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# METHODS OF CHARACTERISTIC DESIGNS OF PLANAR AND AXISYMMETRIC DUAL BELL NOZZLES

## ASHISH GARG Project Advisor : Prof. JOSEPH MATHEW

DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE BANGALORE 28TH JUNE 2010

Introduction
Dual bell nozzle is a concept of altitude adaptive nozzle Flow transition from base bell to extension bell occur at high altitude No side load generation hence stability point of view its good, which is the main issue for

## other adaptive nozzles such as spike nozzles

Reasons for significant performance gain Weak over expansion at low altitude so shocks are weak No moving part

Higher expansion ratio of extension bell than conventional nozzle giving more

performance gain at high altitude Nozzle weight is comparatively very less than optimum contour
Some issues Fast flow transition is required Aspiration drag due to recirculation zone

60

40

20

inflection point

## -20 base nozzle

-40extension nozzle

-60 0

X
25 20 15 10

Width
extension nozzle

inflection point

5 base nozzle

## About Method of characteristic

Its a numerical method for solving nonlinear inviscid,

irrotational flow. Used to convert partial differential equation into ordinary differential equation Exist only in super sonic flow Coincident with mach line While derivatives of flow properties are discontinuous but flow properties are continuous Along given line they satisfy compatibility equation

## Foelsch Analytical Method

Region OTR: Starting of source flow Region TRDC: Radial flow region Region CDE: Transition region Region EDX: Flow is fully parallel and uniform

line

## Different procedures used to design nozzles using MOC

Shapiro method Use MOC equations in discretize form along characteristic line Shapiro use backward c- characterstic to define more accurate

profile

Comparision of lengths
2

## Nozzle length comparison for axis symm M =2.5

e

1.5

backward C-

1.8

1.7
1

max

R
0.5

M =2.5
e

1.6

C+ C- characterstic
0

1.5

## Length of centered expansion axis symm. nozzle

1.4

-0.5

R
-1

1.3

1.2

Foesch Analytical Method SOAM with centered expansion SOAM with Radius of expansion =1.161

-1.5

1.1

-2 0

1 -1

3 X

Sr.NO.
1

NOZZLE TYPE

BASE NOZZLE
optimum wall parabolic bell

EXTENSION NOZZLE

## 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 double bell single bell

wedge/straight line bell pressure boundary wall mach number boundary wall optimum wall parabolic bell parabolic bell parabolic bell parabolic bell wedge/straight line bell wedge/straight line bell wedge/straight line bell wedge/straight line bell pressure boundary wall pressure boundary wall pressure boundary wall pressure boundary wall mach number boundary wall mach number boundary wall mach number boundary wall mach number boundary wall optimum wall parabolic bell wedge/straight line bell pressure boundary wall mach number boundary wall wedge/straight line bell pressure boundary wall mach number boundary wall parabolic bell pressure boundary wall mach number boundary wall parabolic bell wedge/straight line bell mach number boundary wall parabolic bell wedge/straight line bell pressure boundary wall

2D planar nozzles
Expansion arc boundary condition

## Axis boundary condition = 0, y = 0

Prandtl-Meyer function

## 2D planar optimum dual bell nozzle

INPUTS
base nozzle exit mach number = 3.5 extension bell exit mach number = 5 base bell exit area ratio w.r.t throat = 6.79

## extension bell exit area ratio w.r.t. throat = 25

total pressure = 200 bar total temperature = 2000k atmospheric pressure = 0.38 bar Specific heat = 1.4 Throat height = 1

INPUTS

## base nozzle exit mach number = 3

extension bell exit mach number = 5 base bell exit area ratio w.r.t throat = 4.235 extension bell exit area ratio w.r.t. throat = 25 total pressure = 200 bar total temperature = 2000k atmospheric pressure = 0.38 bar reference wedge angle = 15 degree fraction length used of this reference wedge = 0.8

INPUTS :

## base nozzle exit mach number = 3

extension bell exit mach number = 5 base bell exit area ratio w.r.t throat = 4.235 extension bell exit area ratio w.r.t. throat = 25

## total pressure = 200 bar

total temperature = 2000k atmospheric pressure = 0.38 bar reference wedge angle = 15 degree fraction length used of this reference wedge = 0.8

