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Formal Mentoring Programs in Education and Other Professions: A Review of the Literature
Lisa C. Ehrich, Brian Hansford and Lee Tennent Educational Administration Quarterly 2004 40: 518 DOI: 10.1177/0013161X04267118 The online version of this article can be found at: http://eaq.sagepub.com/content/40/4/518

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Educational Administration Quarterly Vol. 40, No. 4 (October 2004) 518-540
10.1177/0013161X04267118 Educational Administration Quarterly OGRAMS Ehrich et al. / FORMAL MENTORING PR

Formal Mentoring Programs in Education and Other Professions: A Review of the Literature
Lisa C. Ehrich Brian Hansford Lee Tennent
The sheer volume of literature on mentoring across a variety of disciplines is an indication of the high profile it has been afforded in recent years. This article draws on a structured analysis of more than 300 research-based articles on mentoring across three discipline areas in an attempt to make more valid inferences about the nature and outcomes of mentoring. It begins by reporting on the findings compiled from a database of research articles from educational contexts. These research-based articles are examined to determine the positive and more problematic outcomes of mentoring for the mentor, mentee, and the organization. A discussion of the findings from two other databases, namely, 151 research-based articles from business contexts and 82 articles from medical contexts, is provided, and commonalities across the three databases are highlighted. The article concludes with a discussion of key issues that administrators responsible for establishing mentoring programs should consider to maximize the experience of mentoring for all stakeholders.

This article represents an ongoing quest to synthesize our current under-

Keywords: mentoring; education; business; medicine; challenges

standings of the mentoring phenomenon. As researchers in the field, we were conscious that a great deal of writing in the area of mentoring in education and across other professional disciplines reported that mentoring was an overwhelmingly positive learning process for mentors and mentees alike (Hansford, Tennent, & Ehrich, 2002). Our initial investigation of mentoring in educational contexts confirmed this because there did not appear to be a substantial body of work that reported on the darker side of mentoring (Duck, 1994; Long, 1997). Thus, we became interested in examining more closely a sizeable body of the mentoring literature so that we could begin to make more

DOI: 10.1177/0013161X04267118 © 2004 The University Council for Educational Administration

518

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and then proceeds to discuss the methodological process that guided the study. and developing the skills and talents of others. continue to operate in many contexts.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. where the mentor and mentee somehow find each other (Kram. frequency. Indeed. A structured analysis is a predetermined set of criteria. THE MEANING OF MENTOR AND MENTORING The original meaning of the word mentor refers to a father figure who sponsors. there are many examples of mentors in the biographies of famous artists. and outcomes. Throughout history. Traditional or informal mentoring arrangements.. and develops a younger person. positive and problematic outcomes of mentoring for the mentor. business. This movement occurred because organizations could see the advantage of implementing formal programs because they enabled potential learning and growth for employees on the job (Ehrich & Hansford.e. 1999). we coded each of the studies according to descriptive data (i. Jacobi (1991) noted that some programs train mentors. 1991) who have played a key role in shaping their protégés or mentees’ destiny. Following the study of educational contexts.Ehrich et al. mentee. mentors have played a significant role in teaching. mentors are assigned to mentees. whereas others do not. 2013 . it will also illuminate the features of mentoring common to the three different contexts (i. a set of coding categories that is used to analyze literature.e. This article begins with a discussion of the meaning of mentoring. 1985). and musicians (Byrne. / FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS 519 valid inferences about its potential to be a beneficial force in educational contexts. For instance. In this study. we compiled a database of research articles from educational contexts and undertook a structured analysis of these articles. education..sagepub. scientists. and the organization) and then identified the frequency of occurrence of the predetermined coding categories. and medical contexts). and outcomes stemming from mentoring in other professional areas such as business and medicine. identifies some of the common strengths and weaknesses of mentoring. we repeated the process and compiled a database of research articles on mentoring from business contexts and medical contexts. To this end. Formal mentoring programs differ greatly in nature. Although the focus of this article reports on the positive and more problematic outcomes of mentoring from our structured review of articles from education contexts. Findings from the analysis of the education-focused studies prompted us to investigate the nature. guides. namely. It was only in the last 2 to 3 decades that formal mentoring programs were introduced in government departments and corporations. Our concern in this article lies with formal mentoring programs. Downloaded from eaq. in her extensive review. inducting. focus.

