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( 2 )

( 3 )
( 16 )
....( 2 1 )
( 2 5 )

a2CO3 a2CO3 NaHCO3 Na2S2O3


CaSO4.2H2O 2CaSO4.H2O CaF2 BaSO4
NH4HCO3 CaCO3 CaO NaCl
Ca(OH)2 Na2SO47H2O () NaOH FaSO47H2O
CO2 KAl (SO4)212H2O Ca (ClO)2 CaCl2
MgSO47H2O CuSO45H2O H2O2 ZnSO47H2O
SiO2 Al2O3 Na2SiO3 Fe2O3 Fe3O4
FeS2 Cu2 (OH)2CO3 FeCO3 Cu2O
Ca (OH)2 CuSO4 Ca (OH)2 S Na2SiO3CaSiO3SiO2
Ca (H2PO4)2 CaSO4 Ca (H2PO4)2
CH4 CO H2 Fe
(NH4)2 (SO4)2
NO2 HNO3 HCl 13

Al + Fe2O3 CONH2) 2

CHCl3 CaC2 C2H2 () TNT


O3 C2H5OH
H2SCO2CO
H2CH4CO CH3COOH
C3H8O3
HCHO

Fe2+ Fe3O4
Fe(OH)2
3+
Fe Fe (OH)3 Fe (SCN)3
FeO Fe (NH4)2(SO4)2
Fe2O3

Cu2+ CuO Cu2O


CuSO4 CuSO45H2O
Cu2 (OH)2CO3
Cu(OH)2 [Cu(NH3)4]SO4
FeS
BaSO4 BaCO3 Ag2CO3 CaCO3 AgCl Mg (OH)2
Al(OH)3 H4SiO4
Cl2 F2 Br2
I2 HFHClHBrHI
CCl4
3


Na2O2 Ag3PO4 S AgBr
AgI O3 SO2
SO3 44.8 HF
N2O4NO NO2
NH3 KMnO4-- MnO4-

1 2
PH
3.1 3.14.4 >4.4
8.0 8.010.0 >10.0
5.1 5.18.0 >8.0
3
Au3+ >Ag+>Hg2+ >Cu2+ >Pb2+ >Fa2+ >Zn2+ >H+ >Al3+>Mg2+ >Na+ >Ca2+
>K+
S2- >I- >Br >Cl- >OH- >
PtAu

41
23HO
Na2CO3 AlCl3
3 CO32- + 2Al3+ + 3H2O = 2Al(OH)3 + 3CO2
512
KCl 2KCl + 2H2O == H2 + Cl2 + 2KOH
2KCl + 2H2O == H2 + Cl2 + 2KOH
6 1
23
Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO4 = 2PbSO4 + 2H2O ()

Pb 2e- PbSO4 PbO2 +2e- PbSO4

Pb + SO42- -2e- = PbSO4


PbO2 + 4H+ + SO42- +2e- = PbSO4 + 2H2O

PbSO4 +2e- = Pb + SO42PbSO4 + 2H2O -2e- = PbO2 + 4H+ + SO427


8
9 > > SiSiC SiO2=

> SiC > Si Si> C> O.


10
11


12MnO4- >Cl2 >Br2 >Fe3+ >I2 >S=4(+4 S)
I2 +SO2 + H2O = H2SO4 + 2HI
13 Fe3+
14H2O NH3 HFCH3CH2OH
15 1 1
98%1.84g/cm3
16123
4[Fe(SCN)2Fe(SCN)3Ag(NH3)+[Cu(NH3)4]2+ ]
5
17 Al O HClO4()

