotional   abuse  and  neglect  from  her  father.  fear  of  getting  caught.  she  wanted  to  believe  that  her   sexual  behaviors  with  her  brothers  were  nurturing  and  close  and  not  violent  like   her  father's  abuse.    Her  prime  concerns  during  adolescence  appeared  to   have  been  what  other  people  thought  of  her.    You  know  what  I'm  saying?    It's  not  a  sexual  thing.    Her  protective  factors  appeared  to  have  been  sufficient  to  lead   her  to  stop  abusing  children  sexually.   DISCUSSION     Pat's  account  of  her  life  shows  that  she  had  many  risk  factors  and  some   protective  factors.  witnessing  physical  and  emotional  abuse  of  her   mother.    I  just  quit  using  that  label.  intergenerational  sexual.     The  number  of  risks  in  her  life  were  multiple-­‐-­‐physical.    This  appears  to  be  denial.  and  fear  of  the   lack  of  control  she  had.  you  know.     It's  just  a  real  companionship.  and  I'm  involved  with  a  woman  now.    We've  been   friends  for  10  years  but  we're  not  gay.   chemical  abuse  on  the  part  of  both  parents.  witnessing  sexual  threats  and  therefore  abuse  of  her  younger  brothers.  and  minimization.  sexual.      At  the  time  of  the  interview.  but  concern  for  the  children's  well-­‐being  appeared  to  come   much  after  she  stopped-­‐-­‐she  said  she  felt  guilty  about  her  effect  on  Luke  after  Luke   molested  one  of  her  friends.    I  could   have  maybe  been  a  very  severe  abuser.Abusive  Lesbian  Relationships     I  also  picked  very  abusive  women  to  be  with.

 and  she  was  not  a  positive  role  model  for   Pat.  although  she  did  not  confide  to  her  friend   about  her  family.    There  probably  was  some  positive   relationship  between  Pat  and  her  mother  because  when  she  told  her  mother  about   the  sexual  abuse.  possible  sexual   identity  confusion.  vulnerability  to  further  sexual  abuse.  who.    Whether  this  reinforced  her  willingness  to  share   personally  painful  material  is  not  clear.   chemical  abuse.  and  understandable  cognitive  distortions  about  the   nature  of  human  relationships.  juvenile  and  adult  prostitution.  sexual  compulsivity.  and  even  broke  the  family  rule  of  "protecting"  the   grandmother  from  bad  family  news  to  tell  her  grandmother  about  her  father's   abuse.  and  Pat  mentioned  no  others.     Pat  also  had  some  protective  factors.  in  many  ways.  this  friend  served  to  protect  her  from   embarrassment  and  a  sense  of  alienation.    She  confided  in  a  male  friend.  was  a   counterpart  who  talked  about  raping  women  and  who  may  have  been  in  prison  for   rape  at  the  time  of  the  interview.   identifying  with  her  father's  sexual  aggression  in  her  thinking  about  how  she   interacted  with  her  johns.    In  adolescence.    Her  grandmother  not  only  did  not  punish  her  for  these  disclosures.     She  showed  many  common  effects  of  multiple  risk  factors:  running  away.  her  mother  believed  her  and  divorced  her  father.  perceived  rejection  by  her  extended   family.    She  could   confide  in  her  grandmother.  but  she   reciprocated  by  telling  Pat  of  the  family's  history  of  maltreatment.    Sexual  abuse  of  children  may  be  more  common  than     25   .  eating  disorders.  and  several  placements  in  adolescence.    Pat  said  always   had  one  friend.emotional  abuse  on  both  sides  of  the  family.    Her  mother  may  have  been   incapacitated  by  the  abuse  she  received.

A.  or  overcoming  adversity  (Masten  et  al.     26   .  persons  so  exposed   may  not  completely  overcome  the  effects  of  such  exposure.  the  either/or  of  being  either  a  victim  or   victimizer.    Yet.         This  research  will  add  to  the  understanding  of  resilience.  recovering  from.  at  the  time  of  the  interview.  but  it  is  likely  that  even  a   small  number  of  risk  factors  and  a  large  number  of  protections  may  still  result  in   some  serious  and..  her  seeing  her  abuse  of  her  brothers  as  nurturing  as  opposed  to  her   father's  violent  abuse.  may  counteract   some  of  the  most  destructive  aspects  of  exposure  to  risk  factors.    Persons  with  fewer  risk   factors  and  more  protective  factors  than  Pat  may  better  fit  the  so-­‐called  "vulnerable   but  invincible"  category  developed  by  Werner  (1982).           She  may  have  had  sufficient  protective  factors  to  help  her  cope  with   tendencies  toward  the  dire  outcome  of  having  a  life-­‐long  career  of  sexually  abusing   children.  B.  defined  as  coping   with.  P.  and  her  continual  linking  of  sexual  behaviors  with  violent   fantasies.       REFERENCES   Allen-­‐Meares.  she  was  continuing  to  deal  with  some   severe  effects  of  her  multiple  risk  factors.  hidden  effects  resulting  from  exposure  to  adversity.    Some  of  the  effects  are  her  thinking  and   behavior  in  relationship  to  prostitution.  perhaps.    Social  Work.  (l990).  Social  work  practice:  Integrating  qualitative   and  quantitative  data  collection  techniques.  35.  1990).    The  case  study   of  Pat  shows  that  although  positive  mediators.  or  protective  factors.  452-­‐458.  &  Lane.we  now  know  among  adolescent  girls  who  have  suffered  multiple  forms  of   maltreatment  in  the  absence  of  ameliorating  influences.