and compared with their counterparts. 2013 . Levinson. the mentoring relationship can actually be detrimental to the mentor. including a lack of time for mentoring. & McKee. 115). the work of Levinson et al. “under various conditions. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF MENTORING Our precursory investigation of the literature revealed that there tends to be a general acceptance that mentoring yields benefits for mentees and mentors. motivation of senior staff.sagepub. 172-173). Merriam (1983) concluded that many “consist of testimonials and opinions” (pp. mentee or both” (p. Long also Downloaded from eaq. has also been identified as a positive outcome of mentoring for mentees. unsuccessful matching of mentors and mentees. and enhancement of services offered by the organization. 1978). In relation to evaluations of mentoring programs. some programs designate the location and frequency of meetings.520 Educational Administration Quarterly and in other programs. Roche (1979) found that 75% of the top executives in the United States had been mentored. In addition. Murray and Owen (1991) identify several benefits of formal mentoring programs. 1991). Psychosocial support. we would support Merriam’s claim. it also provides benefits for the mentor. Darrow. and advice and feedback on performance (Kram. According to Long. For instance. and lack of access to mentors from minority groups.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. friendship. some programs are evaluated. personal fulfillment. Klein. such as encouragement. Levinson. In relation to the benefits for the organization. whereas others leave it to the participants to decide. 1985). For instance. and assistance on projects. whereas others are not or are evaluated by vague and imprecise techniques (Jacobi. the mentee selects the mentor. in terms of career outcomes. improved recruitment efforts. Long (1997) is more cautious. Although there is a considerable body of literature that documents the merits of mentoring for all parties. a lack of understanding about the mentoring process. were more likely to have a degree. were happier with work. including increased productivity. other benefits for the mentor include increased confidence. they earned 28% more. (1978) found that mentoring rejuvenates mentors’ careers because it enables them to assist and shape the professional and personal development of mentees. poor planning of the mentoring process. After reviewing more than 300 research-based articles on formal mentoring programs. She goes on to identify several concerns regarding mentoring. and were more likely to mentor others. As mentoring is a two-way or reciprocal process. Career advancement and psychosocial support are often identified as two important outcomes of mentoring for the mentee (Kram 1985. According to Douglas (1997).

First. and other medical contexts). and coordinated interventions within an organization’s human resource policies.Ehrich et al. invest considerable resources into mentoring programs. and Google. 1997. p. Australasian Medical Index. and second. and that organizational support and commitment are evident. it makes sense for those charged with the responsibility of implementing such programs to endeavor to ensure that the goals of the program are clear and known to key parties. and medical context (hospitals. For inclusion in the three reviews. and Emerald. / FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS 521 highlights the difficulties that mentoring poses for organizations if there is insufficient funding or termination of funding before the program is established. they had to report original research findings. 2013 . Before we discuss these recommendations. Databases used for the literature search on education contexts included ERIC. Science Direct. Medical Library. Because organizations. they had to focus on the use of mentoring in an educational setting (such as schools or universities). Webspirs. universities. 151 studies between 1986 and 2000 were identified and later Downloaded from eaq. Other drawbacks of mentoring from the organization’s point of view include problems when there is a lack of support. that mentors and mentees are well matched. studies had to meet two criteria. 86). plus EBSCO and Business Periodicals Index. and ProQuest. such as educational administrators. and costs and resources associated with mentoring (Douglas. Databases used for the analysis of mentoring in medical contexts included some of the aforementioned ones in addition to Health Reference Centre—Academic. structured. From the search of business databases. business context (government or nongovernment organizations). Databases used for the search in business contexts used some of these. the next section of this article turns to the methodological process that we used in analyzing the body of mentoring research reviewed.sagepub. METHOD We used a structured analysis of the literature from three discrete disciplines to arrive at our understanding of the mentoring phenomenon. including schools. It seems that as formal mentoring programs are planned. it is incumbent on the planners. PsycLIT.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. to minimize potential problems that could arise. AUSTROM (AEI). Our search of the selected education databases identified above revealed 159 studies conducted between 1986 and 1999. difficulties in coordinating programs within organizational initiatives. Business Australia on Disk. The final part of this article attempts to synthesize some of the recommendations that educational administrators should consider when planning and implementing a formal mentoring program.

