Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting

Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting

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Lecture Overview
SHM/CM/SPC Comparison

Data-Driven Approach

Model-Driven Approach

Vibration Monitoring for Machine Damage

Data to Decision Sensor Issues Signal Processing Feature Extraction Pattern Processing

Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting

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Lecture Overview „ Vibration Sources „ „ Rotating Machinery Reciprocating/Linear Machinery „ „ Vibration Analysis Techniques and Video Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ General Failure Modes Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 3 .

„ „ Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 4 . changes in operating environment. Vibration profile that results from motion is the result of a force imbalance – there is always some imbalance in real-world applications.Vibration Sources „ All machinery with moving parts generates mechanical forces during normal operation. so do these forces.. load variations etc. As mechanical condition of machine changes because of wear.

impellers and other rotors. „ „ Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 5 . In industrial machinery. all rotors run on their true centreline and forces are equal.g. In a perfectly balanced machine. rollingelement bearings. rotors imbalance will generally be present due to uneven weight distribution or due to the imbalance between generated lift and gravity.Rotating Machinery Vibration „ A rotating machine has one or more machine elements that turn with a shaft – e.

Rotating Machinery Vibration „ Pumps. Combination of these forces with stiffness of rotor-support system will determine the vibration level. compressors will be subject to imbalance caused by turbulent or unbalanced media flow. „ Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 6 . fans.

Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 7 „ „ . Few machines involve linear reciprocating motion alone e. reciprocating compressor contains a rotating crankshaft that transmits power to reciprocating pistons for compression. Non-reciprocating linear machines also generate work in straight line but do not reverse direction.Reciprocating/Linear Vibration „ Reciprocating linear-motion machines incorporate components that move linearly in a reciprocating fashion to perform work. They are bidirectional in that the linear movement reverses.g.

four-cycle engine requires two crankshaft revolutions to complete a cycle of all pistons. (Linear-motion-only machines do not generate these spikes).g. Level of unbalanced forces substantially higher than those generated by rotating machines – spikes in vibration profile due to direction reversals.Reciprocating/Linear Vibration „ Vibration profiles of reciprocating machines reflect combination of rotating and linear-motion forces. Frequencies are not always associated with one complete revolution of shaft e. Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 8 „ „ .

Vibration Analysis Techniques „ Three main techniques used in vibration analysis: „ „ „ Trending Comparative Analysis Signature Analysis „ Most vibration-monitoring programs rely heavily on historical vibration-level amplitude trends as their dominant analysis tool. RMS vibration or kurtosis. The measures are derived from the vibration signal and may be mean vibration. Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 9 „ . peak-to-peak vibration. peak vibration.

4 K= ∫ [ x(t ) − x ] 0 4 xRMS dt „ The measures may be taken overall full frequency range (broadband) or narrowband. Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 10 .Vibration Analysis Techniques „ Root Mean Square (RMS) Level xRMS 1 2 = x (t )dt ∫ T 0 T „ Kurtosis gives an indication of the spikiness of the T data.

Limited to direct comparison of time. Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 11 „ „ „ .or frequencydomain signature generated by machine. Baseline must be updated after maintenance and correct baseline should be used (i.Vibration Analysis Techniques „ Comparative analysis directly compares two or more data sets in order to detect changes in operating condition of machine. Comparison may be machine baseline or industry standards.e. same process variables such as load).

Important analysis tool but require large storage space. Although possible to record broadband signatures. „ „ Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 12 . it is usually the case that narrowband signatures are recorded in the vicinity of one or more of the running speeds.Vibration Analysis Techniques „ Signature analysis provides specific data on every frequency component within overall frequency range of machine-train.

Vibration Analysis Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 13 .

Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 14 .Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ Failure-mode analysis attempts to pinpoint the failure mode and identify which machine-train component is degrading. NDT may be required to verify root-cause. Does not always identify the true root-cause of the problem – visual inspection. Two types of information required: „ „ „ „ Machine train vibration signatures (FFT and time) Practical knowledge of machine dynamics and failure modes.

„ „ Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 15 . modulations and process instability. imbalance. Many common causes of failure in machinery components can be identified by understanding relationship to running speed of shaft. mechanical looseness.Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ Several failure-mode charts available but 60 to 70% of the total vibration energy is contained in the frequency component corresponding to the running speed of the machine. misalignment. Common machine-train failure modes include critical speeds.

3x running speed) will immediately drop if problem is due to criticalspeed. Best way to confirm a critical-speed problem is to change running speed – amplitude of vibration components (1x. When the running speed coincides with one of the critical speeds excessive vibration occurs which is generally undesirable. Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 16 „ „ .Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ Critical speeds result due to the natural vibrating frequencies of the machine-train – they are functions of the mass and stiffness of the machine. 2x.

) may be observed in multi-plane imbalance. All machines exhibit some level of imbalance. Any change in state of equilibrium creates an imbalance.3x. etc. Dominant frequency component is at running speed (1x) of shaft. „ „ Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 17 .Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ Balance means that all forces generated by rotating element of machine-train are in equilibrium. Harmonics (2x. Imbalance is one of most common condition monitoring problems.

) „ Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 18 .Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ Mechanical looseness (e. poor bolting to foundations) can be present in vertical and horizontal planes and can create a variety of patterns in vibration signature.g.5x. In some cases only 1x frequency is excited but generally full and half multiples of the running speed are present in spectra (0.5x. 1x. 1. 2x etc.

Three types of misalignment: internal. Internal and offset also excite 2x frequency as shaft creates two “high-spots” Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 19 „ „ „ . offset and angular. All three types excite 1x frequency as they create an apparent imbalance in machine.Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ Misalignment is virtually always present in machine-trains.

Alignment Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 20 .

Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ Modulations are frequency components that appear in vibration signature but cannot be attributed to any specific physical cause or forcing function. Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 21 „ „ „ . Ghosts are caused when two or more frequencies combine to produce another frequency component. Although they are “ghost” or artificial frequencies they can result in significant machine-train damage. Not an absolute indication of problem within machine-train but increased amplitude can amplify defects.

Gear generates frequency components at 5. 110rpm (100+10). 10 and 100rpm (i.e. Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 22 . 10 teeth x 10rpm).Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ Modulation example: Consider 10-tooth pinion gear rotating at 10rpm whilst driving 20-tooth bullgear with output speed of 5rpm. 95rpm (100-5) etc. This set can generate ghost frequencies at 15rpm (10+5).

Process instability creates an unbalanced condition within the machine which generally excites the fundamental (1x) frequency and the blade-pass/vane-pass frequency components.Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ Process instability is normally associated with bladed or vaned machinery such as fans and pumps. „ Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 23 .

Machine Failure Mode Analysis „ Typical vibration troubleshooting chart: Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 24 .

Next Lecture „ „ „ Bearing Failure Modes Gear Failure Modes Non-Destructive Testing Methods Lecture 13 – Vibration Analysis and Troubleshooting 25 .

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