You are on page 1of 22


CONTRADICIILE CULTURALE ALE MODERNITII . I. Globalization, Yuppie Generation and the Davos culture. II. Android Gender Gender subversion and the Computer Era. III. Applied Quote From Raymond Williams on the novel written by Richard Yates Revolutionary Road.

Yuppie Generation. The usage of non-verbal communication and the way English achieved the status of International language.

Professor : Sibisan Aura Student: BOCANICIU Cristian-Mihail Master: CDSAM 2nd year. Cultura si Discurs in Spatiul Anglo-American

I. Globalization, Yuppie Generation and the Davos culture.

Verbal communication means: uttering our mesage verbaly to a receiver who is decoding the message being found of previous knowledge using the same code. Non- verbal comunication sending and receiveing wordless messages expressed in speach rather than in writting or action such as gesture communication, facial expression an eye contact, clothing. Messages represent short communication sequences. 1 Yuppie stands as an acronym for young urban professional or young upwardly mobile professional, refers to people who are very distinctive from the rest of the society in their 20`s or 30`s making use of the same body language, gestures, interests, hobbies and affluent life style. The best way to describe their activities is gathering income or social class and status with the main goal of achieving fortunes from economic activities. This class of people can be characterized having good appearance, elite education, practicing body building etc. Today American English is used more than the British Standard English being the main vehicle of communication between international organizations, business facilities acquiring the status of a Koine language just as Latin was used with the same intention of putting different people of the world in close connection using the same code with divers purposes. On a worldwide scale English is being used by millions of individuals just as lingua franca was adopted from political, moral and social reasons.2 The usage of English starts more today at an early age despite the fact that English comes to these people as a second language acquisition, being a fact of own choice in a moment when Global cultures flourish . Samuel Huntington and Peter Berger the philosophers and professors named the new generation Davos Culture or Davos people characterized by economic activities, describing best the globalization process.3 Leibniz speaks about creating or choosing a language that will be used at an international scale in diverse fields stating that this universal language will have the ability to bring people together by similar activities. The transformation and shaping of this language will have features taken from all the cultures where this language will penetrate.

1 2

Words, signals, or other means from one person, station, or group to another. Example: Young Chinese learn English in order to navigate on the internet and to create bigger chances of employment rather than to read Shakespeare or Faulkner.

Davos- Economical worldwide business center located in Switzerland where rich people congregate.

Differences between American and Korean culture. Americans put their given name before their family name and Koreans reverse the order. In America a women at marriage receives her husband family name and in Korea the women retains her maiden name. Americans call people by the 1st name and not by profession and closely after comes the name. Example: John Smith this is how an American will speak about a known boy. Student John Smith this is the way in which a Korean will speak about a known boy placing the occupation before the name. An American would say something like I go to my hospital speaking just like he owns the place making use of a possessive pronoun. The Korean will tend to say I go to our hospital. Americans do all sort of stuff like handshaking, waving, kissing on the street and gestures implying hand motion and these gestures are seen by Koreans as inappropriate. Koreans make use of body language more than the Americans because an American will say something like: Hello, Hy, thank you, meanwhile the Koreans will tend to use body actions just like eye contact, bowing, shaking heads in order to express the same message. The common American family at home has rooms with specific purposes thus the rooms are used with designated rules while the Koreans will undergo different types of activities in the entire house. Credit cards are accepted in Korea but never checks being very insulting to pay with such methods. In America individualism works perfectly while Koreans refer often to family group described by the notion of me and we (us), thereby an individual in Korea will represent an entire group whereas the American can and will stand alone. A problem that English faces today is the fact that people tend to believe that their language is the perfect language and represents their community best and in time, the international language will alter. The new language will tend to change and remove gestures, will alter body language but more importantly distance will be created between people adherent to the same nation. Koine language is a linguistic variant which serves into communication activities making use of identical dialects or linkage language. Language fits with other indicators of social identity and group membership such as style of clothes, type of haircut and taste in music. Language can give a strong sense of belonging or being excluded.4 Monolingual speakers do not have an option of choice in the oral code because they use only one language making their native language L1 the only way to communicate. Spanglish

Koine- the accommodation of oneself with the language or the new dialect which a person from another area makes use of. Mixing, leveling and simplification within the system of a given language.