& Tennent. 1999.4%) than for mentors. We have reported elsewhere precise details concerning both the factual and descriptive findings from the studies (Ehrich. Hansford. 2002. less than half (47. Although 82 articles between 1995 and 2002 were found from the medical databases. In this article.5%) reported exclusively problematic outcomes. 1990). The overarching majority of the articles from the medical field were descriptive in nature and seemed to focus on the value of engaging in mentoring. country of study. is informal and by its nature. These were factual data.8% reported only positive outcomes as a result of mentoring. In relation to the benefits for mentors. which consisted of the reporting of positive and problematic outcomes associated with mentoring for the mentor. This can be attributed to the fewer studies that sought opinions from mentors. It is important to appreciate that although mentoring in the medical field has been around for many years. only 8 studies reported on the outcomes of mentoring and were therefore eligible for use in our study. FINDINGS Positive Outcomes of Mentoring From Education Studies Of the education studies reviewed. source (e. This suggests to us that research in the area of mentoring in medical contexts is variable and relatively new in comparison with other fields such as education and business. the four most frequently identified positive and problematic outcomes for mentors.sagepub. and four studies (or 2. “most . Hansford et al. and the organization will be highlighted. The findings discussed in this article refer to the descriptive outcomes that emerged from the three sets of analyses. mentees. .. . In contrast. 2003. All of the studies were analyzed according to a coding sheet that was developed from a preliminary reading of 14 articles in the area of educational mentoring.. 2003). p.522 Educational Administration Quarterly analyzed. and data collection techniques employed. substantially more studies noted positive outcomes for mentees (82. and organization across the three databases. 2013 . 2). sample size. Downloaded from eaq.8%) of the education studies that reported some positive outcome associated with mentoring identified benefits for the mentor. 35. which consisted of the year of publication.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. journal. mentee.g. and descriptive data. research report). often invisible” (Bligh. Two main categories of data were coded. The descriptive data underwent content analysis to identify underlying themes or categories (Weber.

As an illustration. 7).5% of studies attributing reflection or reappraisal of beliefs. the most frequently cited positive outcome for mentees. . Almost 21% of the education studies reported benefits associated with collaborating. counseling. Just more than 35% of the studies pinpointed Downloaded from eaq. For instance. ideas. For instance. / FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS 523 Figure 1 presents the four most frequently cited positive outcomes (in percentages) of mentoring for mentors and mentees in the education studies.4% of studies) was the fourth most frequently cited outcome for mentors. 2013 . 24). a mentor teacher in a study by Murray. reward. work harder. and friendship. Both mentee teachers and head teachers indicated that support was an important outcome of mentoring. the most commonly cited mentor outcome was that of collegiality and networking. 26). with 19.sagepub. 300). 55). whereas Hanson (1996) quoted a mentor in her United Kingdom study as saying that mentoring “added another dimension to his experience” (p. a mentee head teacher in Bush and Coleman’s (1995) United Kingdom study stated that “knowing that there is somebody in the background I can turn to is a great source of comfort” (p. . “I love working with these students and learn so much from them as well as about myself” (p.Ehrich et al. and Packer (1995) commented that “I feel very comfortable around her [mentor] and know she is there to help where she can” (p. try other things” (Spargo. Hansford. As illustrated. empathy. related to support. Reflection was the second most frequently cited outcome for mentors. networking. Similarly. This sentiment was exemplified by a teacher mentor in Holmes’ (1991) study who commented. school principals in Brady’s (1993) Australian qualitative study noted cross-fertilization of ideas as being a beneficial outcome of mentoring. p. and/or values to their mentoring activities. encouragement. For instance. Personal satisfaction. 65). Assistance with classroom teaching was the second most frequently cited positive outcome for mentees. Just more than 17% of studies made reference to the important outcome of professional development. a mentor teacher in a university preservice teacher education program in Australia commented that “you reflect on your own teaching. practices. Mentoring was also said to facilitate the professional development of mentors. 1994. and Dobbins (1998) described her experience as “a worthwhile professional experience in its own right” (p. Mitchell. 6). It’s some incentive to improve. .com at University of Bucharest on March 23. p. or growth (16. or sharing ideas with colleagues. a beginning teacher in an Australian study by Ballantyne. evident in 42. As indicated in Figure 1. 1986. a teacher in a mentoring program in the United States noted that mentoring provided “a unique opportunity for teachers to share and exchange ideas with other teachers” (Downey. Similarly.1% of studies.

Knowledge Support. Sharing Ideas. With Advice From Peers Personal Satisfaction. Growth Downloaded from eaq. Networking. Subject Knowledge. Encouragement.1 27. Positive Reinforcement. Reward. Friendship Help With Professional Teaching Development Strategies. Resources Discussion.1 35. Four Most Frequently Cited Positive Mentor and Mentee Outcomes From the Education Studies . Collaboration.8 32.6 Collegiality.sagepub. Reflection Empathy. Info. Constructive Criticism Figure 1. Problems. Counseling.8 19.4 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20.5 17. 2013 Feedback.com at University of Bucharest on March 23.7 16.Percentage of Studies 524 Positive Mentor Outcomes Positive Mentee Outcomes 42. Sharing Ideas.