 &  Sroufe.  (1988).  L.  Decision-­‐making  in  interdisciplinary  treatment  teams.    (l990a).)..    Child   Development.  (l988)..   Gilgun.  Sexually  abused  girls'  knowledge  of  sexual  abuse  and  sexuality.  (l988).  1080-­‐1088.     27   .  Child   Abuse  &  Neglect.  Jane  F.M..   Egeland.  177-­‐190).    (l992).    Lexington..K.  216-­‐234.   Feagin.  Self-­‐centeredness  and  the  adult  male  perpetrator  of  child  sexual   abuse.    Factors  mediating  the  effects  of  child  maltreatment.  A.  D.  CA:  Sage.A.  Jane  F.  Contemporary  Family  Therapy.   Gilgun.    Qualitative  research  for  education  (2nd  ed.  In  M.    New  York:  Springer.  (l986).F.  &  Sjoberg.  209-­‐225.  A  case  for  the  case  study.   Finkelhor.  10.N.  (Eds.    Child  abuse  trauma.  &  Browne.     Boston:  Allyn  &  Bacon.  Jacobvitz.       Briere.  R.    Assessing  the  long-­‐term  impact  of  child  sexual   abuse:  A  review  and  a  conceptualization.  16-­‐20.  D.  (l988).  (l988).    In  L.  J.E.  &  Biklen.  Jane  F.    (l991).    Newbury  Park.R.    (l992).   Gilgun.  55-­‐71).  The  sexually  abused  male  (pp.).   Gilgun.  J.  Walker  (Ed.  12.   Gilgun.   Hunter  (Ed.  J.  Handbook  on   sexual  abuse  of  children  (pp.    Breaking  the  cycle  of  abuse.  231-­‐239.  New  Designs  in  Youth  Development.).  MA:   Lexington  Books.  S.  Orum.  Jane  F.   Journal  of  Interpersonal  Violence.  1.  8..  G.  A.A.     Chapel   Hill:  University  of  North  Carolina  Press.)..  Why  children  don't  tell:  Fear  of  separation  and  loss  and  the   disclosure  of  child  sexual  abuse.Bogdan.  B.  59.

   (l990b).  F.   Gilgun.  265-­‐281.  peer  blind  reviewed)       28   .Q.  (invited.  Jane  F.  J.  Human  development  and  adversity  in  ecological  perspective.F.  Reprinted  in  Richard  Tewksbury  &  Patricia  Gagne  (Eds)   (2000).     Gilgun.    Hypothesis  generation  in  social  work  research.   371-­‐380.).  Newbury  Park.  (1995).  Lead  article.  and  methods  in  qualitative  family   research.  playmates.  57.  New  York:  Bruner-­‐Routledge.  Families  in  Society.  Human  development  and  adversity  in  ecological  perspective:   Part  1:  A  conceptual  framework.  conquerors.  Journal  of  Marriage  and  the  Family.    Resilience  and  the  intergenerational  transmission  of  child   abuse.  We  shared  something  special:  The  moral  discourse  of  incest   perpetrators.  Jane  F.  Families  in  Society.   Part  2:  Three  patterns.  93-­‐105).  (2004).  395-­‐402.  15.).   CA:  Sage.  Definitions.  (1994).    (1992a).  In   Don  R.  307-­‐ 324).  K.  Jane  F.  Jane  F.    (1992b).  &  G.   Gilgun.  Gilgun.Gilgun.  Jane  F.  Deviance  and  deviants:  An  anthology.    In  J.  Lead  article.  Handel  (Eds.  Jane  F.  459-­‐576.    Journal    of   Social  Service  Research.    Newbury  Park.  (1996).    In  M.  (1996).  Avengers.  Lead  article.  Los  Angeles:  Roxbury.   Gilgun.   Gilgun.  22-­‐39).  77.39.  A  case  for  case  studies  in  social  work  research.  Daly.   Gilgun.  J.  Lead  article.  J.   Gilgun.  methodologies.  Patton  (Ed.F.  (1994).  and  lovers:  A  continuum  of   roles  played  by  perpetrators  of  child  sexual  abuse.   Gilgun.  467-­‐ 480.  CA:  Sage.  trauma  and  the  family  (pp.  75.  Social  Work.  Handbook  of  stress.F.  A  strengths-­‐based  approach  to  child  and  family  assessment.  Families  in  Society.  Family  sexual  abuse  (pp.  113-­‐135.).  Catheral  (Ed.  77.  Qualitative  methods    in   family  research  (pp.

