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BCSA Guide to the Erection of Steel Bridges
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BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES
This Guide covers all aspects of steel bridge projects from concept to ereclion which bear on the quality, economy, best value, and health & safely of the erection works on site. It aims to provide guidance on best practice to all members of the project team - from Client to Steelwork Contractor - particularly for participants who have little personal experience of steel construction. It applies to most common forms of composite and steel-decked construction for short and medium span road bridges, rail bridges and footbridges.
The Health & Safety Executive welcomes this BCSA Guide to the Erection of Steel Bridges and considers it as an important document which includes clear advice on the effective management of health and safety during bridge work. It is a Qoodexampie of industry "self regulation", as the direct involvement of experienced and professional practitioners ensures that such guidance will be both relevant and authoritative. The British Consbuctional Steelwork Association understands the importance of self regulation and over the years has been proactive and not simply reactive in reducing risks and accidents. The HSE welcomes working in partnership with BCSA because its positive approach has enabled steelwork erection to be undertaken both imaginatively and with increased safely.
5 4.3 3.3 5.6 5.1 1.3 2.4 2.4 1.4 4 4.5 2 2.2 3.6 4.2 5.1 4.7 4.9 50 53 .5 2.1 3.1 2.6 2.8 5.2 2.7 5.3 4.2 1.7 TITLE INTRODUCTION The challenge of bridge building Steel bridge erection The process Regulations Further information MANAGEMENT The Project Team What is to be managed? Management for erection Management of health & safety Managing quality Environmental management Competence DESIGN FOR STEEL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION The design process Design issues for erection Construction engineering Cooperation and communication PLANNING FOR ERECTION Development of the plan Choice of method Choice of erection sequence Choice of cranes Working up the method Weather conditions Evaluation of risk Method statements SITE PRACTICE The bridge site as a workplace Access and working platforms Material handling Working in confined spaces Working near overhead power lines Working near water Working near highways Working near railways Working at night PAGE 7 0 0 9 9 11 11 12 15 16 16 17 19 19 26 30 31 31 34 35 36 37 30 39 41 41 45 46 47 40 50 3 3.4 4.5 5.3 1.4 5.1 5.CONTENTS CONTENTS SUBSECTION 1 1.0 5 5.2 4.
7 PAGE 55 56 56 57 57 58 58 7 7.3 7.5 Pre-assembly at the factory 6.2 Marking of steelwork 6.1 Incorporation of temporary works 6.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES CONTENTS SUBSECTION TITLE MANUFACTURE AND DELIVERY 6 Manufacturing objectives 6.12 7.6 Delivery to site 6.8 7.4 8.4 Protective treatment 6.4 7.11 7.3 Trial erection 6.5 8.13 IMPLEMENTING THE ERECTION SCHEME Introduction Handover of the site Site management Use of the Erection Method Statement Induction and briefing Delivery and oflloading steelwork Lifting operations Management of wind effects Alignment and bearings Making connections Deck construction Protective treatment Completion ERECTION TASKS Carrying out erection tasks Personal protection Safety of equipment Common tasks Health hazards Accidents and emergencies REFERENCES 60 60 61 61 62 63 64 67 70 74 76 78 79 81 81 83 83 87 90 92 8 8.5 7.9 7.1 7.2 7.7 7.1 8.2 8.10 7.3 8.6 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 APPENDICES The Register of Qualified Steelwork Contractors Model Erection Method Statement Regulations and Documentation Bridge Sale Site Handover Certificate 93 96 101 102 .6 7.
As in all construction. . Contractors and Subcontractors with representatives of the Client. the Steelwork Contractor is either the major subcontractor or. the Principal Contractor. The BCSA thanks them for thelr assistance. Whatever the contractual relationships within the team. cooperation. on occasions. but not always. published in 2002. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This guide has been compiled and edited by lan E Hunter. consultant. success is achieved only through communication. previously Cleveland Bridge UK Limited. from material prepared by the following Working Group of the BCSA Bridgework Conference chaired by Peter Lloyd of Fairfield-Mabey Limited: David Allinson John Dale David Dickson Tom Hume Julian Mason Sean O’Connor Cleveland Bridge UK Limited Rowecord Engineering Limited Fairfield-Mabey Limited Watson Steel Structures Limited Fairfield-Mabey Limited Watson Steel Structures Limited Allan Painter Kevin Rowe Simon Slinn Peter Taylor Peter Walker Fairfield-Mabey Limited Rowecord Engineering Limited Nusteel Structures Limited Fairfield-Mabey Limited BCSA. This is neither a bridge construction manual nor a safety handbook. from selecting the site and conceptual design right through to how the components are delivered. it is an introductory guide and reference is made to other industry sources of expert guidance and information. what is seen to happen on site appears relatively straightforward. responsible for the erection of the steelwork on site as well as for fabrication. Principal Contractor. and not just what is done there. It is in the interests of better teamwork for the steel bridge industry to explain the whole process. Effective teamwork depends on mutual understandingof roles and responsibilitiesand the effects on and consequences for others of team members’ choices and decisions: performance depends on following best practice. or Steelwork Contractor -an understanding of the process leading up to what happens on site. The Steelwork Contractor is often. formerly of Dorman Long and Cleveland Bridge. safety is a fundamental driver of decision-making and planning: the aim is to describe best practice in today’s construction market and thereby help all participants to fulfil their responsibility for health & safety.whether working for Client. with or without a concrete deck. For a bridge constructed of steel. there is a cultural gap to be overcome between civil engineering and engineering construction. For most participants other than the Steelwork Contractor‘s construction specialists. safe process. Erection is the culmination of a sequence of activities. Designer. but little is known of what goes into achieving an efficient. coordination and leadership. It is complementary to the BCSA publication Steel Bridges: A Practica/Approach lo Design /or “iienl Fabricationand Consiruclion. The aim of this guide is to give new participants in bridge constructioninvolving major steelwork . rather.PREFACE Bridges are built for Clients by construction industry teams of Designers. bridge erection can seem like the tip of an iceberg. every one of which is significant. Indeed the plans for erection may influence design and will certainly define the fabrication process. if sometimes spectacular.
BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES .
all in the context d evolving regulations lor health 8 safely and the environment. \ - . jus! as the Steelwork Contractor has to understand their roles and responsibilities.SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION - 1 INTRODUCTION 1. they come with a detailed plan for erection -the die has been cast. This guide follows the steel bridging process through from concept to completion. yet to do their jobs they need to understand what is involved in it. They face challengesand opportunities of new techniques. are unfamiliar with steel bridge construction before the project. working with the other team members to ensure safe and efficient erection.1 THE CHALLENGE OF BRIDGE BUILDING Each new bridge challenges the people who have to design and bulld it. It describes the features common to most bridge projects which affect how the work is done. but the planning and preparation for the steelwork Is done elsewhere . but every other organisationforming the project team contributes in some way to what is to be built and how it can be built.maybe hundreds of miles away and many months before components arrive at site. at best their experience is limited and Intermittent. outlining what has to be achieved at each stage by the Steelwork Contractor. innovations in plant and equipment. whether for Client. Most of the other work done on the site is planned and managed there. Designer 01 Contractors. Bridge-buildingis a continuous learning process for everybody involved in determining how to bulld the bridge. For a steel or steel and concrete composite bridge the Steelwork contractor takes the lead in constructing the superstructure. When they do. Many participants. and the hazards and techniques peculiar to steel bridge erection. Each one is also charged with the responsibilityfor health 8 safety in construction.
Steel is used for bridges. mobilisation of specialist tradesmen.2 STEEL BRIDGE ERECTION Steel bridge erection is an engineering service to carry through a process involving: design and planning.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 1. specialist cranes are needed and are operated up to their loading limits for economy.lrom concept to completion. experience. erecting bridgework is generally quite diflerent from the erection of structural steelwork lor buildings: typically the bridge has a 120 year design life and is fatigue sensitive. The Bridgework section of the Register of QualifiedSteelwork Contractors (see Appendix 1) categorises contractors by their size and by the classes of bridgework they can undertake. including erectors. The service is provided by bridgework contractors who must have a thorough understanding of what the project requires and be able to assemble an experienced competent team to undertake it. modified and refurbished. Old bridges have to be replaced. 1. Although bridgework skills are necessary to erect some major "engineered" building structures. supervisors and erectors involved transferring lrom building steelwork is a quantum leap for any of them. and often during erection the partial structure sustains high stress levels to economise on temporary works. Thus bridgework contractors offer an erection service based on their size. larger and heavier. platers and welders. Small and large. the main components are longer. that is for the more common forms of short and medium span bridges for road bridges (which generally have composite-acting concrete decks). . managers.3 THE PROCESS This guide covers the work of the bridge project team relating to erection . The range of steel bridge erection projects is wide and very varied. in a variety of form. and each project requires a different balance between the elements of service. static and moving. Bridgework is quite a different discipline for the steelwork engineers. construction management. For most short and medium span bridges the service is provided with the fabrication of the steelwork as a subcontract to a civil engineering Principal Contractor. specialised procurement. expert supervision. site connections are made rigid by welding or using HSFG bolts. resources and the expertise of their key personnel. utilitarian and landmark. significant construction engineering and temporary works are generally required. Almost all British bridgework contractors fabricate bridge steelwork and their erection capability reflects the nature and size of what their factories produce. it is usually IuHy designed by a specialist consultant bridge Designer. and mobilisation of specialist plant and services. simple and complex. rail bridges and footbridges.
SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION Sections 2 and 3 cover the management and design tasks which the project team has to complete before erection begins, based on the typical team of Client, Designer, Principal Contractor and Steelwork Contractor. Section 2 discusses the need for cooperation and Coordination between the Principal Contractor and the Steelwork Contractor. Section 3 examines the technical management 01 the process by the Designer and by the Steelwork Contractor who often has a significant design role in how the bridge is to be built - involving construction engineering and temporary works design. The Steelwork Contractor's planning for erection follows on directly from tendering and award, before fabrication can start;Section 4 identifies key decisions and risks in carrying the planning through to the Erection Method Statement the master plan to carry out the erection as specified in the agreed manner safely. Section 5 examines some typical leatures which deline the nature 01 the site as a workplace and have to be taken into account in planning. Section 6 demonstrates the influence 01 erection planning on manufacturing, delivery and the choices to be made about the work to be done in the factory. Sections 7 and 8 cover the actual erection process at site. Bridge erection is carried out in a common sequence from handover of the site through to completion 01 the steel bridgework. Section 7 outlines each main activity and recommended good practice for it. In designing and planning bridgework, Designers are obliged to consider health 8 safety in the construction (and maintenance) of the bridge; they need to visualise the hazards involved in the tasks their work delines and how competent site personnel will carry them out. Section 8 describes some of the common tasks and health or safety hazards in bridge erection, and the personal protection 01 the individual worker.
Steel erection, as for all constructionactivity, is subject to extensive regulation within the lramework of the Heallh and Safely at Work etc Acl, lhe Conslruclion (Health, Safely and Wellare) Regulations and lhe Construction (Design and Management) Regulalions. The regulations particularly relevant to erection are listed in Appendix 3, and are referred to throughout this guide in abbreviated lorm, e.g. "CDM Regulations". All managers, engineers and supervisors on site are required to be lamiliar with the relevant regulations and ensure that their requirementsare observed. This is achieved by training, instructionand guidance provided under the auspices of each participatingorganisation's Health & Safety Policy.
1.5 FURTHER INFORMATION
This guide is intended as an introductionto steel bridge erection. Recent publications by the UK steel bridge industry provide engineers with information and expert advice. In particular the BCSA's SleelBridges: A PraclicalApproach lo Design for Fabricationand Conslruclion and the SCl's Steel Bridge Group: Guidance Notes on Besl Practice in Sleel Bridge Construction. These are relerred to in the text as "Steel Bridges" and "Guidance Notes" respectively, where appropriate. Other sources 01 information are listed in the References.
BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES
SECTION 2 - MANAGEMENT
2.1 THE PROJECT TEAM
Producing a new bridge requires a project team with all the necessary skills and resources: how that team is formed and how the constituent organisations relate to each other depend on the procurement method and form of contract - it may for example be traditional or by Private Finance Initiative. For most short and medium span steel bridges in the UK the steelwork is provided by a subcontractor and there are four key roles in the project team, however they relate contractually:
The Client - who will own the bridge, decides what is wanted, supervises and checks the works, and pays for the
The Designer - who designs the bridge and is the technical authority for the implementation of the design. The Princlpal Contractor - who is responsible for delivery of the completed bridge to meet the project criteria, and
has overall responsibilityfor health & safely on the construction site.
The Steelwork Contractor - who fabricates and erects the steel bridgework undertaking the required construction engineering.
Each of these is a corporate role fulfilled by an organisation which is represented by key personnel given specific responsibilitiesfor the new bridge project; in most cases the organisationswill fulfil the role using consultants, subcontractors and other specialists to support them. This model of the project team is used throughout this guide for convenience and consistent terminology: the guidance should be applied to a specific project assigning the responsibilitiesof the four key roles to its particular organisation and titles. The four key roles correspond directly to management defined in the CDM Regulations. The role of Planning Supervisor as a facilitator and monitor is currently a regulatory requirement, but it falls outside the scope of this guide, which deals with the Designers and Contractoh decision-making and good practice for them to follow. The objective of the project team is to deliver the bridge within criteria of quality, time, cost and safety. That requires effective Organisation and leadership with focus on communication, coordination and programming.
2.2 WHAT IS TO BE MANAGED?
The pre-construction phase of the project has traditionally involved just the Client and the Designer but that is changing. The most significant aspect of this phase for erection is the buildability of the bridge design, and this is discussed in the Section 2 of this guide. Where the design and construct approach or early contractor involvement is used, then design for function and construction can and should be managed in the team as an integrated process. Once construction starts on site, the Principal Contractor takes the overall lead until the new bridge is handed over to the Client. Management by the team then has to take account of the following factors which usually prevail: The Principal Contractor is based on site and manages the project from there. The Principal Contractor has to manage all the construction including the civil engineering and the steel erection. The Designer has an ongoing role for the steelwork until it is complete on site, but is generally not based there.
major lifting operations. At an appropriate time. and working at height which present particular hazards to health 8. The steelwork subcontract has to be managed actively from the start. the Steelwork Contractor and the Designer have to work together continuously through the whole period of fabrication. 2. with clearly defined roles which are mutually understood. the Principal Contractor. experience. Problems will occur on and off site. Erection involves transport of large heavy components.3. Different Steelwork Contractors may use different job titles for these roles: and depending on the particular project and personnel the roles may be combined. There is a cultural differenceto be bridged belween civil engineering construction and steel construction. and may be represented at site only for the duration of the steel erection activity.1 Key personnel Effective management of the process requires the appointment of competent key personnel within each organisation. an engineer with the competence. dependent on the timing of erection.in approach. review.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES The Steelwork Contractor manages his scope of work from his head office. the Steelwork Contractor will appoint or should nominate the following: a contract manager with relevant bridge experience to be responsible for delivery 01 the complete scope of work for the bridge project.they have to be communicated and resolved by the team quickly. safely. approval and discussion of procedures and methods: part 01 the role of the Principal Contractor's engineer is to establish and facilitate that channel of communication. an erection manager with appropriate experience to organise the planning and resourcing of the erection. In managing the steelwork subcontract. is responsible for the management and safe conduct of the works and is the Steelwork Contractor's line manager in direct charge of the erection personnel and any subcontractors on site. qualifications and experience to lake technical responsibility for the job and undertake the construction engineering. processes and trades. The site manager reports to the contract manager. it is good practice for the Principal Contractor to appoint a competent engineer from his site organisation to mainlain a continuous link with the Steelwork Contractor for communicationand COOrdiMtiOn.3 MANAGEMENT FOR ERECTION 2. The implementation of the design in fabrication and development of the erection scheme requires technical dialogue with the Designer for clarification. preparation and planning for the erection operation to be successful. Each role is essential and the person responsible must be identifiedand have the demonstrable competence to lulfil it. To be based generally in the Steelwork Contractor's main office from the outset. the Steelwork Contractor will appoint a site manager to be the representative at site during the execution of the whole scope of work there. Erection of the steelwork has a major impact on the site but is often of relatively short duration. The erection method affects the fabrication process and conversely the quality of fabrication affects erection.based on . and is heavily dependent on site conditions and facilities. changes will have to be made . The key representatives of the Client.
This meeting should be coupled with a joint inspeclion of the site and immediate access routes by the Principal Contractor and the Steelwork Contractor. - 2. . A widely accepted agenda for such meetings is presented in Guidance Nole 5. This approach also ensures the cooperation behveen designers for the permanent works. temporary works and construction engineering required under the regulations.2 Pre-fabrication meeting Erection 01 lhe bridge depends on timely delivery 01 the steelwork from the lactory in the right sequence and in assured condition. Commonly fabrication lies on the critical path of the project programme so it is imperative to hold a prefabrication meeting at a very early stage in the contract. the Principal Contractor. the Designer. The purpose 01 the meeting is to confirm the clarity of the subcontract provisions lor all the relevant technical issues.09.3. This allows the whole team to be lamiliarised with the works and the productionprocess and meet the people involved who may be remote lrom the bridge site but whose performance is no less essential to the project. It can be helpful to team-building lor this meeting to be held at the lactory where the steelwork is to be fabricated. arrangements for carrying out the work. plant and material Traffic management Programme Quality plans Health & safety management Environmental management Arrangements for communication and coordination. representatives 01 the whole team should allend a meeting at site at an early stage to review construction.3. The agenda lor this meeting should include Clarificationof Principal Contractor's requirements Agreement 01 lacilities to be provided by each party Assessment 01 the site Erection sequence and outline method Temporary works Access for personnel.3 lnltlal construction meeting Similarly. and the Steelwork Contractor's team for the project. any inspection authority. 2. It should be attended by representatives of the Client.SECTION 2 MANAGEMENT mutual trust and respect -the probability that he is not a specialist in steel bridgework is less significant. and procedures.
perhaps in stages. the repnrsentatives 01 the team should meet regularly at the Steelwork Contractors f actw to review the progress of supplies and manufacture. This provides a lorum for resolution of problems and mana!Jemt of change. The Steelwork Contractor's programming lor erection wil be linked to the programming of the bridgework fabrication as part 01 the overall planning system for the factory. and for erection.3. as well as the progress of erection planning and preparation. Safe construction requires not only competent contractors and workforce with sufficient resources.4 Plognmmlag Erection 01 steel bridgework is a critical intermediate stage of the Principal Contractor's construction programme: it cannot commence until the site and the substructures are ready to receive the steelwork and construction cannot continue until the steelwork is.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 2.3.Within the given construction period the time constraints may well d i m e the sequence and method of erection. but also an adequate time allowance that takes account of constraints outside the Contractor's control and risk. The overall programme must allow lor a sale approach to be adopted on site. Thus programming the works has to be realistic and there has lo be a mutuai understanding of what each has to achieve and the areas of risk to the programme on site.1 Progress As part of the normal contractual process of monitoring progress fmm the outset. Is the site ready? . 2. The PrincipalContractor and the Steelwork Contractor are dependent on each other's performance and progress to achieve their objectives. in the factory. completed and handed over. These are issues which should be considered during tenderimg by the Principal Contractor so that he is well aware of the time that needs to be allowed for fabrication and erection to achieve his construction proposals.
the site manager should brief the Principal Contractor's site staff as well as his own about critical erection activities. and a mutual understanding of the erection process. The BCSA's Bridge sale Site Handover Cerlifcate (see Appendix 4) provides a comprehensive pro forma list for this essential check 2.SECTION 2 MANAGEMENT 2. in the interests of site safely and coordinated working. it is also required by law. is responsible for the safe erection of the bridgeworks in the planned manner. the Steelwork Contractor is responsible for supplying the necessary information in good time to enable the site to be prepared systematically. supported by the Erection Method Statement which relates them to all operations. This should be achieved through regular communication between the nominated representatives to Coordinate the planning. and before erection can begin: as soon as the staff. . so that there are no surprises. so that problems and delays can be avoided. engineering. The Steelwork Contractor is responsible for handing over the completed bridgework in agreed phases on time: that requires close cooperation at site. Cooperation between the Steelwork Contractor and the Principal Contractor is essential in the planning and the implementation stages. The Principal Contractor is responsible similarly for advising the Steelwork Contractor in good time of changes at site which might affect planning and carrying out the erection. When appropriate. It is expedient for most sites to work through a pre-prepared check list. The process culminates with the acceptance of the Erection Method Statement for construction. and plant needed for erection. The Steelwork Contractor's health & safely plans prepared for the project will be complementary to the Constmction Health & Sa/ely Plan. and this responsibility is effected through the Construction Health & Safely Plan he develops for the overall construction of the bridge. Having agreed at the start of the contract what lhe Principal Contractor is to provide. welding engineering. There must be a detailed plan probably contained in an overall management plan that sets out the roles and responsibilitiesfor the work on site. having accepted the site for ereclion. it defines the interfaces between erection and other activities and the attached sketches and drawings define the agreed arrangements. safely advice.3. and the relevant part of lhe Erection Method Statement.4 MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH & SAFETY The Principal Contractor has overall responsibility for health & safely during construction. are mobilised they need to be productive and proceed to the agreed plan. 2.3. The site manager will have the support of company services from head office as necessary including quality management.7 Management on slte The Steelwork Contractor's site manager. his site manager should inspect the site with the Principal Contractor and check that the site will be safe and ready as agreed for erection. At least seven days prior to the confirmed start date for handover of the site to the Steelwork Contractor.6 Site handover for erection - In effect the stage has to be set on site by the Principal Contractor before any of the steelwork is delivered. procurement and personnel. manpower.
BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES The principal safety objectives when erecting steel bridgeworks are safe access and working positions, safe lifting and placing of steel components, stability and structural adequacy of the part-erected bridge. The most serious accidents during bridge erection are generally caused by falls from height, either from working positions or while gaining access to them. Other serious accidents occur because of structural instability or failure during erection and while transporting, handling and lifting heavy components. The Steelwork Contractor's heallh & safety management system must address the particular hazards and risks in steel construction as well as lhe normal range of issues in working on construction sites (e.g. slips, trips and falls). The planning for health & safety is systemic to all the preparation for erection through risk assessment, devising safe systems of work and working up the Erection Method Statement.
2.5 MANAGING QUALITY
Finished bridge steelwork is a manufactured product using materials and processes which have to meet precise complex specifications and be validated by testing. Steelwork correctly made goes together readily, whereas even minor manufacturing errors have quite disproportionate effects at site. Quality management is essential in lhe manufacturing and erection process: all competent bridge Steelwork Contractors in lhe UK operate quality management systems lhird party accredited to BS EN IS0 9001: 2000. The Steelwork Contractor produces quality plans, including inspectionand test plans, for each bridge project which will cover design, manufacture and construction as necessary. It is common for Clients to require the appointment of an independent third party inspectionauthority to deal with the specialist aspects of approving the quality of workmanship. This is particularly important for work such as welding that will be incorporated into the works and will not subsequently be available for inspection (see item 19.0 in Guidance Nole 5.09).
2.6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
The Principal Contractor prepares and operates a Construction Environmental Management Plan with which the Steelwork Contractor has to comply in planning and carrying out the work. Each Steelwork Contractor has an environmental policy for the manufacturingand site activity which he undertakes, as part of his management system, and this is implemented on site in cooperation and coordination with the Principal Contractor. Civil construction has a direct impact on the environment and the particular site environment constrains construction, so the Steelwork Contractor has, for lhe ereclion work, to: assess the particular environmental requirements of lhe project; use formal risk assessments to identify environmental risks and appropriate associated risk reductionand mitigation measures; plan the erection within the environmental constraints; cooperate wilh the Principal Contractor in "customer care" measures;
SECTION 2 DESIGN ISSUES control the generation of noise, waste. dust and pollutants from each erection activity; manage waste systematically in accordance with the relevant regulations; communicate environmental issues, and their role in good management of the site to all site personnel.
It is in the Clienrs interest and is his legal obligation, through the procurement process, to appoint a project team which is competent to produce the bridge - competent in design, in management, and in the particular construction activities required. Each of the key roles in the project influences the erection process directly or indirectly. particularly the management 01 health & safety; so it is important that the key personnel with responsibilityfor the project have the necessary experience and expertise in steel bridge construction.
The current practice of requiring bidders to submit quality statements as well as financial bids gives Clients a surer basis for satisfying themselves of the bidders' competence. The quality statement should demonstrate the approach to lhe specific project, its challenges and opportunities, as well as historical experience; it should nominate a competent team of key personnel. This process enables the Client to assess more objectively which bidder can give the best value. Selection of a competent Steelwork Contractor is a necessary precondition to ensure that competent personnel are mobilised to undertake erection. All Steelwork Contractors operating in the UK for steel bridge construction, who have demonstratedtheir capability satisfactorily to independent expert auditors. are included in lhe Register of Qualified Steelwork Contractors. Registered contractors are qualified to a limiting value of project, based on their resources and financial standing, and in specified types of bridge construction. The details of lhe Bridgeworks Register are given in Appendix 1. The Steelwork Contractor must be satisfied that the personnel employed on bridge erection - in the workforce, supervision, and management -are physically fit to carry out the work, have the necessary experience and qualifications, and have the training necessary to carry out the work competently, safely and without risk to health. All persons employed on site need to produce evidence of having passed an appropriate heallh & safety test, and their training and qualifications should meet those required by the Principal Contractor (e.g. those of the Major Contractors Group - MCG).
BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES
temporary work design. How the bridge is to be built and how it is designed are linked inextricably. Best practice in bridge-building has always recognised the linkage between design lor purpose and design lor construction and the need lor good communication and cooperation between designers and engineers. the Designer and the Technical Approval Authority need to respond positively to the opportunities 10 achieve potential benefits. wittingly or not. site conligurationwill dictate how cranes can be deployed.2.perhaps during restricted "possession" periods.lor quality. His scope of design may be small. The Designer conceives a design solution for the Client and completes the design in every detail to meet a given set of criteria . Present day procurement practices such as design-and-construct.in concept. The aim is to draw attention 01 the reader to them and where appropriate refer to sources where they are discussed more fully. At each stage of design . Design in the widest sense covers construction engineering. partnering and early contractor involvement provide much greater opportunities for an integrated approach to bridge design and a better service for clients and stakeholders. In the UK this is underscored by the legal obligation placed on all the designers lor a project by the CDM Regulations. however the Client. and technical management to ensure that the design intent is fulfilled.1 THE DESIGN PROCESS Design is a continuous activity throughout a steel bridge project even though notionally the design of the bridge may be complete before the construction contract is let. rapid installation may be essential . value.SECTION 3 DESIGN FOR STEEL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION - 3 DESIGN FOR STEEL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION 3. or it may be large. development. he heavily inlluences how that work is to be done by the contractors.1 Structural form The bridge design has to be buildable: the issues in Section 3. Any site for a new or replacement bridge presents an obstacle to be bridged: the site in its environment and associated infrastructure present constraints and opportunities for the Designer to consider before defining the structural form. Other contractors will have design responsibility in their complementary works for the bridge project. Similarly the site presents constraints and opportunities to the bridge builder. for example: available access routes dictate the size of component or heavy plant which can be used. aesthetics and also for health & safety in building and maintaining the bridge. depending on the chosen bridge design and the accepted construction method. detailing and specification . for example from innovation or departure from standards. performance.2 are particularly relevant to the erection of the range of steel bridges covered by this guide. salety in construction and the quality 01 the end product depend on how well that linkage is recognised and managed by the project team.the Designer defines the construction tasks to be done on site and. water may provide particular Challenges and opportunities. 3.2 DESIGN ISSUES FOR ERECTION 3. The Steelwork Contractor has design responsibilitytoo in planning and detailing the erection 01 the steel bridgeworks and the associated sitework. . as well as the design of the permanent works. Thus the Designer has to satisfy himself that his design intent will be fullilled properly during construction by effective communication and cooperation: similarly he has to be prepared to respond to technical problems and change as construction progresses. The solution has to perform its prescribed lunction and it has to be buildable on the given site.
5. 3 .early interaction between Designer and Steelwork Contractor can help this to happen. 2 Pie-assembly Bridge erection consists of installing large and heavy fabricated components and connecting them together. Development of the bridge design should wnsider the pnctical arrangement of p r i wand seconda~~ members. exposure to high winds after erection. Structural layouts for conventional bridges are covered in Steel Bridges 1. handling for protective treatment. with braced pairs of plate girders of more than span length. Guidance Notes 1. as well as for function? Which structural form for that site best avoids hazards and diminishes the risks to health & safely? It is for the Steelwork Contractor to meet the challenge of erection. yet there is an obligation to minimise work at height in the interests of safety.08. The chosen structural form is only acceptable if its erection is practicable and economic within the project criteria. Which form gives the best fit and the best value solution for erection. access arrangements and edge protection before lifting the bridge section into place.2 to 1. 2 . Pre-assembly of steelwork for composite construction can also be exploited to fit critical falsework and formwork. so piece-small erection in situ is not feasible for them. on site. and for rail bridges in chapter 4 of the Design Guide /or Steel Raihvay Bridges. and loading during concreting. the size and weight of the primary members are limited by the available routes from the fabrication works and the location of each member on site. usually continuous for multi-span bridges and viaducts. Present day plant and equipment enable steelwork contractors to lift or move large and heavy bridge assemblies with relative ease: the expensive plant may be required for only a short time so its cost can be outweighed by the savings of working at low level. temporary and permanent walkways. Many new short and medium span bridges use composite construction with a reinforced concrete deck slab on a number of parallel steel plate girders. and positioning of connections to tacilitate pre-assembly. or some distance from installation site given a suitable haulage route. delivery. Efficient design of the plate girders tends to produce relatively small top Ilanges: this exposes the girder to the risk of flexural-torsional buckling at relatively low overall stress levels. Erection almost always requires work at height. So before selecting the structural form. 2 . but the Designer should anticipate the challenge to ensure the best outcome . not just for the steelwork scope.05 and 1. Pre-assembly can be done in the works. especially on connections. The cost needs to be compared with the savings lor the project as a whole. 3 Plate ulrder stability Elastic buckling 01 slender plate girders is an issue particular to steel bridge construction. primary erection. Thus in designing plate girders the Designers should look critically at slenderness and anticipate the need to use temporary bracing: . it is important to test each option against the basic construction issues and compare practicable methods of delivering and erecting each one. a beam which is stable in the finished bridge may be potentially unstable during erection: this is a risk the Steelwork Contractor has to understand and the Designer has to anticipate.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES Different structural forms can meet the constraints and w l o i t the opportunities to a greater or lesser extent. This risk exists at each stage from completion of fabrication in the works. Many bridges have to be installed in the short time of a railway possession or a road closure. 3 .g.especially when it will be essential or obviously economical and safer e. storage.
in erection and for internal maintenance.2. which for bridgework use high strength friction grip (HSFG) bolts to BS 4395. detail access hatches local to each joint to minimise access routes for welding. when it is structurally acceptable.07). bolted connections can be completed more readily. supervision and inspection.2. to maintain steelwork stability under the full weight 01 formwork. and . use externally welded butt joints with backing strips for site joints. for shallower girders. At site. weather protection and working at height are less onerous. For long span bridges. include: locating splices to suit transport limits and a viable erection method. for butt welding of site splices in box girders. welding is used for connections in the fabrication works and bolting is the preferred option for site joints. - 3. Although welding at site to a high standard is perfectly practicable. and lhe need for internal protective treatment. can be avoided by using wealher resistant steel where blast cleaning and painting are impractical (this does not preclude external painting if desired). for footbridges and landmark bridges. as well as for structural efficiency.SECTION 3 DESIGN FOR STEEL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION for steelwork stability. and Guidance Note 1. but they present practical problems for the fabricator.09gives a detailed tabulated comparison of bolted and welded splices. It is best practice to include the bracing in the original design. Such work in confined spaces is extremely hazardous and Steelwork Contractors could well refuse to undertake it (see Guidance Nole 7.s 4. after final fit up -thus reducing the full enclosure risks. to make it permanent and use it to make the structure more elficient under live load. it comes at a premium. wilh distinct advantages over plate girders. reinforcing steel. using the industry preferred standard general grade M24 bolt assemblies to BS 4395-1 wherever practicable. erection can proceed more quickly. ensuring ready access and space for installationand tightening of bolts using power tools. Buildability issues for detailing site bolted connections. and lhe requirements for access. In general terms it should be noted that making lhe bracing permanent is more economic and avoids the hazards of its removal from below the deck (see Guidance Note 7. support facilities. with boxes deep enough for a man to walk through upright.4 Box girders Box girders offer an attractive solution. detail lhe closing plate of a box so lhat all welding for it can be done from outside the box. it is relatively expensive unless on a large scale: where it is chosen for aeslhetic reasons. The options are compared in SleelL3fidge. In particular: for final assembly of a small box girder. to brace adjacent girders into pairs. for short and medium span bridges.5 Connections In general. using an even number of girders in the cross-section. the Designer should take great care in detailing to ensure lhat construction is practicable and to avoid unacceptable risks to health & safety on site and in service. and wet concrete in the non-composite state. and for wet concrete stability. 3. the problems are manageable. consideringthe use 01 alternative forms 01 bolt (equivalent to general grade bolts) which can offer installation and service advantages).03). initial and maintenance. say on fascia girders. to avoid welding in the confined space inside the box.
BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES Parailel primary beams sr &aced pair being lilled I I A F .
DESIGN H)cI STEEL BRIDGE CONSTRLKTION ' 1 .SECTKIN 3 .
7 kJeorJSleel&iduesDesiqnGuidnce). bndW&ul and Uenl reJMnts are repuked for girders during oonaeting and should be cast in: they m best detailed by Ihe lkdgner as they may w i r e modification of the landing plate or cast-in anchors. rebor debiknead b pennitaccesswlthin the cage to titbracings betweenerededgirders. In particubr: rebnneed b be posWoned nd Hxed lccuntelytobe clear d steel membarsaslheyare placed.2. for@kders to be erected with bradng between pairs. h y shoukl hkelccountd~ w w e t h lsnd e spuretolhe ~ girder.Intertaw deWk for hbgnl b r i d g u integral consWdh is common pndice now tor highway bridges up to 6om spn: -and movBmentjoinls i u e eliminated and in composUeconstructton * the steel @ k s a e cast in tothe piers and abubnm.dphcing the steel members on the i m rehlorced c m l e substructures. PlOMems doarise. asaiways. In gened. if thedelailing does n o t w a c c w n td t h e erection prarrss. there should be no L bars and U bars which would h ithe bndng.and . experience has shown that erection on to integrai supports gives fewer pmblems than on to pot Wings (see the SCl's 3.
e.g E$$Onlid iaformltloa In designing the bridge.2. so the tabricated profile has to be cambered to offset the deflection. for conmlhg d a composite deck assumedasthe basis for design. Camber and t h e various issues in allowing for Dermanent deformationsare discussed fully in Steel &id@s 1. gwkchdal data envkonmentll dataand oprathd wnslraintsto meet third prtv requirements. e.2. 3.so that the prdile is verified at a meaningful time. the Designer will acquire information and make apswnptionswhich are all relevant to how the M d g e is to be built bul may not be obvious even to an werienced Steelwork Contractor. physical conditions.g.03.g. FM composite constructionit is good pactice for the D e s i g to ~ specifythe profile d the ereded steelwork before deck constructionstarts-thal is when the Principal conbactortokes overthe steelwork from the steelwork Contractor . the Desigw cn caiculate the required nomind cmbertoran assumed constructionsequence.8 Camber T h e bridge Designer will specifya profile for the completed bridge but the steel girders in each s p a n will U l e d as they are loaded progressively during construction.SECTION 3 DESlGN FOR STEEL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION - I 3. hidden services. ami . This information needs to be made explicit in the design documentation and drawings at tender stage: if it is needed then the mquirement is reinforced by the CDM Rsguhtions.6 and GuidonCS M e 4. infomahn about the slte awlred in Dmparing the b r i i design. Apart from the allownces for fabrication effects. It needs to include: thesequenceand method d conshuetion.
e.aNhou@ theexperienced contnctorwill be more SenSithreIhon Ihe Desbrmr to all Ihe obvious issues.BCSA GUYK TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES risksto constnrctronwhich we not obvious. alternative methods and value engineering.g. 1 Y . method development from cooceptuai design Uuwgh pianniw d methods to pmparalion d method statements. and Verilicdion of the Steelwork C o n b a d o r ’ sdesign. falls from height. design 01 tempomry works. and CMHned spice working. speciflcatlonof pbnt and equipment. stage by stage analysis of effects on the structure and its behavioUr.
SECTION 3 DESIGN FOR STEEL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION - rII I I IF .
BCSA G U W TO THE E R E C M OF STEEL MIDGES .
trestles or hunching gey .he can utilise the same analytical modeland the eredlon loadiys may well gown m e plate thicknesses and local detaiilng.DESIGN FOR STEEL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION this work is bes! done by the Designer at the or@-ddesign s@e . possibly with the support of specialist technicians. but every new brldge requires some temporary works to carry out erection safely to the performancecriteria.6 Alternative methods T h e Designer identifiesa viable erection method in the course of completing the desiw of the bridge.3. The need forthem hasto be justified.5 U Use of hydraulic jacks Speclficatioa of equipment The erection will require the use of cranes and probably other plant or specialist equipment e. jacking systems. or strand-jacking equipment. and this I s commonly described in the contract documents: for composite wnstruction.3. and local stiffening -these are best provided in the normal course of fabricatlon so information I s required ddng the leadin periodsbefore preparation starts in the works. in themselves they mpmsent a non-productlvecost and requke resourceand work on site to provide and remove them. and special methods are properly documented so that the site m e r has the information necessary to matuge the erection safely as planned. Ut8y have to be providedor procured in a Umely and economic manner: Items which are integral with the steel bridge components such as lifting lugs. sketches.sufficient time is required from release of desiQninformation for economic m .g. and he requires most of the necessary design input dab strajght away and confirmed. 3.or subsequent chaw& will affect n d only the sleel erection but all the activities which go before it. The item and setvlces have to be procured: the Steelwork Contractor's designer has to ensure that ail the drawings.4 Derloa of tsmponry works The S W c u k Contractor uses his experience and expertise to minimise the extent and scale of temporary works required for eredion within the overall economy of the proiecz.3. It is helpful to identify three categories of temporaryworks-having established the need. Items which affect the substructures or require temporary foundations -these require liaison with the civil works contractof and informaton in time to meet his construction protyamme. and prepare precise specifications commonly in consultation with specialist suppliers or subcontractors. transporter units. quantify the requirements. Thus the Steelwork Contra&& desiwer has to develop the method quickly after award. .SECTION 3 . Delay at this stage. 3. that is from preparation of labrication data and material ordering onwards as well as civil site works which may need ground preparationor even piling for tempomrv works. 3. it will be the basis of some design assumptions. items to be pfowred or specially fabricated e. The Steelwork Contract013designer has to identify the need. temporary bracing.g.
To achieve the best outcome: ThepermnentwcNksdesigntern (the should includeenginesrswithsteslbridQeexpe4iencein ~ 0 1 ~ ~ ~ 1 8 w s l l a d e~ s ih gn e . it is imperphre. At tendar stage the steehvork contractorsnesd to be provided with suftident inforrmuonabout the designimd the site to provide them with an adequate design brief to make competitive and enterprislno proposals.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 3. dependant on the Clients procuement method. but just as necessary in rore lnditbnal con.relationships.4 COOPERATION AND COMMUNICATION G mthe strong link between the design d a bridge and how it is to be built. w s h o ~nsteahworkconbldorswrithdemonstrablesrper(lse u ~ and knowledge rekKMtto Ihe sale and natm dlhe PropOJed design. . to ensure the besl service tothe C W that there is proldivend timely communicationand coopention in design and engineering between the members dthe prqect leam. sa an inte(paledappmach to design m y not be possible. clear and unfettered channelsot communicatii (or design and engineering should be established behum all t h e designers in the pmject team to encourage a team approach and mutual busl and respect between them -an essential component in partnering. The leam is usually set up overtime. From award d the steelwork contract.