“I gained a lot of subject knowledge on areas I was not experienced in” (p. Tin (1995) cites one mentee as saying. The two most frequently cited outcomes were (a) lack of time and (b) professional expertise and/or personality mismatch. This category included discussing or sharing ideas.8% of studies for mentees. content. As an illustration. 14 of the 15 mentors in Ackley and Gall’s (1992) study of preservice teacher mentoring in the United States claimed that lack of time was their “greatest impediment” (p. The third most frequently cited positive outcome for mentees.7% of studies for mentors and 15. Although not shown in Figure 1. a preservice teacher in Hardy’s (1999) United Kingdom study noted. classroom planning. and a mentor head teacher in Bush and Coleman’s (1995) United Kingdom study noted that there was “such a shortage of time these days to do everything that you need to do” Downloaded from eaq. This high percentage is reflective of the large number of studies in the review that focused on mentoring for preservice or beginning teachers. reflection was reported in 15.7%) reported that feedback was beneficial. p. 17).1% of studies and professional development was reported in 13.sagepub. and/or discipline. Common to both mentors and mentees are issues relating to sharing ideas and knowledge. noted in 32. Whereas these outcomes were rated more frequently by mentors.1% of studies. More than one in four of the studies (or 27. 1996. the difficulties associated with mentoring were similar for both mentors and mentees and for this reason will be discussed together. 182). other common positive outcomes for mentors and mentees were reflection and professional development. a mentoring program for Black and ethnic minority school and university students in the United Kingdom “acted as a positive form of networking” that enabled students to “establish that their problems are not unique to them alone” (Showunmi. “everyday a session is provided for me to go through the completed tasks and my mentor would give me her evaluation and feedback.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. related to contact with others and discussion. Problems Associated With Mentoring From Education Studies Almost half (48.4%) of the studies that reported problems identified problems for mentors. or problems and gaining advice from peers. As an illustration.Ehrich et al. Feedback via positive reinforcement or constructive criticism was the fourth most frequently cited outcome of mentoring for mentees. Lack of time was noted in 27. This is most useful” (p.1% of studies for mentees. As Figure 2 reveals. 2013 . 13). / FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS 525 help with teaching strategies. whereas slightly fewer studies (42. For instance. 22). information. resources.8%) identified problems for mentees. As an illustration. in his investigation of educational administration in Singapore.

7 25 15. Personality Mismatch Mentors Critical. Untrusting Lack Training. Defensive.6 10. Mentor Time Personality Mismatch Downloaded from eaq.1 9.7 17 15.sagepub.1 12. Stifling. Understanding Program Goals. Expectations Difficulty Extra Burden. Meeting.1 20 15 10 5 Lack of Time Professional Lack of Expertise. Being Observed Figure 2. Out of Touch. Four Most Frequently Cited Problematic Mentor and Mentee Outcomes From the Education Studies . Responsibility Observing.Percentage of Studies 526 Problematic Mentor Outcomes Problematic Mentee Outcomes 30 27.com at University of Bucharest on March 23.4 15. 2013 0 Professional Expertise.

a potential school principal mentee in Tin’s (1995) study noted. Professional expertise or personality mismatch was the second most frequently cited problematic outcome for both mentors and mentees. mentees in some studies indicated that their mentors had been overly harsh. Unsuccessful matches between mentors and mentees were reported in 17% of studies for mentors and 12. Ganser (1995) noted that professional and personality mismatches were a major concern for mentor teachers in his United States study. The mismatches were either the result of personality. 24). out of touch. 1997). 21). The other Downloaded from eaq.7% of studies) and the difficulty of meeting.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. a mentor in Ganser’s (1992) study admitted. or observing their mentor (9. one trainee teacher in a study of teacher education partnerships in the United Kingdom reported. being observed. and out-of-date in their thinking.e. 32). “the principal did not trust me to run the school as she did not want to be held accountable for any mistakes that I might make” (p. or untrusting (10. In relation to the added burden created by mentoring.. “my mentor never has time. “you are having to add the role of mentor to an already full workload” (p.4% of studies).Ehrich et al. For instance. These mentors expressed anxiety about not getting along with their mentee and having to assist mentees who were working at different levels or whose teaching philosophy differed from their own. For mentees. Some of the studies revealed that personality differences were instrumental in the failure of some relationships. 2013 . comparison of mentor and mentee problematic outcome categories reveals some commonality across the groups. Equal numbers of studies (i. / FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS 527 (p. a mentor in Hanson’s (1996) study explained. For instance. A lack of flexibility and trust were apparent not only for mentee teachers but also mentee principals. or expertise differences. difficulty in meeting. 55). two mentees in a study by Turner (1993) attributed their ineffective mentoring relationships to incompatibility with their mentors. “I have no idea what my responsibilities are and I suspect he [the mentee] probably doesn’t either” (p. 1995. the third and fourth most frequently cited problematic outcome of mentoring related to mentors who were critical. In terms of a mentee’s perspective. As indicated above. critical. ideological. p. Referring to the former.6% of studies for mentees. he is always so busy that I feel acutely embarrassed if I need to bother him (Younger. As an illustration. The other problematic outcome for mentees. Both groups were reported to have experienced problems stemming from lack of mentor time and professional expertise or personality mismatch.1%) reported a lack of training or understanding of program goals and the extra burden or responsibility as problematic outcomes associated with mentoring. 67). often stemmed from timetable clashes that resulted in limited opportunities to observe mentors (Scott. 15. defensive. For instance.sagepub.