 Jane  F.  Jane  F.  a  child  sexual  abuse   evaluation  center.  Lived  experience..   Social  Work.  14.  &  Teresa  M.  (l992).  16(4).  (2006).  627-­‐646.  Lead  article.     Gilgun.  Sexual  identity  development  among  men   sexually  abused  in  childhood.  181-­‐197.  reflexivity.   Current  perspectives  on  working  with  sexually  aggressive  youth  and  youth  with   sexual  behavior  problems  (pp..  71.  &  Laura  S.F..   peer.  Reprinted  in  the  U.  Daly.  Christian  Klein.   Gilgun.  Air  Force  handbook  on  family   violence  and  in  the  Training  Manual  of  CornerHouse.  (2000).  The  significance  of  resources  in   models  of  risk.  Qualitative  Social  Work.  (1989).  Jane  F.  In  Robert  Longo  &  Dave  Prescott  (Eds.  resilience.  50-­‐59.  Toronto:  University  of  Toronto  Press  (invited.  Jane  F.  (2010).  Reflections  on  25  years  of  research  on  violence.  Gendered  adaptations.  Families  in  Society.Gilgun.).  &  Handel.).  Handbook  for  working  with   children  and  Youth:  Pathways  to  resilience  across  cultures  and  context  (pp.  &  Elizabeth  Reiser.  Abrams  (2005).  Jane  F.  383-­‐394).  349-­‐351.  34.  Minneapolis.  Qualitative  methods  in  family   research.     Gilgun.  Holyoke.S.  How  perpetrators  view  child  sexual  abuse.  Jane  F.).  and  research  on  perpetrators  of   interpersonal  violence.  and  the   perpetration  of  violence.  7(2).  G.  MN.     Gilgun.  (2008).  Connor.  (1990).  blind  reviewed   Gilgun.  (Eds.  peer  blind  reviewed)       29   ..  J.  515-­‐523.  K.  Journal  of  Interpersonal  Violence.  Jane  F.  &  Kay  Pranis.  CA:  Sage.  Newbury  Park.  Reflections:   Narratives  of  Professional  Helping.   Gilgun.  (invited..   Gilgun.  MA:  Neari  Press.  57-­‐ 70).  In  Michael  Ungar  (Ed.  Children  and  adolescents  with  problematic  sexual  behaviors:   Lessons  from  research  on  resilience.

   (l987).  A  case  for  the  case  study  (pp.    Do  abused  children  become  abusive  parents?     American  Journal  of  Orthopsychiatry.  S.    In  J.  &  Kay  Rice.    Newbury  Park.     Development  and  Psychopathology.   Kaufman.  (2005).  186-­‐192.  Jane  F.  E.     Groth..  and  child  problems.  Emotional  expressiveness  as  an   indicator  of  progress  in  treatment.  &  Alankaar  Sharma  (2008).  CA:  Sage.     Orum.  E.  C.  N..    Chapel  Hill:  University   of  North  Carolina  Press..  57.  244-­‐268).    New  York:  Plenum.   Sjoberg  (Eds.  A.)  Encyclopedia  of  Interpersonal  Violence  (pp.    Journal  of  Consulting  and  Clinical   Psychology.   Gilgun.  CA:  Sage.  &  O'Leary.    Female  sex  offenders:  A  typology.   marital  discord.  Best.    Case  study  in  family  research.  England:  Russell  House.   Masten.  Speltz  (l991).K.  Thousand  Oaks.  Patton  (Ed.).   199-­‐219).  Murphy.).  Child  sexual  abuse.  Danette  Jones.  In  Jeffrey  L.  A.  Jane  F.  Family  sexual  abuse:  Frontline  research  and  evaluation  (pp.  J.  Matthews.).  R.  J...   Jouriles.    Resilience  and  development:   Contributions  from  the  study  of  children  who  overcome  adversity.  Renzetti  (Eds.M.  K.Gilgun.  57.    (l989)..    Interpersonal  aggression..    (1991).  231-­‐ 244).Q.R.  &  K.  In  Martin  C.N.  A.  with  Birnbaum.     30   .  Feagin.  G.  Edleson   &  Claire  M.     Handel.D.   Mathews.  &  G.  K.S.    In   M.    (l990).  M.  Calder  (Ed.  Emerging   approaches  to  work  with  children  and  young  people  who  sexually  abuse  (pp.  122-­‐ 125).  453-­‐455.  Dorset.  J..  &  Garmezy.M.  425-­‐444.  &  Zigler.    Men  who  rape.  2.

