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AIR CONDITIONING (COOLING) UNIT 37 AIR DISTRIBUTION AND BALANCE
After studying this unit, the reader should be able to
• Describe propeller and centrifugal fans and blowers
• Explain how to take air pressure measurements • Explain how to measure air quantities • List various types of air-measuring devices • Describe common types of motors and drive assemblies • Identify and describe various duct systems • Explain how air from the conditioned space returns to the air handler
device to add humidity.CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT • Air has to be conditioned in most cases for us to be comfortable • Equipment includes cooling coil. and device to clean air • Forced air systems use the same room air over and over again • Fresh air enters the structure by infiltration or by mechanical means . heating device.
Mechanical means to introduce Return air from the ventilation occupied space Damper in fresh air duct Supply duct Air handler Fresh air from outside the structure .
CORRECT AIR QUANTITY • The forced air system delivers the correct quantity of conditioned air to the occupied space • Different spaces require different air quantities • Same structure may have several different cooling requirements .
000 btu (cooling) 18.000 btu (heating) 300 cfm 100 cfm 200 cfm .100 cfm 200 cfm 50 cfm 100 cfm 100 cfm 50 cfm Living Room 9.
THE FORCED-AIR SYSTEM • Components that make up the forced-air system – – – – The blower Air supply system Return air system Grilles and registers • Occupants should not be aware if the system is on or off .
Return air from the occupied space Supply registers Supply duct Air handler (blower) .
C) • Air pressure in the ductwork is measured with a water manometer . W. through the grilles and registers.THE BLOWER • Provides the pressure difference to force the air into the duct system. and into the room • Typically 400 cfm of air must be moved per minute per ton of air conditioning • Pressure in the ductwork is measured in inches of water column (in.
these pressures are called – “Total pressure “ • Static pressure plus velocity pressure equals total pressure .SYSTEM AIR PRESSURES • Duct system is pressurized by two pressures – Static pressure – air pressure in the duct – Velocity pressure – pressure generated by the velocity and weight of the air – Combined.
Probe located on the surface Airflow of the duct Static pressure Duct .
Probe located in the duct. facing into the direction of airflow Total pressure .
Velocity pressure Total pressure Static pressure Velocity pressure = Total pressure – Static pressure .
AIR-MEASURING INSTRUMENTS FOR DUCT SYSTEMS • Velometer – Measures actual air velocity (how fast the air is actually moving in the duct) • Air volume in cfm can be calculated by multiplying the air velocity by the crosssectional area of the duct in square feet • Pitot tube – Used with special manometers for checking duct pressure .
PROPELLER FAN • Used in exhaust fan and condenser fan application • Will handle large volumes of air at low pressure differentials • Set into a housing called a venturi • The venturi forces airflow in a straight line from one side of the fan to the other • Makes noise and is used where noise is not a factor .
Propeller fan Venturi .
SQUIRREL CAGE OR CENTRIFUGAL FAN • Desirable for ductwork • Builds more pressure from the inlet to the outlet • Has a forward curved blade and a cutoff to shear the air spinning around the fan wheel • Very quiet when properly applied • Can be used in very large high-pressure systems .
Centrifugal Blower End View of Squirrel Cage Blower Wheel .
CENTRIFUGAL BLOWER HOUSING .
TYPES OF FAN DRIVES • Belt-drive blowers have two bearings on the fan shaft and two bearing on the motor • Motor pulleys and fan motor pulleys can be adjusted to change fan speeds • Direct-drive motors use no pulleys or belts • Direct-drive motors can be multi-speed motors • Speeds can be changed by changing motor wire leads .
BOTH THE DRIVE AND DRIVEN PULLEYS MUST BE PERFECTLY ALIGNED
DIRECT DRIVE MOTOR ASSEMBLY
THE MOTOR AND THE BLOWER TURN AT THE SAME SPEED
THE SUPPLY DUCT SYSTEM
• Distributes air to the terminal units, registers, or diffusers in the conditioned space • Duct systems
– – – – Plenum system Extended plenum system Reducing plenum system Perimeter loop
THE PLENUM SYSTEM • Suited for a job where the room outlets are all close to the unit • Supply diffusers are normally located on the inside walls • Work better on fossil-fuel systems • Fossil-fuel supply air temperatures could easily reach 130°F .