These problems were disparate.5% of studies). Just more than 16% of the studies cited one or more positive outcome that impacted the organization within educational settings. 2013 . Robinson (1993) and Hanson (1996) reported that schools in the United Kingdom receive inadequate funding for the implementation of preservice or beginner mentor programs. Only 8. there were numerous outcomes for the mentor and mentee reported in the business studies. The most frequently cited outcome that emerged from our review was improved education or grades or attendance or behavior of students (evident in 6. MacFarlane and Joughin (1994) noted that mentoring resulted in increased levels of attendance at lectures.9% of business studies nominating collegiality and network- Downloaded from eaq. and “less work for principals/staff” (2.1% of studies).528 Educational Administration Quarterly categories for mentors were a lack of training and understanding about the program and the perception that mentoring was yet another responsibility or burden. For instance. The next three most frequently cited outcomes included “support or funds for the school” (3. our review also considered the outcomes for the organization. whereas lack of partnership or communication with or commitment from organizations was reported in a small number of studies. according to an Australian study of peer mentoring among law students. Positive and Problematic Outcomes of Mentoring for the Educational Organization In addition to identifying positive and problematic outcomes of mentoring for the mentor and mentee. For example. Positive outcomes for mentors and mentees.8% of studies revealed one or more problems that directly impacted the organization. “contributes to or is good for the profession” (2.sagepub. because of the nature and the small sample of the medical studies (N = 8). Outcomes From Business and Medical Studies As anticipated. it was not possible to distinguish between outcomes for mentors and mentees. In the next section. The most frequently cited response from the business studies for mentors related to networking and collegiality. and only two— costs and lack of partnership—were reported in more than one study. with 7.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. we provide a discussion of the positive and more problematic aspects of mentoring derived from the business and medical studies reviewed.3% of studies).5% of studies). However.

interpersonal contact. frequently cited in the reviews was lack of time. For example. Problematic outcomes for mentors and mentees. A review of these studies revealed that career satisfaction. business. Kram (1983. maintains that key functions of mentoring are career development and skill development. It was also identified as a problematic outcome of mentoring in the medical studies. In all of the medical studies. The other three most frequently cited positive outcomes for mentors included career satisfaction. and promotion (7. lack of trust.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. listening. and challenging assignments and improved skills and performance was the third most frequently cited positive outcome for mentees (23. 1985).sagepub.2%). and promotion was the most frequently cited response (50. coaching. motivation. The second and third most frequently cited problematic outcomes for mentors in the business review were negative mentee attitude. motivation. these were simply general comments indicating personal growth.Ehrich et al. / FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS 529 ing as constructive outcomes from a mentoring experience. In some instances. The prominence of this positive outcome was not surprising given that mentoring relationships involve the sharing of knowledge and expertise. This type of outcome is akin to Kram’s (1983. whose work was acknowledged in approximately 42% of the business articles.5%). and encouragement (21. the process has the potential to foster collegiality and collaboration. Indeed.3%).6%) and pride and personal satisfaction (6. In the medical literature.3% of studies). and cooperation (5. and medical reviews. networking and a sense of community were also deemed important for the profession. Many of the problematic outcomes experienced by mentors and mentees were similar across the education. (6. That career development and skill enhancement emerged prominently in the analysis was not unexpected because both outcomes are commonly cited for mentors and mentees alike in the business literature.3%) and little training or little knowledge about the goals Downloaded from eaq. although other medical articles referred to enhanced confidence. Similar frequently cited outcomes pertaining to career and skill development were apparent for mentees from the business studies. The fourth most frequently cited positive outcome for mentees was counseling. and as such. improved skills and job performance. feedback. and being more valued as a person. plans.. personal growth appeared as a positive outcome of mentoring for mentors and mentees alike. Lack of time was the most commonly noted problem by mentors in the business studies (6%). and strategies was rated in second place (30.6%). 2013 .9%). 1985) notion of the pyschosocial outcomes associated with mentoring.