E.    Boys  will  be  boys:  Breaking  the  link  between  masculinity  and   violence.   Sroufe.  72-­‐81.  L.  Gilgun  (2008).  M.  17-­‐29.A.  What  perpetrators  say  about  child  sexual   abuse.  E.    Paper  presented  at  the  13th  Annual   Child  Abuse  and  Neglect  Symposium.  Alankaar  &  Jane  F.    (l989).    The  domain  of  developmental  psychopathology.    (l982).  55.  Gilgun   2010   Case  study  research  is  important  because  of  its  contributions  to  theory.  May).  (l989).    Does  violence  beget  violence?    A  critical  examination  of  the   literature.  59.  (l984).    Adolescent  sexual  offenders:  An  outpatient  program's   perspective  on  research  directions.    New  York:  Doubleday.    Albany:  State   University  of  New  York  Press.    Vulnerable  but  invincible:  A  longitudinal  study  of  resilient   children  and  youth.  321-­‐338.    Psychological  Bulletin.    American  Journal  of  Orthopsychiatry.  M.   Werner.  A   case  study  is  an  intensive  look  at  an  individual  unit.    Narrative  knowing  and  the  human  sciences.   O'Brien.  Keystone.    (l991).E.Miedzian.  E.  C.  69(3).    (l984.   Sharma.    High-­‐risk  children  in  young  adulthood:  A  longitudinal  study   from  birth  to  32  years.    (l988).S.E.  CO.  M.   Werner.  &  Rutter.  May  23.     Widom.   Polkinghorne.  3-­‐28.    New  York:  McGraw-­‐Hill.     APPENDIX   Theory  and  Case  Study  Research     By  Jane  F.  Indian  Journal  of  Social  Work.  The  unit  can  be  composed  of  a     31   ..  D.     Child  Development.  106.

 court  cases.  An  example  of  a  theory  is  the  following:  concussions   can  lead  to  brain  degeneration  whose  symptoms  are  similar  to  those  of  Lou  Gehrig’s   disease.  The  sample  size  of  case  study  research  can   range  from  one  to  hundreds.     32   .  or  it  can  be  composed  of  multiple  entities.  These  latter  kinds  of  cases  are  called  complex  case  studies  because   the  single  unit  has  multiple  entities  within  it  and  researchers  have  focused  their   investigations  on  these  multiple  entities.  Statements  that  represent  theory  are  based  upon  evidence  for  the  viability   of  the  concepts  of  the  theory  and  of  the  relationships  between  them.  that   is.  such   marital  partners  in  one  family  unit.  is  well  documented.  The  study  of  a  single  unit  includes  studies  of   businesses.  theory  is  defined  as  statements  of  relationship   between  two  or  more  variables.     For   example.  Thus.   a   recent   study   of   medical   cases   provided   enough   evidence   to   suggest   that   some   patients   long   diagnosed   as   having   Lou   Gehrig’s   disease   may   actually   have   died   from   the   effects   of   concussion.     The   researchers   found   that   the   brain   proteins   of   the   three   athletes   differed   from   those   of   the   persons   in   the   comparison   group.  and  state  and  national   governments.   A   single   well-­‐analyzed   and   well-­‐ documented   case   study   can   upend   existing   theory.single  entity.   or   at   least   begin   the   process   of   undermining  existing  theory.   Definition  of  Theory   In  case  study  research.  the   researchers  investigating  Lou  Gehrig’s  disease  based  their  conclusions  on  copious   case  material.  social  service  agencies.   The   study   involved   the   comparison  of  the  brain  proteins  of  three  athletes  with  a  history  of  concussion  and   thought  to  have  died  of  Lou  Gehrig’s  disease  with  the  brain  proteins  of  12  persons   thought  to  have  died  of  Lou  Gehrig’s  disease.  and   contributes   to   theoretical   understandings.   Successive   replications  of  single  cases  build  stronger  evidence  for  alternative  explanations.   A   single   case   casts   doubt   on   existing   theory   and   opens   the   door   for   studies   to   replicate   the   case.  hospitals.  such  as  one  person.  for  new  theories.     A   single   case   study   of   an   individual   is   as   viable   as   a   complex   case   study   or   multiple  case  studies  when  the  analysis  is  of  high  quality.

