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Wellesley College Library



by Ehe Bibliographisches lusiuui. Leipzig.













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rights reserved





edition of Ratzel's Völkerkunde

was published





once took


position as a guide-book to the study of

Man and



those beginning anthropological



offered the indispensable outline sketches

of the races of mankind, especially of the savage and barbaric peoples
culture in




stages, thus aiding the great

themselves, to weigh in a just balance their

modern nations to understand own merits and defects, and even in
the possibilities of

some measure


forecast from


own development


So good a judge as Professor Virchow wrote of the work on

appearance, that since the time of Prichard and Waitz no such extensive attempt

had been made


our knowledge of the lower races of mankind,

immensely augmented


by the researches of



exhibition of savages in Europe, and the information opened to the public by the



present English translation


from the second German

edition of

1894-95, revised, and condensed from three to two volumes.

mention must be made of the

surpass those which had hitherto

in excellence 1 1 60 in number, which come within the range of any work on Man


These, be


observed, are no

mere book-

decorations, but a

most important part of the apparatus

for realising civilization

successive stages.


offer, in


way which no

verbal description can

attain to, an introduction

which the Science of
theory of

Man comes more and more

and guide to the use of the museum collections on to depend in working out the

human development.

Works which combine
by observant

this material


of culture with the best descriptions


promote most the

great object of displaying

Brown's Races of

The Rev. J. Mankind have
and well-chosen

mankind G. Wood's Natural History of
in this

as related together in Nature through



and Dr. Robert

way done much


promote anthropology.
be represented


bodily differences

between races can only,





minute physical


belonging to

a region only accessible to anatomists.

languages can only be illustrated
dictionary, so as to

by their by examples chosen from the grammar and


classification of peoples


plain the conclusions of comparative philology without

the elaborate detail of a linguistic treatise.

But a





treatment of the culture-side of


life lies


readily open.



with the civilized water-skin which picture. presents more or less definite groups of objects in which art and habit have fixed themselves rooting-stick appears among i. Negroes. and round her neck are teeth strung as charms. 232) enough to the picture. where the . among the ruder may serve not only as a lesson-book for the learner. Polynesians. Here in the frontispiece of the first volume the Bushman . as the Berlin street-boys did lately till the police stopped the whirling of this mystic toy in . show the beginnings of contact world the small bow with its quiver of poisoned arrows. 88. be. does not belong to modern leans against a rock. has to be divided into artistic objects many departments to give even an idea of what useful and belong to each. and ingeniously to ties together a framework of sticks (see vol. at a consistent level. while her glass made probably at Murano. subsistence. each group finding proper Thus " in the Ethnographic Galleries of the British " Museum. may be so brought to view that a compendium of them. Among and life barbaric and much more among civilized is peoples. ." In the collections which enshrine different them for perpetual knowledge. religion. i. we find in The South Sea Islander can sketch a rough 89). little map. while another child carries a bull-roarer. all the objects which go its to furnish the level. for this to be any longer possible. These things used be little more than curiosities belonging to the of barbarous tribes. Where the Bushmen as a savage implement. In ethnographic collections. More something like a real representation of their life as a whole is possible. a mere trophy of fill ordinary weapons and utensils Plate at p. advanced states of civilization become too complex {e. as found peoples. which show not only the bodies but the if conditions of a rude race. the general condition or altogether (to use the useful old-fashioned term) of Australians. In our time there has come to the front a special study of human life through such to object-lessons as are furnished by the specimens in life museums. the stages of knowledge. p. and the beads. pleasure. of a people are grouped together. fills up the foreground of the Among p. itself begin- ning to be recognised as curious and never suspected of being instructive. . the way which is. morals. which shows these rude negritos engaged in their various occupations. Tartars. the Africa an iron hoe (vol.g. in his times). this. pp. hand is the pipe of antelope-horn for smoking hemp one child is splitting a bone for marrow with a stone implement (which. they In the fulfil in two ways their illustration of the course of culture. makes life possible in the thirsty desert. which also conveniently supports his knobkerry . illustrate this stratification of culture in a suggestive rough educational way. it Nowa- is better understood that they are material for the student " looking before and after. days. the wife carries ostrich- eggs a net. compass and measured chart of civilized The group-pictures. however. such rude tribes the simplicity of life is such that from a group like or the picture of a farm among the Igorotes of the Philippine Islands (Plate at 393). but as a reference- book for the learned. and probably always must life more usual.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND arts of war. 165) bears serve as sailing directions to on the his voyages across the ocean this no discreditable comparison navigation.

though no which is longer carried as a weapon. 247. So among means of literary record. decorative so. Even world in has no exclusive possession of the secret of decorative There abound our shops costly things made and sold for little other purpose than to be pretty. It is well that it should be in great opening out. which again lead on to alphabetic writing. In a work whose value depends so largely on art its illustrative pictures. form and purpose. and thus interesting as an example of degeneration. but is on the contrary a feeble copy of the arbalest carried by the Portuguese of the sixteenth century. 249. for degeneration active also. an important problem which we are obliged cally from imperfect measure to deal with empiripractically. which no doubt depends on boldness. and arranged the founder. or hopes by further resembling every such courses of gradual invention growth./. developed research to find. the civilized art. Collection in the University At Oxford. by making the bow and resonator in one piece and stretching a series of strings across the bow. it i. a typical form representing the primitive harp and lute forms of the world (illustrations of this will be given in the next volume). 244. The sufficient of this in the pictures of carvings and mats from Papua and Polynesia is it (pp. The Damara bow. to laws of development of art. Thus among the implements of different regions. and investigate which by means of in specimens brought together from series according to their accessible regions and ages. class He finds. though looked objects which all On the other hand. 262). custom. Now ? what It will that makes some in lines beautiful. Not indeed is that such progressive improvement as is the sole rule. produce reader will find proof must admit to show taste. firmness. the picture-writing of the American Indian presents a lower form than the mingled pictures and phonetic symbols of ancient Egypt. which are nevertheless unsatisfactory to the educated eye. thought that the rude wooden crossbow of the Fans of the Gaboon (see p. and evident intention . and one more beautiful than another line be said in answer that beauty of outdrawing. there arises the African harp. knowledge of its principles. savages or barbarians. the withe-bound stone hatchet of the Australian takes an early place in the series among whose later members are the bronze hatchet of Egypt and the steel axe of modern Europe. down upon artistic as of low intelligence. retains the purpose of a musical instrument gripped by the teeth and the tense bowstring struck with a stick .vrxonrcrAW productions of a tribe or nation arc grouped locally or nationally together. other tribes improve this primitive stringed instrument by fastening resonator to increase the sound. the of culture has before him the record of similar human nature and in student circumstance working so uniformly as to present formative principles. has been one of the lifelong labours of The working of such a method may in some degree be shown from the illustrations of the present work. 241. in in each class of objects evident various degrees. the Pitt-Rivers Museum all is devoted to the material evidence of the belief. and from to the wood a hollow gourd or similar some such stage. It when low culture leads to inferior adaptation of a known type. has been vol. 86) represents an early rude stage in the development of the weapon. must be conspicuous. as it does.

which again being characteristic. but stiff some is lines are stiff and ugly. a carrying-net." whose sad story is was . gave an impulse to in this interesting study which has continued to be worked out Mr. to in this book (vol. where the patterns. encouraging to consider what progress has been made of late toward solving not so decorative beauty. the curator of the Pitt-Rivers Museum. 256). as the much indeed the direct problem of ornament. When one of these populations. should be known to students taking up this attractive line of research. has reproduced many instructive objects. and again much ornament for admirable. savage or civilized. placed close by two other calabashes without but appropriately decorated with patterns which. 243). Wills." in About 1880 Devonshire to to a had chanced go to the county parish of Holcombe Rogus visit to pay an afternoon the vicar. from I the Pelew Islands. according to the island habit. so that. It brought back me such a memory when. real Looking at them as originally derived from objects. and step patterns of cultured art from of cords and plaitings. led to A remark of mine as protested that stone implement on the mantelpiece the unexpected remark that there were nothing from things upstairs from the Pelew Islands. nesian knows which island a still outlying villages are mat or known by Thus every Melanesian and Polycarving comes from. just as in Switzerland their is special embroidery. whose feeling for orna- mental design is very definite. with added series such as Thurn's pegals or baskets plaited pictures of birds made by the natives of British Guiana. it Prince Lee Boo. and even examples of surprise to its productions disappear. Dr. are patriotically encouraged as local badges. some flowing and elegant. and flowing patterns may flow clumsily. wave. So natural is this that it is a pleasant when they come back sometimes from a hiding-place. Mr. destroyed or reformed into uniformity the with the general fashion of the country. among which mention shall only be made here of the Sandwich Island calabash slung in nets. Everard im the museum bearing his name. i. The more types of tasteful in varied styles can be stored It is in our minds the nearer will be the approach to its understanding. of problem of the origin and meaning of The researches of General Pitt-Rivers on the gradual transformation intermediate human figures into ornamental designs. and the derivation of realistic representations coil. Henry Balfour. and monkeys dwindle into graceful known. we see none the less how they develop into variety. p. We may with fuller respect Hogarth attempting the problem of the line of beauty. When told in I thence had come to England since the time " when Captain Wilson brought over the once familiar poem. a local school vanishes. I opened on the cut of the "covered vessel in shape of a bird. notwithstanding unity of principle. Ratzel. each tribe or district tends to form patterns of its own. for knowledge the moderns ornamentation may succeed where he failed. are conventionalised pictures of the absent network (vol.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND is partly true. p. unmeaning all unless their derivation is The Evolution of Decorative Art by Mr. i. Such evidence goes far to abolish the old-fashioned idea that the patterns which have been the pleasure of ages were devised by ingenious artists out of their inner consciousness.