appeared as a combination between English and Spanish and the speaker in this case will speak perfectly using the language that he acquired first namely L1 instead of L2. Multiculturalism should bring people together rather than just showing differences between them learning one from another with minimum use of prejudice.5. A phenomenon of cultural isolation is encountered when a country or a state wants to preserve values, beliefs, leading towards global cultural diversity. History comes and breaks apart the definition of multiculturalism with the fact that history is the perfect witness contradicting this theory because war existed between societies from the earliest times. Globalization can define society as a changing process and the main engine is the economical control of the elite population. 6 The elite emerged as a closed group of people more like a category who rapidly gained social power. The main goal or principle of the elite was to manipulate the masses by language, religion and political parties but also controlling the bank system because who has the money can detain more rights than the others. Traditional norms and conventions were subverted and pushed from one extreme to the other only to serve the elites interest and establish total control. All rights should be equal in a society no matter if that society is liberal, democratic, communist, because the members of that society are defined separately as individuals, thus a person should have the same rights according to the constitution of every state. No person in the world has rights over the freedom of any citizen thus there are sets of characteristics that separate the human species from the other animals. The term race appeared more like a norm or criteria to refer to man because it is a term used by the society, and nature does not have this principle, so race is just an emblem attached and it does not exist without being uttered by man. A definition of the term ethnic can be found in Greece etnos7. When it becomes to define ethnicity, this term has positive values but race is seen as a process of discrimination so it has negative values and understandings. Another important word in colonialism is class which is a way in which people are categorized by their social status such as money, wealth, the poker group, the team of football players... x. Time is another factor the past is a good instrument to understand what happens in the present and furthermore the past can only be understood from the written language, texts in a word from history. Parody, irony and satire are also important because these principles function only in binary oppositions because we need a norm and the effect of the norm, something being perfect like a model and the ones that try to identify themselves with the model. The

The acceptance of multiple cultures, appreciation, communication and interaction between societies describes best the variety cultures 6 The powerful people who rule the world always searched for methods to get rich and to enslave the population less powerful 7 Etnos means nation or any number of entities (members) considered as a unit.

Globalization process needed languages that are easy to learn thus English today is an international language with a large usage in many domains. The Globalization process needed languages that are easy to learn thus English today is an international language with a large usage in many domains. Peter Berger tries to dissect Globalization in his books: A Globalization, Many Globalizations 8, Christianity and Democracy. Rolland Inglehart defines globalization in his book Culture and Democracy where he explains globalization as being a huge problem that affects all cultures and every country. To understand Globalization it is absolutely necessary to create a clear cut distinction between the rulers of the world who detain the economical power, and those less evolved economically because the side that controls the economical system detains full control. America is the main source where the phenomenon of Globalization manifests itself more than any part of the world. Language is t is the main vehicle towards knowledge thus people try to learn an international language not to read or understand Shakespeare or Faulkner but to get a better job or to achieve a powerful status in the hierarchy of a society. Peter Berger makes a clear cut distinction between the members of the society and he names the elite with the term Davos people. Davos culture 9 international values of the elite. The yuppie generation, a group that has the same beliefs, they dress almost the same, they have principles and values identical, professional young men very well paid with a modern way of life, travelling from place to place by plane, very punctual, representing with pride the Wellness category. Sacramental and non-sacramental values are implied, man can be defined in the modern society with the term individualism but more than this, The new Age culture appeared living religion behind 10. To resume this man guides himself. According to Rolland Inglehart, The Globalization process can be seen as an industry field or Pushed Globalization. A bad part in Globalization is the fact that people from the villages try to make their way into the cities, towns just to find a place to work leaving behind their own lives, old habits thus traditional values are left aside. The individual is presented in close connection with society, being a member who tries to be part of a group. Power is the main goal of a nation and by relating to this feature it all goes down the economical sector which is a main vehicle within the 21st century population. Being white or non-white when white means to be a perfect man and black, Negro means being a beast thus the word other refers to the one that is dominated. Since

8 9 10

Many Globalizations Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World edited by Peter L. Berger and Samuel P. Huntington oxford 2002. Peter Ludwig Berger (born March 17, 1929) is an Austrian-born American sociologist Non- sacramental values - The modern man is not seen any more in close relation with his family and all that an individual does is to