and ineffective and untrained mentors were seen as the third most frequently cited outcome for mentees (6. These were high staff turnover. Perhaps this outcome can be explained in terms of the predominance of informal mentoring arrangements in the medical field that can emerge if and when mentees approach mentors for help.3% of studies). reported in 13.6%).6% of business studies).9%). An important problematic outcome of mentoring that was unique to the medical studies was the perception of mentees that seeking help signaled a type of weakness or inability to cope. the two most frequently cited problems for mentees in the business studies were issues relating to race and gender (7.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. In contrast to the mentor outcomes.530 Educational Administration Quarterly of the program (4. two problems were cited in more than a single study. which was seen as hampering the development of long-term relationships between mentors and mentees. Yet mentoring by definition is a process that is based on support and development. mentees reported particular mentor characteristics and behaviors as being problematic. almost twice as many business studies (30. which resulted in Downloaded from eaq. what did emerge as a problematic workload issue was the extra burden or responsibility that mentoring created for mentors. The fourth most frequently cited problematic outcome for mentors was jealousy and negative attitudes of others. The most frequently cited benefit. In the medical context. Similar to the problems experienced by mentors discussed earlier. a lack of mentor training was viewed by mentors and mentees as detrimental to the well-being of the program.9% of studies) and cloning or conforming or overprotection (7. and gender or cultural bias in the organization. The race or gender issues tended to arise as a consequence of matching female mentees with male mentors as well as Black mentees with White mentors.6%). promotion of loyalty (6. Positive and Problematic Outcomes for the Organization In contrast to the education studies reviewed in this article. As was the trend in the education literature. 2013 .sagepub.5%) cited one or more positive outcome for the organization. Although jealousy was not an outcome that emerged in the medical studies. Problematic attitudes of others was noted as the fourth most frequently cited negative outcome of mentoring for mentees (6% of business studies). Of these problematic outcomes. the business literature featured fewer studies reporting problematic outcomes of mentoring for the organization. and improvement in workplace or communications or relations (4%). Other outcomes from the business studies included retention of talented employees (11.9% of studies. was improved productivity or contribution or profit by employees.

Although word limitations prevent us from identifying all of the points of divergence that we found. In contrast. Despite the shortcomings of mentoring.Ehrich et al. Problematic organizational barriers included ambivalence to the project by management. lack of time and training. too. It was reported in seven of eight studies. Mentees. on the other hand. were concerned by a lack of mentor interest and training and a host of problematic mentor attributes and behaviors (e. skills. For mentors.. Many of the reviewed studies indicated that mentoring provided both personal and emotional support as well as career development and satisfaction. whereas in others studies. and undesirable mentee behaviors and attributes (such as lack of commitment and unrealistic expectations) were issues that caused problems for mentoring relationships. lack of partnership. Organizations. problems arranging schedules. and personal growth. For mentees.sagepub. for instance. critical or defensive behaviors). the belief that mentoring should not be formalized was an issue that did not emerge from either the business or education databases. Professional or personal incompatibility or incompatibility based on other factors such as race or gender was also seen by both mentors and mentees as impediments to the success of the relationship. 2013 . some attention will be afforded in the following discussion to two Downloaded from eaq. / FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS 531 good staff being overlooked in the mentoring process. cultural or gender biases meant that some mentees’ experiences were not positive. DISCUSSION The results from our study revealed. Benefits of mentoring for both groups included improved skills. issues relating to the use of resources. it promoted professional and personal development. Lack of commitment from the organization. organizational or attitudinal barriers were the most frequently cited problematic outcomes of mentoring.g. considerable commonalities in outcomes across the three reviews of the literature. not surprisingly. mentoring was a burden or workload issue that often went unnoticed by others. and funding problems were reported in some studies. for some mentors. The aforementioned discussion has highlighted the major themes and common outcomes that emerged from our three reviews. For mentors. and a belief that mentoring should not be formalized. In addition. and knowledge and to improve performance. minimal support from management. were confronted with difficulties arising from mentoring programs. too. mentoring provided opportunities to develop competencies.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. our findings suggest that mentoring appears to offer far-reaching benefits for mentors and mentees. In the medical studies. personal or professional incompatibility. access to new ideas.