own Original invention and modification of culture must take place localise it somewhere. on his death-bed ordered that they should be sent to me. the to disentangle the small part of art and custom which any people may have invented or adapted for themselves. the inventory of many among any opportunities. or possibly more than one. and the swords and daggers of the African countries show at a glance . mere to early Thus in the case of the inspection suggests that the glass beads which reach them through the traders are to be traced through an art history leading back through Phoenicia to Egypt. yet at any rate experience and history lead us to judge that more complex. in with other familiar objects figured to be in the national collection. which is found almost everywhere ? The problem becomes more manageable as it passes to special varieties of these simple weapons. elaborate. in the ethnographic department of the They duly took their deserved places British Museum. on the view that they arose each more simple and primitive some one centre. History often civilization helps us to follow these lines of movement which have spread arts over the world. the guns and iron-headed tomahawks bartered from the white trader figure beside the more genuine drum and stone-headed club . while is on the other hand the tracing of the through the regions of the world history. and to appliances which are more complex and elaborate. two generations of children had played havoc still the attic there were the great bird-bowl and the inlaid wooden sword. among the most important aids Bushmen already mentioned. Who shall say. but late . the more right we have to consider that it was only devised once. of people. and had in- herited his curiosities. from the travelling of one invention from place to place. from the large part which has been acquired by adopting from foreigners whatever was seen to suit their circumstances. of which in this book will life give endeavouring to separate. Thus in the war-dance of the Sioux. but of the migration of the deleterious habit of hemp-smoking It is well for the student cultivate the habit. to is a record not of native African invention. x Mrs. all In understanding the likeness which pervades the culture of great difficulty is mankind. where no doubt they will long outlast the amiable but hopelessly degenerate islanders. For though as yet no ventions which definite rule has been ascertained for distinguishing similar in- may have arisen separately. while the dakka-pipe westward and southward probably from Central Asia.INTRODUCTION answered that the with them. and travelled from this the its first home to wherever else it is found. that prized ornament of chiefs. and of the bow. and the rupak or bone bracelet. I represented that they ought and not long Mr. Wills was of Captain Wilson's family. where and by whom were begun the use of the club and spear which are found everywhere. but to in geography and chronology is so perplexing that anthropologists are fain to fall back. and unfamiliar an art or institution is. Wills. in Before that. thence propagating themselves over the world. especially as to the in developments. for instance. Keate's book. the picture of whose social decay has been drawn with such minute faithfulness by Kubary. the pro- ducts of native invention from the borrowed appliances of the foreigner. after.

for Its of inestimable use to us in the limited . and religion of the isolated savage family. naturally belong. and vengeance. The rude hut of Tierra del Fuego. gives clues to the understanding of institutions as arts tools do of the they belong The paraphernalia of birth. with their manifold bearing on the practical problems of modern there is no more useful preparation than familiarity with the modes art in which material low and high and representation instinct. is to obtain a more positive knowledge defini- human figures or 301 sgq!). communal agriculture and every direction the material furniture of Thus to. marriage. the backboard of the papoose. takes material shape in the pictured and sculptured animals which decorate the mats and the roof-posts of British Columbia with commemoration of the myths of divine which these ancestors. their understand the social condition of the communities of grouped families. the sight of the material things among which such institutions are worked out gives a reality and sharpness of appreciation which add much to the meaning of words. condition. morals. the same pliability of life to the needs of outtvard circumstances. is In half the countries of the world the concep- tion of the soul idols in and of deity spirits best to be learnt from the rude the worshippers say are considered to take their embodiment (see pp. and death among the American Indians. patriarchal or matriarchal. tell in outline the story of their life. and their ideas of religion. and do to the idols. the weapons and orna- ments rude sacrificed for the use of the dead man's soul. Moslem religion. The habit of constant recourse to actual objects investigation of ideas. and then their wider diffusion by one tribe copying from another — these actions go on human race. The great totem-system. inhabited by the natives occupied among their scanty appliances. To learn what of the native theology than tions from the is to be had from attempts to extract scholastic vague though not unmeaning language of the savage priest. which binds together in bonds of amity the tribes of the barbaric world. and the principles we learn from mere things may is the study of men. For the study of earlier stages of social life. almost as travellers among them may do. to which brotherhood tribal war. the beads and paint of the bride. are developed and propagated. in taken in its largest sense. more abstract briefly scope is yet as we have to depend on verbal description their social our knowledge of the habits of distant and outlandish peoples. and even of morals and life. the whip of the initiation ceremony. our ideas of the life. their rules modes of government. which precedes the cultured state where circumstances have to yield to the needs of man. The same underlying human the same constancy of human faculty through stages. So the models or pictures of the huge village-houses of Malays or the higher American Indians enable the spectator to of right and wrong. . the same adaptation of copying by the whole throughout the guide us in artificial means suggested by nature. brings the race before us in a framing to which we adjust. and what the indwelling spirits of the idols do to the worshippers. life. the same tribe of the devices which individuals have started.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND the influence of Asia which has spread with and beyond the range of the religion.

IXTRODUCTION It is especially because the present work comes under the good class of popular illustrated its books that it is desirable to point out that this does not detract from it educational value. and the geography Still less of civilization. It is true may be accompanied by some dwindling of the adventurous interest which belongs to the early periods of a science. but as even laying down the first stages of curves of movement which This will describe and affect the courses of future opinions and institutions. In the next century. rich in theoretical and practical knowledge shaped into law and acquisition of evidence felt rule. To discuss the theoretical part. yet. the classification of mankind by race and language. to judge from its in the present. EDWARD B. is likely to be useful. TYLOR. and possibly the anthropologists of the next century. tising of will be a gain to the systemascientific human life and the arrangement of conduct on reasonable and that such results principles. He has simply to recommend it a foreign book. and its full use will then be acknow- ledged not only as interpreting the past history of mankind. pointing out to what classes of readers. would be to go outside the purpose of this introduction. attacking or defending Professor Ratzel's views on the diffusion of the human species over the globe. it will have largely attained to the realm of positive law. may in look back to our days of laborious results with and enjoyment of new colonial something of the regret by the denizen of a town looking back to the time life when settled occupation was only beginning to encroach on the hunters' in the wild land. nor has the theory consolidated into dogmatic form. however. the advance collection of the evidence has not yet approached completion. but on the contrary makes for providing a solid foundation in anthropological study. It should. . as in other subjects modern as to their scientific form and rank. and for what purposes. be clearly understood that great as the progress of anthropology has been during the last half-century. is it the duty of the introducer to seek out errors.


to append an illustration body of the work ventured. drawn from his own reading or once more. however. even at the English reader a sound quite unlike that of the original It word. and having on a few occasions as the merest outsider. in expected to reproduce. to be in his " seen and not heard is " . like little is Mr. or of breaking through an old tradition. about a subject unless he knows nothing about any other of Margites. now that he looks back on It seems to have been an impudent in intrusion into other people's domain. what laid before him another. that to say. Both are expected. to give the form which most nearly conveys the sound from an English eye to an English stamped as they are with the seal of literature it would be pleasant indeed to write Otaheite and Owhyhee. France. may be necessary on philological letter grounds to adopt a conventional system of equating risk of suggesting to the with letter. it system of their would seem In in Germany. appears to be held many quarters at the present day that a man cannot know anything . but here we have surrendered to . own medium. but so " far as can be judged from the present work. we . the name of a well-known cricketer so as at once to his first newspaper -reader pronounce disguise the fact that he is syllable as make the ordinary rhymed to "man. the present to depart from this in the translator. to spell may if it be all right. In some cases. for instance. he is almost compelled to make himself " heard it.TRANSLATOR'S NOTE typewriter. the case of surely in a popular names which till work ear. " only to deprecate reproof for what." and But in namesake best. However. intended chiefly for English use. One fault leads to another. and the " expert " is perhaps justly intolerant On one other point a word of apologia must be said. is whenever possible without great violation of custom. with some diffidence. craves leave for a moment rule. James PAYN has recently compared the translator's functions to those of the and in many respects the comparison holds good. in confirmation or otherwise of Professor Ratzel's views and statements. made be made. if experience. to the Lion of the Punjab. and is hopeless to revive the old forms. It Europeans heard them never had occasion to be it spelt. A fashion has sprung to a up among the learned of spelling barbarous names according own. and say nothing about it. to In this matter a distinction has names " transliterated from a language with old-established it written symbols differing from our symbols. boys each in the is nursery code of etiquette.

who have very kindly revised the proofs. H. Why. if he ever needs to mention them. Henry Balfour performed parts. He is not responsible for the spelling mistakes in the descriptions of the cuts —-about will some of which Professor Ratzel mostly be found corrected in appears to have been misinformed. write will rhyme to " funguses " when by and writing Tungooses we least fathers at give some approximation following our Again. . and should be used in English books. this most necesillness two or three and when he was incapacitated by continuing the work. why write Shilluks for the people whom Gordon to the right sound ? Other nations would not hesitate. In conclusion. Mr. Xiluques. Spaniard. index. These the . Why are Englishmen alone not to keep within their like own " sphere of influence " in this matter ? Forms tapn and tahi may be all very well in scientific periodicals. Thanks to his careful superintendence. Scilucchi a a Frenchman writes Schilluk are still at liberty to consider our Tunguses. sary office for the for first Mr. Ling Roth was good enough to come to the rescue. it may be hoped that few errors of names. for instance.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND own countrymen. . . A German reasonably called Shillooks ? doubtless Chilouques an Italian. nor for remain in the text. which nine Englishmen out of ten . but taboo and tattoo are the English words. the translator has to express his best thanks to two experts.