choose his form of education, his occupation, religion, group etc

the beginning of mankind man learned to venerate his own group, nation, traditions, tried to defend values, identities with toughness from the oppressors. A main characteristic in modernity concerning a society is the ability of that society to value itself. Because man always tried to defend it mother land or territory one was the colonizer who tries to rule applying measures of inclusion, exclusion, centrality and marginality. Being inferior or a slave the word other refers in this case to people who are labeled (genetically- determined to inferiority. Race is a word that does not exist in nature being just a way off characterizing people. Superiority is set by the state that has the best qualities leaving the colonized the option of adopting the rules of the colonizer. The oppressor tries to use slaves in order to built up a good economical system using methods of slaverysm, oppression, violence, in the African American culture. Racial discrimination just as like the Chicano community, one group being victims of invasive settlement of slavery and exile.11 The term other or alterity refers to the state of being other or different, diversity, otherness and shifted identity, a way of showing superiority and here other means the weaker side. Other can be a political term meaning a person that suffers exclusion from the side that detains power. Binarism- the combination of a repeated process of two things that could be a pair. Ethnicity is the identity that a group has and cannot be taken away no matter of how big the power of the oppressor. The yuppie generation is a class of well educated people who live by the criteria of selection when it comes to make important decisions in taste, fashion, books habits. The goal in life for these young people was to earn and spend money just for pleasure. It all started in L.A at the beginning of the 80`s where tastes like driving a Merc or a Beemer 12 was a must in differentiating from ordinary people with a well paid salary over than 40.000 USD\ year with no state job. The yuppies were invented by the preppies which is a generation obsessed with materialism, perfectionism and the adherence to the American dream. 13

Now came a time in America when the population decreased as the yuppies became workaholic in order to obtain large stacks of cash with little personal time and a relaxing time at retirement. Work becomes a vehicle of self expression making use of drugs, sex, and idiotic amusement.
11 12

Chicano - label for the sons and daughters of Mexican migrants Merc and Beemer are short versions used by car collectors and fanatics for the brands BMW and Mercedes Benz. 13 Preppies label for the sons and daughters of Mexican migrants.

New Age music was created being a fusion between experimental rock, jazz, resulting yuppie Muzak`. Bob Greene invented the term in March 1983 and rapidly became a worldwide label summing up this generation by the pseudonym DINKSC.14

A Revolution in motion: Advertising and the politics of nostalgia. (Author Jeremy Well) The number of this new generation, grew rapidly from one million to 20 million in s short period of time between 1982 -1987 being defined by personal acquisitions and consumption. Newsweek Magazine declared that: Yuppies simply live to buy and define themselves in close relation with what they own 15 To blame is the market place because it encourages sellers to use commercials and advertisement just to attract buyers in order to provide them with the best articles setting a trend of fashion that sells by itself. A big mistake by the yuppies was the adopting of body building and fitness in a wrong way combining artificial beauty with health resulting things like no-fat, no-smoking. Love was no longer present in a world of sex and sentences like: Do it - If it feels good, than it is good - made the yuppies a generation of exaggerating bastards. Until the end of the 80`s many brands started to flourish a name for themselves just like ADIDAS, NIKE, JORDAN, CADILAC and many more were closely described as goods of must have for the yuppie`s. Servatism- the quality of American life was equated with the freedom of choice associated with the liberation of the possessive individual through the working of the market, resulting a focus on the individual that stands out for the group. Individuals were encouraged by the government to act or to adopt instrumental strategies to improve their bodies and avoid self deterioration embracing the concept of self- betterment. As to conclude, yuppies do not care of others being poor, they also do not know that their comfortable life style depends on others being poor because the poor provide for them cheap labor keeping low expenditures in the process of production of goods.

14 15

Double income no kids couples - DINKSC. Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City since 1933 firstly published by Banker Thomas J.C. Martyn.

REFERENCES : 1. Edward Sapir (1921) Language. An Introduction to the Study of Speech. 2. Johnson, F. L. (2000). Speaking culturally: Language diversity in the United States. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 12 18. 3. Peter L. Berger and Samuel P. Huntington (2003)Many Globalizations. Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World Oxford University Press: (2 -37) 4. Liliana Coposescu (2005) Pragmatics and Intercultural Communication. In Bulletin of the Transylvania University of Braov, Vol 12. 5. Young Yun Kim (2006) Journal of Language and Social Psychology Volume 25 Number 3 September. From Ethnic to Interethnic The Case for Identity Adaptation and Transformation: Sage Publications University of Oklahoma, Norman 283-300. 6. Howell, Jeremy W. (1991)., "A Revolution in Motion": Advertising and the Politics of Nostalgia" Exercise and Sport Science. Paper 18.