SECTION 4 PLANNING FOR ERECTION - 4 PLANNING FOR ERECTION 4.3. the methods fall into three eotegwies: direct eredim in place. T h e previous Section focussed on the design aspects of the planning process.1 M ~ u l r & ~ h Olten the drdce d method in principle bkldgeerectiwIs self evident-the input to the conceptual stage d planning. The options have to be evaluatedand the choice made at the start of the contnct .1 DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLAN In tendering. how the bridge is to be built. the Steelwork Contractor has a plan of how to build the bridge: from the award of contract. 4. he develops that plan in consultation until at the start d erection an aoreed comprehensive plan is implemented lor which everything has been prepared to suit. The dellnitive form of the Steelwork Contractots plan is the Erection Method Statement: a general model for an Erection Method Statement is given in Appendix 2 to illustrate what it should contain and what is expected of it. it maydkUethe choke dthe more difficult and Cosuy.2. or movement into pbcedcomplete spans.2. Method statements are used to communicate. bunching.2 CHOICE OF METHOD 4.may permit the most stniohtromd d schemes. this W o n examines aspects d erection which require choices and decisions. For bridges andvbductsd short and medium span. at different stages of the project. desaibed in 3.
typically behind the abutment. TheabaibbiUtydlagwandlagwmobileaaneshasdimwshedtheneedforanytorm oflakewmkor. It is sulted to multi-span continwus pWe g W or box girdersupWUCtureswheremOst O f t h e ~ S a r inaccessible e to cmas. wherever pndically possible.g. cost and IJeabrercpoSureat hdghl Rlqu&edforsmaller amnponm typically it is salerand mo(8 BcoIIoIII/c. Hisbrically. Thet8chnipuerepuires: low resistance roller 01 sliding systems at each pier or temporarv suppd to carry high reactions. direct erection should be the fi rst choice.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 4. suchasoverwideraihnys. m o s l ~ w o u l requiretemporarytrestle~anddherworksb d provide s&blHtyfortheincompletestruchue.iMccessiblelocheavypbntandcomponents (e. Mspiece-small'erecoianissamelimesesserWa~at~remotalocalions.2.3 Lwachlau Whw involves the assembly of the steel br@ewo&.with the uamsdyle w. loc sioniliemtsllbilisingworks. 42.2 D l n d rrctlos wlsderedion usesa aane to uft compmnb into place. in undevelopedcountries)or on very constricted sites. P I 1 -- I . H can be used economically MER a new Mdge is bulk on a oreenfield Sitebeloce~Yconstnrdion. distribution of the rolling reaction into girder webs coupled with coincident hi@ shears and bending moments. on the bridge alignment and moving the assembly bodily across the abutment and piers. bypmssnWq long pdrsd gifdersat !#wndlevel. so development dthe method isdatemjned by vle d the aMilaMe aane and the duties it can perform on the particubr layout dthe site. UsingtheCosuy awe in ashort visitavdds~tlme.roadsorrhrers.
railways or navigable waters below the bridge.and horizontal cwvduredconstantradiusprovidedthemechonismsarede4lledtormtch. to be dooeand wi. ! 1 . lateral bracingto sustain code wind forces in the event of bunching breakdown.ThetecMque rm be wed on aiwithvertical C U M m . as refened to in 3. Laundting. ovlerwise them has to be sufficient lime in the pied prognmme for ail the engineering. a purpose-made launching noseand/ortail(sometimes) toreduce cantilever bending and to lake outtip deflection. and mwed laterally into place as soon as the old b r i i was demolished. l a w rolling or sliding guide systems at each support.4 Movement d complete spans by floating c m Movement of conspkte spans For many situations it would be most advantageous to install the complete span d a M m in a single short operation. adequate resistance d piers to launching forces: intermediate support trestles (sometimes).3. the k U U y to add access systems. The mainadvantagesof hunching. Historimlly this was the classic solution to replacing a railway bridge over a weekend to avoid disruption to the service. smdlar c r m s for eredion as assembly takes place at smaller radius. a "rolling-in"technique was used where t h e new bridge was built alonqside the old. and avoidance d interferencewlth tranic on roads. requires a lot of construction engindng and should be anticipated in the original design. dherlhan omanhg wothaFwise iwperable obstacle. this can be done sometimes. Movementol spans by transporterunits 4. includhg global analysis.3. re: lssemMy nmf gmund level. except dudng linal supemucture movement.2. *minimiSingworkat~. virtually lxxnpkw.*haulagendrestnintsystems. and possibly shuttering and concrete before launching. and anassemblyanrabehitheabutment.
imld the avaiWIity d the specialist e&nnenl when required. developed lorthedfshore construdionindusby.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTIONOF STEEL BRIDGES TheavaiWlityd laroercranesnd heavyequipment. 4. the technique requires: civll and stnrekwal temporary works e.g. specialised aguipmenl md subcontractors. the elpe4tise to dsvii nd lnaniQeimpkmenlltion dthe melhod. a suitable load-bearing haulage route for heavy transportation. a Jlnole %ig W with a very lroe m. mavementbysteenbleheavyrmlti-wle~unlts. Depending on the chosen option. Opumwn conditions foretedion dthe s p a and lvddneed COnHlctwkh other siteworks. OT transport and eredlon by W n e sheerlegs in estuarialand riw sites. Thealhwqesdlhlstedniqueare: npkl insblblion. by everybody meting the plmed Installation W. givesthe bfkbe-builderarsngedoplionswherebyheanconstrudacompletespanataconvenientIocathandmowitin(0 pllcetorimt?lwtul~by: sliding in wi n heavy duty slidhg md tnctlon S y s l m s .3 CHOICE OF ERECTION SEQUENCE .klkh is v l h l lorpossessioowork on Uve railwaysmd motorways. -1 in On NViQabk V&f.
for m p l e . As well as influencingthe fabricallon sequence. but it can be feasible to fixa W l e or crawler crane on to a moored dumb bar@?quite econwnically. Thus. In mainland Britain mobile cranes are freely available up to quite large nominal capacities. Tanderii 1111 . the erection sequence may influence detailing such as site splice positions and lifting attachment positions.SECTION 4 . working iyound the erected steelworkwhich can be an obstacle.PLANNING FOR ERECTION safe access to worklng positions during installation. 4. Most types have found a use in steel bridge construction. It should be noted that only crawler c m and some smaller specialist rough-terrain mobile cranes are able to traverse the site with a load.~JEYcan be mobilised and demobilised quickly and it is practicable to use them for short duration erection schemes. in some for small and medlum span b circumstances. especially if access requires the crane to be transportsd by ferry. heavy crawler cranes with fixed lattice booms.4 CHOICE OF CRANES Modem cranes come in a gmat variety of type and size. it may be essential to choose the sequence for erecting a span d multiple phte girders to work the crane out d the span and not trap it beyond the span. with nowhere to go. pwpoSemade fbatlng cranes are generally very large and expensive. On mremote sites the avalbbillty of cranes will be more Urnited. For work over navigablewaters it is occasionally economic to mobilise a specialist floating m. and petunQthe crane off site. but r m i the most commonly used are road mobile cranes with telescopic jibs and.
proOromminO and resowing. .5 WORKING UP THE METHOD ThededJionslboulmethod. Each stage of the malhod is considered in delail. Jpecificdionsandsite -i b identify precisely what is required and h a t it can be carried out safely. sewemand cmeap8 provide the basis for detailed pliunlng ofthe work. This p~ocess identifies as necewy: ~prepntiwbebre~ng~ooenlion. T h e execution ol each opsntion is visualised with the aid of the rsleMnt drawinas.BCSA G U M TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 4. * l c c a s s l a r p m n d components. W n g through in ~equence from s$rt t o 0 . -temponryworlcs.
Erection is subject to hazards and risk which mud be anticipated in working up the method for any bridge: hazards to health & safety which require riskIssessment.6 WEATHER CONDITIONS Like most civil eqineerinu activities on site.1s does its signifleance rOr each operabn. or to have contingency arrmgments. lower speeds would appryto lHtin0 lyoe components. Adverse wsalherelfectson health & safety in bridge erection are: rain 01 dew thal leaves steel swfaces wet and slippery. frost. bridge erection should be dwing clear dayiighl hws d a normal working week BMge installationin possesions will.and a safe system d work. productivity and strucbal safely. construction problems to be anticipated. steel ereclion is subjjto the vawiesd the wealher. Mail plming.3. planned wt. and cwsd hyrds rOr health & salety. T h e conseguent construction engineering. though. . ice or slwm resulting in slippery surfaces. the construction engineering must take account of the possible wind effects on the opbntii and on the partially completed structure. especiallyh height. In devaboing the erection methoddilferent~olwedhere4nditionscan~gmdudMty. ' wealher criteria. *wlndonulewmponentsandpbntasnotedbelw.and reguired sketches. has to be carried out. In perticular: all crane operations and used access pbnt are subject to limiting wind speed. I n working through erh stage d erection. actions to canplate the operation. blwings and data. fog. so that the eredion c a n proceed safely and efficiently following a detailed plan w i t h every operation well pmpared for. eHecls d weather on health 8 *ty. mist. which documents the pbn comprehensively. require continuousworking with dayshifts and nightshib. Every detail needs to be thought out in advance. described in 3. wherever pradiclble. 4.SECTlON 4 PLANNMG FOR E R E W - hold Points.and ~ m d w u loosematerbl b ~ and equipment. andthebehnriouol the slrudure. The chafactarof lhe wsllheratthe patiaJrbridge Sue ddng the period of the y911 when eredion is to take p b has to be w e c i a l e d . verified and approved by the project team in time for everything to be prepaed and the p h to proceed smoothly. glare and bad li@t WMch Impair visibility. The final stage of the process is the preparation and approval of the Erection Method Statement.
.BCSA O W E TO T H E ERECTIONOF STEEL BRIDGES 4. Each site and each bridge p t s its own unique ccnnbiion d hazards engendering risks which must be eliminated or. All signillant haudsfortheprlicuk~cope d woclthavs b be comd. minimised.7. such as cos". Some d the hamds pcesentedby new steel bridge sites are f@omd in Section 5.1 Risk to b a l t hm d safety Bridge sites and the activities carried wt to build them present many hazards to the health & safely of everybody on or near to the site. if that is not possible. requh rislt~whlchllleelpsrtdthe w Q i a l e rsqukement. and somed he haards d steel aredion adivitiesam covered in Section 8. assessrisksdlJwremaWnghaza&. Riskrrsesrment has to be Mied out by bw W t h e MHSW rbguMhsand applies ball worlcadivitias: other ~lationsdealing with spcific hamts. identifyme hazardsandpkll toavdd them where pNslble.7 EVALUATION OF FUSK 4. RiskasJeJsment for health & safely has ylerslarsfobe syskmlic. so torthe emclion dakidge: carisk each ldivityin sequence.
they am essential for the team to reach an agreed solution. preparation at the end of the planning pcocass drawing togettlerthe output of the constnrction engineering.2 Pnpantlon of the brctloa Method Stab111001 large or small. thorough and umely planning and pceparationfor the work on site. by the Steelwork Contraclocs to deronsbatethe basis of their tenders. sately and efficiently. by the Principal conbactat to fit the eredion into his overall plan.in tkne for final approval by the Principal contmctor. Its scale and scope will reflect the scale and relative complexity of the work to be done. L Preparation of the E M o n Method Statement . in accordance with the Designer's intentions as part of the whole construction process managed by the PrincipalContractor.1 Thr Enctioa MWod Strbmrtd Method statements should be used throughout the procurement process for a bridge to communicate how it might U should be constructed: by the Designer to demonstrate Ms assumed method. internal independent safety review. olten in the form of sketches or a stage by stage drawing. 4. trbl erection if lack d lit will have dispmportioMtec4tnsequBIIces.8 METHOD STATEMENTS 4.8. and by the project team in developing the scheme. and the discussions and agreements of the project team . 4.8. and involvement of the nominated site manager where practicable. preventative measures e. simple or complex the producuOn d any Erection Method Statement follows the same basic principles and has to meet the same acceptanca criteria The W c principlesare: preparation by the steelwork conlractor with technical and project managmmt input. These are usually relatively brief.SECTION 4 PLANNING FOR ERECTION - opedon d an elfective and apompriate quality tnamgmmt system. and conUngency meawes. e. to c m weather change or equipment failure. the final intormation.the Designer and the Client.g. It is expedient to distinguishthe final version for the bridge as the Erection Method Statement. it is the working document used by the Steelwork Contractor's line manager on site to carry out the erection as planned.g.
A model kmnat for an Erection M o d statement is given in Appndix 2.it requires h e whole project W s contributkn to ensure its validity. Thus the Erection Method sblement rmst be reviewed by lhe team and thereby authorised for use. parlicularly of course for heallh & safely.Authorisation of the Erection Method Strtemsnt Ail lhe principal partias have responsbllities for how the bridge is built.the preparation and approval d method statements can s e e m to be yet another bureaucatic paper exercise. To the uninilialed.8.A litle expwknw of the process is most inspucliwas the discipline of prepying wrlllen instructi4ndten thrwvs up gapsand inconsistanciesin detailed phns which have to be addressed. Nde 7. 4.3 . A large parl dthe value d preOarin0 and reviewing the method statement is acquired during the process itsell.08 provides guklance M best pracUc8 for review and controld ErecUon Melhod staemenls. so they must be satisfied that the plan for arectionlullils lheir resgaosibiiiUes.
as well as endion aetMDies at gceder heights. This means that the WO& must be w l y plsnned. havetobecoddml bythekidgecleSi@w.:. then d W t . All these issues.. supe~~ised and carried oul ina safe manner.1 THE BRIDGE SITE AS A WORKPLACE Brid~~~ b u ai t m to arry Wlic OV(LI obstacbs: they ~ R not I ddgW to be worl@ws and their dbs present mny obstaclesand hvardsto 6ffldmland sale construetlon. workathei@ld lesslhn 2mandactMties involved in loding or unloadingsleelworkbuma vehicle. . a penon could lall a dlstnce liable to case personal injuy. and riskassessmenlmud be h e basis of the process.ndbytheRind@ contradorand ~contndorhptamingthe workand construclion enginssring. They have b beantkipW.have ~BOSUBS in p k e to anest a fall should moccur.if y o don't ~ have to prevent falls @ I there. il llwwres required by [the] R e g u M w wen nd bken..SECT" 5 .work safely if il is possibleb do U)born an exisl&~ d e plaw d work at hdgM. How is abrldge sile to be a safe wof@lacel This sectkn o w e s good pneuceto be adopted in dealing with CQmmOn issuesto make the bridge dle sale forthe people wor#ng them and the other people on or close to the site.SITE PRACTICE 5 SITEPRACTICE 5. depmdhg on the particular sile. and dsa#with be(0re work sbftson site: mey may involve lxfmmhl WilhlhiNl prtiasndcomolyingmuleirrequlrsmenls.born w c h .and then Millgab the ~MWQWIW da tall . on a steel construction site. Ws includes Ihadors.. adopt the most suWe melhod d w o r k h g a n ds e ~ l h moat e s u W i equipmenlforWO&atheight. as3esed. T h e proposed regulalions lollow Ihe m y d risk conlrol: Avoid work11 w t . The pmposed ddwtion d W a lh e i w Is w in any place.
they can Mer part of the solution for erection.3 Access during conslrulon Given that some work at height is unavoidable during bridge construction. and certainly during maintenance. drains and steelwork: these arrangements can provide a basis foc safe work platforms at the substrudures for erection. .BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRJDGES I I t - Collective measures are given priority over personal protection measures so. say for access below deck in spans over water. Erected de& A sleel deck. reasonaMy practicable guard rails are preferred to personal fall protection systems. To fix. providedit has suitable barrier edge protection to the perimeter edge and round any openings. Cast-in sockets in the deck soffit can provide scaffolding supports for paintingafter erection as well as in service. the options for access in planning the work in order of priority are: Permanent access: In designing the bridge. remove and replace the edge protectionwill mqulre a fall prevention/arrest solution. 5. The provisions must also allow for safe escape 01 rescue from the work place at height. expansion joints. the Designer has to anticipate bridge inspection and maintenance activities during service. completed formwork M a concrete slab can be used as a workplace. Where permanent walkways are provided. Thus abutments and piers will be detailed to permit access to bearings.2. for exampie.
1 1 .
In certain UramJlancesaIterrisk assessment. There is continuws development of equipment for fall arrest. CMnpVed with steelwork for buildings.althoughstlinampmtaredforaw bll~sysbm duration ac#ws.4 WI m s lr q u i p m r n t Steel b r w erection can w i r e activities where protection by fall m s t is the only solution because scaffold or MEWP access is not reasonably practicable. T h es a M y hame3s for fall Mest protecUon must incorponte shock absorbing devices.their restrictionof c m and plant movement. orhvo-handed with fall anest llmction. I L 8 d d . or for access along a single girder to a CMUIBclion. for example in making first connection of a girder in a span over water. the available collective protection equipment is unsuitable or inappropriite: nets have their use on some r e f u r b i i t work but dhenvise the risks inherent in installing them.but they are only effective when there is adequate clearance. . some systems incorporatea~ ( t s c u system ~ to recovefa suspended man toa safe place qulddy. and the nature of the tasks OenerallynJathemout variious Proprietay sysms for individual fail protectionare available.2. based on safely hamesses with bnyanls clipped on. by the stwl construction industry and its suppliers. a#hwgh these areavailable horn specialist suppbrs for work on masts and tall towers. For most new bridwaks erection. Wires or running lines have to be properly and instalkdb be SHedlVe.lhev maybe used for very shorl d u n E o in m that can be ulmalwl single-handed. 6.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRuKiES elimlnate the risk of free fail: there are spedal requ-too for crane testing and operationsee Bs 7121. both collective and individual. m These are Intended primarily for vertical access. curren#y It is mre for bdders to be supplisd with pmprieliuy fall arrestsyskms already InWed.
m a c th n igthe llfunoand transpoctMthod to the type ol pallet or stillage used. sate storage iyeas.3 MATERIAL HANDLING A p w l hwn a rektively small nwnber d large W companents. . and suitable equipmentsuch asforwitl trucksortele-handlers to mlnlmise the m t of manrral handling In aJldlng the bridge. power tools and olher brw or heavy items into position by mechanical = . considenlloclsneed to Include: palktislng.todsmd equipmenlre required to assBmMB the complete brkige Jtructure.5. welding equipmenl. litting jacks.which ITU~ well begenerlc. within the capacity of the hoist. uslng hoists on scatfolds. stored approprbtely. bulk items such as bolts or small loose items. a blot small compomb. of placing in metal stilbges. - - The steehwork ConMor m u d set out planned safe systems of work lor m e t i a l handling using task specitic method statements. These all have to be m l v e d . mountlng botlled gases on a purpose-made trolley with hangers tor the hoses. and moved about the site to whsrever they are required at ground level 01 at M o h t and only a relatively small proportiond these cn be carded by handb their lppdnted phce. So materialhandling isa siqnificvd issue in making the sile a sate wodqhce: It requires planning. as r r p n ~ d lhstasksa~ notproiect specific.
the presence of a suffocating.but other less obvious spaces can be hazardous too heavier than air gases can collect in the bottom of open la0 box girders. I f the assessment indicates a risk 01 death. or ill health. risks from hazardous substances or lack of oxygen. The system of work must cover: sufficient competent supervision. . when work within a confined space cannot be avoided. welding. training. which is controlled by a permit-to-work procedure. toxic or flammable atmosphere.4 WORKING IN CONFINED SPACES A confined space. A lack of awareness of these potential dangers has led to construction fatalities. lighter than alr gases can collect below deck level at an abutment. Having designed and planned to minimise the risk the Steelwork Contractor has to establish a safe system of W O & for all activity within the confined space. plant c a n be positioned so that exhaus! fumes am trapped in such spaces. The main risk in steel bridgework is box girder bridge r e f u r b i t or strengthening which are outside the scope of this guide. Telehandler 5. painting or inspection with all that goes with them. the method of working and the work equipment involved. Manual handlii of any item d significant weight or bulk certainly of any item weighlng more than 25k0. or an actually or potentially hostile e n v l r m n t . That requires consideration of the work to be done. and good access and housekeeping to prevent manual handling. but where the confined space hazard is present in new bridgework it must be given particuhr attention by the Designer and by the steelwork Contractor in p b M i and undertakingthe work on site. as for any other task. equipment or material up 01 down ladders. not carrying tools. serious injtuy.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES using roller tracks for movement of heavy objects in confined spaces. In steel bridge construction the interior of a box girder is obviously a confined space. with certification. That also applies to everyone else who has to go into the confined spam for inspection o r other works. the characteristics of the confined space.by a suitably trained and competent person. the hazards and risk must be assessed and controls introduced. following specific risk assessment. of all personnel required to enter the confined space. and all personnel involved must be trained to carry out the planned method. for the purposes of safety in construction. is any enclosed space where a hazard may exist due to lack of oxygen. including to would-be - fESCUBTS. T h e steelwork activities may include bolting. As with all work activities. then the Confined Spaces RegulaUons will apply. must be planned (Manual Handling Regulations).