1987) maintains that the process or act of reflecting has considerable power in enabling a person to change his or her work practices. or both. Schon (1983. Reflection The first issue. accounting for nearly two thirds of all studies reviewed. This is not to say that issues of gender and equity are unimportant within the field of education. and mentees. 2013 . 1993. in particular. in the business studies.5% examined gender. reflection. 1). and a further 6% examined both race and gender issues. personal beliefs. of gender and race issues. was a significant outcome of mentoring in the education studies only.532 Educational Administration Quarterly important points. Gender and Race Issues The second issue emerging from the comparative analysis relates to the prominence. the most widely investigated mentoring focus in the education studies. These are the issue of reflection. consider reflection to be fundamental to the overall development of an educator. in educational contexts. Thus. that mentors. a proponent of the reflective practitioner movement. 6% examined race. reconsider what they are doing and why. As identified earlier in this article. gender and equity were the focus in only a very small sample (2. and gender and race. and work toward improving their professional practice. In contrast. Our review confirmed. which emerged as a significant focus and source of incompatibility between mentors and mentees in business settings. was mentoring for practice or beginning teachers. This process is also called reflection in action. the mentoring process has been identified as a vehicle in facilitating reflection because it provides opportunities for mentors and mentees together and alone to reflect on their practice. there is a growing body of research that has specifically investigated the outcomes of mentoring processes and programs for women and people of color across a range of Downloaded from eaq. p. to a lesser extent. This is unsurprising given that reflection is a term that has been used in the education field for the past 2 decades or more and described as the “sine qua non of the ‘teacher-researcher’.5% and 1. Our review of these studies revealed that 30. Schon (1987). ‘action research’ and ‘reflective practitioner’ movements” (Day.sagepub.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. which emerged as a positive outcome unique to the education studies.9%) of the education studies that we reviewed. On the contrary. suggests that the key to development for teachers lies in their ability to reflect on their own learning.

interest. and gender factors are taken into account. at the very least. time. 2000. racial. too. 1999. & Bondestam. Our analysis suggests. our study of mentoring from three diverse areas indicated not only many common themes and points of convergence but also that mentoring seems to offer considerably more benefits than drawbacks. With this thought in mind. 105).Ehrich et al. These problems highlight the need for planners of mentoring programs to be vigilant in the matching process so that cultural. 1989). and commitment of mentors and mentees and strong support from educational or organizational leaders responsible for overseeing the program. Carr. White. one of the reasons that formal mentoring programs were introduced into organizations in the United States. Eliasson. 1995. Our analysis confirmed a conclusion that we reached elsewhere that suggests “the negative [or more problematic] outcomes associated with mentoring can be minimised by time and effort being directed toward the design and implementation of theoretically sound programs” (Ehrich & Hansford. As was discussed previously. p. the dimensions of personality and professional ideology are also critical in the matching process of mentors and mentee within all three professions—medicine. dynamic. and to a lesser extent in Australia. however. We state this on the strength of the numbers of studies reporting exclusively problematic outcomes compared with those reporting exclusively positive outcomes. and interpersonal relationship that requires. Berggren. 1995). Downloaded from eaq. 1996. As our review of business studies findings revealed. It was thought that such programs would help make mentoring more accessible to women and members of minority groups (Beam. 2013 . In summary. Ragins. 1989. gender and race misunderstandings were frequently the source of incompatibility between mentors and mentees (Thomas. Noe. then. What is more likely is that the interest in gender and race so apparent in the business literature has coincided with the introduction of formalized mentoring programs within organizations. the final part of this article will highlight important issues educational administrators or planners of mentoring programs should consider to minimize the chances of a range of potential problems arising. Indeed. / FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS 533 educational contexts (Brennan & Crawford. and business. It appears. 1997.sagepub. was to address affirmative action legislation (Edwards.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. 2000). The issue of matching is also highlighted in the latter part of the article as one of the key challenges facing administrators charged with the responsibility of implementing formal programs. education. that even when members of minority groups participate in mentoring programs. that mentoring is a highly complex. Bruce. problems can and do occur. 1988. 1990).

and were inadequately resourced. This would likely be the case with a statewide project but not necessarily the manner in which an individual school would proceed. Depending on the size of the educational structure involved. the reports of such programs do little for education as a professional discipline. Long (1997) balances the rosy picture that mentoring equates to satisfaction and positive outcomes. or a state department to engage in a mentoring program should not be the consequence of some chance event. mentors were untrained and participants were unaware of program objectives. These challenges are discussed next. If asked to recommend starting points for the development of such awareness. and Hansford. an educational district. there was mention that Downloaded from eaq. Tennent. By raising awareness of the dangers of negativity in the early stages of planning. the initial starting point is the strategic plans of the organization. it seems inexcusable for those educational administrators considering the implementation of a mentoring program not to consult this resource. there was a tendency for this to be simplistic and based on anecdotal evidence.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. Support for the Program Although the responsibility for coordinating an educational mentoring program may be vested in human resources personnel.sagepub. Establishing the need for mentoring and making sure the financial resources and personnel are available commences with the overall strategic plan. It seems. The resultant programs often lacked intellectual rigor.534 Educational Administration Quarterly ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATORS The decision by a school. and Ehrich (2003). Long (1997). In our examination of the educational literature. Awareness In the light of the vast literature on mentoring. were poorly planned. high on any list would be the work of Douglas (1997). the objectives of the mentoring program may also be determined at this stage. If such programs were evaluated. In addition. that there are several major challenges facing educational administrators contemplating a mentoring program. therefore. but we believe that this can be minimized by awareness of potential problems. In a number of studies we reviewed. 2013 . there can be a dark side to mentoring. it appeared that some programs resulted from a hasty decision that mentoring had much to offer. As Long warns. Unfortunately. Douglas (1997) provides a summation of past studies and makes several recommendations about possible programs.