 Researchers  typically  use  working   theories  in  the  course  of  developing  theory  as  they  select  their  samples.   researchers  might  not  derive  hypotheses  from  the  conceptual  framework.  Something  has  to  guide  the  decisions  they  make  as  they  do  sample   selection  and  collect  and  analyze  data.  and  symptoms  of  Lou  Gehrig’s  disease.  They  further  develop  and  test  these   hypotheses  in  the  conduct  of  the  research.   As  soon  as  they  use  these  hypotheses  in  the  conduct  of  research.   and  analyze  data.  they  become   working  hypotheses.  the  terms  hypothesis   is  used  to  name  the  statements  of  relationships  that  researchers  derive  from  their   initial  conceptual  frameworks  and  that  they  test  in  the  course  of  doing  the  research.   In  some  instances  where  researchers  begin  with  conceptual  frameworks.   brain  degeneration.  hypotheses.  Some  case  study  research   begins  with  conceptual  frameworks  based  on  pervious  research  and  theory  and   sometimes  also  on  professional  and  personal  knowledge.  To     33   .   researchers  develop  working  hypotheses  after  they  have  begun  their  research.  working  theories.  They  use  working  hypotheses  the  same  way  they  use   the  term  working  theories.     Sometimes  researchers  use  the  term  hypothesis  or  working  hypothesis  as   synonyms  for  working  theory.  To  complicate  matters  even  further.  Researchers  develop   hypotheses  from  conceptual  frameworks.  Instead.     Medical  researchers  on  Lou  Gehrig’s  disease  had  a  working  hypothesis  about   Lou  Gehrig’s  disease  that  involved  relationships  between  a  history  of  concussion.  These  are  complicated  ideas  that  require  researchers  to  be   able  to  think  flexibly  and  expansively.  What  guides  these  decisions  are  working   theories.  they  had  to  select  comparison  groups  in  order  to  test  their   working  hypothesis.  collect  data.  In  order  to  test  this   working  hypothesis.Working  theories  are  statements  of  relationships  among  two  or  more   concepts  where  researchers  have  not  presented  evidence  for  the  viability  of  the   concepts  and  of  the  relationships  between  them.   and  working  hypotheses  to  related  research  and  theory.     Links  to  Conceptual  Frameworks   Researchers  sooner  or  later  link  their  theories.

 Case  studies  that  begin  with  theory  go  back  for  at  least  100  years  to   the  procedures  used  at  the  Chicago  School  of  Sociology.  the   researchers  recommended  when  athletes  show  symptoms  of  Lou  Gehrig’s  disease   that  physicians  also  recommend  that  physician  explore  the  hypothesis  that  the   athletes  may  have  other  degenerative  diseases  besides  Lou  Gehrig’s.  It  makes  sense   that  when  patients  present  with  symptoms  of  Lou  Gehrig’s  disease  that  medical   personnel  take  a  detailed  history  that  includes  history  of  head  trauma.  but  instead  researchers  develop  working  hypotheses  through   open-­‐ended  research.   No  matter  when  researchers  derive  their  hypotheses.  researchers  must  also  show  the  implications  of  their   findings  for  practice.  challenge  existing  research  and   theory.  and/or  provide  evidence  for  the  modification  of  existing  theory.  they  then  relate  the   working  hypotheses  to  existing  research  and  theory.       34   .  Once  they  have  working  hypotheses.  they  develop  working  hypotheses.  the  evidence.  The  medical   researchers  studying  Lou  Gehrig’s  disease  did  just  that.     Finally.do  this.  The  three  ways  that  researchers   develop  working  hypotheses  have  names.  Eventually.  and  previous  research  and  theory.  case  study  research  is  theory-­‐guided   research  and  theory  development  research.  guiding  the  questions  and  the  focus  of   observations.  The  researchers  who  studied  Lou   Gehrig’s  disease  used  working  hypotheses  to  guide  their  studies  in  this  way.  When  researchers  begin  their  research   with  a  working  hypothesis/theory  derived  from  their  conceptual  framework.  as  in  selecting  samples.  which  is  an   updating  of  AI.   More  Detail  on  Working  Theories  and  Case  Study  Research     As  the  previous  discussion  shows.  this  is   called  analytic  induction  (AI)  or  deductive  qualitative  analysis  (DQA).  they  must  show  how   findings  contribute  to  existing  research  and  theory.  some  case  study  research  does  not  begin  with  conceptual   frameworks  at  all.  In  the  study  of  Lou  Gehrig’s  disease.   In  applied  fields.  and  in  interpreting  findings.  Their  findings  consist  of  the   theories  they  have  developed.  for  example.     These  initial  hypotheses  help  focus  the  research  and  thus  guide  the  conduct   of  the  research.  they  take  open-­‐ended  approaches  in  their  efforts  to  understand  individual   cases.  the  evidence  that  supports  their  theories.  and  the   links  between  the  theories.