18 Hg (-38.9C), W 3410c
K Pt
19 PH 5.6
20 > > > > > >HCO321

22
23
CO2H2O O2 CO2H2O O2

1
OH

AlSi
H 2

1 2 Al + 2 NaOH + 2 H 2O = 2 NaAlO 2 + 3H 2

Si + 2 NaOH + H 2O = Na2 SiO3 + 2 H 2

2 NH 4+
NH 3 + H 2 O

HCl

H2

H 2 SO4
SO2

HNO3

NO2 NO
1

H SO4

SO2 CO2
2
C

HNO3

NO2 CO2

H SO4
SO2

2

S HNO

3
SO2 NO2

H
CO32 HCO3
CO2

H+
2 S HS H 2 S
2
H+

SO3 HSO3 SO2

3Na2S2O3 S2O32-+2H+=S+SO2+H2O
4

2 Na + 2 H 2O = 2 NaOH + H 2

2 F2 + 2 H 2O = 4 HF + O2

2 Na 2O2 + 2 H 2O = 4 NaOH + O2

Mg 3 N 2 + 3H 2O = 3Mg ( OH ) 2 +2 NH 3

Al 2 S3 + 6 H 2O = 2 Al ( OH ) 3 +3H 2 S
CaC + 2 H O = Ca ( OH ) + C H
2
2
2
2
2

2O
CO32 HCO3 H

CO2 + Al ( OH ) 3

2O
Al 3+S 2 HS H

H 2 S + Al ( OH ) 3

H 2O

Al ( OH ) 3
AlO2

6
1Al 2Al2O3Al(OH)3
CO
7 Na2O2
O2 +Na 2CO 3

H
O
82FeCl3+H2S=2FeCl
+S+2HCl
2

O2 +NaOH

9 H O

H +O
2

Al + O2
Al2O3 ( )

NaOH + Cl 2 + H 2

NaCl

10Al+

+Al2O3
11 Al3+
Al(OH)3
AlO2122H2S+SO2=3S+2H2O
4NH3+6NO
2O+ +
4N2+6H
1.

2.
131
H H 2 O
H2
NaMgFe
2
+

2Mg + CO2

2 MgO + C
2 F2 + 2 H 2O = 4 HF + O2

Si + 2CO
2C + SiO2
3

CO + H 2
C + H 2O
Cl ( Br I ) + H S = S + 2 HCl HBr HI
2
2 2 2
4

+ H 2O
H 2 +

+ CO2
C +

14
+
+
Cl2+H2OH2S+O2NH3+O2CH4+O2Cl2+FeBr2
+
+
NH3+NO H2S+SO2 Na2O2+H2ONaH+H2ONa2O2+CO2CO+H2O
6

PCl3+Cl2 Na2SO3+O2 FeCl3+Fe FeCl2+Cl2CO+O2Na2O+O2


14

15 2 3
1

NH 4 HCO3 [( NH 4 ) 2 CO3 ]

NH 3 +CO2 + H 2O

NH 3 + SO2 + H 2O
NH 4 HSO3 [( NH 4 ) 2 SO3 ]

NH 3 + H 2 S
NH 4 HS [( NH 4 ) 2 S ]

2CuO + 4 NO2 +O2


2Cu ( NO3 ) 2

2 Ag + 2 NO2 +O2
2 AgNO3
16

O2
O2
2O
1 A
B
C H

D()
2
2
2
NH

NO
NO2

HNO3
3

H O

2
2
2
H 2 S
SO2
SO3

H 2 SO4

H O

2
2
2
C
CO
CO2

H 2 CO3

H O

O2
O2
2O
Na
Na 2 O
Na 2 O2 H

NaOH

B

2A

A (NH4)2CO3 NH4HCO3(NH4)2S NH4HS(NH4)2SO3 NH4HSO3


3:
2
2 KClO3 MnO

2 KCl + 3O2

2 H 2 O2 MnO
2 2 H 2 O + O2
2 SO2 + O2
2 SO3

4 NH 3 + 5O2

4 NO + 6 H 2 O

N 2 + 3H 2
2 NH 3

SSO32-HSO3-H2SO3SO2NO2-Fe2+-CHO

1
7


8HNO3()3Cu==2NO2Cu(NO3)24H2O
4HNO3()Cu==2NO2Cu(NO3)22H2O
S+6HNO3()===H2SO4+6NO2+2H2O
3S+4 HNO3()===3SO2+4NO+2H2O
2
4

Cl2+2NaOH=====NaCl+NaClO+H2O

3Cl2+6NaOH=====5NaCl+NaClO3+3H2O

3.
2S2- SO32-6H+3S3H2O
5Cl-ClO3-6H+3Cl23H2O
S2-SO32-Cl-ClO3-.
Fe2+ NO3-,.3Fe2+NO3-4H+3Fe3+NO
2H2O