21. 5. The Malagasies The Religion of the Malays .. Physical Qualities and Intellectual Life of the Polynesians and Micronesians Dress. C. 9. 349 365 380 383 16. 14 20 30 38 65 Religion Science and Art S. Community. . .. 214 223 238 267 300 The Australians 333 337 Society in Australia . Aspect. 5. The Malay Family. Malays and Malagasies 391 20. 10... Religion of the Australians . The BOOK A. The Negroid Races of the Pacific and Indian Oceans Dress and Weapons of the Melanesians Labour. 7. .. Weapons.. 6. Weapons. 17. 93 106 114 129 12. 4.. 1. and Food in Oceania The Family and the State in Oceania Religion in Oceania 10. 13.. and Implements of Polynesians and Micronesians 185 195 4. . 3. 8..CONTENTS BOOK SECTION I I Principles of Ethnography The Task of Ethnography .. 11. and other Property of the Malays .. . Family and Social Customs . The Malay Archipelago Bodily Conformation and Intellectual Life of the Malays Dress. Clothing and Ornament Habitations State . B. Invention and Discovery Agriculture and Cattle-breeding 76 87 9. 393 405 437 452 State 467 . and Spread of Civilization Language Situation.. Weapons. H.. . 14. 18... and Numbers of the Human Race The Position of Natural Races among Mankind Nature.. Australia Physical and Mental Character of the Australians Dress. 11.. 12. 3 5 2. ' \ . and other belongings of the Australians The Family and The Tasmanians 15. 3. II The American-Pacific Group General Survey of the Group The Races of the Pacific and their Migrations of Races The Races of Oceania 145 155 2. 6... 7. Rise. 19.. Dwellings..


. Where this is so the List embodying corrections which will ultimately be made in the text. (From a photograph) Indian Mirror from Texas. (From a photograph in the possession of Freiherr von Siebold Vienna) Ambuella Drum.. king of the Gaikas Fritsch) Hamitic or Semitic blend. . perhaps to avert lightning... . 195 „ „ „ . Weapons and Utensils from Melanesia and Micronesia An Australian Family-Party from New South Wales Sowek a Pile-Village on the North Coast of New Guinea. : 39 42 43 44 45 . (From Cook's Collection in the Ethnographical Museum. .. — In differ some cases the descriptions of Figures given in the following List will be found to from those which occur in the text.. (After Serpa Pinto) Igorrote Drum from Luzon.. Leipzig) Kaffirs. Vienna) . rudimentary writing from the Negroes of Lunda (after M. (British Museum) Fijian double canoe. 19 21 21 23 29 36 : ... b 46 . Ft ontispiece . (Ethnological Museum.......... in the Godeffroy Collection.. from San Christoval.. . (From a photograph in the collection of Pruner Bey) Voung girl of the Mountain Damara tribe. . from New Zealand.. from Ancon. and Ornaments of American Indians To fact page 65 Polynesian Weapons and Costume 155 " Pattern of Polynesian Tapa. .. ..Xote. (After Raffray) Igorrote Farm in Luzon (Philippines).... .. 232 294 344 393 )5 427 PAGE 6 showing the Semitic type of the (From a photograph by G 13 13 16 .. Sandili..... (Christy Collection) Ainu beside one of their store-huts.. Hans Meyer) Malay Fabrics and Weapons .. (After G.. (After Büchner) Wooden idol from the Niger. (Stockholm Ethnographical Museum) Owner's marks the upright column from the Ainu (after Von Siebold) the others.. (After Cameron) Grave of a Zulu chief.. may be taken as ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME MAP Map of the Races of Oceania and Australasia I To face page 145 COLOURED PLATES A Bosjesman Family . Entrance to a fetish hut in Lunda. (Museum of the Church Missionary Society) A mummy wrapped in clothing. Utensils.. . . Hans Meyer) Queensland Aborigines...made of bones. (From a photograph belonging to the Barmen Mission) Steel Axe of European make with old bone handle. Weapons.. ... . (After Reiss and Stubel) Idols from Hermit Island. ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT Eskimo bow... . (After Codrington) Fetish in Lunda (After Büchner' purpose unknown. (From the collection of Dr. Fritsch) Galla : A monk .. Berlin) Supposed idols representing souls. (From a model . (From a water-colour drawing by Dr. from Ubudjwa. .... ... Büchner) Melanesian sea spirit.

Wange ... Dice and amulets of a Bamangwato magician. .... (From a photograph by Richard Buchta) From a photograph by Richard Buchta) Princess of Unyoro.. 3... Lake Tanganyika. from Queen Charlotte Islands. 5... ........ and carved adzes. Falkenstein) Magicians of the Loango Coast... with sheath one-fourth real size. from the Gilbert Islands. British Colombia. (After Cameron) West African body-tattooing. 5o 54 55 — Cemetery and sacred tree in Milinda. (Vienna Ethnographical Museum) The larger one on the right from the north-west Shell and bone fish-hooks from Oceania. in writing of the time of Captain Cook.. (Vienna Ethnographical Museum) in Weapons set with sharks' teeth... with wife and dignitary. . 1.. (Collection of Baron von Siebold. Woman of the Azandeh.. armlet.. The blade is also used as currency one-eighth real size... Berlin Leg ornaments of dogs' teeth. describes it as from (British Museum) the Friendly Islands.. (Christy Collection) Axe of turtle-bone. (After Raffray) Ashantee drinking cups of human skulls. head-dress of the Shulis. .. Dresden) Islands. M. 72 73 73 74 75 ... Stone lip-plugs. (Christy Collection) .THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Fish-headed idols from Kaster Island. .. 2. (From a drawing by the same) one-half real size (Kubary Collection.. (From a photograph in the possession of Dr. Cap made of a palm-spathe. (Berlin Museum of Ethnology) .. (From a drawing by Pechuel-Loesche) West African mode of filing the teeth. perhaps a chief's breast-plate.. (From a photograph by Dr.... or Nyam-Nyams. . Monbuttu tobacco-pipe carved Collection) Carved and painted Zanza... London) Modes of hairdressing.. (From a photograph by Dr... .. .) Chains made of walrus-teeth.. . from Isabel in the Solomon bamboo with carvings. (After Fritsch) (After Jagor) Tree-dwellings in South India. (British Museum) New (City Museum. (From a photograph) Fishing village on the Mekong.. Azandeh Ethnographical Museum) 105 107 . ... from 102 103 104 104 or — Berlin). (British Museum) .. (After Baker) I. A label pasted on this. from Hawaii. dressed in bark-cloth.......... 2. 2. — to the 99 100 100 101 102 upper arm.... Falkenstein) Iron hoe from Kordofan.. (Christy Col. — 91 92 94 95 96 97 mann.... (After Charnay) House in Central Sumatra... ... lection) and medusa in walrus-ivory.... 4.. from Easter Island. (Christy figure from Dahomey. . (Ethnographical Museum at Munich) Masks from New Ireland one-eighth of real size... Tortoise-shell combs from Pelew . (Stockholm Ethnographical Museum) Carved clubs from Lunda.... (After Veth) (After Cameron) Village on a tongue of land.. (After Du Chaillu) Stick used by Bushmen in digging roots. and shell armlet.. . .... from (?) Tahiti.. Lagos (Christy Collection.. Dagger for attaching Islands (Munich Ethnographical Museum)... (After Codrington) Nootka Indians.. Nyam-Nyam shield — one-tenth real size (Vienna Caves of the Bushmen. (Munich Ethnographical Museum) Bawenda children belonging to a mission school. Vienna) Woman of New South Wales. 6. Plaited hat of the Ethnology) (Christy Collection) Zealand tobacco-pipe.. (Vienna Ethnographical Museum) Sandal from Unyoro. (After Stanley) a Boat-coffin from Timorlaut.. armlet. Falkenstein) Village chief of the Loango. — 76 78 82 coast of 83 (Munich Ethnographical Museum) .. 108 109 no III A Zulu family... ....... (After Codrington) 56 60 63 69 70 7i Ornament on coco-nut Piece of shell.. and stone weights for the same.. (From a photograph in the possession of Dr.... Frankfort O...... (Vienna Ethnographical Museum) (Vienna Ethnographical Museum) Ircnga arm-ring. . . 7.. worn by the Jur tribes. Wangemann) Interior of a house in Korido. ... . Berlin) Fur and bird-skin clothing of the Ainu.. Paddle-shaped clubs....... Lovale.. as carried by chiefs. figure Human America. wood and ornamented with copper wire (Berlin Ethnographical — one-tenth real size.. . . (From a photograph in the possession of Lieutenant von Bulow. 112 Il6 127 128 . New Guinea. . from Aleutia. a musical instrument used over a great part of Central and South Africa Fan warrior with crossbow.... Ornamental goblet from West Africa.... one-fourth real size. (Büchner collection in the Munich Ethnographical Museum) (Berlin Museum of Tobacco-pipe carved out of slate. showing eye-ornament.... .. from the New Hebrides... necklaces. 1. . (From a photograph by Dr..... .. .... probably from Fiji . (From model in the Ethnographical Museum.. from the Hervey .. from Brazil... (Berlin Museum of Ethnology) Loango negress at field-work. The so-called 4i Dwarf's House" at Chichen-Itza. Kaffir fire-sticks.. Museum) 85 85 . for producing fire by friction (Museum of the Berlin Mission) Wooden shield with picture-writing.