isolationand physical disconnection d sowcBs 01 eneQy and hamdous sub!mm. The danger zone isdetined as at least 6m horkontaUy from the neuest c4ndudor forovemed clMesonwrooden posls and 15m forstesl pylonsand it must be d e l i by physical barriers. egulpment and material given the size d enlmce. the pwer line should be iSOkbd 01 diWkd during the W%Cd Sb(j8 d C O n S & U C ! i M . w i n g of the atmosphere. 5. services. access lor persomal.5 WORKING NEAR OVERHEAD POWER LINES The presence d overhead power lines (11 to 4OOkV) over or close to a bridge site has a sionifiant elfect on planning how the b l Is to be built and on doing the work They will be evident fmn the project drawingsimdthe w1w site vlsit so the erection scheme should take a c m t ol the hazard !nun the start. on both sides llthe site requlres It to ~llswe hat plant camot e m the dmwzone. access torescqa and rescue -at least Iwo routes should be available at tall tbnes. If power lines remain live dwing construction. then all practical steps must be taken to prevent dvloer to any perm from any live cable. ventiwonand m m o v a l d l u m e skomuKNkequigment. No work should be done within the zone and nothing should be stored there. plant and vehicles may pass below overhead power lines using defined passageways protected by Wls and-. It is good pncticeto consult wilh the Electricity Authority as early as possible to clarify their requirements and take advice: if possible. Persomel. . thomugh ventlhbion ol the space before Nrst entry. andldeguateand suitable barriers must be placed whece cablesare llable to be a caused danger.
with ieptospyrosis or weirs disease. must comply with the procedums of Network Rail or the relevant d i t y . and if the water is MvigaMe. or conductor rails.drowning is fatal. its load or an operaling MEWP can enter it: lhey should be at least jib or boom knglh away fmm the b i e r .6 WORKING NEAR WATER 5. so where there is a risk d falling into natertromthe edge d adjoining hnd. and carrying itoulwitMn I hraguirements dthe intemkd parties. suitable rescue equipment must be provided nearby and persons instructed in the use d it. the contractors have obligations to traffic on the watac and. so it is essentbito ensure that anyone who does fail in can float.6.6.especially on salmon rivers. dter w i n g . the0 guarddls or fencing must be provided. opportunities to woh on the water to exgediie constnrction.1 Oeprnl Wi bridges are built over rivers and canals. in ports and harbours. In some ioeationsthere are risks d inlection.3 Worltlag safely Every effort has to be made to prevent people working neal or over water from falling into the water . 5.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES ovemead power lines pose particular hamdsto the use of cranesand MEWPs. If there is any risk of dmwning. Similarly. . work on and from the erected bridge structure must be outside the d m p r zone. and be m das quiddy as possible. They must workoutside the bnaer zone so that no part 01 a crane.2 Protecliagtbowat@r Constructionactivities have plenty of potential to pollute the water: the Environment Agency and r i i and harbour authorities have an interest and obiigalion to avoid pollution and improve water quality.possibly. alternatively mechanical or eladronic i i m i t i devices should be mted to restn'ct the reach d the appliance. work on or near electrified rail backs or tramwayswith overhead catenary cables. They require contractorsto lake positiveaction to prevent their activities polluting the water and to have emergency phns to cope with any environmental accidents. 5. The presence of water is always a hazard in construction butthereareenvimnmentalissuestoo. These issuesarevecyreleMntlothesleelworkconBadoraswellasthe Prindpal COnBadorand have to b e minto account in dwidngtheecedion scheme. Workingneartheedgedwatercanbels haprdousas working (WOI it.6. 5. working it ug. Fishing authoriUes and owners of fishing rights gut strict seasonal limits on construction which may affect them .
This ensures that in the event d a fall. lorewmpleto use a marine sheerlegs to install a complete britbe in a single opentron. Exc@wheretheaccessmdwork pbtrorms are detailed and providedto eliminate the risk of falls. Nomully this would be provided by the Principal Conbacb to cover all activities over or closely adjacent to the water. 5. sport and remation. The water provides oppartun#iesto the brklge-builder with which.4 Wavioabla water$ I f the water being bridged is navigable then. U It is notpossiMe tow a rescue boat.this must be compatible with any fall protectionhamess worn at the same time. That is pprticularly s o h the cwdradorspbnto use the waterasa Construdion Wlity. he cn achieve t x w s t r u c t i o neconomy. so early c0nsultaUon with the relevant authority and the establishment of a good wuddng relationship with the responsiMe omcer are most desirable. then special measures may be required. .8. T h e water is subject to Ihe rules and mgulalions daharbowmasteror river authority which are designed to protect the interests d all users. with watermnship skilkand expwuse. In tidal wlers. A rescue boat. must be on station domstrern ifthe nter is navi(@leali the time work is proceeding overthe water: it must be tnanned by two tnined operators. When mewry. and even influence the overall design d the bridge.alba@ it is an obstacle to the landsman. these wil act as constraintson construction pbnning.SECTION 5 SITE PRACTICE - All pecsonnel required to workowwater. mud rescue provWon may be necassry. where there is arisk of klling inb the water. it is a route used by others lor We. arckrsive to the task. the indiiidual will fW lace upwardseven N unconscious. must have c o m p W appropriate induction and baining in procedures based on the specific risks. all such pwsonnel must wear suibbk life-pceserving persod pmlective equipment. a safer be#er quality solution. or to operate worlmoatsto ferry pecsonnel ~QOSJ the river.
They can. in the event of a c a r & u c t i o n a W there is no riskda crane. where canmctb and busy Mfic have to c4exht.and hwdstndlngforcranes and steelwork.pcesent acass problems forheycramsnd long deliveryvehlcles espedallywheclthe new road formation has notyet bean eonstruded: the b r m i my be required early in the project but lhere is no goad way of getling to it pbnning rot the erection by the Princ@l c4nblctorMd the Sleelwak Contractor has10 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ W t h e w a seawmlrisksto I h w a n d ~ledaccassrwtes. minimising disruptionto the trafflc. so clear-span bridges which can be installed in a single possdan arean attractive solution.8 WORKING NEAR RAILWAYS s.5.c w i m o n has to be Qlveilto: proledingtheroad users k m constructionadivlii. 5. involvingsubsWal construdion engineedng nd contingency plannin~.lllw~ly hyconstrudlonwork ckae toa railway a8ateshaza~I~to the SatetyofrailwayWRc and can dlsnrptthe opwltion d the railway. .emploved by the Principal Contactor. Ws. T h e r i i of Interadion we controllad by pbnned systematic m i c managemsnt carried wt to speciried pcocadures in waperation with the paliceand h e highway wlhority. equipmentor steelwork falling on to the roadny. and delivering major steelwork to time and without delay. The fundamM principla isthal dhption to the railway must be minimised. A d M W producino dust grit g m e or paint overynay must be conbolled and shielded for salety . particularlyat peak pariods. When there isa riskd an opention distradinqpassing drivers. 'inffic mmpment arrangementsfor instllbtbn. This inlmadion has lobe mwpised at the ccmmphl design shge.ai oiuupuaa WI r.mudata steel lxwrmcm ' donotgowellbgecher. This is usually done byaspedaUSr subconlndor.and claim C damage. changeand mwal have to be progmwned andappmued well indmce sohey pmvide a time lrameworkwithinwhich the bddgehasto be erected: ChanOeJ can be made.though.7 WORKING NEAR HIGHWAYS Consrudion d new bd&psgemallyhas to be canled outwrhilstmainhinlngtramc flow on assocuBd raads or motwmys: it may be pouibleto closea mlnormadfor several weekswhereas complete c l a m ofa busy molomy m y be uwcepWe excepl fora short posse#ion memigM. but they introduce mrisk to be controlledandcost to the p m W work close to moving W i c must be maMoBd sothat. with a M c kugmentand Control O n i o n site at all key times. The railway whocity will oanenlly be the Client tor anew railway bridge (an underbridge) nd otherwise an inleres$d prtyvhose mquimmbwillinfluence how the proied iswried out and the limesale in which it can bedona. prdedingthewor#orceandcoctstrudionfromroad u.inmenll lxlnmch programming. andinpbnni~theerectionlnethad. then itshaukt be carrid aut when Mfic is light or be sueened from view. Wsuptlon of the Wk is COJtiyand can be politicallysansitiw. Then the bridge is construded completedfsileand hunched orlransportbd into position.drivers may well recognise o( SUM from weakmm in the system. subjecttoappmval. Some such kidgasarevsry easyto ersct: k@esfora new motonvay ora new bypass may be on agreenlieM site away from public roads. consbudlnga new overkidge for an existing motorway is very similar to W n g aver a mainlinerailway.
and this may well control when a TSR may be available to do the work. e. Even then speed restrictions may be placed on the line during some construction activities.SITE WIACWE No access or work is permitted during normal railway working within a horizontal distance of 3m from the nearest operational rail. 3 Overbriduss The outline construction pr0or. should it overtwn or fall.g. 5.8. relaying track over a new underbridge. then a Temporarv Speed Reslriction(TSR) has to be imposed for such time as is necessary forthetrackto be bedded down.2 Pasm$im 1 6 . 8 . I f anything is done which could aftect the stability of the track. and any plant operating nearby must not be able to infrinw that zone. carryinu a road or m o t m y over a railwy.sEcnoN 5 . The amount of disruption at any time on a section of railway is strictly limited. and these are clearly disruptive. is generally planned jointly with the railway authority well in advance so that when the construction phase starts the Principal . Work over or within the zone is only permitted during possessions when a section of the railway is closed to normal rail traffic.tmme for a new owbridge.
and complying with tailway mqubsments.4 Underbrldgw The desion and construction of UnderbridgeS. services and welfare) to maximise produclivity.as the bridge has to be installedand operationalwithin one possession. coordinating all the lead-in actMties to ensure that everything required is ready. hilly screened to eliminate the risk of lalling persome1or material.partlc~larly where an extsting bridge is being reglaced. The risks tothe Drogromme If work is mt carried wtor compkted n id e & m e ld possessionshas to be contrdled. Including. protective measwes can be used to allow work on the supecstrudweto proceed over the Operational railway. resourcingtheworkto maxi~theoUtputkomthe possession.8. a much more onerous wime than loranoverbrklge. team rehearsal and Mefing. contingency a r l w p m mfor faiiw of plsnt and equipment. for m p l e on M n g .BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BfUDGES contndor and the Steelwork Contractar are commmed to a schedule of tail possesionswithinwhich all their woti~ overthe track has to be done. including workat night and on the W detailedphnning d what is to be done.with an how by hour schedule for the plaMed work. so possessionsrequire timely thorouoh prepantion. consbuction of underbridges is covw in some detail in the L w p GuMe L s e e / BfkigeS. and team debriefing alter the possession for improvement. providing facilities (lighting. - Raihvoyunderkidoebeingw i n . Successful use of posessh Utne mquires tcwmork.access.the Steelwork contractor and railway stalf. The design and the erection method have to be considered together. riskassmentand safetv planning to c w ~ possession l hazards. 5. and minor PrOMemJ can have disomportioMte ellects. are wmpiicated by the p m m e of backside signalling and C c w n m u n i c a t i w systems and in many instances by overhead 01 rall Conductors.welding or painling by inSWling solid work pl. use of substantial trackside barriersto allow nonnal working as close to the 3m limit as possible (minknlsing P==ion work). invoMngthe Principal contrador.which carrya tailway w a n obstacle.lrtforms. Where practicableand cost elfectiie. work on lhe substnrdues and SuperStnreRwe W d e t h e nll envelope without powsskm I s limited to what Mbe donesalely.
9 WORKING AT NIGHT .5.
BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES .
shortly after award d the steelwork contract. and M i v e operation of the fabricatof's quality mnagenwt system and mpid resoludion of problems. which will limit size and w e b Md comgonents.MANUFACTURE AND MUVERY 6 MANUFACTURE AND DELIVERY 6. the available delivery route from the factory to the parUcubr site. More work in the factory with less work M site offers benefits to the Client and to the Principalcontrador in managing the overall construction: today it is quite feasible to bring some b f i i to site and install Ihe stealwork complete in just a few days. avoiding change after manufacture has started. receipt of firm data in the planning phase from the other members d Ihe project team.SECTION 6 . Carrying our these processes on site to the same standard of wofhmhip requires more resources using tempomy facilities subject to weather and envimental risks. Workdone in the bkiclti4nshop Bridge steelwork is a manufacturedproduct from a factory equipped to carry out ail the processes safely and economically to the specified standard. it depends on: the limits on cornoonent size and weight in the factory. Delivering the steelwork to the site in the right condition. though most bridge fabricators in the UK can W i c a t e components oar 3Om long and weighing up to 60 or 701. mwgement of material and fabrication risks by the fabricator. The scope for maKimising work in the factory for a specific project ditlers betwesn labricatm.and specification requirements. for permanent and temporary works. The important point here is that. theyare described in steel Bridqes Chapters 3. to the fabrication planners. . the project team should confirm the plans tor erection and provide final design informatlon. the right order and at the right time economically and efficiently depends on: working from the wtset to a manufacturing programme which matches the agreed erection sequence and method.1 MANUFACTURING OBJECTIMS The two main objectives for the Steelwork contractor in manufacturingthe brldge steelwork for erection are: To maximlsetheworkdoneatthefadoryand minimise the work on site. on timeand In the seqwnce to suit the erection method.5 and 7.and To dellver the steel componentsto site In assured condition. The fabrication gcocessand the issues to be managed in the factory are outside the scope d t h i s guide. the location and capacity of facilities for protective treatment of completed large components.
lt is standard practice for all materialto be marked at the steel mills More delivery to the factory.3 MARKING OF STEELWORK All steel cwnponents. and tail anest SVatemJ. L.so that they need not be removedafter use.large and small. CaMd be detailed to clear deck reinforcement lhey can be moved using approved cutting procedures. and the marking is carried through the manufacturing process. that I s essential Temporary cleats in posHiom for traceability.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 6. steel guides and ckals toaid aligrment.welded or bolted lifting lugs. whera ulung lugs. in cansulhdion with the Designer. lifting atBchments for individualmembers. say 25mm above the flange. drilled holes fa eyebohorclezts. or assemblies . In the interestsof quality and economy it is best to incorporate such items during m a n U w u r e of the permanent componants. must b e readily identifiablethrough manufactureand on site. They can include: bracing members and connections requlred for stabllity during emclion or de& concreting. The marking syslem for component identificationshould be designed in a logical sequence which is easy to foilow. for W a m p h . The steeiwork contndor wil provide a written statement of the marking method with iodons for marks on each component: it is usually n d difficult to locate the marks away from latigue sensitive areas. edge protection. or bolted or welded brackets for subsequentworks including klsewolk. Many of these minor items can be detailed.which will avoid the risk d damage andthe requirement f o c r e m e d b l ~ and additional i m . hiring and securing of connecU011sforwelding.3. and for efficiency and safely in ececlion. Guidance Note 5. 6. .4 m items of the temporary works All be inkgal to the prmanent steelwork as minor modifications or additions. drilled holes or welded dtpchments for.2 INCORPORATION OF TEMPORARY WORKS As described in 3.05 cows this s u b i e d in SMe detail. At site it is difficult to identify painted COmpMentsand their CMBCt orienlalion without unique marking loated where it can easily be seen.Hard stampin0 isthe industry recMunended method which is indelibieand unlikely lobe obscwed by paint.wcuring prsonnel access. The weight of all subslantiai components and the centre of gravity of asymmetric or irregularly shaped items need to be identified clearly: this is essential for safe handling and lifting at each stage from the factory to final placement. quality management. drilled holes for Jtrudurai m n tprior to fixing berings.
to producea surlpce which W w i wealher to give a uniform aggevmce.5 PROTECTIVE TREATMENT Good practice i s t o h k e t h e p r o l d v e ~ s y s t e m a s f a r a s ipncual s intha&o~~. parliculiuiy d more vislbie components such as fascia girders:the extent of site painting needs to hke account of all he risksand work imolved. Condilions on a cMI cMslruction site. As weil as the potentialemlmnmental impact d the process.SECTION 6 MANWACTUREAND DELIVERY - 6. Treatment of bolted and walded joints has to be completed at site bul action can be hken to minimise the work required in the air by masking off the joint areas at the factory. with coned and support provisions. Bridgesin wther resistant steel mquh bhst cleaning. Of course t h e final appeamce matters. except at site-welded connacticns which will require loczl tmtmerd usually this can be carried out from the temporivy access provided for welding. assembly. sealing and mml of the completed joints. Cosmeuc considerationsre of SecOnQry impotence. and careful use of appropriate specifications for cleaning. the weather riiand SBaSonal constnintsaregood reason for painting on site to be minknised. The effecuvenesS dthe treatment depends on proper pcegarationof the steelwork in a dry c h envinwwnentmd applicaUon of an m e pliFd system in accMdnce with the rnanufaclutw's Instructions. Genenlly most dthe steehvork can be taken to final colt and.This can be completed at the factory. mhough they are not painted. . it inevitably invdves painbrsworking at he4ght nd all that that enlails. iiw T h e primarypurpose ofprotedivebeatmentis pceciselythl. damage to the system can be minimised.
The largest loads are subject to pianned movement orders and police escort.2. fairs d girders for larger structures may be pre-assembledwith bracing or in longer lengths.2. T h e Steelwork Contnctw has to consider the Opnons available in consultation with the haulage contractor and the authorities. single bne overbridges and footbridges may be fully assernbied at the factory and delivered complete to site. T h e Highways Agency has recently modifying its policy with the aim of transferring the responsibilityfor escorting loads from the police to the haulage contractor.7 and Guidance M e 7.every parl of the route has to be checked for dimensional and load clearances . which is c m n for motorway overbridges and railway bridges.and the views of the police and hiohway authorities. To maximise the benefit all connections in the pre-assembly should be cleaned and painting linlshed. The size of assembly which can be delivered depends on the delivery route to site .BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTiON OF STEEL BRIDGES 6. 6.6 PRE-ASSEMBLY AT THE FACTORY The merits of pre-assembling bridge steelwork before erection are outlined in 3. .06. Pre-assembly at the factory is of particular merit when site constraints preclude pre-assembly on the ground at site and the bridge is to be erected in a short possession. Small rail bridges. It may be possible to preassemble some members into final configuration at the factory.7 DELIVERY TO SITE Delivery of lavp loads by mad is subject to dimensional limits and regulations which are described and discussed in Steel 8rIdges 1.
SEC'I" 6 MANUFACTURE AND DELIVERY - 1- fl 7i .
space for cabins and stores. as subconlractor.It is the beginning of Wend d his work and It Is v i a that he Is ready. details of emergency services and induction requirements for the site. equlpmentandpbntffllowedshortly by major steel components. tor the Principal Contractw and the Steelwork conb. the Principal Contnctoc is ready. If any items are outs&nthg and cyvld be completed In lime M o r e the programmed stut then adelayed Mordebult arnngements need to beagrsed.and Documratrtion-to confirm acceptance of Ihe Erection Method Statement. detailsot hamdsandprdedhre-. 7. Then3fore it is good practice.measures to separate dher activities.aqreed civil temponrv works for erection. 0 l o c hnonnrl -welfare facilities.provisron dworkhg accessat substructwes. Exclusion and protection . The main aclivilies are outlined below. I I w e slte conainons . and the fomlalily of signing df the completed list injects some discipline for both ~represerrlztvasalthis key pdnt.aorelevantforIheprticubrMdQe: Acc#rr-torplnt. Any hckdpreprednwst thispdntcan bedlsrupliveandcostiy. Temporary work8 . qualily and the environment.6. A sde Ske HandoverCeJWlicare (see Appendh 4) published by the R S A provides a comenient pro forma for this purpose. and Ihe bridge site isreody for erection to start withaut delay. expedites the process. Provided the proiecl team has worked -t Uuuugh the pre-collstrudionphase.2 HANDOVER OF THE SITE when the Steehwork conbactorrrivas on Ihe Md@esite he b f i i o n pers4mel.3.from laking over the site for ereclion to completion.1 INTRODUCTION For most steel brid@s covered by this guide the Sleeiwcd Contractor will. persome1nd materle1inloandacfosthesite.rdor?. w o wu w h a r d s t a n d l n g s for anesand pbnt. dfioadlngand storage a e a s for steelwork b Irastles. come to a prepred site and c a r r y out the erection in a seguence d wmmom activities. other construction personneland the public frcin erection working areas.sile manager to make a t h m g h joint checkon site in good lime before the 0&1 dab-al leest seven days More. the joint checkshouldv e r H y W everything which has been agtwd is in pbceandtheraue no surprises. and the steelwotk Contractoh site managmt phns for health & safely. as discuss& in 2. Ths ch6ct(Jistshouldcovar.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 7 IMPLEMENTING THE ERECTION SCHEME 7. ~ *psrtlculurlbhaudt-suchasovemeadpaweriines. Hi s arrival is the culmination d a process ove~ several m h l sor more d Prepnuon loc eredion and fabrication d the steelwork. A Drepared check list of every thin^ repuired before starting erection acts as an aide memoile. details d o b s t r u c t i o n s t o 1ccBss.