, ,.
KMnO4 .
4
12P3Cl2 2PCl3(Cl2 )
2P5Cl2 2 PCl5(Cl2 )
22H2S3O2 2H2O2SO2(O2 ) 2H2SO2 2H2O2S(O2 )
34NaO2
2NaO2 Na2O2
2Na2O
4Ca(OH)2CO2CO2
CaCO3H2O Ca(OH)22CO2()==Ca(HCO3)2

5CO2 CO2(O2 )
2 CO2 2CO (O2 )
68HNO3()3Cu==2NO2Cu(NO3)24H2O 4HNO3()Cu==2NO2Cu(NO3)2
2H2O
7AlCl33NaOH==Al(OH)33NaCl
AlCl34NaOH()==NaAlO22H2O
8NaAlO24HCl()==NaCl2H2OAlCl3 NaAlO2HClH2O==NaClAl(OH)3
9Fe6HNO3()==Fe(NO3)33NO23H2O FeHNO3()()
10Fe6HNO3()FeFe(NO3)33NO23H2O
Fe4HNO3()FeFe(NO3)22NO22H2O
11Fe4HNO3()FeFe(NO3)3 NO2H2O 3Fe8HNO3() Fe3Fe(NO3)3 2NO
4H2O
H2SO4
H2SO4
12C2H5OH 170 CH2=CH2H2O C2H5OHHOC2H5
C2H5OC2H5
140
H2O
13C2H5ClNaOHH2O C2H5OHNaCl C2H5ClNaOH CH2CH2NaClH2O
146FeBr23Cl2==4FeBr32FeCl3 2FeBr23Cl2==2Br22FeCl3

1. Fe3+Al3+Zn2+Cu2+NH4+Ag+
OH-.
2 CH3COO-F-CO32-SO32-S2-PO43-AlO2-
H+.
3.
H+ OH- .

2HSO3 HCO3 HS H2PO4 HPO4


4.
Ba2+Ca2+ CO32-SO32-PO43-SO42-Ag+ Cl-Br-I- Ca2+ F-C2O42-
5.
Al3+ HCO3-CO32-HS-S2-AlO2-ClO-SiO32-
Fe3+ HCO3-CO32-AlO2-ClO-SiO32-C6H5O-NH4+ AlO2-SiO32-ClO-CO32-
6.
Fe3+ I-S2-MnO4-H+ I-Br-Cl-S2-SO32-Fe2+NO3-H+
S2-SO32-H+
7
Fe3+ F-CN-SCN- H2PO4- PO43- HPO42-.

1
1
2

3=
4

5
6
(1)
Fe2O3 Fe2O36H+2 Fe3+3H2O Fe3+ I-

(2)
FeCl2 Cl2 Fe2+Cl2Fe3+2Cl-
(3)
NaOH HIOH-HIH2OI-HI .
(4)
HClClO-H+Cl-OH-Cl2
(5).
H2SO4 Ba(OH)2 :Ba2+OH-H+SO42-BaSO4H2O
Ba2+2OH-2H+SO42-BaSO42H2O
(6)
Al3+3H2OAl(OH)33H+Al(OH)3