 including  making  use  of   the  literature  review  that  most  researchers  conduct  before  they  begin  their  research   and  also  to  test  any  ideas  researchers  developed  from  professional  and  personal   experience.     Beginning  with  a  clear  focus  has  many  advantages.  Once   researchers  doing  grounded  theory  have  developed  working  hypotheses  that  guide   their  research.  they  seek  to  test  and  develop  it  further.  Revisions  occur  as  researchers  look  for  cases  and   instances  within  cases  that  might  contradict  or  add  new  dimensions  to  their   working  hypotheses.  Thus.  Once  they   develop  their  working  hypotheses.     Grounded  theorists  typically  use  theoretical  sampling.  they  have  to  explain   how  their  method  of  sample  selection  served  the  purpose  of  further  developing   their  theory.  The  uses  of  theory  in   grounded  theory  are  almost  identical  to  the  procedures  of  AI/DQA.  they  also     35   .  Therefore.  When  researchers  do   not  use  theoretical  sampling  in  the  conduct  of  grounded  theory.  researchers  and  students  who  want  to  do  case  study  research   typically  do  literature  reviews  and  begin  their  studies  with  working  hypotheses.  Researchers  typically  do   AI/DQA  when  their  goal  is  to  test  and  develop  already  existing  theory  or  when  they   want  a  clear  focus  at  the  onset  of  their  investigations.  This  is  called  negative  case  analysis.Researchers  continually  revise  their  working  hypotheses  to  fit  their   interpretations  of  the  findings.  which  is  a  way  of   selecting  the  next  case  to  study  based  upon  what  directions  the  researchers  want  to   go  in  the  development  of  their  working  theories/hypotheses.   When  researchers  develop  their  working  hypotheses  in  the  course  of  doing   the  research.  they  must  be  aware   that  their  general  store  of  knowledge  and  the  literature  review  primes  them  so  that   certain  theories  and  ideas  are  more  salient  in  their  minds  than  others.  their  procedures  are  similar  to  those  of  GT  and   IA/DQA.  Dissertation  committees  and  funders  require  literature  reviews  and   clear  foci.   As  researchers  develop  and  test  working  hypotheses.  while   grounded  theorists  to  be  open-­‐ended  in  identifying  working  hypotheses.  this  procedure  has  the  name  grounded  theory.   Researchers  who  do  an  initial  review  of  the  literature  and  then  being  their   research  with  no  hypotheses  to  test  are  doing  a  viable  kind  of  study.

 which  is  theoretical  sensitivity.   Writing  Up  Case  Study  Research   When  researchers  write  up  case  study  research.  they  describe  the   procedures  they  used  for  developing.   Classic  Examples  of  Case  Study  Research   The  theories  of  Freud.  with  the  guidance  of  professors.  They   did  intensive  investigations  of  individual  units.  testing.  and  revising  working  hypotheses.  and  programs.     Case  studies  are  the  foundation  of  many  disciplines.  contradict.   policies.  and  what  the  theory  contributes  to  existing  knowledge.       36   .  who  were  persons.  the  assumption  is  that  researchers  have  a  wide  repertoire   of  knowledge  of  theories.   researchers  also  make  suggestions  for  how  findings  can  be  useful  in  practice.  and  Erickson  are  based  on  case  studies.are  more  likely  to  notice  phenomena  that  are  already  salient.   They  then  document  the  evidence  on  which  they  base  the  final  versions  of  their   working  hypotheses.  Researchers  are  never   blank  slates.   In  doing  grounded  theory.  Much  of  medical.  Through  these  efforts.     Strong  conceptual  skills  and  capacities  for  abstract  reasoning  are  required   for  this  kind  of  analysis.  Laboratory  experiments   are  case  studies.  While  this  may  be  so  for  seasoned  researchers.  they  produced  theory  that   revolutionized  understandings  of  human  development.  legal.  They   described  their  reason.     Grounded  theorists  have  a  name  for  priming.  Students.  the  evidence  that  supports  the  viability  of  the   theory.  social  work.  Next.  Thus  the  more  focused  approached  of  AI/DQA  may   work  better  for  new  researchers.  and  force  modification  of  existing  theory.  they  show  how  their  working  hypotheses  are  similar  to.  the  findings  of  case  study  research  include  the   theory  researchers  have  developed.  In  short.  They  extracted   from  these  case  studies  abstract  concepts  and  principles.  In  applied  fields.   add  to.  and  clinical  psychology   education  is  based  on  case  studies.  Piaget.  take   intensive  looks  at  individual  units  in  order  to  derive  lessons  or  working  hypotheses   about  these  cases.  They  showed  the   grounding  of  these  abstractions  through  the  presentation  of  case  material.  it  is  not  the   case  for  most  new  researchers.