(Munich Museum) of Ethnology) Kingsmill Islander in armour. (From a photograph in the Godeffroy Album) Women of the Gilbert Islands and Marshall Islands. (From a model in the Munich Ethnographical Museum) Carved boat from New Zealand actual length 8 ft. (Godeffroy Album) A man of Pelew. . New . ornamental weapons.... von den Steinen) (From photograph in the possession of Dr. Hans Meyer's Collection... Museum) . New Zealand. . used as stamps.. 3 (Berlin Museum of Eth Ancient club from Tonga 4... Toothed club from Tutuila . (Godeffroy Collection) Boat of the Luzon Tagals. 200 20I 203 203 203 . Wangemann) (From a photograph) Articles belonging to Dyak head-hunters and 4 from full ... (From a photograph by Richard Buchta) Insignia. a cannibal memento from Fiji. (Leipzig Zulu chief in full war-dress.. throwing-sticks of dark wood. Short clubs from Easter Island.. (After Dr. 4. Borneo. (Godeffroy Collection) Jade battle-axes and jade hatchet. A man of Ponape in the Carolines. (From a photograph in the Godeffroy Album) (Christy Collection) Breastplate of shell with sling of human hair one-fourth real size. and drums from the Southern Congo territory Polynesian clubs and insignia of rank Araucanian man and woman. New Zealand. Axes from the D'Entrecasteaux Islands one-eighth real size. 153 fruit . — i. . . (From a model in Dr. Casket to hold a skull from Kutei 3 W... (!>) Taro (Caladium esculentum) Sepulchral — one-half natural (From a model size monument in Ponape.. New Guinea one-fifth real size. (From a photograph .. (British Museum) Bone comb from New Zealand — one-third real size. (Christy Collection Samoan woman. Herr Max Büchner) (Berlin from Kaiser Wilhelm's Land. . (Munich Ethnographical Museum) one-thirteenth real size (Berlin Museum of Ethnology) 1. 2. Easter Island. . in the Godeffroy Collection..... (From a photograph in the Godeffroy Album) Boy of New Ireland. (From photograph in the Godeffroy Album Dressed skull. (British Museum) Dancing stilts. Max Büchner) Maori girl. in the possession of belt. (British Museum) Wooden baler. Leipzig) Sumatran praku.. 5. chief. insignia of chiefs. (From a photograph in the possession of Dr. . Britain. (From a photograph in the Damann Album) Lango chief .. . . Wooden dancing-stilts. (Christy Collection) Carved wooden plaques. (Godeffroy Album) — 182 183 184 186 137 ... from the Fiji Islands.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE Human bone in the fork of a branch .. Savage Islands.... with outrigger and Collection) (After a model n the Godeffroy 162 163 163 Boat of Niue. 156 in the Godeffroy Album) 157 160 161 Outrigged boat... sail (From a photograph of rush-matting. — . 164 164 165 165 — 169 170 175 : nology) Thakombau. human hair. Caroline Islands. from Easter Island one-tenth real size (Christy Collection) 2.. ("British Museum) 3. (Godeffroy Collection) Bamboo flutes from Tahiti and Hawaii.. 176 177 181 last king of Fiji.... ( After a model in the Godeffroy Collection) (From the same) Boat of the Hermit Islands. Paddles used at dances. Wooden baler. (From a photograph) Man of New South Wales.. — — — — 188 1S8 from the Marshall Islands.-one. 1. and bark . (Berlin Museum of Ethnology) 1. (Godeffroy Album) A man of Rotuma. (From a photograph) Bakairi girl from the Kulishu river. The Basuto chief A Dakota 3.. and a man of Yap in the Carolines. (British Museum) Stick chart from the Marshall Islands. 2. (From a photograph) Dyak woman of Borneo. .-one-sixth real size. cuirass. Men of Ponape in the Carolines. . (From the Godeffroy Album) Combs from Tonga one-fourth real size.. R. from the Marquesas. Museum Wangemann) of Ethnology) 129 130 132 133 : Shield ornamented with . Woman of Ponape. Woman of the Paumotu Islands.. .... from the Marquesas Tattooed Maoris. Leipzig) Boat of the Mortlock Islands. Sword and knife. lady with hair dressed high... . (Berlin Museum and magician... 89 190 1 191 192 193 196 197 198 199 Samoan (From photograph in the Damann Album) (From the Godeffroy Album) Man of the Ruk Islands. (British Museum) Wooden baler. the Rattan . 2 in. from New Caledonia.. (From a photograph in the possession of Dr. (Godeffroy Album) A Tongan.fifth real size.. . 138 139 fa 145 146 1 48 149 150 151 152 Bread-fruit true {Artocarpus hicisus) : (a) inflorescence. 2. God of dances. (From a photograph in the possession of Herr Max Büchner) (British Museum) Tattooing instruments from the Friendly Islands one-third real size. Secocoeni with his court. and 2 probably 135 137 Skull with engraved ornament and metal plate . . . Women of the Society Islands... in the form of a double paddle.

. New Guinea size... 14... 3. shield.. (Christy Collection) New Hebridean ornament (enlarged) Bit of etched design on a coco-nut. Pin used in weaving. from the Gilbert Islands Museum). Adze with carved helve.. .. and arm-ring of boar's tusks. shell-disks and whale's tooth. said to be used also as dagger.. (British Museum) Mats from Tongatabu. ..... 16. — one-third real — one-half real (Godeffroy Collection.... (After Codrington) Wigs of human hair worn in battle.. Weapons from the Admiralty Islands. (9) Neck ornament .. (From the Godeffroy Album) Woman of the Anchorites Islands..... . New Ireland Spatula for betel-lime from — one-eighth (after real size (Christy Collection)... Obsidian spear-head from Easter Island . . 2.. 11. (From Godeffroy Album) Fijian gentleman.. 6...fifth real size (British Museum). from Friedrich-Wilhelm's Carved shield from Hatzfeld Harbour. Berlin) (From the Godeffroy Album) of New Ireland.. Coco and Sago Palms : Obsidian axes from Easter Island one-third real size. Shield from Teste in New Guinea ... (Frankfort City Museum) Head-dress like an eye-shade from New Guinea one-fifth real size. size. (From Godeffroy Album) Fijian lady.. 4. Motu-motu shield from Freshwater Bay (Berlin Museum of Ethnology) one-twelfth real size. . (Vienna Ethnographical Museum) (Cook Collection.. .... Wooden battle-shield from Astrolabe battle-shield from Trobriand... 4....... (From the Godeffroy Album) .... from Isabel Island in the Solomons. dagger and baler from Hawaii. . Joost. 8 and 15..... from (Christy Collection) Shell plaques for adorning the breast and forehead. (Christy Collection) 1. (Berlin Museum) Small weapons with sharks' teeth from Tonga.. Wooden Bay.. 3. Saw of ray-spine. (From the Godeffroy Album) 10. from New Zealand one-fifteenth real size (Munich Ethnographical set with sharks' teeth.. PAGE — — .. Vienna Museum) Stone pestles from Hawaii one-fourth real size. . .. 2.. Carved dance-shield from East New Guinea one. with black and white pattern... Nukuor. Society Islands girl.. Friendly Islands . Saw.. (British Museum) (From the Godeffroy Album) Fiji warrior in a wig.. 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 Musical instrument from I.... Weapon one-sixth real size. (Godeffroy Collection.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Man of the Ruk Islands. Earthenware vessels from the Fiji Islands.. from Pelew one-third real size (Berlin 1.. of ray-spine. with limpet-shells.. —one-tenth real size (Christy Collection). said to be from the Society Islands— one-eighth real size (Christy Collection...) 4. Leipzig) Harbour. Axe from Hawaii 2.. 5. .. 12. — one-fourth — real size. (British Museum) one-sixth real size.) (1-3) Necklaces of shell and beans.... bound with 2.. breastplate.. 3....fifth real size.. Woman of the Anchorites Islands.. Spear 2. (12) Ear-button made of a ray's vertebra Armlets of black wood and whale's tooth. (1. (16) Necklace o (15) Neck ornament... British 208 209 — — — Museum) — — — — 211 — . I.. (8) Necklace of tortoise-shell. . . 212 (11) Wooden fillet for the head. . . Wooden — .... 2... 4.. Leipzig) Dagger of cassowary bone. with dolphin's teeth (6 and 7) Ear-buttons of whale's tooth.. — one-tenth real 1..) (From a photograph in the possession of Herr W. said to be from Pelew one-third real size (British Museum. from Vanna Levu.. 13... probably Polynesian implements from II ervey Group or Paumotu Islands. Wooden swords from Pelew Islands one. Nose-ornament. 3. size. (Christy Collection) 1.. 6... 236 238 239 240 240 ... Quiver and arrow.. Easter Island.. (13.. New Caledonian clubs and a painted dance club from 1. . 9. Bow from the Solomon Islands (Berlin Museum). Codrington) Carved coco-nut from New Guinea one-half real size. Bow and arrow from the Friendly Islands one-third real size (Christy Collection). and gourd bottle from New Caledonia. 14) Hawaii. (Vienna Museum. — 3...... . 4. Hervey Islands (1-7... Arrow-heads from the Solomon Islands (Godeffroy — — (Christy Collection) plaited rattan... . 5. Bow and arrows (Vienna Museum) from North-west New Guinea ^66 234 235 3... Hatchets from the Marquesas and Society Islands one-third real size. Leipzig) Drum from Pigville in New Guinea Drums from Ambrym in the New Hebrides 221 — 222 222 223 — 224 224 225 226 228 230 231 New Guinea — one-eighth real size. 2. New Man Guinea . . 3.) two-sevenths real size (British Museum). 5. (4 and 5) Ear-pendants. Collection. Christy Collection.. 204 205 207 — or implement from Hawaii Museum) Maori chiefs staff and walking-sticks one-eighth real size. Wooden dish from Hawaii.... from North-west New Guinea one-fourth real size. Bone arrow-head real size (Christy Collection) Hawaiian wicker-work helmet one-fourth real size. Marquesas (10) Necklace. (Christy Collection) (Christy Collection) the 2. . New Hebrides.