2.
HOH-
H OH-=110-amol/L(a>7 a<7)
MnO4-,Fe3+,Fe2+,Cu2+,Fe(SCN)2+
MnO4-,NO3-
S2O32-S2O32-+2H+=S+SO2+H2O

1NH3HClHBrHI
2CO2Cl2SO2
3C2H2C2H4

2
3
45
67

1

2
3
4
5
62CuS Cu2S CuCl2 CuCl2 Cl S
10 18
110
10
10
10
10
10
218
18
18

Ne
HF
H2 O
NH3
CH4

N O F Na+Mg2+Al3+
OH
NH2
H3O+
NH4+

Ar
F2HCl

K Ca2+ClS2
HS
+

10


18
H2S
18
PH3H2O2
18
SiH4CH3F
18
N2H4CH3OH
C2H6N2H5+N2H62+ 18

1


21
Na>Mg>Al>Si>P>S>Cl.
2Li<Na<K<Rb<Cs
3F--<Cl--<Br--<I-4 F->
Na+>Mg2+>Al3+
5 Fe>Fe2+>Fe3+

SO2
Cl2O3Na2O2 HNO3

Cl2(HClO) HNO3 Na2O2



1AgNO3 NH3H2O
AgNO3 NH3H2O
NH3H2O AgNO3
2NaOH AlCl3
NaOH AlCl3
AlCl3 NaOH
3HCl NaAlO2
HCl NaAlO2
NaAlO2 HCl
4Na2CO3
Na2CO3
Na2CO3

1
2
3
4
5
6

11


1 2 H2S
2 4 SO2H2SO3
3 H2O21

1CHC2H2 C6H6
2CH2
3CH2O
4CnH2nO
C2H4OC4H8O2

1

2()(5060)(70
80)(7080)(100)

3 02
H2C2H4C2H2CH4NO

4 NO N02

1
2
1V1/V2=n1/n2
2p1/p2=n1/n2=N1/N2
3V1/V2=M2/M1 4M1/M2=1/2
1
2 H2OSO3
CHCl3
3
HeNe Cl2N2O2H2
P4
4 22.4Lmol1
5
6 NO2 NO2 N2O4
7
8 Na2O2+H2OCl2+NaOH
AgNO3

12

///
ne

ne


NaHCO3 n(Na)n(H+)n(HCO3-)2n(CO32-)n(OH-)[Na][H

][HCO3-]2[CO32-][OH-]

NaHCO3 n(Na

)n(c)1:1c(Na)c(HCO3-)c(CO32-)c(H2CO3)
()H
NH4HCO3 H3O+H2CO3 NH3OH-CO32-
c(H3O+)+c(H2CO3)=c(NH3)+c(OH-)+c(CO32-)

1slg
2H + (H +
+)
3H
298K 1.013105Pa
slg
H H
+-mol

13

""
()

CH2
2-

1Cl- Cl

2-OH
3Na2S

O H
Na+

2 2
MgCl
Na+

CaC2
Ca2+
4

NH4Cl
H
H N H
H

Cl

Mg2+

Cl

Na2O2
2

O H

OH-

Na+

O O

Na+

(NH4)2S

Cl

H
H N H
H

H
H N H
H

14

5 CO

O
O C
O

6MgCl2

+ Mg

Mg2+

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

2
1TV
TV

TV

2
0
m

4
0.5
gg2m

0
1
2g-2m

2a
0.5a
g-m a

2 TP 4 3
TP

1
HBeAlGe
2 CS
3 O
2 LiCa
3 NaBa
C
3 S
H F

15

O C

O
O


P
2

C
N

O
H Li
Br Hg

BeAlZn
N
S
S
LiNaF
CPOS

+ = +
16

+ = +


>
>

1 Cl2Br2O2

Mn MnO2KMnO4
SN
H2SO4HNO3
MnClFe
KMnO4KClO3FeCl3K2Cr2O7
Na2O2H2O2
NaAlZnFe
CS COSO2
ClS HClH2S
SFe Na2SO3FeSO4
H2 CSi

X2O2S

NaMgAlZnFe
CH2S

Fe3+Sn4+
Cu2+Ag+
Ag(NH3)2+ Cu(OH)2

Fe2+Sn2+

S2-H2SI -HINH3Cl-HClBr-HBr

17

NO2N2O5MnO2Na2O2H2O2HClO
HNO3 H2SO4NaClOCa(ClO)2KClO3
KMnO4

COSO2H2SO3Na2SO3Na2S2O3NaNO2
H2C2O4-CHO

Al2O3SiO2

Mg(OH)2Al(OH)3
Cu(OH)2Fe(OH)3
2+
Cu +OH =Cu(OH)2
AgClAgBrAgICaCO3BaCO3
2Ag++SO42-=Ag2SO4
Ca(OH)2+CO32-=CaCO3+2OH
H2OCH3COOHH2CO3NH3H2
O
CO2SO2NH3

mol/(Lmin) mol/(Ls )