II. Android Gender Gender subversion and the Computer Era.

Starting from earlier times, going back to the period of romanticism there is a big tendency in art to show or portrait the body features of mankind, bringing up front features that diferentiate gender but more strinking is the fact that rich, wealthand luxurious places were a must when it came to create a hierarchy. From Michelangelo`s times, politics tend to center on crowded areas such as big cities leading to modern times to metropolis areas and industrialism in a moment when Americans came to worship career status as a measure of individual worth. Political and economic changes in the 90`s meant that there was a break from more traditional notions of self-fulfilment through hard work and productivity. It became possible to earn large amounts of money without producing an actual product in this new era of speculation and futures. This is why the yuppie is a useful artefact to interrogate the subject of work in the corporate world because it became the very embodiment of these tensions. Locking back to those times from modern times, one can observe that modernity can be placed under the label of degeneration or degradation with themes such as beauty, narcissism, and a continuous search for eternal youth; these themes would capture and transcend present reality. Modern man faces sterility of the new age society and direct repercussions of urbanization. This new category of individuals is unable to embrace fulfilment without something new, taboo, or out of the charts. Michael Heim16 gives evidence or arguments about the role of machines in the lives of humans, also he, observes this process of simplification of personal lives; saying about the machines that these contraptions are for an individual an extension of self in everyday life. Cubical offices are created for working facilities. These places demonstrate oppressive banality in which humans are spiritless peripherals of their information devices such as the PC. Gender subversion has roots very well embedded in the past when the society splits in communities, privileged groups, racial structures, agonies towards the realisation of self, processes of historical transformation towards commercialism and industrialism.


Michael Henry Heim, a distinguished UCLA professor best known for his translations of Eastern European, Russian and German novelists

The present only re-enacts the past, leading to false yuppie intellectuals, psychic corruption, inability to pull oneself out of this false perception of the present. A combination between past and the present era leads to a never ending present; a continuous present where no time shift can be spotted leading towards a state of decadence and politics of nostalgia. Quote: Every man`s life ends the same way, it is only the details of how he lived and how he died, that distinguish one man from another Ernest Hemingway A narrow explanation about the Computer is that these devices enhance and modify the thinking power; an extent which simplifies cognition processes and permits an individual to guide a machine towards an expected result or outcome. Computers or artificial intelligence devices reduce complexity and ambiguity, capturing a diversity of parameters in a digital network shaping them in precise geometrical structures. William Gibson suggests that if a person is exposed to a virtual and artificial place for a long period of time, that individual will be trapped in cage of hallucination and the bigger the exposure to that secondary reality is, will determine the degree of adherence to this virtual world which he calls Consensual Hallucination. 17 Leibniz defines electric language as being a spontaneous link with reality, it also signifies a set of symbols engineered for manipulation at the speed of taught where language, signs and images combine in a binary system governed by input from a human peripheral action. The universal calculus would compile all human culture, bringing every natural language into a single shared database where there is no gap between symbol and meaning. Specialists in the field of PC manage to create and use a cyberworld which can be defined as being a form of instant access into connected knowledge.
Unfortunately what technology gives with one hand, it often takes away with the other because there is a tendency which proves that technology increasingly eliminates direct human interdependence, creating surrogate bodies in order to change placeswith their natural born body, going through a state of body submission.

In this state, the human body will all be wired to connecters, sensors that will (teleport) a persons body into cyberspace creating for the individual infinite possibilities of existence and all this at a tap of the button, thus free choice is a principle that serves as a barrier against the torture of the natural born body. Man by subverting realities plays the role of God in this artificial world because there is nothing in the world stopping them to acquire a universe where they are the supreme dictators.

Consensual hallucination: Boundaries between real life and an experienced 2 nd world which is artificially built.


Real life communication instances will parish because there is no need for real time human conversation and participation into this fictitious realm is optional, ambiguous where the brain will be highly active and the body will remain a shallow carcase. Cyberspace is a pure manmade artificial world or a nonphysical secondary reality, which serves for examining our very sense of reality. Various fields such as medicine or DOD (Department of Defence) rely on technology because the appliance of these devices is universal. A very important role discovery is the car or the automobile which is a proof or grandfather of applied technology which uses cutting edge. 18 Returning back to the field of virtual reality, Michel Heim, defines machines as being a simplification process which intends to create commodities. The role of machines is an extension of self or a dropping into sedentary life characterised by a claustrophobic atmosphere seeing people get crowded into cubicall offices and boring dull jobs. These places suggest an oppressive banality in which humans are spiritless peripherals of their information devices which trap them.
Technoanxiety is the feature about a device which becomes familiar routine which implies a state of inability to act. New technologies arise from necessity and PC users feed information into the system while the system constantly creates output from input which is a narrow definition of cyberspace.

Information brings into existence the Information Age and the holy shrine of our era becomes the PC screen or devices that support and run HDTV formats. Branches from the administration in USA such as DOD rely on state of the art technology because the appliances of these devices is universal and sharp responses are a must and here is where these new strategies earn their places. A master piece of the NEW ERA Technology is the Car or the automobile which is an unquestioned proof of applied technology of continuous research. A narrow explanation about the computer or software is that these devices or inventions enhance and modify the thinking power, an extent which simplifies cognition processes and permit an individual to guide a machine towards an expected result or outcome. According to William Gibson, cyberspace is an artificial world, a nonphysical secondary realm which exposes a person to similar real life experiences. This exposure process has good and bad parts because the bigger the period of exposure is the easier it comes to create involuntary