Straw plaiting probably a modem Wickerwork (basket. inlaid with shell. (From a photograph) Samoan warrior in tapa-clothmg. one-half real size fly-whisk). (Christy Collection) for betel-box Carved gourd used — — one-fifth real size. (Godeffroy Collection... .. . (Christy Collection) (Godeffroy Album) by the attendants of men of rank. size. carved with a Islands. from the Society Islands Fly-whisk (insignia of a chief).. Austral Group one-fourth real size (Christy Collection) 2.. (After Raffray) Stool from Dorey in New Guinea one-seventh real size...... from New Caledonia (Vienna Museum) A New Zealand trawl-net.. (Berlin Museum) 1.. (Vienna Museum) Mats from Tongatabu. (British Museum) Wooden bowl for food.. Kahile" or fly-flap. . (Christy Collection) .. Leipzig) 2.. from Ancestral image {Korvar) from A 1... pouches. 2.... Vienna) House in the Arfak village of Memiwa. (From the Godeffroy Album) Princess Ruth of Hawaii. (Christy Collection and Berlin Museum) Pots and implements (the two calabashes for betel-lime) from the Admiralty Islands. (Munich Ethnographical Museum) Shark-trap with wooden float from Fiji. 7. — real size. Floats sinkers. in the Berlin Museum Roof-ornaments and shoring-props from New Caledonia. (From the Godeffroy Album) as a token of peace.. Coco-palm leaf.. New Guinea.. (British Museum) New Caledonian hut (Qu. importation... Necklace of similar teeth from . .. (From a photograph belonging to Professor Büchner... S..... Decoration for chiefs.. Stick calendar of the Ngati Ranki tribe in New Zealand (British Museum) . (Christy Collection) — New Caledonian head-stools. 4. .. ... 6.. (Christy Collection) — size. (Cook Collection. . (Christy Collection) Carved bamboo box from Western New Guinea three-fourths real size. Guinea one-fourth real size... . Samoa... (From a photograph in the Godeffroy Album) Sacred drum with carving from High Island.. baler. (Cook Collection. probably from Tongatabu. Beaters of kauila f Stamping Oil lamps of lava.... for stirring food at feasts.. 5. 2. carried King Lunalilo of Hawaii.. Berlin) eight feet in length... Berlin Museum) i. Vienna Ethno (Cook Collection) from the Trobriand Islands one-third real size.. ..... Sacrificial knife.. and war-spears.. Wicker fans probably from Samoa.. (Christy Collection) in New Guinea .. from New Britain.... Munich) Women of Ponape in the Carolines. Fly-whisk. .. from the Normanby an instrument of torture... (From the Godeffroy Album) Old Tongan woman... 3... (Vienna Museum) Carved and painted rafters from common halls {bais) in Ruk. 1. one-fifth to one-sixth 9-12. size. (Berlin Museum) Smoked fish from Massilia in East New Guinea one-sixth real size.... and paddle-shaped spoon. a sling Fiji. stoppered with conus shells. (From a photograph) : . .. from Easter Island — one-half real .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE Carved spatulas for betel-lime from Eastern New Guinea—two-sevenths real size... from the Admiralty 1. in.... .. and graphic Museum) Polynesian fan and fly-whisks.. . also a shell horn — Islands — one-eighth real — one-third real size.. ..... .. (Finsch Collection... — — . from New Zealand Chief of Tae in the Mortlocks.. from Venus Hook (Finsch Collection. (From the Godeffroy Album) A Tagal village Luzon in the Philippines. Fishing trimmer from the Solomon Islands one-eighth real size (Christy Collection). — one-fifth real size. (From a photograph in the Godeffroy Album) Tongan ladies. i-S. .. (Christy Collection) Chisel and shell auger... sacred) after a model doorposts and roof-ornament supplied from originals .. from Samoa — one-eighth real (British Museum) (Christy Collection) — one-sixth real size. ... .. (Christy Collection) Utensils from Hawaii (Arning Collection..... size. from Tongatabu.. (Christy Collection) Fly-whisks (chief's insignia).. from the Society Islands — one-sixth real ... (British Museum) Fiji Islander. from Hawaii. 9-12... (From the Godeffroy Album) Fijian warrior.. .. insignia of chiefs. available also as (Berlin Museum) Human lower jaw set as an arm-ring. Calabash-carrier of coco-nut fibre : 241 2.. .. (British Museum) Another vessel of the same material. New — — . Head-stool from Yap —one .. from the Pelew Islands. Toy '•' paddles... size New Guinea. Maori design... . Gourd bottle from the D'Entrecasteaux Islands one-third fourth real size. Bamboo water-vessels from New Guinea . . (Berlin Museum) Cuttle-fish baits from the Society Islands two-fifths real size. . (From the Godeffroy Album) Ear-button from the Marquesas and amulet from Tahiti two-thirds real Warrior of the Solomon Islands... (Christy Collection) Covered vessel in shape of a bird. Berlin) Chiefs wife of Puapua... Calabashes with pattern burnt sticks for tapa.... wood human hair with carved cachalot's tooth. . ..

. .. ..... Tabongs. last . axe. — one-fifth real wood (Christy Collection) Ancestral images from Easter Island — one-tenth Zealand. .... probably from West Victoria — one-sixth real size.. (From a photograph) Billy Bull and Emma Dugal. (From a photograph in the Damann Weapon Collection) . (Godeffroy Collection. — one-tenth real (London Missionary Society's Collection. (Berlin Museum) New South Wales women and child.. — — one-half real Ireland size. (Berlin Museum) Message-sticks with picture-writing. A Calinga of Luzon in the Philippines. (Berlin Museum) Wooden belt. used as a temple-ornament in — one-eighth real Museum) — — — — . Museum) fifths real (Dresden Ethnog raphical — one-sixth real Museum) — .. .. real size. Love charm from New Guinea one-fifth real size... natives of South Australia..tattooing. mostly from North Australia the second and third from the right are fish-spears — one fifth real size....... and club.. (British Museum) — Opossum rug . New Guinea.. New (Berlin and hermit-crabs.. Hervey Croup. clubs. showing breast-scars. one-eighth real size.... (British Museum) New South Wales woman with " scar-tattooing.•• (Munich Museum) .. (Berlin Museum) Album) (Stockholm Ethnographical A Battak of Sumatra... The stick in the middle is of uncertain use one-tenth size. Child-mummy on Woman's apron of emu feathers... — Stone club. and turtle skull. but perhaps from the New Hebrides one-fourth real size.. (From a photograph) Australian bags of woven grass one-sixth real size. possibly from New Britain. (Christy Collection) Article employed in Melanesian rites.... Günther) (From a photograph) Native of New South Wales.. Günther) Young Queensland man.... (British Museum and Berlin Museum) New South Wales men." (From a photograph Australian magic-sticks.. Carved post from a house from Idols carved in I.. (From a photograph by C. size.. .. from Torres Arrow-head from Museum) Stone axes .. the last Australian shields Australian "bull-roarers " . said to be Australian. said to be Australian..... votive bunches of hair.. the Truganina.. (From a photograph) Queensland girls. the lower from Queensland or Victoria (Berlin real size. (Berlin Museum) — New South Wales men.." (From a photograph) Melanesian axes. ... (Berlin one-sixth real size.. for holding objects of use in magic Museum) Human figure of shells size.. . Austral Group. now British Museum) 2. (Berlin Museum and British Museum) Wooden spears. from Torres Straits South Australian native women. (From a photograph) Queensland canoe.. (Berlin Museum) Necklace of kangaroo teeth.. (From a photograph in the size. .. (Vienna Museum) Tasmanian. (From a photograph) Tasmanian woman... (British Museum) ..... Boomerangs and boomerang-shaped clubs..... . (Berlin Museum) Wommeras or throwing-sticks of the Australians one-fifth real size. and hammers. New (Christy Collection) From Rarotonga. from Sumatra — four-fifths real Damann Album) (Munich Museum ....... (British Museum and Berlin Museum) Axes of stone or horse-shoe iron from Queensland one-fifth real size.. (From a photograph) A Dyak cf Borneo.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Charms made Islands of human bone. used by watchmen in Java to catch persons running amok.. Rurutu. (From a photograph by C. one showing " scar.. Group (After Raffray) Sacred place in Dorey.. 3.. (From a photograph) size.... Hervey . (From a photograph) (From the account of the voyage of the " Novara") Eucalyptus Forest in South Australia. (Berlin Museum) the bier used for burial.. Leipzig) Striking and throwing clubs one-eighth real size.. (From a photograph) —one-fourth real size.... ... (British Museum) North Australian with spears. with Rejang characters. scars... ." (From a photograph) Young Queensland man with "scar-tattooing.. - Straits Islands New Guinea... From Aitutaki.. showing breast Bamboo bow. . from West Australia one-third real size. from a temple in the Admiralty size. . William Lanney. .... the three above from North Australia.. . Marsilia Drummondi Queensland girl... — one-thirteenth real Torres Straits — fourth (British size.