4 USE OF M E ERECTION METHOD STATEMENT The ErsctionMethod sbk#nentand the erection prqalme set out Ihe plan forthawark to ba donand delinethe overall safe system d work They pcovide the frmwo&locplanning the site workday by day nd to apply the S t e e l W Contnctors fnawpmmt procedwcrs for health 8 safety.7. and quality-with sllppmlg gelwic procedums. .
such as confined spaceworking. for the Steelwork Conlradots engineer to attend the site to deal wilh this. as described in 2.3. When circumstances require a change of sequence or method. and any changes in pbnt. The supervisor briefs the team beforehand on the planned pmcedurs. the pbnned works. Thusthe persome1am properly preoared to use the site as a wod@Iace. The BridingwSteelwork Contractcts team d experienced staff and tradesmen also need indudion fortheir scope of work and its particular hazards and characteristics.1. The BCSA has provided an industry model Task Specific Melhod Slatwhich may be used as a @de to procedure. n d allowed for in the m e w s4atemnl. a genenl briefing at the start of the day’swork is good practice. the lacillties and emergency nngements: the Principal Contractor usually organises formal induction for everybody. any pmposed revision should be referred to the originator to amend as practicable and reissue the revised Eredion Method Statement . intorrnation and involvement is essential to counter the risks and get the best out d people in ddno the job: the principal m a r e induction. potential problems or hyards. equipment or site circumstances.5 INDUCTION AND BRJEFING Communication U w g h preparation. These personnel am also required to havehadtrdnlng for any special hazards. this shoukl be organised by the Steelwork Contractor in coordinationwith the PrincipalContractor. T h e planning d site work has to take account of the actual site conditions.for m p l e a supervisor. Some aspects may quire task speclfic method shtements which nt within the competenca of the site manager to prepara-these should be reviewed and signed off by the appointed represenWves of the Steelwork Contractor and the Principal Contractor as defined in the agreed managementsystem. lhat is not to justify deputure from the agml p l n but to ensure that nothing is overlooked. I I All parso~el s W i workon a consbudlon site need to be made familiar with the site. aane driver. for ewmple for m o n tasks such as ti- On proiactswith a number of separate bridges. In some circumstances. canjed out by tralned SW members.and the team must be briefed befote the activity starts. banksman and erectors carry out a major lift to erect a main girder .BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES bolts. he ensums that everyone knows and understandswhat to do and he encwrages feedback. Erection is cartied out by personnel working as a team . and salely measures. Implementingthe method sialemenlday by day requires on site risk apsBssment More briefing the persome1for each activity. or with a long continuousviaduct. it may be appropriate and can be more convenient to use -le Erection Method Statements for each bridge or section d viaduct. . the preparations. 7. I f substantial construction engineering is required. content and format. the anticipated weather. lhen it is often expedient.which requires the same authorisationas the original. briefing and tool-box talks. the hazards and restricth. This need not be a time-consuming operation or cause significant delay provided lhat the persome1responsibleare pmpared for such eventuality and can coogerate. Deve!qmmt of method slidements for generic or site-specific tasks appmpriate to a Steelwork Contractor’sbusiness should follow his pwUty management procedwes. and inspection and test plans.
so feedback through Mdlngsand tool box bdh Is an Important pad of c o n s u m with employees about health 8 safety. m d the haul road. that is. T h e w are condudedby bainad persomel. 7. To achieve lhat reaulres Ready lor off-loading a haul mad horn the highway to the offloading point suitable forthe delivery vehicle to arrive and depart. and M n g in Its use. by the CSCS c a r d for opecativas and tradespersons. which is often vulnerable to adverse weather. ensure the prr@e4 w of spuipment. somatkneswith prepad training rmterial. componenls must be braced ifthere isarlskof being Warm over whilst In store. for ewmple. T h e objective is to deliver each of them on the delivew vehicle to an offloading point within reach of the erection crane wherever practicable. Those pattlcipatingshould cauWslgn an attandance lis! to confim lhatmey have receivedand undecstood the training. and UPQle nd r e m h d t h e ~ c e a b o uheal t th 8 safely matters in ganenl. must be maintained in a safe conditionfor use by mad vehicles. if not for immedlate erection. and potential for impcovement.6 DELIVERING AND OFKOAOING STEELWORK Delivery of the principal components. problems. to the point of pre-lssembly or eredion needs careful pbnning and preqmlh. It Is also important to encourage a culture of looking out for the safety of woriunah and others on site whllst work Is ~mgress. the vehicle may be carry in^ glrdars up to 5Om long. control of the unloading area to exclude the public and other personnel during omoading.add unfwawy risks and represent cost with no value. reliance should nd be phced on the use d written documents @artl&rlyI q l h y documents)as the sole means of communicatlnq importDnt mtotheworkforce. factory fltted llfhg attachments for each component or sub-assembly for safety and speed. . All employees must have a basic training In health 8 safety evidenced. All employees are responsible for their own safety and that of others and are required to report hazards. to avoid extra handling and crane movements which take extra lime and space.familivisep o m m e l with the development of the work follwlng thmugh the Eredion Method SMemenl. commonly and h e a v pkte girders.and a task specific method statement for any offloading which entalls W n g at height. e x p m task specific method staements. AMtough drawinQsarevery useful. and perscmelre encaua@ to raise and discuss rekvmlpoints. focus on problems Iderrtiled from "waJk round" risk assessments. an area of hardstanding where components can be placed on level timber baulks on stable ground.
Asexplidned below. If delivery the Is critical for eredion and bank eondltlons in the area. or tromc -rmgemants.1 Qeaenl LUthg o p e n t i o n s a r a nlmporbnt constiluent d most bridge eredion schemeswith asmall nwnbec ol major llltsond many vnall routlne IUtsd material and equipment to ampletethe bridge struclre.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES Whmw possible the delivacy vehlck should anive on site with sufficient time. A valld test certlflcate for the crane must be available. must comply with the Rwisionand Use of work Equipment Regulations (WWER) and the L i f t hO p e n t i i and LilUn~ Epuiw ftegulatiw (LOLER) which c o w any equipment used al work for Illling or lowwing loads including alkhments for anchoring. Generally the appointed person will delegate site control of specified lifuno opantions to a suitably wperience and qualified "crane supetvisor. After arrival d a crane at site and before any lilts take place. so they must be used properlvby compelanl. passnta rsal riskof delay it I s pmdmlb amq)a Ior deliveryvehklesb arrive in @md lime at a marshalling area a short distance (mm the site. shackles and dhec lifunotacklemust be tested and certificated before being put to use. Hxing or supporting. all eguipment must be tssted to prove it suitable torthe particubrtlskand be rwked b indicate the sale working I d . cndks and m c e s designed espacwly torthe ~cuhropention. and keptavailable1alltLneJ: avarycraneissubiedtobroughexm~everyawelve monthsandwesldy inspecoion bya competent person. all such equipment must be m i n e d by a wmpetent person evarysbi monthsand records must be kept.2 Use of cranes m a d equipment All equipment provided for use at WO& from small hand tools to large mechanically opmted plant.rtiorrsonthesue~andtheersctiontern. These roles must be determined in advance and should be ndifiedto the Principal contractor. The supecvisormustcheckthatthe crdne opentor and banksman have theappmpWe certlfiationandewperisnce the ~ c u l a r t y p e of CRne to be used.lilts. .stillably qualified penomel nd be mainwned in compliance with W l e d mgulatlonswhich pbce oblig. sprsderbeams. weather permitting. Jtrops. shackks. eye bolts and the like. PuwERand UKER also exiend bbmponry Ii~accessories suchas unhg berns. s i @ . 7. hoists. the c m supervisor must ensure that the crane has up&date certifiatlon in actxdance with UKER and BS 7121.7. c Foc li#haequipment. as well as IMng equipment or accessories such as c h a i n s . Thus the regulationscover equipment which Includes cranes.7. forklift trucks and MEWR. to ornoad the S t a e M In the m l woftdng SMH.slhgs. T h e regu~requirethatall craneopcmUonsmustbeundertheconbol da"camgetentpmMWhasthe training. CNleSand equipmentare mechanical deviceswhich can WfioWand they cn beabused. They are carried art in the maln using mobile cmswith a rnoe d e q u i p m e n t b wmrtthe b a d safely on the hodrot t h e m . the reguhuans require w: 1chains.7 LIFTING OPERATIONS 7. knowledgeand erperiance to enswethat the choiceand use d all cranes isaopraprilteand safe. 7.The appdnted person (as turned in BS 7121) Pyticipatesin the plaming for erection described in W o n 4 as well as being responsiblefor the lifting work at site.
the test load must nd darnage the equipment by ovarioad byond the safe working load given by the design certificate pius an appropriate margin. sizes and arrangement d all h e lifting equipment required.3 Control of uftc in planning each major lift t h e appointed person needs to cany out a riskassessment and idenuly Ihe puntily. then it is easy to verify that equipment in us8 is in test.SECTION 7 . The aane supervisor must ensure that damaged lifting equipment is quarantined ordeJtwjedtopment it fmm being used again. 7. inr not subject to test. if validated by testing. It is good practice to us8 a colour coding lor each six monthly perlod. to mark lifting equipment. I T -9 ' :-- . Themdud of each iift includingIhe sepuence &motions. nd dher temporary designed equipment may be verified by a cerllfied design check by a qualified person.7. is set out in the Erection Method statement with reference tothe scheme drawing. The mposiuoosmustbe clearly sstouton dimensioned l i f t i i scheme drawings which idenufy the particularaaneandlheW i n g s .IMPLEMENTiNG T H E ERECTION SCHEME temporary lifting cleals aHached to the steehw& designed and verified by suitably qualified persons.
BCSA owoETOTHEulECTlON OF STEEL BRlDGES .
SECTION 7 .1 Wind affects the gust faetor on the meanhourlywindspeadwieswiththeheightaboveground. 'wkrdloldsafeproOartloMltOthesquaredthewindspeed.IMPLEMENTINGTHE ERECTIONSCHEME 7. the s u m r topoanphy andloldedklm.8 MANAGEMENT OF WIND EFFECTS 7. The effects of wind in enction are deJt with either by design fora suitable retwn period. by protectionor by workin0 to strict opmhnal Tweother window' limits.8. .
*htheplobabkdurationdeachtask assess the sale handling of c o m ~ w i l hge h surface areas.lsesrmrequickly enaMe sile supenisors and uane ~ i s o r to s be able to monitor wind speed reliably.rgec needs to: lcnowr the current wind speed on site and the 2 4 4 0 ~ 1 forecast.a Weather window". it is essablwlren phmhoerediantoidentilythechaacbrdthewealheralyla siteand how it canviuy (king t h e relwanl Wsca. To Snawe Um sile rrrrmger to wwkwHhin a pkmed welhec window. and d construction and personnel il wind speed inere.3 Worldnu to defined limiting wind speeds B e h any l i mor eradion SMJ on site. wind sensiliveopmtbm. In pinning lor each day3workand clecm!Jwhelhar an operation or task can procwd sately wiulin the particubr gow#ning limit. h m contingency plansto errswe sal* mnticiplled. assesshorn reliable weathec lorecaststhe likelihoodof the wind speed increasing and. a 10 year return period is specilied b r emclion giving 85% dthe full design speed. *weatherwbdawskrcritical~. dullion of natwe d a new btidge p i e c lrendereredionsusceptibleto the riskol high wkd. 7. ~nwlherJblionsand~heMe$orokgical officeamaMetopmviderelbbleinkmutlon. the Eradlon Method statement needs to deline the knilho wind speed and hi@#ahlUmneed brrslbbbweather lorecasbfof conditionsal sile togoher with monitoringusing mewremen(Jmon site. he must Me( all sib supenisionand inlormIhe P r i n d p a l conbador what the limils w. . This means IMin benign conditions some temporary works c a n appaar ovarly subsbnlbl: nevertheless they mwt be elected and liaed in strid COmpJiancewith the consbudion enginea*srequirsmentsandtheErecUonMethodS&tementandbeveriliedby specified inspection andtesUng. the site mnager must ascertain and confirm the limiting wind speeds which will govern the plaMladoperations. These will include for: cmes-rllm&m&rwdmunwind~lorIiiting. ilso. wherrmwthe kcltkn. forlemponrily prooped !$rdefs untilcomedionsantrmde. it is permissible to use a predicted wind speed wlhen an aredion aclMly can be completed. how quickly it might reach the governing limit.wind speedsddhed in Ereclion Method S I i 4 m e . the site man.and mawkturet's maximum wind speeds Iw M W P operations. M U c brodcaJt krecastspcwideareliabIe@iidetobends inlhewsaylar patbm. a s w l l a s ~ walherbcasls&ing Crwcal phases. g .8. wheceas the br&badeslgn uses wind speed for a 120 year return geriod.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 7. lorwhich r e W wind speed lorscaJtsare available. which my be reduced if shielding is litled to the basket.and made sale withii two days of less.2 Drigniog for wind Wind loading forkidgeeredon is specified by the Compositevarsiond BS 5400-2 incorponted in Himways 4 p c y spedHcalion BD 37/01.8. but shippino orcolSl?lwatefs rorecaslswillnot providea(pod @ d m a p l o n insularoraqnsed coastal sites.
protective measures put in place. for Blomple from windchill when they are canying aut work in a stationary position. and wind-biowm dust can be detrimental to the process in welding and in ail prdective treatment activities. these particular risks have to be assessed too and.despite all pnmuhns and contingency planning. If.and s e m as pbnned.the risk of checking the bul wind conditions high wind will be inslgnlficant.for a long weekend. and screens are taken down and lashed in position. the demarcltlon and malntennce of an exclusion m am imgerdive. a site holiday shutdown.4 Protacth from wind Wind.then the erection works must be made safe to sustain the erection design wind speed. stored steelwork is stable. The screenir~ material and method have to be suitable forthe pmcess and provide for adequateventrlation and escape in the case demergency.but it remains an issue which the site ma~ger must ensure can be contmlied. bul If it Isat the juhealat W t it wil maxla W speed lhan at the ecedion bunt On many days on most bridges on inbnd sites. The same tlsks produce waste continuously during the pmcess which can be a hazard to other people on the site and can damage pmperly and the environment.lt must be secure. wind speedat Site isbestmrasuedwithananemometer loa$dalanilpproOriatepdntorwlthalundheldlnstrwnerrl where arelisMeobservllion can be made: some clinesare fitted wlul an anemgmetar.IMPLEMENTING THE ERECTION SCHEME The site manager has to be able t o interpret wind sped data and mlatethe Beauw w e t o meal hourly and 3-secMd gust speeds Some peral guidance is given on lhis in the BCSA'S GuMe to W E n x t i l m in w h y L%mMs.8.of &wind load on the stabllHy of the access svstems must be considered. when and where necessary.SECTION 7 . Thus some workat h e i i reguirestheworWng platlorm to be screened to pcotect the work and the worker. work must nd be restarted until the stabilityof the m e d components has been assessed by a suitably qualilied person. information. the wind increases in stmqth more quickly ulan anticipated and It is no longer possible to opente safely but compon#ltsare in a dangerous condition. warking platforms are clwed of loose material and equipment. and reliable meaSulsmsnt when necessary to keep within safe operational limlts. pmperiy supported. wind-biown rain or spray. Wind can also reduce the productivity or alfect the health 8 safety d personnel. crane jibs and MEWPs are lowered or rigged for storm conditions.and in the c a s e of large screened afeas on !he stability of the strudwe itself. T h e elf. 7. . Then the screening m from the activity. The hazard from such waste is aggravated by the wind. That requires a constant awarenessof the weathef during erection.or between phases . is essential to protect the sumwndlng a In implmting the erection method. The site manager must be satisfied through a ulomugh phpical inspection that: the partial structure and ail temporary works are in place. When erecHon is suspended for any period of m m than two days .
pllunb-lines.and usually they are at the Usually the Principalcontrador lakes resporuibilily for the supply and installationof the bearings and the Steehvork contractor fixes them tothe underside dthe StaehWMkas it is ereded on to them. lasec devices and SMng lines. Best practice for dimensional control compises: Agreement beforehand between the Steelwork Contractor and the Principal Contractor on the survey mothads and equipment to be used and the reqmlbility for collatirq~ and using the data to monitoc and Consrol progress.9 ALIGNMENT AND BEARINGS 7. TheSteehworkcontractorrequiresaccurateaqreeddatatoerectstee~intheconectposiuonand~ dimensional control. Some of this data should be provided by the Designer. All lhis incormation should be checked and verified before handover of the bridge to the sLe8iwork conbador. and some b y a g r m t with the Principal conlractor. 7. if necessary in the early morning .1 Managemeat of an interface The Mdge b e o r i m a r e a tIheDhysical intefkebewmthe sbelwkandtile. Systematic checking of the position. this survey should allow sufflcient time before the possession for any adjustments). BS 5964 provides a basis fw this. some as wrput from production d labrication dala ordrawings. line and level of members as they are erected in situ or pre-assembly before completion d bolting up or welding connections. Sunreys to control build-up d length in continuousm c t u r e s before connections are completed. The process has to be anticipated by the Designer and requires actions from the two contractors to complete it correctly.9. Wt is with centrelines clearly markedand bendmks for reference at each set of bearings. An independent survey of the physical interface between substructure and steelwork by the Steelwork Contractoh site engineer using survey instruments and steel tapes as appropriate (for poswssion work. Survey of steel and bearing positions in uniform temperature conditions.92 Setting out and dimsatlonal control in these cimunslances. generally using simple techniques with spirit levels. the Principalcontrlctor is responsible for setting out the bridgewks rd completing the substcuc8ueswith the bearings ready to receive the steelwork.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 7.
by nmwmnent d relative positions to verify the final setting of bearings.9.SECTION 7 IWLEMENMG THE m u m ms - c n ~ ~ ~ berote dawn.4 Design and planning for b u h p InWIatloa To addeve the deoked accuracy d conslruction and cocrect installationrequires resdutiond some des@ points at an early stage dlhe cantnct: . 7.
rotrtioar and m o v u n a n b :At beyinosthese should be ere(ullyassessed by the Designer. Shimmkrg of beuing8: This is W l y carried out by the Principal Contnctor.to replace tapered plates 01 inspect bearings . Tapend b e u l n g plates: The Designer should specify clearly on the design drawings at what stage the top plate dthe bewing is lo be horizontal.and are repuksdto provide lon@udhl and m v e f s e WDpOrt blheerecbd until the berings hve beul groubd: thp is to sustain wind bads on the steel and plwelllit drifting dl line due to thermal movements. Installation method It is most expedient to SM erection of the superstructure from the fked bearing. tamDonry 7. Erectloo r t & W These are dedgwd and installed by the Steehvorkcontractar.SubslrucbweJafendnormollyJensihivebbeving eecenbldty. ri~ Ihotvm. that bearii alone is bestbelace erection sothat it providess fked start point. ndwhethertmsversataper isrepuired in the tapered bearin~ plate. Clrrriincr la pockat$: These should be a nominai 25rmn all mund each bwring dowel. which is usually suflicient to alkw for d e v i a k m in the position d the sbehnk nd the pockets.5 .9. Base shims are in level and all subsequsnt shimsare@ed bgetherlo maintain the set lsval seawely. the elfeds m y not be noticed until thededt sbb is comokte when mmediil meawes .BCSA G U M TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES Levek: T h e desi(pl drawings do not always define the beering h l s a t t h e interface with the steelworll they may have to be deduced from the Mghwaygeomelydab so it is imoortntthat the Principal cmtractorand the sbehworlc Contncbraoreeontheintended ~ k ~ a c e f a bcommences. FWng to the ttrrlwork As re(erred b i n above and discussed in GuMnceWe208.a is not possible to achiaM poaitioMlwxracycawldsntlybetlerm*15mm.This is best achieved by following lhmugh an ovanll bearinginsww4n method statemerdand an associated i t t w c t h a n d W p b n : this can be atask specific mathod s 4 t m forming part d the m c o t in Method Stalemen!.so a should be acceptaMe to move the whole bearing badilyto line up with the SteehworlcWHhaut i n h u bo ( using up the m s l a t i o n a l capadty d the bearing. Dmrpr rvoidancr: Cre has to be taken al each stage. fmm delivery of the berings to site to c4mpletiond the oroulino. Theshimsrmst support the s W Mloading eveniywUh a gmul gap d not lessthan 25rm.to bllsu(~ that the bearings are nd damaged. quires shiming bmings of Ihepositionnd~dshirnstoIhelndasidedthe~basepbtefoceachbearing. Mthayye not ailowed for.will be Umeconsuningnd-.the Designer must colddscyle~ulnddesign issuesindecid~howthebeariiaretobeHxedtothe~lvmk lnplmlng forthebeafingwwon.Ule M#rentdsvbuons in thesteeM(wiMn tdemce) nd the rmtrided access to cLnWAl8 !$&r p o s i m with setting out m. Theanchoragss loc theredrointsrequke8#ingstothesubsbucauesd~Jtmngth. if practicable. but on highly skewed bridgesand on kxlmmtn decks it is Elastic mavBment d main @ders and uossgirders under self wei@ nd wet concm can ause Sionificant trnsversemtationS and kickout Wch must be anticipated in determining the r0Qtbnaland trwwlnd apadtydtheberings. If erection SMS from another bering. M s is not n o r m a l y n issue on spuvemultigirder M d g e s .horizontally and vertically. and.the h e h a v e t o consider: Pkntolmace: Giwntheaccuracydtnemmml.