GTP game transfer Phenomena.


addiction also this addiction leads to consensual hallucination, embracing the concept of the infinite cage.19 William Gibson here spots alterity of identity, is a process that alters comfort subverting reality to a so called secondary reality where an individual will abandon his real beliefs and adopt false beliefs. Real world is lost in the favour of this magic realm that permits everything with no rules and no repercussions in short periods of time.20 In the 20's there was a battle. Radio was coming along, everyone knew it wasn't a marketable product like shoes. It's gonna be regulated and the question was, who was gonna get hold of it? Well, there were groups, (church groups, labor unions were extremely weak and split then, and some student groups)... who tried to organise to get radio to become a kind of a public interest phenomenon; but they were just totally smashed. I mean it was completely commercialized. - Noam Chomsky

The erotic anthology of cyberspace Cyberspace is a tool which serves for examining our very sense of reality where computers play this role in a unique way reducing complexity and ambiguity of a task capturing things in a digital network, making use of friendly colours and precise geometrical structures which man begins to prefer and incorporate in everyday life.

Any machine or component that attaches to a computer. Examples of devices include disk drives, printers, mice, and modems.

These particular devices fall into the category of peripheral devices because they are separate from the main computer. Most devices, whether peripheral or not, require a program called

William Ford Gibson is an American-Canadian writer who has been called the father of the cyberpunk subgenre of science fiction, having coined the term cyberspace in 1982 and popularized it in his first novel, Neuromancer(1984), which has sold more than 6.5 million copies worldwide.

Participants were often looking to use something from a video game to resolve a real life issue.


a device driver that acts as a translator, converting general commands from anapplication into specific commands that the device understand. Example

Everybody gets to much information all day long that they lose their common sense. Gertrude Stein

Leibniz`s electric language The spontaneous link with reality. For Leibniz, electric language signifies a set of symbols engineered for manipulation at the speed of taught where language and symbols combine in a binary way or model. The universal calculus would compile all human culture, bringing every natural language into a single shared database, where there is no gap between symbol and meaning. This process is done like a step by step activity where man manages to create and use a cyberworld as a place of refuge from reality with no rules, no punishment, instant access. If a man is able to create a world after his own rules this means that humans are playing God with intentions to surpass the creator with the usage of information and devices that operate with information combining everything in a binary code. Unfortunately what technology gives with one hand it often takes away with the other because there is a tendency which proves that technology is more than ever before eliminating direct human intervention, bodily contact becomes optional, human and machine melding is almost a certain attribute. The creation of cybernetic organisms are a new aim for specialists in the field of robotics and in one day we are to expect surrogate bodies as spare parts for humans. Henry Jenkins defines the concept of convergence culture where old and new media collide, where grass roots and corporate media intersect, where the media producer and the power of the media consumer interact in unpredictable ways aiming to produce big stacks of cash in other words capital. More than this, Heim, tries to depict the fact that there is a close relation between three different concepts namely (media convergence, participatory culture and collective intelligence).
We are entering an era where media will be everywhere, and we will use all kinds of media in relation to one another . Henry Jenkins. Convergence? I diverge 2001.

Convergence culture media is a way of interacting between several related media industries sharing similar content trying to win on their side the consumers feeding them with exactly that information that satisfies their entertainment needs. In order for the media system to have a big


impact, the media officials will always try to bring into the spotlight consumer media or products that sell at a rapid pace and all this due to the active participation.21 Also convergence represents a cultural shift, as consumers are encouraged to seek out new information and make connections among dispersed media content. Participatory culture or spectatorship is a kind of knowledge that builds around these groups of people but also these masses are manipulated into buying media products. Consumption has become a collective process and according to French cybertheorist Pierre Levy, Mass Media products are increasingly shaping religion, education, law, politics, advertising and even the DOD in America. 22 A circle between new and old can be identified because devices such as the cell phone ever since their appearance or discovery, they are constantly innovated to satisfy the customers desires, thus it is a must that companies which are mobile phone producers will compete with each other in creating the ultimate phone technology . As previously mentioned the old technology is highly important because on the basis and old principles new devices appear. Producers came up with name devices in a clever way Such ass IPhone I and after success with these phones I-Phone II and III followed aiming the same buyers showing the audience that they have surpassed the former phone .in this way phones are very easy to sell by creating a brand that will sell by itself only because the producers managed to advertise their product and give a phone to suit the expectations of users. The same happens with new media and old media where the former will have to lose ground for the latter because people or the customers (audience) in the Modern Era use the internet to broad cast and communicate. Anticipated is the collapse of television in the favour of internet networks that are streaming materials at an individual`s choice. Film producers converted films into videogames which permit the player (audience) to be a part of the game and participate with a given surrogate identity. Again convergence does not mean ultimate stability or unity. It operates as a constant force for unification but always in dynamic tension with change. Pool, describes ways in which convergence thinking is reshaping American Popular culture and in particular the way it is impacting the relationship between media audiences and content. Another problem about this is the fact that this work is in vain because these processes are constantly changing and this approach will only be valid until the field of Mass-media will