designs on the calves ot the legs ... 449 Malagasy of Negroid type.. . . . 2. Chief and dignitary of Nias. . . Collection). — . — 434 434 435 448 real size.... .. (Munich Museum) Battak hoes from Sumatra one-seventh real size. .. 2.. .East Bornean head-dress City Museum) : (Munich Museum) a. . .. .. — . . (b) pendants of crocodile teeth .. East Sumatra one-fourth real size.. Sword from Gorontalo in 4.418 Dagger from Borneo one-fifth real size. . . . Igorrote necklaces.. and quiver. from Borneo.. Singapore .. from Java 5.. Bamboo betel and tobacco boxes from West Sumatra — one-third real Igorrote spindle — one-third real (from Dr.. 2. .. Tangoi or South. . . 2.. . Leyden) 419 Guinan hatchet.. Rice basket (Dresden from Java. .. (From Dr. Shield. A champion's shield from Solor. . Rice-knife.. (Munich Museum) . ... (Leipzig Museum of Ethnology) .. 2. .. d. from Celebes 2.. . . . (Leipzig and Dresden Museum) A Calinga woman of Luzon. view of a Burik .. — .411 411 Java. spear.... one(From Dr.. .. — 422 423 from Timor. .. . . . 3. (From drawings by Dr. and quiver from Poggi. a woman's arm. (From a photograph) Wooden tureen and spoon from Luzon Sumatran saddle (Dresden Museum) (Stockholm Museum) —one-tenth real Dish-cover from South-East Borneo. (From a model in the Dresden Museum) Plough used by the Triamans of Bencoolen... . (Dresden Collection) 414 Blow-gun... . it..... 2. from Nias 2. Spears from 7.412 . Malay loom (from a photograph). . 2. from Borneo one-fourth real size.. 5. . .. with (a) tweezers for pulling out hair real size. Hans Meyer's Collection) 419 Igorrote and Guinan spears and shields one-tenth real size. size.. from Luzon one-sixth real 3. . on the stomach Igorrote tattooing e. from South Celebes. .. arrows. .. Meyer's Collection). 6. Sack carried by the Igorrotes of Luzon (Dr. Hat and shield from Mindanao. Meyer's Collection) (Dr. 1. 4. . Brass pipe of the Battaks. — 403 406 407 — 408 409 410 front ... used especially for weather-magic. from the Batang-lupar Dyaks. . . (Dr.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Magic staves of the Battaks.. Outfit from Ombai. (Dresden Collection) of the Negritos in . . — — .. . — — . from West Borneo Gorontalo. ... . and Negrito harpoon— one-twelfth real size.. Sickle from Java.. and also borne in war one-eighth real size. 2.. . .. .. . 6.. (Munich Museum) .. f. Digging-stick (i. 2.. arrows..... from the Rejangs of Sumatra Krisses one-fourth real size. — ... Ring worn by the Igorrotes on the upper arm when dancing one-third real size.. Comb from Sumatra.. .. 7. Hoes from 1. .. Hans Meyer) Hats worn by chiefs of Kutei tribes in Borneo. from the Kahayan Dyaks 4. (Frankfort City Mail-coats Museum) worn by the Dyaks of South-East Borneo : Malay utensils bells 1. (Munich Museum) . — one-third 429 430 431 432 432 real size (from Dr. . .. (From a photograph) (Frankfort one-third and one-seventeenth real size. size size 433 size. .. — — . from Mentawei 3. and knives: 1. . Brasier and rice-pot from Java.. Meyer's Tobacco pipes used by the Igorrotes and Guinans of Luzon — two -thirds real Dish-cover of armadillo scales from Sumatra size..... • 450 454 455 456 . Sling and sheath of. (From a photograph) Malagasy of Negroid type. Bows and arrows — — . (Berlin Museum) .415 Mandates ox swords.. — Javanese buffalo-cart.. . Meyer's : Collection) . . (Munich Museum) 1. — one-third . 8. (From Dr. from Gilolo 7. . Meyer's Collection) Basket of a Dyak head-hunter.. 6. 424 425 425 426 428 : .. . . .. Mandate of the Kahayan River Dyaks.. . view .....421 one-sixth real size... Meyer's Collection) 413 Bow from Sulu of Asiatic origin. . with half a skull hanging on (Dr. . c.. (Munich Museum) 416 8. . 1. . . Celebes. 5. Basket from Celebes. Knife from the Philippines. krisses..... Ethnographical Museum) A house in Sumatra. />. (From a drawing) one-eighth 1... . Meyer's Collection) tenth real size)... Luzon one-twelfth real size. (From the same) Malay weapons I. . Sumatra one-fourth real size. . Carved wooden sirih box from Deli. g.. Quiver with poisoned arrows from Celebes. and spears of the Kahayan Dyaks of South Borneo bow.. small quiver. from Mentawei 5.... — : .. 8. . 1. 6. for cooling steamed rice in the cover. .... (Stockholm Museum) 414 Blow-gun.... . '. . Meyer's Collection) Small head-basket used by Guinans of Luzon one-third real size.. (Same source) Sakalava musical instrument one-third real — . .. blow-gun. . . (From Dr... (Dresden Museum) Agricultural implements used by the Igorrotes 1.... Hans Meyer's Collection) 420 Spears and shields 1 and 7.. one-half 2. back . (From a photograph in the Damann Album) Toangos of Northern Sumatra. 3. size. . and swords of the Torabjas in Central Celebes . .. (Stockholm Museum) (Munich Museum).. . in the Philippines... . . (From a photograph in Pruner Bey's Collection) . from Java one-sixth real size. said to be from Bali . 8. from 3. .. Igorrote chopping-knife. (Royal Museum. . 4. Cow- .

... two Prime Ministers of Radama II. on the bamboo drinking-cup represented on opposite page. (Leyden Museum) Antananarivo... perhaps an amulet of the Guinans Collection) Talisman from North Borneo and ancestral image from Nias. 462 462 463 464 — 465 468 Wax figure of Buffalo. — one-half real size.. (After Ellis) Rice-mortar and paddle from Madagascar.. (Berlin Museum) Hova drinking-cups of bamboo. .... — 470 471 (From Dr. Madagascar. (Missionary Society's Museum) House of a Hova chief. (From the Globus) Fenced farm-house in Imerina. . Meyer: 473 — — .... Igorrote ancestral image (From Dr. (Berlin Museum Woven pouch from Madagascar one-half real size. the capital... Sacred jar.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Hova guitar and powder-horn.. — Ellis) ... Meyer's Collection) one-twelfth real size. probably from Borneo one-sixth real size.. used also for tobacco-boxes one-half real size. (Dresden Museum) Rosary with amulet from Madagascar one-half real size....... . (Stockholm Ethnographical Collection) Madagascar hubble-bubble. (Dresden Museum) Malagasy necklace of carved horn... Hova . 479 480 ... 457 458 459 460 461 461 — — (From a photograph) (After Rainitnalavona and Rainilaiarivona.... in the African style one-fifth real size. .. .. (Berlin Museum) ...... (Berlin Museum) Drawing of a herd of cattle. (Berlin Museum) (After Ellis) Rainitsontsoraka a Christian martyr in Madagascar.