 They  study  the  characteristics  of  the  subsequent  cases  and  do  the   best  job  they  can  to  see  how  their  working  hypotheses  help  them  to  understand  and   to  make  decisions  about  these  subsequent  cases.  use  these  principles  to  guide  their   practice.  Second-­‐order  concepts   are  defined  the  same  way  as  concepts  in  the  concept-­‐indicator  model.  Situating  findings  within  existing     37   .   which  are  indicators  or  first-­‐order  concepts.  For  example.  In  reporting  findings.  and  even  for  the  final  version  of  a  theory   that  is  part  of  the  results  of  the  research.They  then  use  these  working  hypotheses  to  help  them  understand   subsequent  cases.  ending  at  the  methods  section.   the  term  concept  is  a  synonyms  for  variables.   Some  other  useful  terms  are  concept-­‐indicator  model  and  first  and  second   order  concepts.  Some  researchers.  and  the  evidence  for  their  theories.  the  terms  hypothesis  and  theory  may  be  used  interchangeably   and  which  term  to  used  depends  upon  context.  use   the  term  conceptual  framework  to  stand  for  initial  hypotheses  and  sometimes  for   working  hypotheses  and  working  theory.     Typically  conceptual  framework  refers  to  the  entire  first  section  of  a  proposal   or  research  report.  test  these  principles  on   subsequent  cases.  The  notion  of  conceptual  framework   is  confusing.  too.  and  when  the  principles  fit.  which  are  the  building  blocks  of  hypotheses  and  theories.  researchers  must  present   their  theories.  Throughout  their  practice  with  individual  cases.  As  shown  in  the   previous  discussion.  which  are  based  on  concepts.     The  ideas  of  concept-­‐indicator  and  first  and  second-­‐order  concepts  are   important  in  case  study  research.  Again.  Indicators  are  descriptions  of  particular  concrete  social  processes.  First   order  concepts  are  defined  in  the  same  way  as  indicators.     A  Note  on  Language   The  language  of  social  research  can  be  confusing  to  newcomers.  however.  Professionals  built  their  expertise   when  they  extract  general  principles  from  case  studies.  Concepts  in  the  concept-­‐indicator  model  are  abstractions  from   indicators.  professionals  continually   monitor  whether  their  thinking  and  judgments  fit  the  particularities  of  the  cases.  the  contexts  in  which  the  term  is   used  provide  some  clues  as  the  meanings  users  intend.  Grounded  theorists  seek  core   concepts.

 See  Professor  Gilgun’s  other  articles.  books.  to  use  evidence  to   modify  working  hypotheses  and  to  develop  new  working  hypotheses.  and   children’s  stories  on  Amazon  Kindle.  in  the  style  of  grounded  theory.  Gilgun.   Discussion   Case  study  research  is  valuable  because  of  its  contribution  to  theory.   researchers  must  have  skills  that  are  similar  to  those  of  researchers  who  begin  their   studies  with  hypotheses.  they  must  be  able  to   identify  the  range  of  research  and  theory  that  is  relevant  to  their  topic.     If  researchers  begin  with  a  conceptual  framework.  to  write  theory  clearly.  in  AI/DQA.  and.  Ph.  keep  track  of  the  changes  they  make  in   their  working  hypotheses  and  the  data  that  led  them  to  make  changes.  iBooks.   References  &  Further  Reading     38   .   Case  study  research  is  difficult.   About  the  Author   Jane  F.  Twin  Cities.  and  relate  the   theory  they  develop  to  what  is  already  known.  University   of  Minnesota.   to  extract  concepts  and  hypotheses  from  particular  situations.  case  studies  provide  anecdotal  information.  Researchers  must  have  superior  conceptual   skills..  Without   reference  to  theory.  seek  disconfirming  evidence.  They  must  be  able  to  apply  concepts  and  hypotheses  to  particular  situations.  LICSW.  They  then  must  further  develop  and  test  their  initial   hypotheses.  is  a  professor.  to  present  the  evidence  that   supports  their  contention  that  their  theory  is  viable  and  credible.com  for  a  variety  of  e-­‐ readers  and  mobile  devices.research  and  theory  is  the  next  step  in  building  case  study  findings.  USA.  The  final  step  is   composed  of  recommendations  for  further  research  and  applications.  to  explain   how  they  developed  the  theory.  and  synthesize  this  information.   categorize.   case  studies  only  have  value  in  relationship  to  currently  held  understandings  and   practices.  and  Scribd.  understand.  They  then   have  to  situate  their  findings  in  what  is  already  known  In  choosing  to  develop   working  hypotheses  while  engaged  in  the  research.  derive  hypotheses  from   the  conceptual  framework.  School  of  Social  Work.  In  other  words.D.