18


aA + bB
cC + dD
v(A) : v(B) : v(c) : v(D) = a : b : c : d
1
1
1
1
v(A) = v(B) = v(C) = v(D)
a
b
c
d

v v

c 10
24 ,

a
b

p
q
K=
19

{c(C)} {c(D) }
{c(A)}m {c(B) n }


mA(g)+nB(g)
pC(g)+qD(g)

K
K

aQ=K v =v
bQ>K v <v

cQ<K v >v

v v

v()>v()
v()=v()
v()<v()

1
1

20

( )
CH4 +2O2

CO2 + 2H2O

CH4 + 2Cl2

CH2Cl2 + 2HCl

CH4 + 3Cl2

CHCl3+ 3HCl

CH4 + 4Cl2

CCl4 + 4HCl

CH4

C + 2H2

( )
C2H4 + 3O2
CH2CH2 + Br2

2CO2 + 2H2O
CH2BrCH2Br

CH2CH2 + H2O
CH2CH2 +H2

CH3CH2OH
CH3CH3

1
2M=22.4

3M=MD D =

4
M =

()
= M A a% + M Bb % +


1 =

126 C

1
12

21


A1A2 a1%a2%
2 A = A1 a1 % + A2 a 2 % +
()
1 c =

n
m
N
=
=
V MV N AV

C=

1000
M

2C1V1=C2V2
3C =

CV1 + C 2V2
V1 + V2

()

4
m

a% = m

a% =

100% =

m
m + m

S
100%
100 + S

100%

m1a1%+m2a2%=(m1+m2)a%
m1a1%=m2a2%
5 pH H+ OH

C(H+)=10-pH
. pH= lg[H+]
. KW=[H+][OH]=10-1425

22.4 L/ mol

NA

NA

22.4 L/ mol

N
61 n =
NA

2 n =

m
M

3 n =

V
Vm

22

4 n =

n
V

23

24

25

1 2001
A
B
C
D

Al3+
Al(OH)3

2 1996 ( ).

( )

CO2 A
B N N B C

26


D
A

3 1996 ( )
A
B
C
D

D
()(
)

NO2 NO2 N2O4

1 2001 100mL 0.10 molL 1 AgNO3


100mL 2.08g BaCl2 100 mL 0.010 mol CuSO45H2O

A.
B.
C.Cl- 0.02 mol
D.Cu2+ 0.01 molL1

Ag+

=0.1L0.1molL1=0.01
mol n Ba2+ =2.08g/208gmol1 = 0.01mol n Cl = 0.02
mol n Cu2+ =0.01mol n SO42 = 0.01 mol
nAgCl=0.01molnBaSO4=0.01mol AgClBaSO4
nCl= 0.02mol 0.01mol = 0.01molCu2+
200mL CCu2+ =
0.05molL1 B

2 2001 NA

A. 22.4L 8NA
B. 18g 10NA
27


C. 46g 46g 3NA
D. 1 L 2 molL1 4NA

A.22.4L 1mol
A B.18g 1mol 10molC.NO2 N2O4
NO2 N2O4 46g NO2 1mol
NO2 3mol D.nNO3= 1L2 mol/L2 = 4 mol A

3 1997 80,
20, ()
( )
A20
B80
C
D

100g

1 2001
A
B IIIB IIB 10
C 8
D

Na+A
IIIB IIB 10
2 8
D
AD

2 2001 aA2bBcC3dD

A ABDC
B dcba
C CDBA
D ABDC
28

aA2bB a>b A<B


3
dD c<d C>D
cC
AB CD
a>b>d>c A<B<D<C C

3 1998 X Y X
Y X X Y

AXY
BXY2
CXY3
DX2Y3

X Li Si X Li Y H LiH XY
X Si Y LiLi Si A
X Li
4

V
V
4

1 2001

MN


A2M
N
Bt2
Ct3
Dt1 N M 2

N M 0t2min M 2molN
4mol t3minMN 2N
Mt2 t3
29


t1 n N =6mol n M =3mol
cN=2cM D
B

2 1998
SO2 O22SO2+O2

2SO3

SO2 p%
SO2
A p%
B p% C p%
D

1.01105Pa2SO2+O2

SO3
1.01105Pa SO2
SO2 B

3 2002 a L 1 mol X
2mol Y X(g) + 2Y(g)