and have changed their place. but with the means by which he has become what he is. will thus go hand in hand. With regard to the course that our investigation must follow. pleteness of the human race. and the historical It is only from consideration of their development. and of their doings that make up the history of the world. Hence the necessity of attention to the geographical point of view. this lower strata of humanity. and endeavour pari passu to trace the historical development of the circumstances in which we find them to-day.§ i. the first points to consider will be differences in development and surroundings. Human nature may raise its head aloft in the pure ether. their speech. but its feet must ever rest on the ground. we can point to races which have remained the As same for thousands of years. conception of humanity not in a merely superficial way. until the earth. just so far as the races have grown up in the shade of the dominant civilized peoples. THE TASK OF ETHNOGRAPHY — Geographical conceptions and historical considerations of which account has to be taken in dealing with our Mankind a whole The task of ethnography is to demonstrate the cohesion of the human race. it becomes the duty of ethnography to apply itself all the more faithfully to the neglected Besides that. Owing practice of con- any attention no races save the most progressive and most highly it is from these almost exclusively that we form our notion of mankind. their mode of life not at all. may better be compared with the upward shoot of a plant than with the unconfined flight of a bird we remain ever bound to the earth. we have especially to remember that the difference of civilization which divides two groups of mankind may bear no kind of relation to the This will be the last difference which we shall difference of their endowments. their religion and their knowledge only IE . and the twig can only grow on the stem. but to trace actually among these lower strata the processes which have rendered possible the Ethnography must acquaint transition to the higher developments of to-day. have to think of. so far as the process has left any traces of its manifold inner It is only so that we shall get a firm grasp of the unity and comworkings. for historical considerations. us not only with what man is. We shall therefore bestow a thorough consideration upon the external surroundings of the various races. and the dust must return to the . the combination of the two that a just estimate can be formed. The geographical conception of their surroundings. subject — OUR business in this work is to impart a knowledge of mankind as to the long-established we find it to-day throughout sidering with civilized. Our growth in intelligence and culture. its aim must also be to take up. their physical appearance. all that we call the progress of civilization. dust.

Here we have Nachtigal's Tebus or Tedas. acquired more. . and the does the study of mankind may aid in that direction. but by steps. . changeable. Our inheritance is larger. alike But have we as individuals in peace and war. footed. One may even say that in the geographical distribution of mankind to begin with. active.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Herodotus tells us about a race of Troglodytes. in virtue. any further ahead of our generations of ancestors than the Tubus of theirs ? It may be doubted. and speak a language which has hardly extended itself beyond the walls of their Thus for 2000 years at least. have kept what we have acquired and known how to use it. But the obstacles which hinder or delay their travels are endless and besides. and mankind is divided not by gaps. and therefore a comparison of national positions gives us a fuller of young life higher standing among mankind. . and that repeated its predecessors They have always been men with certain as we say. Elementary ideas have an irresistible power of expansion. The task of ethnography is therefore to indicate. strong. and for all we know much longer. they have made no progress. but the points of transition. The main difference lies in the fact that we have laboured more. who to this day inhabit the natural caverns in their rocks. We must at least try to be just . honoured and dreaded by all nations. in capacity. not in the first instances the distinctions. and spoke a language almost unknown beyond their own boundaries. before forming a judgment. arc renowned far and wide for activity and fieetness of foot. and above all. there is yet so great a conformity of disposition among these individuals that the thoughts which go forth from one man are as certain to find an echo in others. Herein is a main cause of the differences among races and of a mass of ethnological problems. lived more rapidly. the inhabitants of the modern Fezzan. like all life. undergone any so great change ? Are we in physical or intellectual power. darkness of our forests on to the stage of history we have made our name. impressing upon us as it important principle that in all dealings with men and nations we ought. and there is no reason in the nature of things why they should come to a stop at the hut of a Kaffir or the fireplace of a Botocudo. though very variously cultured. and the intimate affinities which exist for mankind is one whole. But the tracing of the road above mentioned is of great importance. they are. and actions bear an essentially graded character. rocky fortress. who dwelt near the They were active and swiftGaramantes. and then in the manner in which they have . a gifts In the same space of time we have emerged from the fragment of bygone ages. as they arise from life and accompany life. Throughout all national judgments we find unmistakably as a fundamental superficially. fact the feeling of individual self-esteem causing us to take by preference the unfavourable view of our neighbours. no more ignorant. wiser. which are and remain in all its operations its ultimate elements. has repeated the history of the one before it. and what road we must take in order to advance a stage farther. than they have been these thousands of years. no richer. feelings. There they stand. — . They Each generation have acquired nothing in addition to what they possessed then. and indicates too how and why we have become what we are. to consider that all their thoughts. In one stage or another anything may happen. no they have lived in just the same way. They are to-day no poorer. . having virtues and defects of their own. if they can succeed in reaching them. as the same seed is certain to produce like fruits in like soils. And if it cannot be too often proclaimed that a nation consists of individuals.

which long ago. . For the further inquiry reaches into the depths of prehistoric peoples and those that are outside of history. the study of the . and have not neighbours on every side. is how wholly immaterial. We far into can conceive a universal history of civilization. eastern and western borders. SITUATION ASPECT. not counting seas. AND NUMBERS OF THE inhabited world HUMAN RACE The —The races of the fringe— East and West — Old and New Worlds— North and South — Mutual influence of Northern and Southern races— Insular character of lands Importance of seafaring—Water on the face of the globe — Unity of the human race — The number and iaws of mankind — Movements of races — Extinction of native races through contact with cultivation. lies the key to the history of primitive man. the surface of which. of the extension of civilization throughout . but when their settlements have been pushed far forwards. As regards the two great 55 northern oceans. before the conditions existed for the development of numerous separate centres of civilization. was imparted by one race to another over the earth and this it will regard as in close connection with mankind of to-day. mankind it what is usually called ethnography. countries and islands in the temperate and torrid regions of the earth Its some part are found in the frigid zone of the northern place of abode forms a zone of varying breadth. Here also ethno- graphy show the way to juster notions. formed a broad gap in the human We can thus distinguish in the inhabited world. and by themselves — Racial distinctions — Half-breeds. find themselves in an isolated position whence a lack in their case of ethnographical interest. On the other hand. remarkable for the abundance of belt of its habitable islands. will the word that describes them. ASPECT. history of the world without touching upon those peoples which have not hitherto been regarded as possessing a history because they have left no records written History consists of action and how unimportant beside or graven in stone. northern and southern borders formed by the uninhabitable ice-deserts of the polar regions. with the race which has raised all its great new creations upon that common foundation. AND NUMBERS OF THE HUMAN RACE 5 acquired culture and the means of culture from the production of fire up to the loftiest ideas of the historical nations. such are some of the races that we meet . habitation. this facts is the question of writing or not writing. the shores of the Pacific (where Asia and America come within the extreme latitudes of 8o° north and fifty miles of each other) form part of the inhabited region. The Ethiopian region The human hemisphere. the more will it meet in every sphere and on every level of civilization with essentially the same single form. no one will write a still remains unaltered in its hands. which should assume a point of view commanding the whole earth. until the Scandinavian colonisation of the Faroes and Iceland. beside the of doing and making.SITUATION. advantages of an intermediate position . On the other hand. of which many a fragment At no distant future. lying between south. may be taken at about fourteen millions of square miles. some groups of races are so situated as to have enjoyed the important . race inhabits . § 2. the Atlantic. in the sense of surveying the history would penetrate deep and human race. between which lies the Atlantic Ocean. as also a broad band in the middle. The races dwelling in these confines look out into emptiness.

the Mongoloids and Whites to the north. remains persistent past the point where it In their intersection we find the excrosses the boundary between East and West. whereas in the north we find bows and arrows. ties with that of Asia. not only all over a broad zone. In the later development of races iron has unquestionably played an important part. . bowless races belong to the southern groups. more various endowments. buffaloes. " Ocean opens in the zone of habitation has Although a brisk intercourse from north together with thickly-peopled regions at the back. ever-increasing. from Lapland to East Greenland and Mexico. But this connection extends farther. and equally that of plants and animals. inhabited world. sheep. with more of persons than the southern . . indeed. and dimensions. and elephants. in Central America. we can see that its northern members lie in a sides of contact. which may be regarded as the western counterpart of that more easterly region extending across the Pacific into America. in America on the west.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND with in the Pacific. that is on the inner sides or The population of Africa has undoubted affinithose farthest from the Atlantic. Civilization has reached its highest developments north We shall find similar contrasts in ethnography for example. . of . in the districts bordering From the position and form of the on the Mediterranean. we find the Negroids belonging to the south. If widespread mutually operative connection its southern in remote separation. the of the equator. camels. The distribution of man. The distinction in political and social relations goes far deeper. especially toward its northern border. but shows no trace of any relations with America. goats. have rendered these far less ethnographically destitute than the regions towards the poles. . The great mark of distinction between the two portions lies in the use or non-use of iron. and therewith richer possibilities in short. The wide gap which the effect of producing to south. but on fundamentally the same model. form. we look at the races. we still find that in Africa the highest development has been reached on the east coast. . horses. cattlebreeding. In . and the latter which is ethnographical. the staple of which is oxen. . it has from early time had all the advantages as regards the development of humanity. The boundary between countries which do and do not use iron corresponds with those of other important regions of ethnographic distribution. on interdependence we look at mankind as a whole. pression of a great difference in antiquity between the former classification which is mainly anthropological. Where there is no iron. the western region encroaches upon the eastern but the contrast between north and south. Eskimo bow made of bones (British Museum). In the north. is based. and more favourable the Atlantic fringe "-lands. it is clear that the northern hemisphere contains a larger number that it offers wider districts to open up. in If in the southern on separation. is also unknown pigs and poultry also are seldom bred in lands without iron. the northern hemisphere. that in position. climates. beyond the limits of the mainland of Asia to the great Asiatic islands it forms a great region of civilization between the northern and southern borders.