Mlk setting out Unes clearly for bearing for denme as local pasition paints during eredion. fit all bolts. ulen complete grouting and allow to cure before increasing bearing load and removing temporary restraining works. lhen cany out joint m y with S t e e M Cootractor to verify position. then release the transit bolts to permit t h e m 1 movement without disturbing bearing. then release the load from the crane. check condiuon of bearing and transit bdtslfter delivery to sile. lower member om to bearing. ensure the steelwork is reslrainedas planned and stable. installation is carried out in three stages. ensuring base plate is Mzontai and record inclinationof top plate in bdh directions. . and bansfer all weight to bearing. *sethland~baseshimsinplamed Positions. During this process it is vital to ensure that the final setting of each sliding bearing is at the right point d the mge d translation: a l m e difference in steel temperature from the design datum during erection can be significantparticularly for long cordinuous decks. clearances for grouting. h i .restraints are requiredto hold the steelwork in place at that point.and the best practice procedure w l d be: PrepareUon (Principal Contractor) complete bearing plinth w i t h pcdels w i t h top level to ensure not less than 25mm of grout. Orouting (PrincipalContractor) before M h e r load is placed on the bearing. and position beafing on shknsto line and h iwith dowels in pockets. repeat the joint survey with the PrincipalContraclo~. and shim afmgemmt Erection of Steelwork (steelwork Corrtractor) lift member into place over a bearlng (the dher end of the member will be over a second bearing or supported otherwise). and in accordance with the bearing manufacturer's instructrons. transit bolts. FW a lypical proprietary bridge bearing. assemble and fix dowels to bearing bilseplate. Ughlen all upper bolts and check lhat the bearing and shims have remained in a satisfactory condition. clean out plinth pockets and recheck bearing setting. set remainii shims to required level a m tape them together. grout dowels in pockets and allow to cure. position over bearing and line up w i t h upper plate bolt holes.
the untreated edges immed&ly arOUnd the h y k l g surfaCeS Will WUh CarahJi W d d W paint bedmera M S i b . They also lake longer to complete. w n o Each bolted connection made in the course d erection is prepared. and temponrv connectionto translw wind loads and restrain thermal movement until the jdnt is made. Further pcogressiondecedion dependson how q u i c k l y SulHCientslmgIh is providedby the CoMBcllOn. to produce the designed level of friction and the tensi4n induced in each and every bokby ughtening. as erection advances they hoM the bddgawb in p k e tothe co(rBc1 shape. T h e surfpce preoarationnd BeabTlent of the laying surfaces is usuaily spedfled with the ovenll pmtective lreamlt. generally to Bs 4395-1 or using equivalent proprietary laslenars. bolted and hilly ughtened: shortly befwe erection. for main girder splices. requkes: the adjoining members to be correctly aligned. and feuuire more cleaMlpnd remedw work 7.Welded main jdntsrequiretemponry boltedcombctionsiutyhawto~ W a n d t o p m m i l a l i i d jdntstobeweldedto the closetokmces required d root gaps.all laying surfaces must be cleaned of masking material and any contaminant inchdino oil or grease.theyareprdeded by ~ngdfattheworksbeloffJtheovenll application d paint It has been show that gmallyweaherhgd h y i n g surfaces imprwes the slip lactor d the joints so it is not necessary to rminlain the spedfied bkrt clean finish unll assembly. . or r w l w i a l work: the quality procedures am designed to ensure that Tomabbdtedorwelded connaclions. aligned. These enable the loads to be translened from member to member by Mctlon gwaled between parts of the joint-the perlormance of the cMMBcuon depends on the surface quality d the interfaces. assembled. sufficient initial connection at the joint to maintain ailgnmmt and transfer dead load before the crane is daached. However. The aim dthe manufacawing oroces~ is to gcwide accurate wmpomk whlch cn be assmbkd and umneded togelherwithoutlurtherpreparatiM. and inspectsd to verify their condition.10 MAKING CONNECTIONS 7. ~the~endStoilt~61m.1 QInwl In service the c o n lnnsmitthe lull design forces between members. the several larw and heavy cover plates are litted before eredion to the end of one girder (it is “dressed‘) in position and secured with a few boils (possibly m i c e bolts) so that the mating girder can enter the proiectin!J plates.aserecti4nproceebs.stung.10.r BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 7. the laying surfaces.102 Bolbdto~arctloar Vlrtualiyall bolted COMeCUOn in UK k i l o f l a y are made with high slmwlh lridion grip (HSFG)bolts.
ifadverse weatherpreventsthis being done. or the use of bad-iicating washers or proprietivy tension conlrd bolts (TCSS).a holdin~ coat d suitable moislum-tolerant paint should beapplied in order toawid the need for b M n g later on.SECTION 7 IMPLEMENTING THE ERECTION SCHEME when the mating component is lifted into place. . seal it as specified and cyry tlNOuQhthepaintlno. it is good practice if practicable to ciean thewhole idnlthomuohiy straightaway. Once the connedion is complete and has passed its final inspedlon. In fitting and CMneding bracing members. the specifications may allow the toque-controi W o r part-tum methods. 7. it is positioned on the correct a l i g m t . the remaining bolt assemblies are fitted systematically and d r a w up spanner light. lhat girdec webs are vertical. and overall member alignment is rechecked. usually remaining s w p e n d e d o n t h e c r a n e m - an initbl connection is established by lining up corraspondlng bolt holes using drifts and podaer c+wners (a long b R i of bolt dhmeter) and sufficient bolt assemblies (nut. it may be necessaryto use hand operated devices W-Msor ?7rb) to align the slwhnork and to ensure. andthebokmleased. then all bolts are hliy tensioned using the chosen method. and the joint checked for compliance with Ihe permitted deviations for It-up given In the spec#ication. bolt threads are checked to ensure they have not bwn damaged by insertion or conosion. The works protecuve treatment is stepped back from bare steel at least 150mm from the butt weld. In terms of the method for tensioning. Boltsand phte edgesarethe most winetableareas d the staeMforbr&dow ofpmtechivembnmt in service. Forpre-assembled sleelwork neafgmund level it is clearly safer to clean and paint the cwectionsthere. The end of each flange and web plate at the mating ends of girders are pcepared at the works so that. the plates are ready for butt welding. DependingonthespacifiedpmWvebeatmentsystmandthe~ddamage lo it at the cormclh. the alignment verified.the whole joint is inspectedto ensure ihat all interfaces are in full contact.10.3 Wd&d ~o~awUonr Most major welded wnnections on bridgeworksat siteare full stmgth butt welded splices in girders. bracbls and cleats are often f i i in the tirkication shop dwing triai assembly. ralherthan at height. bolt and washers) are fitted nd hand W t e n e d to draw the compomntstogether(the 'sumcienr number d bolts should be stated In the Emctbn Method statement). when the girdersare erected and CMeCtiy aligned. before starting to tension the bib.the remaining load on the crane is lowered off. local bkd-cieanlng may be required. so thorouoh cleaningand primii as soonasposibleishighiy desirable. the aiiwnml devices. for example. when the mating component I s secure.
even forsmallarclls. when welding is cwnglete. 7.if not anticipated by the project team. ensure that the giidersare secured in place. the local surfaces d the ginief being ground if necessary and tested. comqmnl d l s p l a m t s can cause difficulty with making joints and lock unwanted defiections into the deck. so ed!Je beam and cantilever details must be able to cope with such variation to achieve an acceptablefinished a1i-I. WWI modem takicatiantednipuas. run d r u n On plates are attached to the flanges. The sooner it is done lner welding and testing. they can affect pmgress. As formwork. it is best pradice to mry out proledive Wment straightaway. the paint return on the lop flange of the girder should be dimensioned . some are extended to provMe coupons as destrucbve test specimens. 01 bdting up. Preparing brand =wing out bhst-cleaning. mlly Itages first and then webs. all the temponry attachments are removed carefully. Some points d detail can cause problems at this stage. slr&hay complete lemponry iwaints to mid the des@ erection wind speed.11 DECK CONSTRUCTION in composite construction. and Mng the joht painting up to the w r w n d i n g paintwork Bhst c W n g is a noisy nd dirlyprocassaniedout by oylersthn m o r s . T h e Desigw should specifv websvectii on completion of erection (to make conhi d modelling and m e c l i o neasisr) and checkule desigt~ for webs being o u t o l p l u m bat supports by the full theoretical lllllount (seeGuWIL-~ Me 7. sigmificant but unpredictabletransverse rotations can occur at skewed supports. pmductivily and quality. reinforcement and wet concrete we loaded on to the steelwork R will defied and rotate: theJe displacmts are anticipated by building in calculated camber but they ClMOt be ignored: if deck slab construction starts behfe main girder joints am complete and too close to the erection hont. T h e start d deck msbuction in relatlonto erection should be specified on the drawings. the better. the PrincipalContractor lakes over the spns to complete the supersbuctrve with the reinforced concrete deck sbb. stable and C o n a c u y a l before ~ releashg the m e . W lporoved welded atlacbe& tair the flageandwebpbte to Iha up the weld gap correctly.its aim is to pmduce a chemically clean profiled surface to which paint must be applied wiwna fsw bow. Again.the jointselup shouldulen beconect. h a t o be thorough toavoid Contrnirpuan d h e shap-painted swfaces.03). ProMemscanoccwattheintertacebelweenthefmnworkandlhestaalurork: where permnent formwork is to be used. alter erection is finished. dlen requiring a 48 hour long hold period before testing. the welds are made in a planned sequence to contml dislortion.BCSA G U N TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES The process to make a main girder splice is: mthemthgginlersonpmmntandtemporarysupporbusingacxrnnmtrestlebsupgoctbdhenQor atemporary brxkealthe splice. but if nacessarytheroo(gapscnbead/catedby grinding 01 weld build-up to approved procedures. wel concm defledions can vary from 50% to 100%of the calculated values. nuisance or hazard to other w o k s . all the welds are subject to inspection and testing as specified in Bs 5400-6 and the project speciliation. s M h g with Mw clenlng.
if this is notdone. pmissibkdevWonsdthe top flmga (WOOO) can QUSB krgevarlalh in the width d unbnced bays: pem\nsnt lonmoclc CaMOt wtmallytolente that degree d mlalim. I M c i e n t working and cost can be avoided by anticipation of clashes batween reinfoccement and the steelwk: shear studs a e normally set out manwliy in the factory sothe spacing should be in mu#iplas of 1Omm. On a c u r d deck where transverse reinforcementis radlai it is bener to displace the ban slighliy. how It is to be b u i k and atwhat season d the year. as outlined in Section 6. because gradient and mnber make the top flange lon@ef than the nominal plan dimensions . weldsd altadmnenk using the drawn-arc grocess. 7. so nmuomnl dthe cwnpklh d protective tmlmenl on site requires a c a r e f u l appoaeh and a sound urdengndingof the specified syslem to ensw pmper appllcatlon and the planned perfomnce. Rematuce laiiwe of palnt systems I s not uiwmmon.a single tmsvene steel angle. When woul kaksdo occur. Deckconstructioncarriesa subsWai riskddamage tothe protective treatment dlhe steelwork (or tothe uniform rWshdwsltheringgnd8 W). The return should not go past the facedthe ShearstudsaspainW~hasthen to bedone by brushnd lnawserdn cost nd time. the nature ofthe strudurs. and leadsto lenolhy agmenl and costlyremedialworks: lailure lsolten due to inadeguae prsoantlonor not complyingwlth specified aDpilcaUon crltaria.othemlse the risk of clashes is high.~toremorethementirelyandthan~indand m- -wr#nnge. The pmjecl team needs to consider. the I 8 n w l I a l wofks e r . such as threaded studs for fixing formworksystems.5. if works fitled erectionandaosemMy cleats on top flangesdo not Interfere with deck construdion. thn to specify odd stud wcings. how much workshould be Mto be doneat site in the itghl of thepmposedpalnt system.12 PROTECTIVE TREATMENT A MdOe site in the UK knot the best place topaint steelwork. should belod-$stsd~use. the positions of fommrork altactnnenk should be specified by reference to the fabrication dimensions. site erection lifting cleatscanchshvithreworcementorcompromiseconcretecover: His better t oH a mcut themonwithin25mndtheflan!J8. .ndlenethestub.onthe~fhwingsbum theedge of thefbngenotlromthewmrlain Ynsituconaeta-steelillwac@. Itmy re best uinpbce. if POJsible. the alleded Surscesshould bewashad downand clened mi@Ihway. comedsdtocleatsabove or below the top flangesis wlficienlto maiminthe spicing. nd plinting penomel are required to work m y more hows at hd@.the m c ie lueol Ihs treebllent is put al risk. Much d IheriskanbeeliminaledbyYleRindpll Contnctorby careful plmina Md detailing and control dthe constnrction grocess. frommechnicddanqa incondrudingandlormorlc and bum ColltminaIionbygrot~I leaks. especially be(wsen octobarand Mrch.
in m t o i nand stripping of locmwork. or in hrli wash down d W painhworkloroveccwting. by sibne overspray. (pMi preparation ingoing backto bare metal or swnd paint in damaged areas.dust.method statements and requireme& for WE. intercoat Umes need to comply with the m a n u f a m specification dhenwise the m chemical bond will not be achieved:paintingover~whichhavebeen curedfor seven1months may require spaciai pmpatah. and safe disposal of waste and unused paint. weii lit and ventilated.the process. *acckkntallydurlngerection. and film thickness checks. by Qrout leaks during concreting. Even if the whole paint system is applied at the works. in b W n g and cleaning of comections. Some paint systemsue moreMllnanblethn others butthe risk of damage can be diminished by detailed pianning and supervlsiom d each stage of the process by the site manager and the Principal Contractor. the areas of connections remain to be cleaned and hrily painted a! sib. or spray fmm nearby t r a f f i c or . and daily m s of I E I shop applied protective treatment application condilions. worknanship. paint storage. operating a quality rm~gement regime for paint. choice dapplicdion by btush or r o l l e r or by airiess spray depending on the paint sptem and the risk of envimnmentol pollution or dama!Je to vehicles. health & saMy rnaqmwt with C O S " assassment. by particles of metal rsmoved by grinding operations on steelwork or reinforcement. appliclton d paint only to dry surfaces at ambient lemperaturas and relative humiditiesspecitied by the paint manufacturer. especiaily when not cleaned dfbelorebying. . The key aspects to consider w i t h site painting are: the provision d protected access toail areas d sbtelworkto be painted which must be clean.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRlDGES Damage to plintworkaDpliedatthe w can be M1sBd: in bansport to the site.paint usage.
ammpmkd by ahandovar cartificate. . This should be aforrml adion by the sik w a n d the prhdpll C o n r t a m repmmtative. Therewlll be pmssureto antidpple the compbtion d ersdion which can cause problems. and Its protective ttmtmmt.rtthere isno room for misunderstandingabout the prepredncssoftheJtsslwork The insgecti4nshould include: ' condition and setting d the bearings.7.13 COMPLETION The s t r u m steelwork. solhere i s a need for plrnedhndovar dthe SUpentNdue as a whole. but part of the whole bfido8 md jrrslas the Steelwork contrador needs the site to be hlly Drspred lor srsdion. so Ih.so the Principal conhctormquiresthe entdsd swwork I0 be in the spedlied condition for the ensuing construetion-. or in stages.
BCSA G U D E TO ME ERECTION OF STEEL BRlooES .