Its the idea that because of the progress of technology various different types of media (e.g. Computer, Television, Radio and Newspaper) are combining into a single media. For example, television and computer technology are increasingly becoming the same thing. Websites have video on them and the Internet is an important part of the offer of most broadcasters. Computers and network technology has allowed television to offer "video on demand" services moving away from traditional "linear" or scheduled television. 22 The Department of Defense (DoD) is responsible for providing the military forces needed to deter war and protect the security of the United States (U.S.). The major elements of these forces are the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps.


change thus specialists can only predict a direction where all these are heading and suffice to say is that modernization has good parts and bad parts. What modernization does is the fact that it lures away an individual from his origins, builds new values; also technology imposes a change in lifestyle altering the old self. An important feature to depict here is that this domain is governed in two ways by producers and consumers which are constantly changing parties. Michael Silverstein uses the term indexicality to refer to linguistic structures that point to, or index aspects of communicative contexts such as social positioning where identity is built with the usage of lg. Anna De Fina sees that social categories are negotiated through language with interaction in real life communication situations, talk in interaction, observing the behavior of respondents. 23

By the term delivery technologies, Sterling understands that history of media never dies or vanishes and all that changes in the media system are the tools to accesses media content such as the Beta tape which was replaced by the CD. Ingrid Piller in the text Identity Construction and Multilingual Advertising suggests that Mass-media plays a crucial role in constructing social hybrid identities in an era when English language achieves an International status being a vehicle of communication. The media system is in a continuous pursuit to create a universal language which will serve to communication purposes. Language is more than just a tool to communicate. It connects people with something greater than themselves. A common language breaks barriers between people. It allows people that share a language to identify with each other although they are different. A new language makes you notice things that you have always missed. It leads to an appreciation of things that you never knew existed. And by doing so, a new person is formed; the old is not gone but is somehow different. Multilingualism often indexes different social identities and referring to people from those places as another or an outsider where linguists develop ways of referring to their names as being true, real, attached names. Ethnic names, discrete names, alternative names, nicknames, pseudonyms-(aliases), peer names, abusive or derogatory nicknames are just categories by which a person is labeled and perceived by the others. As theorized by Fredrick Barth 1969, ethnicity is used to define boundaries within and between groups and therefore any aspect of social reality from food to accent, can be used to symbolically index ethnic affiliation. Asserting names or identity labeling is achieved in close connection to a kind of activity that a group might undergo.

In conversation, interpretation of indexical expressions may in part depend on a variety of paralinguistic and non-linguistic features, such as hand gestures and the shared experiences of the participants.


Example: (the poker players, the swamp loggers, the millionaires etc. In linguistics, code switching is switching between two or more languages, or language varieties in the context of a single conversation. Advertising implies multilingualism which is defined as the use of more than one linguistic code; also it contributes to the configuration of national unified cultures organized around commodity consumption, distribution of power. Marketing strategies appear enhancing and comparing a product with similar products from other competing companies or products; these strategies are: style, selection, performance hospitality, low rate, refund, service, and brands etc. According to Berman it is the project of modernity to make oneself at home in the maelstrom. For him being modern means. To find ourselves in an environment that promises adventure, power, joy, growth, transformation of ourselves and the world and at the same time, that threatens to destroy everything we have, everything we know and are. Sophistication is expressed by the class term of style, or on the basis of creating an image of satisfaction with clients. Modern environments and experiences cut across all boundaries of geography and ethnicity of class and nationality, of religion and ideology; in this sense modernity is said to unite mankind. Lisa Gitelman understands that media works on two levels. First she acknowledges medium being a type of technology that enables communication. Secondly about the same concept, she says that medium is a set of associated protocols or social cultural practices which sum up a technology.24 Protocols express a huge variety of social economic and material relationships having mass media in front where media promoters or producers manage to broadcast reality into Black Boxes that an individual has stored into their room , managing to manipulate masses of people with TV propaganda or advertisement Today cell phones are more than telecommunication devices because producers equip these gadgets with sharp smart technologies which perform different operations such as playing games, running MP3`s, Internet navigation and the taking and sending of pictures. When it comes to satisfy a customer, a producer will create a brand which sells their products very easy and Companies like Warner Bros own and produce films, video games, popular music, cartoons, web sites and books.