Plenum system Supply plenum Branch ducts Return duct .
THE EXTENDED PLENUM SYSTEM • Can be applied to a long structure • This system takes the plenum closer to the farthest point • Called the trunk duct system • Ducts called branches complete the connection to the terminal units .
000 btu (heating) 300 cfm 100 cfm 200 cfm .THE EXTENDED PLENUM SYSTEM 50 cfm 100 cfm 50 cfm 100 cfm 200 cfm 100 cfm Living Room 9.000 btu (cooling) 18.
THE REDUCING PLENUM SYSTEM • Reduces the trunk duct size as branch ducts are added • Has the advantage of saving material and keeping the same pressure from one end of the duct system to the other .
000 btu (cooling) 18.THE REDUCING EXTENDED PLENUM SYSTEM 50 cfm 100 cfm 100 cfm 200 cfm 100 cfm 50 cfm Living Room 9.000 btu (heating) 300 cfm 100 cfm 200 cfm .
THE PERIMETER LOOP SYSTEM • Well suited for installation in a concrete floor in a colder climate • Warm air is in the whole loop when the furnace fan is running • Keeps the slab at a more even temperature • Provides the same pressure to all outlets .
THE PERIMETER LOOP SYSTEM 50 cfm 100 cfm 100 cfm 200 cfm 100 cfm 50 cfm Living Room 9.000 btu (cooling) 18.000 btu (heating) 300 cfm 100 cfm 200 cfm .
galvanized sheet metal was used exclusively • Other ductwork materials – – – – Aluminum Fiberglass ductboard Spiral metal duct Flexible duct .DUCT MATERIALS • Ductwork must meet local codes • For years.
square. or rectangular .GALVANIZED STEEL DUCT • Gauge is the measurement of the thickness of galvanized steel duct • The gauge size means how many pieces of that material would need to be stacked together to make a one-inch stack • Metal duct can be round.
JOINING SECTIONS OF GALVANIZED DUCT WITH SLIPS AND DRIVES Drive cleat Slip .
JOINING SECTIONS OF GALVANIZED DUCT WITH SLIPS AND DRIVES Ends of drives are bent over to secure Slip .
thick with aluminum foil backing • Special knives are used to make special cuts to turn duct board into ductwork • All duct seams should be stapled and taped .FIBERGLASS DUCT • Styles: Flat sheet or round prefabricated cut • Duct is normally 1 in.
SPIRAL METAL DUCT • Used more on large systems • Comes in rolls of flat narrow metal • Runs can be made at the job site • Can be located within the occupied space for a more contemporary look .
FLEXIBLE DUCT • Comes in sized up to about 24 in. in diameter • Some have a reinforced aluminum foil backing • Some come with vinyl or foil backing and insulation on it • Keep duct runs as short as possible • Has more friction loss inside it than metal duct • Flex duct should be stretched as tight as possible .
Floor Register Return Damper Supply Flexible Duct .
COMBINATION DUCT SYSTEMS • Metal trunk lines with round branch ducts • Metal trunk lines with flexible branch ducts • Ductboard trunk lines with round metal branch ducts • Ductboard trunk lines with flexible branch ducts • Round metal duct with round metal branch ducts • Round metal trunk lines with flexible branch ducts .
DUCT AIR MOVEMENT • Branch ducts are fastened to the main trunk by a takeoff-fitting • The takeoff encourages the air moving the duct to enter the takeoff to the branch duct • Air moving in the duct has inertia. meaning it wants to move in a straight line • Using turning vanes will improve the airflow around corners .
Main supply duct Takeoff fitting .
BALANCING DAMPERS • Used to balance the air in various parts of the system • Dampers should be located as close as practical to the trunk line • The trunk is the place to balance airflow • Handles allow the dampers to be turned at an angle to the airstream to slow the air down .
Branch duct Balancing damper in the closed position Damper in the open position .
and taping it .DUCT INSULATION • A 15°F temperature difference from the inside of the duct to the outside of the duct is considered the maximum difference allowed before insulation is necessary • Metal duct can be insulated on the outside and on the inside • The insulation is joined by lapping it. stapling it.