## Comparisions of PC, CP, PP, CC nozzles

For PP the parameters are: slope1 : 0.34, slope2 : 0.21, slope3 : 0.41, and slope4 : 0.25 For PC the parameters are: slope1 : 0.34, slope2 : 0.21, slope3 : 0.39, and slope4 : 0.39

## For CP the parameters are:

slope1 : 0.323, slope2 : 0.323, slope3 : 0.41, and slope4 : 0.25 For CC the parameters are:

## Shock captured by MOC solution as Ref. 

Axisymmetric nozzle
INPUTS Nozzle type= Dual parabolic nozzle Total pressure = 200 bar

## Total temperature = 2000k

Reference cone angle = 15 degree Fraction length used of this reference cone = 0.8 Specific heat =1.4 Mach number at the exit of base bell= 4.8

## Pressure at the exit of base bell = 0.47 bar

Mach number at the exit of extension bell = 6.6 Area ratio extension = 80.2 Atmospheric pressure = 0.07 bar = desired pressure for 6.6 mach number For PP Axisymmetric nozzle, the parameters are: slope1 : 0.34, slope2 : 0.2, slope3 : 0.5, and slope4 : 0.3

## Goals Achieved and Future Work

From the discussion so far in the presentation. MOC code for 2D Planar and Axisymmetric Dual Bell Nozzles completed with Boundary Layer Correction and CFD validation of MOC results. Transition point calculation with respect to altitude has been formulated in the thesis. Experiments need to be done on designed contour by MOC to validate transition analysis and results on Dual Bell Nozzles. As we have located the shock where the MOC lines are coalescing. Now the another future task is to incoporate entropy gradient after this shock in MOC solution for better appoximation of flow field. For other researchers working on MOC, Unsteady and 3D effect of flow field can be modelled and can extend this code further with that.

References

Foelsch, K., The Analytical Design of an Axially Symmetric Laval Nozzle for a Parallel and Uniform Jet, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Volume 16, 1949, pp.161-166,pp.188

Emanuel, G. and Argrow, B. M., Comparison of Minimum Length Nozzles, Journal of Fluid Engineering, Trans. ASME, Volume 110, 1988, pp.283-288.
Anderson, JD., 2001, Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, 3rd Edition, pp. 532 -537, pp.555-585. Anderson, JD., 1982, Modern Compressible Flow with Historical Perspective, pp. 268-270,pp. 282-286. Shapiro, AH., 1953, The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow, Vol.I, pp. 294-295.

Shapiro, AH., 1954, The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow, Vol.II, pp. 694-695.
Frey, M. and Hagemann, G., Critical Assessment of Dual-Bell Nozzles, Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol.15, No.1, 1999,pp. 137-143. Masafumi Miyazawa and Hirotaka Otsu, An Analytical Study on Design and Performance of Dual -Bell Nozzles, AIAA, 2004 J.O stlund and B. Muhammad-Klingmann, Supersonic Flow Separation with Application to Rocket Engine Nozzles, Applied Mechanics,2005,Vol 58,pp 143-177

References

Sibualkin, M. Heat Transfer to an Incompressible Turbulent. Boundary Layer and Estimation of Heat Transfer Coefficients at Supersonic nozzle Throats. J. Aeronaut. Sci., 23, No. 2, pp. 162-172, 1956. A. MCCABE, Design of a Supersonic Nozzle, Reports and Memoranda No. 3440,March, 1964 Abdellah Hadjadj , Marcello Onofri, Nozzle flow separation, Shock Waves (springer) pp.163169,2009 Coles, D. E. "The Turbulent Boundary Layer in a Compressible Fluid." RAND Corporation Report R403-PR, September 1962. J.C. Sivells, Design of two-dimensional continuous-curvature supersonic nozzles. J. Aeronaut. Sci., 22, No. 10, pp. 685, 692, 1955. J. Ruptash, Supersonic wind tunnels-theory, design and performance, UTIA Review No. 5, 1952. J.C. Sivells , A Computer Program For The Aerodynamic Design Of Axisymmetric And Planar of Nozzles For Supersonic And Hypersonic Wind Tunnels, Aedc,Dec1978 E.W.E. Rogers and. Miss B. M. Davis. A note on turbulent boundary layer allowances in supersonic nozzle design. A.R.C.C.P. 333, 1957.

THANKS!!!