2. This Section focuses on the most common tasks pecuihr to steel bridge erection.from hazards of the place of work. the main hazards in carrying them out.1 General The individualrequires protection in w i n g out his assigned tasks . take into account ergonomic requirements and the person's state of health. Similarly.SECTION 0 ERECTION TASKS - 8 ERECTION TASKS 8. and what to do should accidents occur. when all other methods of removing the hazard or reducing the risk have been exhausted. d the work of others. be used only for the specified purposes. and of his own task. The work has to be carried out to specified standards of workmanship. He has to select techniques and sufficient appropriate equipment for them.1 CARRYING OUT ERECTION TASKS There is a lot more to Mdge erection than the obvious action of the team lifting large components into place: much of the time skilied tradesmen are carrying out individualtasks which make up the whole scheme of work.2. When selecting PPE it must: be appropriate for the risks involved without itself leading to increased risk. and is subject to quality control. Men it will be appropriate to develop a task specific method statement for such activities whether they are general from project to pmject (such as drilling and reaming) or specific to one project (such as rlgging special litlng tackle developed for a single lift). Risk assessment of ail these hazards determines what pmmal pmtecthre equipment (PPE) is necessary to ensure that protection. be compatible with other items of PPE and remain effective when it is necessary for the person to wear several items at the same time. They need special tools and equipment. 8.2 PERSONAL PROTECTION 8. the equipment needs to be safe.2 Selection comply with the relevant statubiy provisions for design and manufacture. 8. fit correctly ~sionsgivenwdatoryany necessary readjustment. not create health or hygiene problems for diflerent users when it is to be worn by more than one person. . The site manager works to the Steelwork Contractoi'sproject specific Health 8 Safety Plan which cov~ls the erectlon scope of work within the frameworkof the Conslruclion" h& Safely plen developed by the Principal Contractor. the company3 Health & Safely Policy and supporting procedures coverall these tasks as they are common to the company's business activity. and enm that it is maintained. the visilor to site has to be protected too. and be used in accordance with instructionswhlch have been communicated clearly to the employee. they need to be safe in what they are doing. The Steelwork Contractor has to plan for these tasks too.
recordsot the issuedequipmentandhiring are kept. aJMlesdelybods 0rJhoesto BS EN 344 and 345. 3 Use inlmtion. hmass l n y mwhen usad forUI anad and mtmdabk lpproprizh eye protectionto BS EN 166. 8 . 2 . and -shktsshouldbem in sunny wealher. which mut b e m . including visitors to the site. an elfedi systemdnuintenanceis used bensureequipmentcontinuastoprovidethedegreedpmWon lot which it was seleded. in possession work. imtnrctionsand training on correct use are provided to ail personnel. when work&woMngarlskd eye iniUy is being cnied out. hi@ visiUIity vests or jack& to BS EN 471 lor all pmonnel on site. . and gloves toeSEN 388. S h o d c ~ d e V i c e to J BS EN 355 ffttad to sat* h i 1yrastorsto BS EN 36Owhen used torreslnlnt. lull body sakty hanews to BS EN 361 with fe&alnl wanasl hymkasq)propriateto BS EN 3 5 5 mand used b a t all places d worklhere isadnger d fauing a dlsenCa l W e to ause a personal injury and no oylecmeylod dprsventinOUk kavaiW -including suitably clipped on when U n g from a mobile eleMting work plaU0rm.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES On atypical steel br&besitethe WE requid includes: sllelyheknebloBS EN 397 lot all personnel on site in compliance with the ConsbucUon (M protedion) R e g u M m . The sile~ismponsiblel~nmgingtheprwisionandpcoperused PPE by ensuringthat: users check the adeguacy and condition d their equipment daily and bring any possible deficiencies of their equipment to the aknlion of their superviror. when neceJsry loui weather cldhing should be issued and used e. The site manager should ensure that clothing is worn salely and is suitable tor the weauler conditions: w r m w p e r p r o d o u t e r ~ a f e ~ lneeded l y inwinter.g. a competent person regubly inspects salsty hamesses tor suitability or damage.
or m(w8 fR?quenl.3 SAFETY OF EQUIPMENT All equipment required for a task must be sale . 8. a register must be kept ol all plant and egulpnent on site with the relevant test certificates and inspectionreconls. maintenanceand regular inspection of equipment. or electricity ail are different all are subject to lhek orm limitations and regulations.when all the bolt assembliesrn in pbce and spa~ertight. Inspection and maintenance must be carried out only by competent personnel with appropriate training. The most commonly used lastener is the general grade high strength friction grip (HSFG) bolt to BS 4395-1 used In accordance with BS 4604-1. hydraulic power. T h e risks pssodlted with the use dequipmentmustbe considered before selecting the item: it must be appmpf&le for the job to be done. HSFG bolts are "high strength" (simiiar to grades 8.but this is least favowed as daily. Jointsam put bgelher as described in W o n 7. What is suitable for worfdng al ground level may not be suitable for work at bight of in a Conslned space.in a sale condition and. marWngs and warning devices:as the first line of protection these must not be interferedwith and must be maintained to fundion as Intended.4 COMMON TASKS 8.1 BdtiDg Most bolted joints on bridges in the UKare friction grip cwedionswhichrequire each bdt to be tensioned toachievea spedlled minimum shank tension.petrol or diesel englned.8 or 10.with proper instructionand regular maintenance. be sale to use. Risks wlll be associated with dllferent power sources .or applying a specified torpue to the nut. - Equipmentmust be used and opented by persome1 who are trained to use it Under the r e g u m equipment I s manutachwedand supplied with guards. all equipment must comply with WWER: the regubtions cow the selection. whether the equipment is owned by the Steelwork Contractor or hked.4.SECTION 8 . As described In Section 7. - . toqu%-wntrol. the bolts are Iensiionedsystematically in a pallem to suit the iayoul d the splice using power look. pmtedive devices. compressed air. use. calibmtion dthe eouipment is reQuired and the appued torgue/bolttension relationship is aflected by a number of factors that are dilliwlt to CMbOl under site conditions. Inspection and malntenance ol equipment must be controlled by a competent person.PPE is the last option for protection and phvsical prdedions y s t e m s must be employed I1 pncticable. HSFG bolts am Ughtened by.and the location and conditions in which it will be used.9) and used in 'friction grip" connections. Selection.the parl-lum method. The higher grade HSFG bolt to BS 4395-2 is little used in bridgework as it offers little benefit to the Designer working to BS 5400-3. rotating the nut a specified amount relativeto the bolt alter achieving a set bedding torque .ERECTIONTASKS 8. The term preloaded"is now also becoming a common term l o r the bolts in use. or using a proprietary load indicating devlce usually a washer with nibs which are compressed in ti@lening to leave a small gap.
eilhereledik or compressed air driven. The bdts a e fully tensioned almost exclusively using a socIu8 filing over the nut. fastener^ should enabletensioningto bedone horizontaliy or-. Thasebdlshnebeenusedlor d w la v bridgeJ.amanualtorguawrenchorprese(hydrwlickqwdevice is used:thsnthathmadedend dthe bolt vd the nut am permnenUy mrked WHha chisel orpwch.of risk and cost .Writh pockebbafewbdtassemblies. For mmy yeas the kvoured taol was the comDrwJedair driven lmpldmench-rd it still is hvoumd by eredon 1s it Is puidrwthpn C u m n ir s p . TwootherbrmsdfrictionOripkPbnersareusedin bridge COrrJtnrctian. Ihe bedding toque is then applied to each bolt in turn. Given that the connection has been assembled as descrii in W o n 7 with washers fitted correctly: a " ail bolts are instailedand are spanne~ tight. ISMS makes thetorgue-tenswn .and Huck W-a Jpedal device. Bettpndleeisbuseasbwrmiqpneumaktorpuewr#lchesUul~ comp~Wsk1thewkphce. Mosl mmuhdumdtorgue-contrd Wst4f bdtsdo notgahnke them.a special electricallypoumd W krmsthe nut against the restnintdasplinedshnkaltheend dthebok Iheshankisdeslgnsdtosheardfwhenthespedfiedbolt tensbn isxhiwed. hybauliaily 01 by ComPresJed air. environmental and Insurance COnsidenUons . to ensure that the connection is completedas the Designer intended.InassembU~~~Ihe coMedloncrectorsusehndtodscnied ina Wbelt. To achievethebeddiqtorgue. b t h e prt-tum method. and risk assessment based on vibration Wing must be carried out in seiecling the toois. T h e laud hmmering noise itemits is hzrdousandan 6nvimmecltal nuisana. W p n d i c e r O run the nuts dawn is to use a lowtorgue powwtooi. thetorgueonwchboRis checkedagainllterthewrhdegwphasSbeen. Bolt tensioning has to be carried wt syJtematicaily using pbnned procedures. re~underwNchlhesedevices~muehmare~tocordrd.Current practice is being d r i i by legislative. with hold points for inspection. driven by a power tool with the capacilytotsnslontha prticular sire d bolt-the bager the boltdbma(er.working oulwads fmn the centredthe g w p . ail plies in the connection must be in close enough contact to meet Ihe specified fit-up requirements. and the tool should only be used forwy short periods becrwe of Iherbkof d n g HAVS (see below).hydrwlicaliy or eledricaily drive^ tenrlons the boltandlhen swagesa collar on tothashank althespecifiedtensionthereduceddianlekshank~df. W o n Control Bolt (TCB)which hasa rwnd head .so e q u w i manufaclwen are bringing n e w or impmved products to the market to met y#se mqulremancs. work plalfoml byoul shouid enable tensioning to be done without c r w or stretching.it is easy to overlook this at bracing or dbphraom comections.Only IhenshouMthewltnessmrksbe made on each nuland bolt. . The used heavy power W s in bolt k m i o n h g requiresthe following to be considered in desionand pbnning: the steehvorkmust bedelailedsolhat it iseasy to install the Uenersand thare is room forthe powe~ W in line when tensioning . OI hydraUc borpue comertersdriven Irom hydmulk pumps wilh llOV ebcMdty suppIy.the fargerand heavier the tool.lortheprt-turnmelhod. and particularly so for bdts latuer than M24. Tods can be powemd electrically.
ovens and electrically heated quivers to store welding rods at the workplace. welding consumables etc. weidlng on any scale reguhes llwuwmt by l3qwimd qualified supervision.2 WeJdiag W a joint b be welded is assembled and held securely in position. 01 the final gaps under load indicatingwashers. which set out all the welding parameters including the SeQWnce d weld runs. The change of terminology is because "approval" implies acceptance under the conbact by the Client. the making dthe site welded mectlons requires pMng work Which completes the necessary W n g up of the componentsand alignment of the prep& plate edges belorewefflng can SM. and a new assembly ussd b replace it. equipment for preheating joints where neceswy. previously termed a welding procedueapproval recod (WPAR). 8. site welding has to be planned and prepared for. dry storage tor equipment and consumables. then the whole tastener assembly must be scrapped. *~equipnacrt~mobileweldingse$orweldingDransformersoperatinooff~~ornrairssupply. the pmcess.ERECTION TASKS tensioning of HSH. welders who are qualified by certificated testing to make eaeh type and position of weM. an inspection and test plan. On liqe b r i msites. As for every other activity. Ihe Designer or a deiegaled independent inspection authority. The WPS is supported by a welding procedure qualificationnmd (WPQR). the process of makingacomectionreguires: qualifiedweMing pmceduresforeach typeand positiond w. thicknesses. bolts must be verified by inspection d the witness marks. Bolted comections and bolting are also covered in steel &i@s I and Guidance M e 7.these tasks will be carried out by separate trades. The welding procedures to be used for an a w l weld must be based on welding procedure specificaliw (WPSs) that cover a defined scope in terms of a range of material types.and specialist pemmal protective equipment. suitable types of extinguisher. and the wnsumables to be used.SECTION 8 . Ir qualified and independently accredited inspectorsand test house facilities to mry out the required non-destructive tasting anddestructivelesting.4.05. whereas "qwlificalion' is neutral as far as the contractual . but commonly a skilled weldedplater c a n do the whole job.platers and welders. As well as the previously describedQaOfJaccess to the work with shelter kom the envirolnnent and protedbn blroihers. and quality records. flame retardant ~rotectivesheeting andlor fire blankets. and if any bolt has to be slackened of. then the welding process itself c a n be undertaken. and often a fire watcher appointed to meet "hot work" permit procedures.
4. 8. Electricor c4mpressed air drills in stnds can be used for reaming. maybethemo~tpndiaMemethodtoiedily llmltedamwntofhdemislygMlentinbo#sdconnecllons. particularly for replir work after m i of ternpony works fittings and for the dressing of edge prepmtlons for welding.4.subiedtothe w o n e h apprwal. and the wheels or discs must be fitted by a competent penon. or a partable eledric magwl based drill ushg m d r i l k .if lwessay the surfices must be clevled &wards to anSWethe dm@l sup w o r is rmintalned. (Nolethat an OyBlSize hole used with abdtdthe odginai size can reduce theeflediw kidion gtmuald by the tensionedbolt Ihrwghthehde. it should nol be used on permanent bridge steelwork its rnain use is with the temporay vwks and parucuhrly for lgmovinothem. krbrkant.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 8. as a matter of principle. Y isallownbie under oame c nd.if. Angle grlnders are used with abrasive wheels and cutting discs. Reamingdhdes israraly pectormed on site. w i t h appro~l ofthe Dssigner. particuiarlywhen used 1b i g h t . oralapered rsomer csn be driven by apneumatic impact wrench. Care needs t o belakenuhen drilllno hobs for HSFG bolted comedi4nsthiltthe h y i n g WrfacesamndcuWinated with m.3 DrilUng and n u n l a g Usually all hoks for prlncipai structual txmdons are completed in the Wication works: occasionallysite drilling maybe neeessarywheceparticular precisionis required or where parapetsorolher bridge himitmare to bealtachd to the strudunt. Used such equipment shouid be acccompnied by cleer i n s f f u d m in the form d a wsoedkmen-lod~. s u c h a s t h e / W & o x / ~ system:in use thedrill needs to be Secumd against hiling any disllnce shouki the power suppry to the magnet fail. .4 C W n g and grlndlag Flaw cuUing is closely wociated with sttucttnai steelwork but at site. lbme cutting d the permanent works is required in prucUiar circumstances. orsmf. As with all equipment the users must be tnined and cornpatent to use them in accordance with W E R . This may require dhssembiy ywl re-assemblyof the joint. These processes may result in hazards to other m i m m e l in the&viclnily.then it should be cyried outtoan aDproved umcedure lollowed by winding and dressing dthe cut edge.Pantworkinthe pmimity ol grlndii operath nwdstobe prorected tonr raid contminationby rnwlic paruck.) Reaming isllsousedwherethedeJlonrequirssamedionby~~litlsd boltsor dowels.30 protective mens should be used or an exclusion z o n e operated. Site d r i l h is carried out with: a compmed air or eiectric drill stand clamped to the steehworkusing Morse taper drills.
and *le* or double-acting.4.5 JWag - Jackin0 is used in b r m i eradion tor work with the bridge bearings. It is a powerlultechniguetornwing very large loadsshoctdistncas. wnll25mmto3oomn~. and largerdisbncesbyusing slrand jacksand ~yenoineeredtempaclry~.portlble jacks withan integral D u n p m usell W M stroke d round 1 m and up to 1 m capacily. For rmior mmwnenlnd hi(jh W. Forsrmlltlsks.awide range d jacks is available loc purchse or hire. adiusling the level or position ol lssembled stealworkand sometimes loc lilting or W i sbnifient dIstnces. transferring loads to and from temporary worlrr. .SECTION 8 ERECTION TASKS 8. these opente atpressufes up b 700 br nd am: d loot to loo01 capcity.
hydrwlicdlhrnsystanu. may suffer sevaral kinds d injury to the hands and arms. All operatives must be given instructionand training and know how to recognise the early symptoms 01 the injury: they shouldhave routinemedical ChFck-Ups. It is knportnt. Having a i d or wet handswhile worklng incmses the iikelulood d VWF.2 Hand-arm vibraUon Wotktrswhose hands are regularlyexposed to high levels d vibnlion.5. oases lor cutling and welding.5. as pcescribed by Ihe regubtions. e.g.Iherslore.with the exception d mild cases d VWF. seem to be Irravarslble. t o minimiseeqosum tovibdng equipment and to usel#emalive methodswhere possible. The effects ot HAVS are cumulative and. -hrmssImmwslding. . it is a notifiable disease under R1000R. . The injuriesare known coilacthrely as ' H n b A r mVibration Syndrome' ( H A S ) and amongst the main symptoms is lflbrationWhile Finger (VWF). as does smoking. opento6 using vibrating equipment should wear gloves to keep their hands warm.and lctions t a b to eliminate or minimise the risk before work starts.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BfUDGES 8.prticulrly for long dwationtasks. and Paints.3 Nokr 8. Cuing mid wedher. lubricants for sliding oparations. including impaired blood circulation and damage to m s and muscles. grhd&l and bolt tensloning. tor example in cutlino. becluse both cause conslidion d the small blood vessels. combustion produds born plant. and the residues from painling.the wmmon substancesto be assBsJBd are: ruel dls and grease. Steelwork erection i n v h some use d hndheid took.with iehl elled. In steel bridgework. 8.5.4 Hazardour tubstaaca Under the COS" Regulations all substancesdkcled by or used in carrying out a W a r e poWiaUy hamdous so n appqkde ass~ssment d the risk has to be made. E q u i m should beseladed with m. the presence d lead-based paints 01 plating (particularly cadmium) in existing structures which can be alteded by heal . from power operaled took. They should rotilte their work with othersto break up and limit the exposum time tor each hdhriduli. and bewsll mainbined to reducevibration transmitted tothe operpor.
- 8.so good housskeepinO on a daily basis is essential. electric pawerandHmmable materials. The site must coooerate with the Principal Contractor who is mponsible for overail control of subslnces on the site. The site magerneeds to liaise with the Principal Contractot in managing the risk of fire.5 Houtakaaplag a d waste The presence of unwimbd material. electric pm-healing (or welding. 8. produdii.8 Fire steel bridgwodi concern "hotwafit. . contiol measwes may include permit to work procedures for confinedspace Wowng and lor hol work with monitoring d the workarea bya lire acher inchdiq~ fora suitable period after workceases. This is p i u t i c u ~ bnportant on accessplatrmand sutpended stagings. W l y and safety. use dldherhras a r mndiognphy). and he should ensure that hrelevant r e a m m W md HS(G) 168 'Fire Safely in Construction worlc published by the HSE a e lollwd. infbmmilble waste material. preferably coordinated and managed by the Prindpal Contractof. and the disposition d approoriate fin. wheceaswell as hamperingworklhere is a riskof such material overloading the access platrm 01 Uling lrom hei@t to cause accidents or pollution.5.flame-cuaing and winding. as Fin. They include shmge and control of gasas.they must clarity the role ol the appointed person in relation to the Steelwork-C scope d work on the site. paint and luel.SECTION 8 ERECTION TASKS All harardaus substances have to be controlledby an "appointedperson'who is responsible for B(Isurin0that data sheets and irJormationam pmided on site. (see theH@& FhmmalJeliquidsand liwkdA&&utn Gas Regublims). records ol use must be kept and be available on site. (see the €W&& d work Reguklions). prticulviy in conlined spaces. Waste materials should be disposed of promptly and not be allowed to accumulate on the ground: hyardous wastes must be segrsgatedandall wastes shouldberemovedfmm site by a liwnsed waste carrier. *theuseandStangedglses.g. Epuipment. grouting. equipnwtandwaste where work is to be done prejudices eHiciency of working. bearing in mind h a t some lsoects d Ys scope may go beyond the conventional understndingd steelwork (e. components and material not w i r e d foc immediate use should be placed where they are safe and not w h 8 r e they can restrict movemenl of personnel or the work to be done. the use ol ekctric#y. the praximllyd lBcognised harards such asgas mains. dust and paints.5. pceeaulioos-edwith foilw: the W W piweses dntldhg. usend storage of Mammable liquids. extinguishers. flammable Ilquids.
uwnmercial. It should include information relevant to any accident OT emeroency which may occur. 8. plant and manpower on site. 8. pcoblemSencwnteKtd. first aid facilities must be providedon site with a number d identifiedand designated Nrst-alders. T h e emfngency procedures include control proceduresand equipment to limit the clamage caused to people and PIoPerty by an Incident. over water or in confined spaces need to be identifiedin the planning process well before the start of erection. so amngenwts have to be in place on the bridge construction site in case an accident should occur. deliveries received. The Principal Contractor is responsible for coordinding the a r m s and ensuing they are in place and the steeiwork Contractor'ssite manager must ensure that bey cover any situation which may occur in the erection works.6. A person must be appointed to be in charge of the lacilitiesand to call an ambulance if reguired. the risk of accident or illness occurring cannot be ignored.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 8. Local emergency services should be briefed ttwpuoh the Principal Conbactor on any particular hazards and may be Involved in the preparation and rehearsal of procedures.1 General When and where people are working. health 8 safely issues. toolbox briefings given.4 Flnt rid Under the Health and Safely (FWM)Regulations. T h e number of first-aiders required on site dependson the sizedlhewarldorceand the cakgorydrisk Foc Mdge eraction.6. the scaleand accesbililydthe consbudion must beconsidered toensure that r Irl Green and white signs indicate sale conditions First aid . PBrsonnel mwt know where the first aid facilities are located.6 ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES 8.2 S11e O W The site manager should maintain a p r m a l dally dtuy to provide a contemporaneous record for technical.6. *erectionproOressandhandovers. and ihison wlth the PrincipalContractor. A Irst-aider is someone Wno has underg~8an HSE approved COUISB in Hrstaid at work and hdds a current certificate. C0ntrachr. including: weather and site conditions.6. 8.ll and admwstratlva pulpaes.3 Rescue and recovery Rescue and emergmy -res must be In place to cover any eventuality at site: hazards such as working at height.
rtthe~~invssUgDUonsand~areundertakan. L The steelwork nears completian . and how it hapgened. In the r c M e n t bodr The site manager must reportanyaccldents tothe Principal Contractor and to his own compsnycs o#icersoIh.SECTION 8 ERECTION TASKS - The site mna~er must ensure that all accidentson his site are recorded in the accident book kept on site. Anyone who is injured is required to inform his employer and record infomudionon the accident.