BLENDING THE CONDITIONED AIR WITH ROOM AIR • When possible. air should be directed on the walls • The diffuser spreads the air to the desired air pattern • Cool air distributes better from the ceiling • Place diffusers next to the outside walls • How far the air will be blown from the diffuser into the room depends on the air pressure behind the diffuser and the style of the diffuser blades .
THE RETURN AIR DUCT SYSTEM • Individual return air system will give the most positive return air • The return air duct is normally sized slightly larger than the supply duct • Central return systems are usually satisfactory for a one-level residence • A path must be provided for the air to return to the central return • The return air grille should be around an elbow from the furnace .
Central Return Supply plenum Return plenum One central return grill in the common area .
INDIVIDUAL RETURN AIR SYSTEM S R .
the less friction there is • The slower the air is moving.SIZING DUCT FOR MOVING AIR • Friction loss in ductwork is due to the actual rubbing action of the air against the side of the duct and the turbulence of the air rubbing against itself while moving down the duct • The smoother the duct’s interior surface is. the less friction there will be • Each foot of duct offers a known resistance to airflow .
MEASURING AIR MOVEMENT FOR BALANCING • Air balancing is accomplished by measuring the air leaving each register • Measuring velocity of the duct in a cross section of the duct • Determine the cfm by using the formula: CFM = area in square feet x velocity in feet per minute .
Cross-sectional area = 1 ft x 1 ft = 12” x 12” = 144 square inches = 1 foot Average air velocity is 400 fpm 144 in2 / 144 in2 = 1ft2 1 foot Air Volume (cfm) = 400 ft/min x 1ft2 = 400 cfm .
25ft2 18” Air Volume (cfm) = 400 ft/min x 2.Cross-sectional area = 18” x 18” = 324 in2 18” Average air velocity is 400 fpm 324 in2 / 144 in2 = 2.25ft2 = 900 cfm .
THE AIR FRICTION CHART • Used by system designers to size ductwork and duct systems • Gives recommended duct sized and velocities for optimum performance • Can be used to troubleshoot airflow problems • Pressure drops in duct fittings have equivalent lengths • All lengths and equivalent lengths are added together to achieve the total .
RESIDENTIAL DUCT SYSTEM Common duct problems – – – – – – Excessively long flexible duct runs Disconnected duct runs Closed dampers Collapsed flexible duct Loose insulation in the duct Blocked grills and/or registers .
partially closed dampers. and incorrect fan rotation .COMMERCIAL DUCT SYSTEMS • Each area has specifications regarding the required amount of airflow • Certified testing and balancing company to verify airflow • Flow hoods measure air volume at supply registers • Total airflow can be measured at the main duct • Common problems include dirty filters.
SUMMARY • Forced air systems use the same air over and over • Fresh air enters the structure by infiltration • Forced air systems deliver the correct quantity of conditioned air to the occupied space • Different spaces require different air quantities • Forced air systems are made up of the blower. return air system and supply registers or grilles . supply duct system.
400 cfm of air must be moved per minute per ton of air conditioning • Pressure in the ductwork is measured in inches of water column (in.SUMMARY • Typically. W.C) • Static pressure plus velocity pressure equals total pressure • Air volume in cfm can be calculated by multiplying the air velocity by the crosssectional area of the duct in square feet .
SUMMARY • Propeller fans are used in exhaust fan and condenser fan applications and can handle large volumes of air at low pressure differentials • Centrifugal blowers are used in duct systems • Motor drives can be direct or belt driven assemblies • The supply duct system can be configured as a plenum. extended plenum. reducing extended plenum or perimeter loop system .
fiberglass duct board.• Duct systems can be made of galvanized metal. flexible duct or a combination of different materials • Branch ducts deliver the proper amount of air to remote locations in the structures • Balancing dampers are used to help ensure proper airflow to the remote locations • The return air system can be configured as a central or individual return air system SUMMARY .4 . aluminum. spiral metal.
SUMMARY .5 • Friction in the duct slows the air flowing in it • Slower air experiences less friction • Air balancing ensures the proper amount of air is delivered to each supply register • CFM = velocity x cross sectional area • The friction chart is used to properly size duct systems .