2Z(g)

( )
A
B
C XYZ l : 2 : 2
D 0.1 mol X 0.2 mol Z

D
AB

25pH + pOH = 14
3
5

pH
pH

pH
1

2 pH
30


pOH pH
pH= -lg cH+ pOH= -lg cOHpK = -lg K
25pH + pOH = 14
1 1992
CH3COONaNaHSO4 NaCl C6H5ONa pH


A > > >
B > > >
C > > >
D > > >
pH

NaHSO4pH < 7 NaCl


pH= 7
CH3COOH C6H5OH pH > A

Na2SO4H2SO4 NaHSO4 NH4Cl NaHCO3 NaCO3 NaOH BaOH2


pH
2 1991 c(H+)=110-3molL1 c(OH

)= 110-3 mol L1
A
B
C
D

c(H+)= c(OH )
B
c(H+)= c(OH)
CD
6

1 1996
, H+ CO2 6:5,

A1:1

)
B1:2

C1:3

D1:4

H+ CO2 6:5

31


6molH+ 5molCO2
RCO3 R(HCO3)2 x
y2x + 2y = 6mol x + 2y = 5mol x = 1mol y = 2mol
12 B

2CO3 HCO3 D
2 1996 1 10 O2 ,
NaOH (
()
ACl2 BCO CCO2 DN2

ACl2 O2 NaOHCl2 O2

BCO O2 NaOH
2Cu+O22CuOCuO+COCu+CO2 CO2 C

CCO2 O2 NaOH CO2 O2

DN2 O2 NaOH O2
N2 D
CD

1 2001 2% ~ 3%
NaNO2 NH4Cl NaNO2
NaNO2+NH4Cl = NaCl+NH4NO2
NH4NO2N2+2H2O

NH4NO2 NH4NO2 NH4NO2


NH4NO2

A B C D

32


NH4NO2==N2+2H2O NO2 NH4+
N2 D


2H2S+SO2==3S+2H2ONaH+H2O==NaOH+H2
2 1997 ,
2:1 ,

ANO2

BNO

CN2O

DN2

2mol 1mol HNO3

+1 2 mol N +3
+2 4 mol N +1 +3 6 mol
N 1 C
HNO3

1 1997 50mL18mol/L H2SO4


H2SO4
A 0.45moL B 0.45mol
C 0.45mol 0.90mol D 0.90mol

H2SO4
H2SO4
H2SO4 2H2SO4+Cu
CuSO4 +
SO2+ 2H2O H2SO4 H2SO4 0.90 mol
0.45mol H2SO4
0.45mol 0.45mol A

2 1995 98%

AH2SO4 H2O BH2SO4H2O CH2SO4SO3 DSO3 H2O

33


98% 100g 98% H2SO4 H2SO4 98g
2g
H2SO4 H2O

= 1 A B C D

A H2SO4 H2O SO3H2O H2O SO3 H2O A


D

()

1 1998 ICl

AHI HClO BHCl HIO


CHClO3 HIO
DHClO HIO

ICl 0
ICl Cl I
ICl I +1 Cl 1 HCl Cl 1 HIO I
+1 ICl ICl+H2O =
HCl+HIO B
ICl Cl2 Cl2
HCl HClOICl H2O HI HClO HCl HIO
A ICl H2O HCl
HIO ICl
NaCl NaIO
2 1997 2000 ,
, (KIO3) IO3- I-
:IO3 + 5I +6H+ = 3I2 + 3H2O
, IO3-, ,
, , , , ( B )
A
B
C
D