1 General grade BS4604 .2 Higher grade bolts and nuts and general grade washers - BS 4604 Specificationfor the use of high strength friction grip bolts in structural steelwork.2 Specifiication for loads BS 5400 . steel BS 5964 Building setting out and measurement BS 7121 Code ofpractice for safe use of cranes BS 7121 . Section 3 General Design. Vol 1 Highway S.3 Mobile cranes 8s EN IS0 9001 :2000 Uualily management systems.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES REFERENCES PUBLICATIONS PRODUCED BY THE BCSA: Steel Brldoes: A Practical Approach to Design for Elfcient Fabrication and Construction Guide to Steel Erection in Win@ Conditions Heallh and Safely Guide for Managers and Supervisors Task Specific Method Statement OTHER PUBLICATIONS: SCI Publication P163 Integral See1 Bridges: Design Guidance SCI Publication P185 Steel Bridge Group: Guidance Nofes on Best Practice in Steel Bridge Construction (a series of 60 guidance notes on separate topics . Metric series BS4604 . BD 37/01 Loads for Highway Bridges (incorporating the Composite Version of BS 5400-2) .wctures: Approval Procedures and General Design. Blackwell.identified in text as a numbered Guidance Note) SCI Publication P318 Design Guide for Steel Railway Bridges Steel Designers' Manual.6 Specificationfor materials and workmanship.2 Higher grade (parallel shank) BS 5400 Steel concrete and composite bridges BS 5400 . Requirements Highways Agency Design Manual for Roads and Bridges.3 Code of practice for design of steel bridges BS 5400 . Editors B Davison 8 G W Owens BS 4395 Specifiication for high strength friction grip bolls and associated nuts and washers for structural engineering BS 4395 1 General grade BS 4395 .
because it can increase the risk of a client accepting an unsustainably low price from an inexperiencedsteel firm obviating fair competition. A fundamental principle of the Register is that companies may apply to join it and are subject to independent expert audit before admission: the Register is administered by the BCSA but it is open to any capable steelwork contractor to join.steelconstruction. and a classification in terms of the recommended maximum contract value that they should be able to resource. ensure that subcontracted work is done safely? The problem of assessing competence in steel construction. Successful construction is also safe construction and competence for the task is absolutely essential for a safe outcome as well as a technically and commercially successful project. or Designers or Principal Contractors. The auditors also take up relevant project references before the application is accepted.APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 1: THE REGISTER OF QUALIFIED STEELWORK CONTRACTORS 1. the experienced professional auditors visit the company at its premises to assess its capabilities in eleven categories of building steelwork and/or six sub-categories of bridge construction. There are over 65 companies currently on the Register with several listed for Bridgeworks. This research. Entry in the Bridgework section of the Register involves a more extensive audit with a wider range of acceptance criteria as explained below. let alone for bridgework. British or foreign. The regulations place obligations on the parties down the supply chain to assess competence and satisfy themselves of the competence of parties before placing work with them. The Register of Qualified Steelwork Contractors The government sponsored research into procurement in the construction industry included the issues of procuring competence and quality performance. On receipt 01 an application to join the Register. led to the formation of the Register of Qualified Steelwork Contractors Scheme to provide procurement agencies with a reliable listing of steelwork contractors which identifies their capabilitiesfor categories of steel construction. the Designer and the Principal Contractor are not expert in the intricacies of working with steel. the client requires a robust supply chain for procurement of his project: each party has to be competent and have the resources to fulfil1 its role. In brief. Registered companies make annual returns and the auditors re-assess each company at the works triennially and when there are significant changes. responsibilityfor ensuring safe practice cannot be escaped by subcontracting. may often be aggravated because the Client. Evolving UK health & safely legislation was rationalised by the Health and &/e& at Work elc. member or non-member. undertaken by the BCSA. . How do Clients.org). including all the principal UK steel bridgework contractors (see www. Introduction For design solutions to be constructed successfully. This is a problem for the industry too. Acl in 1974 but it was the Constfuclion (Design and Managemenl) Regulalions of 1994 which made explicit the indisputable requirement for competence in design and construction. How can a competent contractor be selected? 2.
In terms 01 knowledge. Brldgework Scheme All companies on the Register have to satisfy the auditor 01 their linancial standing and resources: to be registered in the Bridgework Category. The company’s track record and the company’s systems. or with the qualification of European Welding Technologist. and at least live year’s steel bridge construction engineering experience. One contract must involve the application of multicoat treatment. of which two must each exceed f100. Both contracts must have required materials and workmanship to BS 5400-6. and a bridge that involved the use 01 a railway possession. welding and erection methods. The company will need to demonstrate that it has erected a bridge 01 at least 30m span over water.OOO contracts.OOO contract value completed within the last three years. The company must have the ability undercover in its own works to lift a single piece 01 20 tonnes using EOT cranes singly or in tandem. as lollows: The track record will be based principally on the two f100. The technicalfdesign manager should have appropriate specialised technical knowledge relevant to the assigned tasks. In terms of knowledge. The manager in charge of erection methods should have a knowledge of the CDM and CHSW Regulations. The company’s quality system must be independently certified to meet the requirements 01 BS EN IS0 9001 2000 with a scope 01 registration that includes steel bridges. which may have been sublet. . The company must employ at least one suitably competent person with clearly designated tasks and responsibility in each of three key management disciplines: technicalfdesign. a welding specialist with specific knowledge to BS EN 719. will be contacted to establish their satisfaction with the work on the contracts.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES 3. existing facilities and employed personnel will be used to establish its capability. The company must be able to demonstrate that it has the ability to undertake trial assembly of large pieces post-labricationand prior to dispatch. IStructE or IMechE would be appropriate. If necessary in addition other contract references of comparable complexity (but not necessarily 01 f100. who must be different for the two contracts. The manager of welding coordination should have appropriate specialised technical knowledge relevant to the assigned tasks. and at least live year’s experience in the execution 01 steelwork. The company must present references for completed supply and erect contracts that include at least six bridgework contracts undertaken over the last five years. but must have been either for bridges exceeding 20m span. a company must have a minimum turnover in steelwork lor bridges of f l million in the most recent year or alternatively per annum ilaveraged over the last three years. or for mechanically operated moving bridges. The company must have manufactured in-house at least 75% of the steelwork lor each 01 the two contracts. The end-user clients. or with individual CharteredAncorporated membership of the Welding Institute would be appropriate. an individual with Charterednncorporated membership of one 01 the ICE. One 01 the contracts must have required thick plate welding such as the bun welding of S355J2 plate in a thickness of at least 40mm.OOO value or as recent) can be used. The contracts can have been undertaken with sublel erection. and be able to produce a copy of the Erection Method Statement that hdshe has authored lor use on a complex contract.
This enables companies wilh the relevant technical and managerial competence to enter the Bridgework Category and reflects the auditor's professional opinion of that competence. 4. The Highways Agency has given a lead to prospective bridge owners by requiring lhat only firms listed on the Register of Qualified Steelwork Contractors for the type and value of work to be undertaken will be employed for the fabrication and erection of bridgeworks. or Unclassified (for competent companies without extensive recent bridgework experience). Plate girders [>900mm deep]. and. . For acceptance in this sub-category such companies need to fulfil all the requirements set out above. suspension bridges. The use of a registered company matched to the demands of lhe project is a prima facie defence to any allegation that insufficient care was taken in selecting a competent steelwork contractor. Although the Register itself is not a quality assurance scheme. Moving bridges. it assists them in fulfilling their duties under the CDM Regulations. Particular projects may present requirementsor challenges to prospeclive tenderers which go beyond the range of criteria of the Bridgework Category: that is for the procurement organisation to identify but it can be assured that a Registered Bridgework Contractor meets the essential basic requirementsfor bridgework. PT BA CM ME RF X Companies wishing to be registered in the Bridgework Category but which do not possess suitably complete bridgework experience may be registeredas unclassified companies. the Subcategoriesthat can be awarded are as follows: FG Footbridges and Sign Gantries. indeed.APPENDIX 1 The company must employ welders with suitable approvals. trusswork [>20m long]. listing in the Bridgeworks Category verifies that the company's quality management systems are third party accredited by an appropriate body. Unclassified companies cannot be awarded olher sub-categories in the Bridgework Category. box girders. Based on evidence from lhe company's resources and portfolio of experience. possibly using reference to contracts of comparable complexity for steelwork other than bridgework. Use of the Bridgework Register The Bridgework Register provides an effective pre-qualification mechanism to match Steelwork Contractors to lhe needs of particular bridge tenders. Cable-stayed bridges. Stiffened complex platework in decks. Bridge refurbishment. This places an obligation on Clients and Principal Contractorsto observe this requirement and bid and order stages. arch boxes. other major structures [ > 1OOm].
References 4. As with any engineering document it is best to adhere to an ordered structure. structure and authorisation Format . the actual revisions must be identified clearly by either a detailed revision history after the front page or highlighting the text or both.use a common header on each page of the EMS which includes: company name or logo. It is important that the EMS is: prepared systematically so that it is clear and comprehensive in use. based on assessment 01 construction and health & safety risks. It is expedient to state the reason for each revision. The lront page should contain the list of contents. Appendices . General The Erection Method Statement (EMS) is the Steelwork Contractoh document to be used on site by his site manager. Purpose 2. Definitions 5. approach and style in preparing the EMS.set out the content of the EMS in these sections: 1. and with adaptation to meet the evolving health 8 safely legislation. Scope 3. document number and revision status. Safety 6. complex and simple. Format. Method 7.08 gives further guidance on the generation. to carry through the planned erection 01 the steel bridgework using a safe system of work which meets the engineering. lhe reviewers in reviewing the draft. review and control of the EMS. Nole that when the EMS is revised and reissued. Guidance Nole 7. and gives the site manager confidence in using it. project title. under site conditions. Structure . and the authorising signatures (see below). 17/75. and controlled in a way lhat manages changes and ensures that only the correcl issue is used to undertake the work. The following recommended format and structure and notes for guidance are based on many years of use for bridgework large and small. 2. dale of issue of current revision. reviewed to verify it meets technical. quality and environmental criteria of the project. This helps the originator in drafting.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES APPENDIX 2: MODEL ERECTION METHOD STATEMENT 1. and page number out of total e. document title.g. safety and project requirements before issue.
. and information. all the project specific documentation.g. the site manager has to refer to a range of drawings. as required otherwise by the contract (e. Where it covers only part of a bridge structure. Authorisallon -the front page must show that. regulations and specilicalions of general application. for example. for compliance with project requirements by Steelwork Contractor‘s line manager with overall responsibility for the steelwork contract. 3. Section 3 References 3. that is. to refer to items which are not needed. drawings of temporary works. the EMS has been checked and verified in sequence: by the originator. and steelwork. by Ihe authorised representatives lrom the Principal Contractor. Typically the form of words can be “To set out the safe system of work for . substructures. in compliance with the contract requirements”. but not. Thus the originator needs to select the required documents carefully as the EMS is developed. independently from the originator. then reference should be made to the method statements for associated sections.1 In implementingthe EMS. Notes for guidance on each of these sections are given below. documents. job title. Section 2 Scope It must be clear to any one referring to the document what it covers and what it does not cover. Notes for guidance Section 1 Purpose The purpose of the EMS may well be self-evident but it should be delined. Verification needs to identily the signatory’s name. Client and/or inspection authority). before issue for implementation. independently by a health & safety specialist. but most unhelpful to the user. he will have been briefed but normally he will not have been party to the planning phase of the work so it cannot be assumed that he is familiar with all the contract documentation.3 The relerences should include: contract drawings of the bridge site. for engineering content. 3. Documents including drawings must be individually and clearly identified with the applicable revision status. . fabrication drawings.2 Only necessary documents should be included: it is easy. 3. and date of review for the current revision. layout drawings and rigging sketches for lifting operations.. The References section is there to list all of that range which is necessary for him to do the work as planned and specified. for compliance with health & safely requirements.APPENDIX 2 Use this as the contents list with subheadings as appropriate. Designer.
3 It is also expedient to define the meaning 01 any uncommon technical terms or expressions which have to be used so that any user will have no doubt what is meant. overhead lines. unloading vehicles. Section 4 Definitions 4. 4.g.g. and who they are. makes clear what roles the parties are playing in the erection of the bridgeworks. e.corporate or individual. Section 5 Safety The EMS is implemented within a framework of health & safety planning procedures. special hazards and measures to deal with them. skids etc to be used during a controlled slide). This section is used to identify that framework. and/or task specific method statements selected from the company's portfolio of generic instructions (e. e.g.2 Note that roles or job titles should be used in the text. This avoids repetitive use of corporate names.g. 4. site welding) or developed for ancillary project-specific tasks (e. on winches.g. Typically it should include reference to: the site managers overall responsibilityfor health & safety in the bridgeworks. special safety requirements. change of methods and EMS to be referred back to originator of EMS. or a specialist subcontraclor. e. for the Principal Contractor. particularly for roles and responsibilities.g. e. not names of individuals. use 01 adhesives). an independent inspector. activities which require the site manager to prepare task specific method statements based on on-site risk assessment. the Constmc/ion Heallh & Safe& flan. The finished text must be clear and unambiguous to a technically competent person who is not familiar with steel construction.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES parts of contract specificationrelating to steel construction. the Steelwork Contraclors Health & Safety Policy and associated procedures. . the Project Supervisor.1 It is necessary to assign defined meanings to terms and expressions used in the EMS. the risk assessments prepared in planning the erection method.g. lineside working for a Network Rail railway bridge. an Appointed Person. emergency arrangements and contacts. specialist subcontractors' method statements and data (e. but more importantly. the site manager.
how to get to an attachment point to release the litling gear from a girder.APPENDIX 2 Section 6 Method 6. erection drawings. e. company plant yard. setting bearings. logistical and safely considerations impose an essential construction logic on the erection. 6. e.g. lifting arrangements. so that the site manager has the option when planning his days work. subject to a weather window or grout having cured. e.g. hired or bought). . This narrative should make reference to relevant drawings and identify the craneage needed to lift and place the steelwork and where the cranes will need to be located. It is important not to put in any artificial logic.6 Hold points -which are required to assure quality or for safely must be identified together with the involvement of others. This process commonly reveals problems which have to be resolved.engineering. a list of all which have to be completed before erection of the phase c a n start.clear sketches. Usually each phase is best dealt with in three stages: a narrative which describes in summary form lhe for the phase: this is best written in the present tense.3 Risk assessment . or plant breakdown.g.This is the longest section of the EMS and for all but the smallest of bridges needs to be structured in phases which are worked through in sequence. their orientation and position uniquely. Starting or carrying out some actions can be conditional. e. which must be recorded. The narrative and instructions must refer explicitly to the relevant data. It should be supported by a matching itemised delivery sequence and identifying mark numbers for all items of labricated steelwork and bolt assemblies. In following the drafting sequence.g.4 Drawings . Such risks (including foreseeable emergencies) have to be assessed and contingency arrangements or actions set out wherever necessary in the instructions. say. in inspection or acceptance. ' 6.2 Drafting the method -the most straightforward way of drafting this section of the EMS is to work from the contract drawings. All the engineering requirements must be explicit. As each action is dealt with . the Steelwork Contractor and possibly others.write it up and move on in sequence. then C. Writing the EMS is the culmination of all the planning and discussion of method.g. say so and do not say do A. and temporary works drawings are essential to the method. Reliance can be placed on generic risk assessments used to develop the company's standard health & safety procedures as applicable. and identity the components. 6. the method or series of actions to carry out the phase of work given in the form of dimUmmm ' following the essential construction and engineering logic.1 Structure . due to a change in the weather. begin at the start 01 the erection process and think through each action in the proposed sequence. then B. 6. together with a list of the necessary plant and equipment (and their planned source. ensure that risks are recognised and addressed systematically. if actions A. e.including how everything is accessed and done .the planned method must be based on assessment of all risks to health & safely. The instructionslor each action must be complete and specific.5 Construction logic . e.7 Contingency arrangements -erection does not always progress as planned. point by point. and temporary works drawings. 6. by the Principal Contractor. 6. so the conditions must be specified with the relevant action.8 and C can be done in any order. for access.g.
which are essential to the method: risk assessments.g. and specialist subcontractors' method statements and supporting data . crane duties for designated cranes. rigging and lifting arrangement drawings. erection sketches. temporary works drawings. the contract drawings and specification.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES Section 7 Appendices These should contain copies 01 all the reference material which is specific to erection. Thus the Appendices should include in separate sections the following. e. but not necessarily all the accompanying documents listed in section 3. which must be available on site for the site manager to manage the works. bearing drawings.
instead they should use abstracts to brief lhe site team. etc Acl [HSW Act] Health and Safely Informalion/or Employees Regulations Health and Safely (Consultation with Employees) Regulations Heallh and Wely (Fir9 Aid) Regulations Heallh and Safely (Safely Signs and Signals) Regulations Highty Flammable liquids and liquefied Pelroleum Gases Regulalions tilling Operations and Lilring EquipmentRegulations [LOLER] Managemenl of Health & Safely at Work Regulations [MHSW Regulations] Manual Handling Operations Regulations Noise a1 Work Regulations (currently under review) PersonalProteclive Equipmenta1 Work Regulations [PPE Regulations] Provision and Use of Work Equipmenl Regulalions [PUWER] Reporting of injuries. Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations [RIDOOR] Safely Representatives and Safely Commitlees Regulations Work at Heighl Regulations [WAHR] Workplace (Heallh. Safely & Welfare) Regulations . The regulations valid currently that are 01 most importance to steel bridge erection are: Confined Spaces Regulalions 9 Conslruclion (Design & Managemenl) Regulations [COM Regulalions] (currently under review) Conslruclion (Head Proleclion) Regulations Construction (Heallh.APPENDIX 3 APPENDIX 3: REGULATIONS AND DOCUMENTATION Steelwork Contractors have to be familiar with the many regulations which apply to erection of steel bridgeworks and to ensure that all applicable requirementsare observed. Safely & Wellae) Regulations [CHSW Regulations] Control of Substances Hazanious 10 Health Regulations [COSHH] Eleclricilyat Work Regulations Fire Precautions(e) Regulations (currently under review) Heallh and Safely at Work. Copies of relevant dowments (such as the HSE’s Construction InformationSheets (ClSs)) should be issued to lhose directly responsiblefor the supervisionof site operations. Supervisors should not rely solely on issuing paperwork. The most practical way of doing this is to follow the approved codes of practice and guidance notes prepared for this purpose by the Health & Safety Executive (HSE). The person named in the company’s Health 8 Safety Policy as having primary responsibilityfor Health & Safety is responsible for ensuring that line managers have copies of the latest issues of the relevant HSE documents. Site supeMsors can use the codes and guidance to brief their site personnel as necessary.
Commencement of site deliveries and/or steelwork erection will be contingent upon the provision of a safe site environment and this can be facilitated by the completion of this certificate. Equally. Operation The Bridge SSHC provides a checklist approach to key areas of safety related to site conditions. and is to be used as the basis of discussion behveen the Principal Contractor and the Steelwork Contractor. avoided or reduced. issues such as safety when working at height. to provide consistency of approach to safe site conditions. the provision of proper site conditions. Objectives This "Safe Site Handover Certificate" (SSHC) has been developed specifically for bridge construction: to facilitate the safe erection of bridge steelwork. efficient working and reduced delay and.BCSA GUIDE TO THE ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES APPENDIX 4: BRIDGE SAFE SITE HANDOVER CERTIFICATE IntroducUon Safety during steelwork erection is a key focus of BCSA and its member companies. with the risks arising from poor site conditions removed. reduced overall total cost. in practice. to establish criteria for safe site conditions as an inherent part of the bridge steelwork tender offer. HSE Reaction The development of the Bridge SSHC has been communicated to HSE. personal protective equipment. this does not receive the same priority and attention. the Bridge SSHC can be used as a means of monitoring conditions for each phase. preventing and arresting falls are. quite rightly. It is assumed that the site conditions will be maintained at a proper level. This period will allow the Steelwork Contractor to ascertain that adequate conditions appear to have been provided and to return a copy of the Bridge SSHC to the Principal Contractor signifying that the steelwork delivery and/or erection can commence on the agreed date(s). typically seven days prior to the agreed date(s). Similarly. yet olten. where the contract involves phasing. . hence. access and hardstandings is of fundamental importance to the efficient and safe erection of constructional steelwork. to provide a mutual basis for improved productivity. and to assist Clients. and the Bridge SSHC checklist provides the means for monitoring conditions throughout the programme of steel erection. and as a mutually agreed basis for the commencement of delivery to site and 01 bridge steelwork erection. and welcome this initiative to establish common criteria for the provision of site conditions that are suitable and adequate for the erection of steelwork". and HSE has responded: "We supporl BCSA in its development of guidance on health and safety issues. afforded high priority. Principal Contractors and Steelwork Contractors alike to meet their respective responsibilities under health and safety regulations such as the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations.
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