 Norman  (1997).  Jane  F.com/doc/38414815/Erik-­‐Erikson-­‐ Case-­‐Study-­‐Research   Gilgun.  Susana  M.  15.  113-­‐135.  (2011).  39.).  (2008).  Thousand  Oaks.com/doc/35886233/A-­‐Primer-­‐ on-­‐Deductive-­‐Qualitative-­‐Analysis-­‐as-­‐Theory-­‐Testing-­‐Theory-­‐Development     39   .  A  primer  on  deductive  qualitative  analysis  as  theory   testing  and  theory  development.  1-­‐3.  (1992).scribd.  William.   Gilgun.  Jane  F.  Coding  in  deductive  qualitative  analysis.  The  discovery  of  grounded  theory  in   practice:  The  legacy  of  multiple  methods  In  Antony  Bryant  &  Kathy  Charmaz  (Eds.   Denzin.  Thousand  Oaks.  (2007).  Social   Work.  Journal  of   Social  Service  Research.  CA:  Sage.  discuss  and   write  persuasively  about  case  studies.  (1994).   Transitioning  from  doctoral  study  to  the  academy:  Theorizing  trenzas  of  identity  for   Latina  sister  scholars.  11   (1  &  2).  Michelle  M.  16(10).  http://www.  Qualitative  Family  Research.scribd.scribd.  (2010).  Muñoz.   Gilgun.  Juliet  &  Anselm  Strauss.  MA:  Harvard  Business  School.   http://www.  Qualitative  Inquiry.  58-­‐93).  Jane  F.  Erik  Erikson  and  case  study  research.   Corbin.  371-­‐380.  Thousand  Oaks.scribd.scribd.  The  discovery  of  grounded  theory.  8(1).   Espino.  Jane  F.   CA:  Sage.   The  Sage  handbook  of  grounded  theory  (pp.  Jane  F.  A  case  for  case  studies  in  social  work  research.Bryant.  Basics  of  qualitative  research:   Techniques  and  procedures  for  developing  grounded  theory  (3rd  ed.  Hypothesis  generation  in  social  work  research.  Antony  &  Kathy  Charmaz  (Eds.  http://www..  http://www.  1-­‐2.     Covan.  &  Judy  Marquez  Kiyama  (2010).   http://www.  804-­‐818.).).  (1993).  The  case  study  handbook:  How  to  read.   Chicago:  Aldine.com/doc/45000017/Hypothesis-­‐Generation-­‐in-­‐Social-­‐Work-­‐ Research   Gilgun.  Coffee  with  Anselm.com/doc/47331325/Coding-­‐in-­‐Deductive-­‐Qualitative-­‐Analysis   Gilgun.  Current  Issues  in   Qualitative  Research.  Barney  &  Anselm  Strauss  (l967).  CA:  Sage.  Harvard.  The  Sage  handbook  of  grounded   theory.com/doc/27352636/Coffee-­‐with-­‐Anselm   Ellet.  Eleanor  Krassen  (2007).   Glaser.

 Robert  J.  Sarah  J.  Cognitive  psychology  (5th  ed.   Sternberg..  The  power  of  the  case.  Qualtiative   Family  Research.   Yin.  Roy  Ruckdeschel.  Journal  of   Neuropathology  &  Experimental  Neurology.  Joan  Orme.  (2009).  (2010).  16  (8).  Jane  F.  Qualitative  research  and  family  psychology.     40   .  The  Sage  handbook  of  social  work  research  (pp.Gilgun.  Anselm  (1992).com/doc/36079001/The-­‐Power-­‐of-­‐the-­‐Case   Gilgun.     McKee.  and  practice.   Thousand  Oaks.  CA:  Sage.  5  (2).  Belmont.  (2010).  et  al  (2010).com/doc/44659994/Anselm-­‐Strauss-­‐ Writes-­‐A-­‐Personal-­‐History-­‐of-­‐Grounded-­‐Theory-­‐Other-­‐Articles   Tracy.  &   Ian  Shaw.  (2010).  Qualitative  quality:  Eight  “big-­‐tent”  criteria  for   excellent  qualitative  research.).  (2005).).scribd.  Ann  C.  TDP-­‐43  proteinopathy  and   motor  neuron  disease  in  chronic  traumatic  encephalopathy.  Qualitative  Inquiry.  1-­‐2.  Jane  F.  Methods  for  enhancing  theory  and  knowledge  about   problems.  (2010).19(1).  69(9).  &  Brandon  E.  918-­‐299.  http://www.  281-­‐297).  40-­‐50.scribd.   http://www.   Strauss.     Gilgun.  policies.  A  personal  history  of  grounded  theory.  CA:   Wadsworth.  In  Katherine  Briar.  Case  study  research:  Design  and  methods  (4th  ed.  Jane  F.  Robert  K.  837-­‐851.  Journal  of   Family  Psychology.  Gavett.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.