IO3IO3 I I2
I2 B

IO3
I2
34

10

NaH

1 1996 ( B ).
A B C( NaHCO3) D

CO2

B
CO2
2 1994 , Na2CO3
1.06 g Na2CO3,,
( )
A 1.06 g
B 1.06 g 2.86
C 2.86 g
D 2.86 g
()
Na2CO3 1.06 g
Na2CO310H2O
Na2CO3+10H2O===Na2CO310H2O
106
286
1.06
2.86

2.86 g D

11

12
3(4)

1 1996 0.1 mol O2CO2N2 ,


W1W2W3
(
)

35


AW2>W1>W3

BW1=W2>W3

CW1=W2=W3

DW3>W2>W1


2Mg+O2
2MgO2Mg+2CO2
2MgO+C3Mg+N2
Mg3N2 A
W2 B
2 2000
[Al2(OH)nClmyH2O] m
A3-n B6-n C6+n D3+n
( 0)
0 23=n+m m B

12

Fe(OH)2
3

1 1993 .abcde CuAgFeAlMg5


(1)ac (2)b d ,
d(3)c (4)ce abcde

(
)
AFe Cu Al Ag Mg
BAl Cu Mg Ag Fe
CMg Cu Al Ag Fe
DMg Ag Al Cu Fe

ce 134 c Al4 e
Fe1 a Mg2 b Cud Ag
c ea C
c Ale Fe AB2 b d

2 1995

A B C D

CH3CH2OH+CuO CH3CHO+Cu+H2O
36


CuO
C
C
13

1 2002 RXY Z +2
X2+ R X2++Z X + Z2+ Y + Z2+ Y2+ + Z
0
AR >X >Z >Y
2+

2+

2+

2+

BX >R2+>Y2+>Z2+
2+

CY2+>Z2+>R2+>X2+
DZ2+>X2+>R2+>Y2+
+ +

X2++Z X + Z2+ X2+ > Z2+ Y + Z2+


Y2+ + Z Z2+ > Y2+ X2+ R R2+>X2+
R2+>X2+>Z2+>Y2+ A

2 1996 ,,Q2>Q1
(
)
A2H2()+O2()2H2O()+Q1 2H2()+O2()2H2O()+Q2
BS()+O2()SO2()+Q1
S()+O2()SO2()+Q2
C
DH2()+Cl2()2HCl()+Q1

A
Q2Q1
B
Q1Q2
C O2 CO CO2 Q2Q1
DQ1=2Q2
AC

37


14

1 8
ABn A 8 A
8 NH3PCl3H2S
A + = 8
2
ABn A
CO2BF3PCl5 A =
3
( CO2)( BF3)(
H2O)( NH3)

4
(NaCl CsCl )()(
)()

1 (1999 ) 8

ABeCl2 BPCl3
CPCl5 DN2
ABn
1 ABn BeCl2PCl3PCl5
PCl3 P +3+ = 8 PCl3 P
8 Cl -1 8 B N2

, 8 BD
BeCl2 Be 2
8PCl3 NH3

2 1999 (
)
A
B
C
D

B
14103419
A

38


B
15

1 1996 25.00 mL ,

(
)
A50 mL
B10 mL
C50 mL
D50 mL

0.01mL
C

2 1996

( ).
A
B,
C,,

D 0.01
E,

0.1g 0.1g

C D
= +
3 1999 0

A
B
C
D

000
0 B
00


A
B
C
D
39

c(H+)= c(OH )
B
c(H+)= c(OH)
CD 1 1999
0.05 mol NaOH 100 mL

A
B0.5 mol L1
C0.5 mol L1 HAc D0.5 mol L1 KCl

AC
D NaOH
B NaOH HCl HCl NaCl
B
C

2 1992
CH3COONaNaHSO4 NaCl C6H5ONa pH


A > > >
B > > >
C > > >
D > > >
pH

NaHSO4pH < 7 NaCl


pH= 7
CH3COOH C6H5OH pH > A

Na2SO4H2SO4 NaHSO4 NH4Cl NaHCO3 NaCO3 NaOH BaOH2


pH
3 1991 c(H+)=110-3molL1 c(OH

)= 110-3 mol L1

40