how personnel will be selected. the two other issues that warrant scrutiny relate to the gender of participants and the representation of minority groups. 2013 . 1988. mentors are to be rewarded in some manner. and some studies report the potential for sexual discrimination against women in mentoring settings (Byrne. for example. For a mentoring program to be effective. but perhaps the most difficult decisions relate to who the mentors will be and how they will be trained. the administrators must determine how. staff need to know the senior executive officers of the district or region are actively supporting the development. or perhaps whether.sagepub. commonly cited in the literature as a key to the success of mentor programs. and the evaluative requirements. 1984). Ragins. this decision is probably determined by the objectives of the program. not all personnel are suited to be mentors. Based on the literature. 1989. feedback loops to senior levels during the implementation of the program seem to be beneficial. Mentor Training Educational administrators must make numerous decisions about the mentoring program. This challenge is allied by the knowledge that mentoring is an additional load for already busy staff. Will educational administrators call for volunteers or select staff on the basis of a set of predetermined criteria? To a certain extent. it is important that administrators make it known that there will be transparency concerning the nature of the program. Decisions may need to be made. Administrators must also consider the issue of training. Clawson & Kram. There is much literature that suggests that it has been women who have missed out on mentoring opportunities (Noe. Similar problems are reported with respect to Downloaded from eaq. Having selected the mentors. expectations of participants. It is difficult for a midlevel administrator to drive a program if the staff members are aware that he or she is not supported at the most senior levels. For instance. Selection of Participants Decisions surrounding who will be mentored must be made. there is the possibility that the volunteers may be those least suited to the role of mentor. Irrespective of the nature of an organization. In fact.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. During the early planning stages. in a single school program.Ehrich et al. 1989). how does the principal tell some heads of departments or key teachers that they are not required in the program? Although some educational programs call for volunteers to act as mentors. / FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS 535 the program did not seem to have the complete support of senior administrators. about whether training should be provided in house or conducted by external consultants.

those responsible for planning and implementing programs must be willing to commit time. White. In this article. Evaluation of the Program Rigorous evaluation is essential. poor mentoring can be worse than no mentoring at all. In some cases. the importance of mentor training. is ensuring the validity and reliability of the procedures used. and the need for ongoing evaluations.sagepub. Although the majority of reviewed studies revealed that mentoring does provide a range of positive outcomes for mentors. business. 2013 . equally. it is not. personal growth.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. and development for professionals. we identified several critical issues that educational administrators should consider during the planning and implementation stages of formal programs. Much has been written about the relative strengths of qualitative versus quantitative evaluation models. and educational administrators will need to decide on the model of evaluation to implement. most problems can be minimized. without its dark side. Indeed. 1997. and medicine was that mentoring has enormous potential to bring about learning. If resources (both human and financial) are to be invested in mentoring programs.536 Educational Administration Quarterly minority groups (Carr. Among these were the necessity for planners to be aware of the growing body of research literature on mentoring. if not more importantly. In educational settings where administrators have ensured that equity policies have been fully implemented. CONCLUSION An important finding to emerge from our structured analysis of more than 300 research-based articles on mentoring across the areas of education. Our belief is that the potential problems of mentoring are not insurmountable. With careful and sensitive planning and skillful leadership. Good practice suggests that there should be ongoing evaluative tasks during the life of a mentoring program and a follow-up assessment some time after the completion of the program. and the organization. However. the question as to whether mentors and mentees should be matched is clearly a question that must be resolved by administrators. however. However. 1990). the need for program support at various levels. mentees. all parties have a responsibility to make mentoring work so that it can be a positive force for individuals and their organizations. the careful selection of participants. and energy to such programs. Downloaded from eaq. resources. it would be anticipated that gender and minority group issues would not create serious issues.

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His research interests include mentoring across a wide range of professions and leadership development programs for educators and managers. C. Research interests include mentoring for professionals and the use of technology in teacher education. Ehrich titled “Educational Mentoring: Is It Worth the Effort?” in Education Research & Perspectives.540 Educational Administration Quarterly Brian Hansford is an emeritus professor in the Centre for Innovation in Education at Queensland University of Technology.com at University of Bucharest on March 23. 2013 . Downloaded from eaq. His most recent publication is a 2003 article with L. C. Her most recent publication in mentoring is a 2003 article with B. Ehrich titled “Educational Mentoring: Is It Worth the Effort?” in Education Research & Perspectives. Hunsford and L. Lee Tennent is a senior research assistant in the Faculty of Education at Queensland University of Technology. Tennent and L.sagepub.

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