Lisa Gitelman is a media historian whose research concerns American book history, techniques of inscription, and the new media of yesterday and today. She is particularly concerned with tracing the patterns according to which new media become meaningful within and against the Contexts of older media. Her most recent book is entitled Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture and was published by the MIT Press in 2006.


To conclude from Jenkins, convergence culture represents a shift in the ways we think about relations to media; in other words this concept defines the combination of new media and old media within a single piece of media work or the coming together of different media products or applied technologies. Thanks to digitization, companies across industries are racing to migrate "analog" approaches to customers, products, services, and operating models to an always-on, real-time, and information rich marketplace. Some leaders are redesigning their capabilities and operating models to take full advantage of digital technologies to keep step with the "connected" consumer and attract talent. Others are creating qualitatively new business modelsand tremendous valuearound disruptive digital opportunities. In doing so, these companies secure not only continued relevance, but also superior returns.


1. Michael Heim - The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality, Oxford University Press, 1993 2. Hendry Jenkins Convergence culture. Where old and new media collide, New York University Press. 3. Anna De Fina - Code-switching and the construction of ethnic identity in a community of practice. Georgetown University Italian Department ICC Building 307 J 37 and O Streets NW Washington D.C. 20057 4. E R E Z L E VO N - Sexuality in context: Variation and the sociolinguistic perception of identity. Department of Linguistics New York University26 5. Peter L. Berger and Samuel P. Huntington (2003)Many Globalizations. Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World Oxford University Press: (2 -37) 6. Young Yun Kim (2006) Journal of Language and Social Psychology Volume 25 Number 3 September. From Ethnic to Interethnic The Case for Identity Adaptation and Transformation: Sage Publications University of Oklahoma, Norman 283-300.


III. Applied Quote from Raymond Williams on the novel written by Richard Yates Revolutionary Road Write a short comment on the following quotation, exemplifying (on a modernist novel) the ideas in the excerpt. (2-4 pages, MLA citation style, Times New Roman, 12, 1,5 spaces) Raymond Williams 25 suggests that the key social basis of modernism lies in the experience of immigration from the provinces to the metropolis. This central and startling insight means that he can both point to continuities with an earlier experience of urban industrial culture and situate what was distinctive, socially and artistically, in the early twentieth century metropolis. For immigration, Williams argues, intensified and shifted the themes of the crowd and alienation, of unity and diversity characterising perceptions of the urban or industrial centre during the nineteenth century. In lieu of an inherited sense of community, this experience produced the modernist attention to the artistic medium itself. The much observed 'autonomy' and 'selfconsciousness' of modernist art is therefore freshly historicised. Any universalising claim for modernism becomes untenable, since its particular conditions and forms are seen now to belong in the early twentieth century, to 'the imperial and capitalist metropolis' (Brooker, Peter (Ed.), Modernism/Postmodernism, London & New York: Longman, 1992).

The novel entitled Revolutionary Road Written by Richard Yates presents suburban life, marriage and family coming to a halt, unhappiness, and time shift from scene to scene; the action is not well shaped because events jump between past and present making use of spontaneous memory creating time shift. The novel mentioned above is about a young couple who get married and live a perfect life in the suburbs of New York seeking The American Dream exploring the depths of urbanism, crowded life, and unwanted pregnancy, making use of sex in the detriment of love. Yates portraits perfectly the image of young Americans who try to create a family in the 1950`s, presenting women equal with men in the society with high aspirations. Men are presented like little boys that only grew up but not entirely because they only have the body of an adult and in the inside everything is shallow. Revolutionary Road can very well the formation and beginning of

Raymond Williams was constantly preoccupied by applied theories and his main concern was to establish the changing meaning of the vocabulary used in discussions of culture.


snobbery and the yuppies with terms like: narcissism, desintegration, self absorption, identity crisis, migration and departure. Life being very impossible with habitual activities the couple starts to feel the damaging effects of the enormity of the city, continuously having the impression that they don`t belong there. April wants to leave everything behind her and departure to Europe (Paris). The couple go through many stages that are very unpleasant such as: depression in marriage, abortion of a child, selfishness, migration, alcoholism, and escape from the dullest job. Failure is not an option and despite the fact that the couple were very well educated none managed to grasp hold of the American dream thus migration is perceived as a tool of salvation, running away from responsibilities and western society. Gestures, speech, are very snobbish borrowed from the high society, being boring, repeating. Interesting in the novel is the fact that the two, are compared with some friends that come from the low class society and Richard Yates builds these characters in antithesis, highlighting features in a comparative way.

a) deep structures versus surface structures b) latent level versus manifest level C) immanence versus transcendence

