practice problems for thermodynamics

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practice problems for thermodynamics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Professor Emeritus K. S. Spiegler Auth. Principles of Energetics Based on Applications de La Thermodynamique Du Non Équilibre by P. Chartier M. Gross and K. S. Spiegler Springer Verlag Berlin Hei1
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The homework is due Monday, Feb.27, 2012. Each problem is worth the points indicated. Copying of the solution from another is not acceptable. (1). Multiple choice (30 points) (1a). Which statement is valid regarding a closed system? (A) Energy cannot transfer across the boundary of the closed system. (B) The volume of the closed system may change (C) The mass of the closed system sometimes change (D) The pressure of the closed system always remains constant with time

(1b). Which statement is valid regarding an isothermal process? (A) The pressure of the closed system always remains constant. (B) The volume of the closed system always remains constant. (C) The temperature of the closed system always remains constant. (D) Heat cannot transfer across the boundary of the closed system.

(1c). Which statement is invalid regarding a specific heat: (A) cv and cp are properties. They are intensive properties. (B) cv is applied to any substance undergoing any process no matter whether the volume remains constant or not. (C) cp is applied to any substance undergoing any process no matter whether the volume remains constant or not. (D) cv is related to the changes in internal energy and cp to the changes in enthalpy. (E) cv is always greater than cp (F) cv and cp are temperature-dependent. (1d). An 8 L cylinder contains nitrogen at 200 Pa and 300 K. Now air is compressed isothermally to a pressure of 800 Pa. The work done on air during this compression process is closest to (A) 20 .2 J (B) -221.81 kJ (C) 221.81 J (D) -221.81 J (E) None of the above Solution: When T=cosntant for an ideal gas, P1V1= P1V1. Hence, V2/V1= P1/P1. V P 200 Pa ) = 221.81J Wb = P1V1 ln 2 = P1V1 ln 1 = 200 Pa 8 10 3 m 3 ln( 800 Pa V1 P2 (1e) 20 kg of apples are cooled from 20 C to 5 C. The apples will (A) release 1095 J heat to the surrouding (B) absorb 1095 J heat from the surrouding (C) release 1095 kJ heat to the surrouding (D) absorb 1095 kJ heat from the surrouding

1

From Table A-3c to find out Cv. Q = U = mcv (T2 T1 ) = 20kg (3.65kJ / kg o C ) (5 20) o C = 1095kJ

(1f) 2 kg of helium gas in a sealed container undergoes the quasi-equilibrium processes to complete a cycle (ABCA) as shown in the figure. (A) gain 12 kJ heat from the surrouding (B) expel 12 kJ heat to the surrouding (C) expel 12 kW heat to the surrouding (D) gain 12 kW heat from the surrouding (E) gain 24 kJ heat from the surrouding

3. A piston-cylinder device contains 20 kg of R-134a at 2.8 bar and 90 C. Now R-134a is allowed to be compressed at constant pressure until it becomes a saturated vapor (15 points). (a) draw a T- v diagram, label the saturated temperature, the specific volumes and the temperatures of the initial and final states (b) Determine the work done during this expansion process, in kJ. (c) calculate the amount of heat that transferred into the piston, in kJ

Solution: (a) Sate 1: at P1=280 kPa, Tsat,1=-1.25 oC from Table A-12 Since T1> Tsat,1, it is superheated vapor. From Table A-13, v1=0.10275 m3/kg, u1=304.29 kJ/kg Sate 2: From Table A-13, at P1=280 kPa, v2=0.072352 m3/kg, u2=229.46kJ/kg

T 90 C

o

-1.25 oC

(b) A closed system undergoes a constant pressure process. Therefore, Wb = P(V2 V1 ) = mP(v 2 v1 ) Wb = 20kg (280kPa)(0.072352 0.10275)m 3 / kg = 170.23kPa m 3 = 170.23kJ

(c). For a closed system, the energy balance equation is: Q Wb = U 2 U 1 = m(u 2 u1 )

Q = Wb + m(u 2 u1 ) = 170.23kJ + 20kg (229.46 304.29)kJ / kg = 1666.83kJ The sign is negative. Hence heat is transferred into the cylinder.

4. Four moles of carbon dioxide in a sealed container undergoes the thermodynamic cycle as shown in the figure. If the process BC is an isothermal, how much work is done by the gas in this cyclic process, in J. (10 points)

Solution:

5. A piston-cylinder assembly whose piston is resting on a stop contains 400 L of helium gas, initially at 200 kPa and 25 oC. The mass and the atmosphere pressure acting on the piston are such that of 500 kPa is required to raise it. At the final sate, the volume of helium gas is doubled. (24 points). (a) Calculate the mass of helium in the cylinder, in kg (b) Determine the boundary work done during this process, in kJ (c) Assuming a constant specific of helium during this process, determine the heat that must be gained or lost, in kJ.

Answer: (a). R can be obtained from Table A-1 Considering that it is idea gas:

(b) The boundary work: Wb = P2 (V2 V1 ) = 500kPa(2 0.4 0.4)m 3 = 200kJ

P1V1 P2V2 = T1 T2

T2 = T1 ( P2 / P1 )(V2 / V1 ) = 298 K (500 / 200) 2 = 1490 K

Q Wb = U 2 U 1 = m(u 2 u1 )

The specific heat of helium can be obtained from Table A-2 The boundary work is zero.

Q = Wb + m(u 2 u1 ) = Wb + mcv (T2 T1 ) = 200kJ + 0.1292kg (3.1156kJ / kg o C )(1490 298) K = 679.82kJ

6. Steam at 75 kPa and 8 percent quality is contained in a spring-loaded piston-cylinder device with an initial volume of 2 m3. Steam is now heated until the pressure and volume rise to 225 kPa and 5 m3. (16 points) (a) Calculate the mass of steam contained in the cylinder (b) Determine the internal energy at the initial and final states. (c) Calculate the work done during the process, in kJ (hint: the pressure increases linearly with volume) (d) Determine the heat transfer during the process, in kJ

Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are zero. 2 There are no work interactions involved other than the boundary work. 3 The thermal energy stored in the cylinder itself is negligible. 4 The compression or expansion process is quasi-equilibrium. Analysis We take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is closed system since no mass enters or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be expressed as (a). The initial state is saturated mixture at 75 kPa. The specific volume and internal energy at this state are (Table A-5),

The mass of water is

m= V1 2 m3 = = 11.22 kg v 1 0.1783 m 3 /kg

The final specific volume is

v2 =

The final state is now fixed. Since vf<v2<vg, its is a mixture of two phases.

x=

v2 v f vg v f

The internal energy at this specific volume and 225 kPa pressure is

u 2 = 1650.4 kJ/kg

(c). Since this is a linear process, the work done is equal to the area under the process line 1-2:

Wb ,out = Area =

(since KE = PE = 0)

P 225 kPa 1 v 2

75 kPa

- Professor Emeritus K. S. Spiegler Auth. Principles of Energetics Based on Applications de La Thermodynamique Du Non Équilibre by P. Chartier M. Gross and K. S. Spiegler Springer Verlag Berlin Hei1Uploaded bybigdevil11
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