Revolutionary Road is created in contrast to their decaying states, a place where a happy story could easily evolve until the order is ruined by an unwanted pregnancy which will lead to death. Howard and Helen Givings are a couple that poses little money, they represent the middle class of the society and they believe that migration is a great starting point just like an upgrade. The migration to Paris is just a dream, a projected desire towards embracing real life just to feel freedom in a place where the couple will flourish again


Williams tried to argument and link concepts like oneself identity, minority, culture, group and identity coming with the conclusion that there is a homogeneous relation between all the theories regarding each term. Purity and identity are two processes that describe the human race which in time started to contaminate and decade resulting an individual that is not pure because society laid its mark altering him and vice versa. Memory and anticipation consist in repeatability and in democracy power is seen as an abuse from the law firm or institutions because the democratic system calls for universalization using force, freedom, decision, alienation, sovereign power. Yates creates a world inspired from his reality because he also had to move and stay in several laces during his life and Past is just to be left in The US thus departure is a tool towards salvation and Paris represents rejuvenation or a possibility to make peace with the past because the past has the power to alter the contemporary events namely the present. Lack of communication is key here because nothing importantly ever occurs in Yatess novel and repetition of events make things very dull, in a real life crowded by mistrust, denial, alienation, crowd isolation and self reliance harsh activities.
This excelent Novel is a powerfull commentary upon the way we live now . It locates the new American tragedy squarely on the field of marriage. Alfred Kazin statement on the Cover of the 1st edition Revolutionary Road 1961, Publisher Little Brown. US.

Williams surpasses and justifies his theories being a man from outside of these events, having an objective approach upon urban realism and naturalism sketching the late 50`s in NY. Art is crafted in various ways such as painting, writing, drama plays and very interesting is the fact that industrialization and technological processes evolve very outstandingly fast leading to the construction of bigger cities in order to accommodate millions of people. Technology will create a life of luxury for man and because modernization occurred very fast the cities were filled rapidly with people belonging to the rural places and peripheral towns crowding one area in order to achieve places to work, better life, thus this tendency will shift them from their roots embracing snobbery.


Coming at terms with the idea that; even if in the metropolitan areas there are millions of individuals, people will go through a state of isolation because when it comes to relate or create a social life, one person needs to come in contact only with a few members in that community, thus a crowded place will be always omitted. The past left aside or behind signifies the

ignorance towards origin and religion also the loss of values. Culture is a product of the society and it cannot exist outside humanity being a product created by men being a tool to distinguish animals from the human race, referring to different aspects from civilization being a product of consciousness and knowledge but also characterizes best the life style that civilization had throughout history. In any culture the individual tries to acquire beliefs to share values with other citizens and surpass his community members at an intellectual level. Culture is a word that has a variety of meanings referring to politics, religion, manners, and science but also culture is the pride of oneself in achieving, intellectual activity and it tends to create a difference among individuals denoting the result of all life experiences of an individual during his lifetime. Time is another factor the past is a good instrument to understand what happens in the present and furthermore the past can only be understood from the written language, texts in a word from history. Sacramental and non-sacramental values are implied, man can be defined in the modern society with the term individualism but more than this, The new Age culture appeared living religion behind , religion being just an option something of own choice more like an option. The modern man is not seen any more in close relation with his family and all that an individual does is to choose his form of education, his occupation, religion, group etc. To resume this man guides himself. A bad part in immigration is the fact that people from the villages try to make their way into the cities, towns just to find a place to work leaving behind their own lives, old habits thus traditional values are left aside. The usage of English starts more today at an early age despite the fact that English comes to these people as a second language acquisition, being a fact of own choice in a moment when Global cultures flourish . Samuel Huntington and Peter Berger the philosophers and professors 21

named the new generation Davos Culture or Davos people characterized by economic activities, describing best the globalization process. Conclusion: The metropolitan areas continuously apply pressure on the inhabitants because one individual needs less than this place has to give, also the enormity of it will make people run in circles leading to organized chaos. A way of ending the ordeal is emigration to a place that will bring stability in an individuals life. As to conclude, metropolitans do not care of others being poor, they also do not know that their comfortable life style depends on others being poor because the poor provide for them cheap labor keeping low expenditures in the process of production of goods.


1. (Brooker, Peter (Ed.), Modernism/Postmodernism, London & New York: Longman, 1992) 2. Toma Pavel, Fictional Worlds, Cambridge, MA Hervard University Press, 1989. 3. McEwan, Ian. Atonement: A Novel. New York: Anchor Books, 2007. Print. 4. The Project Gutenberg EBook of A History of English Literature by Robert Huntington Fletcher. Site 5. Lanier, Alison (1973); Living in the USA; New York: Intercultural Press Inc