exogamy. of most various degrees of intermixture. continued iu-Asia by lofty mountains reaches its only important extension desert beyond the northern tropic in the angle of the Indus. . stiff or curly hair. in Africa and Asia the most important question bears upon the relations between north and south. and long (dolichocephalic) heads appear to spring from a cross of Papuan with MalayoPolynesian ancestors. North and South Asia. life of The water surface of the earth extends in the sea alone to almost three- . In America. Oceania. We race. conditions of a development proceeding Lastly. the tendency to degradation in the traces of a low stage of culture and a poverty. The peculiarities (of which we do not know the origin) belonging to the Papuan type are also noticeable here and we have besides : . Southern and Central East Africa. southern India on both In southern Europe and the extreme sides of the Bay of Bengal. consists only of loosely connected parts. The distribution of races affords a far less simple picture. mother -right. Between the negroes South Asia and North Africa lies the desert. inhabit the Soudan. America is the extreme east of the human race. Africa. . On the other hand. crossing has taken place between them. sense. and Australia. thanks to its secluded position. who with their dark skins. and retreats in Oceania to Thus we have a southern domain. the patriarchal system of the family.SITUATION. A sharp distinction is here made by the different nature of the boundaries towards the north. we find one race both north and south. . ethnographically in many portions. from the north-west point Such half-bred races. the Sahara. embracing every stage of development from the highest to the lowest. not sharply marked off from the north and middle regions. and clan -division and Asia. and Australia we have a much older stage of development in Europe. . of Africa to Fiji. but as a factor in ethnonorth and south exists of course all the earth over graphical or anthropological distinctions it concerns only the so-called Old World and the parts adjacent. . a large and substantial barrier. America belongs to the northern regions. Only one well-defined of Polynesia we find isolated traces of negroid admixture. essentially to the geographical eastern hemisphere. Wherever dark and light races have been in contact. Southern Arabia. group -marriage. the extreme west. India in the invasion of offsets from northern races. ASPECT. In addition to their southern situation they are affected by the peculiar features The geographical opposition between of outline and surface which here prevail. and no ethnographic distinctions of the magnitude which North and South Africa. and thus we may expect to find there older stages of development than in Africa and Europe. India has been subject to influences which but both in customs and physical characteristics we distinguish it from Africa in Africa earlier. that is less modified. states in the modern Thus among mankind also east and west stand over against each other. monogamy. Madagascar. on the contrary. refer to the Australians. AND NUMBERS OF THE HUMAN RACE 7 ^nd America. The Negroid is Its northern limit is in Africa formed by the indeed essentially a southern race. or Australia have to show. Malaysia shares with Madagascar and from the same origin as in India. Anthropologically throughout. Above all. a fact which has a large share in producing the great variety in the appearance and form of men as we find them on this side. of which the largest territories lie compact and altogether between the tropics and in the south temperate zone. belonging the south side of the equator. has been able fully to develop itself.

and forgot the way it it. non-activity in regard to the sea. Even if we did not meet. boats to which. have been brought to the sea and before the invention of seafaring there must have been a time when the sea confined them . the which have long disappeared for in all parts of the earth we high development of the art side by side with ignorance of it was the first — — thing that rendered possible the spread of mankind over almost all the habitable Fijian double canoe. all the land is an island in a sea nearly three times The most widely separated portion of mankind must. in Hawaii and else- where. in former times. least so in the Atlantic. with traditions of larger and proficiency in seafaring in the latter.) portions of the globe. That invention.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND quarters of the whole. the close connection which subsists between a high social and political organisation and better vessels would presume the possibility of a rapid retrogression in little . embracing as does . so that its size. to those regions which earliest indications of find had been the cradle of the race. America. Greenland. were not so good as those used by the Polynesians afterwards they lost sight of the land which had been their goal. (From a model in the Godeffroy Collection. infer a continued or complete is . even in the course of their movements in historical times. perhaps. Leipzig. The very extent of the inhabited world at the present day. and the absence even of any memory of it. arts of shipbuilding In the most various parts of the earth we meet with the and navigation in an advanced stage. The Northmen sailed to Iceland. ease with which the art This irregular distribution is a sign of the we must not from its absence in places. This is most conspicuous forgotten so that in the Pacific.

goes forward with time. phenomenon in the history of the world. deep. but do not go . but also the increasing permeation of the portions that dwell within the habitable limits until a general agreement in essentials is attained. movement. a thousand comparison with its strength and duration the earth is small generations of our ancestors. the burial in boats. of the life of different peoples. regard the fact that. Even to parts of the earth where he cannot remain he makes his way. in itself evidence for the antiquity of man. ASPECT. above all their religion. in a scientific sense. the work of the planet Earth. Thus we are entitled. their weapons and implements. to speak of the unity of the human race. Others besides Northmen discovered . or the occurrence of little canoe used by the Dyaks as a sepulchral monument. But that moment lies far behind us. and the future world Whether this be a land with a stream round it or an as lying far off in the sea. to wander Only a short-sighted conceit can round it. lastly. it is only that the way to it lies over the sea. we In can again point to the fact that restless movement is the stamp of mankind. all AND X UMHERS OF THE HUMAN RACE is g habitable lands with the exception of a few remote and small islands. we find peoples who are members The unity of the human genus is as it were of one and the same human race. boat-formed coffins or even grave-stones. raises individual As necessary and continuous. For this reason it has always exercised the remarkable influence upon men's thoughts which we see in the part played by the sea or lake-horizon in all images of the world that have ever been conceived. all He knows is nearly the entire the beings attached to the ground he Individual movements all it are linked together. in the four centuries since the discovery of America. and one great one of the most locomotive. If there has been in the later historical period so rapid an acceleration in the pace at which culture has progressed. as an unapproached . and accordingly the higher spread inland from the coasts. if by unity we understand not uniformity but the community. Thus wherever the earth is habitable by man. stamped on the highest step of creation therein. were enabled. as presupposed by the common basis Avhich nature has given. Most of these picture the earth as an island in a broad sea. the substratum the linking is of which humanity. that certain groups seem to have advanced far beyond the remaining mass. movement to a position of higher significance. from the moment that ships were invented for the crossing of rivers and seas. And if it be inquired. in a history embracing many thousands of years. The ultimate result is not only a wider distribution. or copious springs gush from it. . Man Of is is in the widest sense a citizen of the earth. and for that reason caused the maritime regions to be most thickly peopled it also facili- tated intercourse between distant countries. Europeans have spread far and wide over that continent their domestic animals and plants. whether voluntarily or not.SITUATION. globe. . or beardless youths constantly hold the water back from whether. or The soul has to take its way across water hence the frequent waterless land. . it is not it. whether it be in a lake or in a river. island in the evening glow. which might have been impossible civilization across lands inhabited by hostile races. This affects the whole peculiarities adhere to localities. there yet remains much of the common inheritance to be found among the highest as well as the lowest strata. of waters opened to The broad expanse men a copious source of food. shown by testimonies from every domain. There is only one species of man the variations are numerous. what is the origin of this common inheritance.

such as in historic times acted on Alexander and Columbus. their as now estimated. continent have changed their locality by over 2000 miles within a belt 40 of latitude in width. as a consequence. and. figure is reached in the steppes of Western Asia by the partly settled. the possibility has increased of migration to places the most remote from the original abode and in the whole world there is hardly a frontier left which has not been crossed. If the Malays have spread over the 200° of longitude that separate Madagascar from Easter Island in a period which. since this exercises a great influence on their interior development. Small communities cultivating their narrow patches of ground are separated from each other by wide empty spaces which either serve for hunting-grounds or lie useless and vacant. frequently Where some agriculture. the reunion. as once was usual.000 must be regarded development never attained before. The development of modern conditions is in a higher measure than is usually believed connected with The total figure. since centuries if over half Africa. levelling. a single origin into one real whole.500. among whom there is agriculture does not exist or tends to vanish. In applying the comprehensive term " Wandering of the Nations. and render large permanent assemblies of men impossible. of the parts which have diverged after the fashion of " sports. If we regard mankind as a body ever in movement. tribes. plough the dissociating ocean. The same agriculture are combined. from 100 to 300.000. The numbers relations. often dwell so less. races. as language and else shows. as a similar organisation has spread among men. of mankind are closely dependent on their territory. as 1 among many . The world that we pretentiously style " the New must have been discovered from the westward many a time before the Pale Faces came from the east as the latest and definitive discoverers. in Central Malay Archipelago." people are apt to overlook the individual. as in Oceania. This. These limit the possibilities of intercourse. we find from . If . The organisation of races outside of the European and Asiatic sphere of civilization does not permit any density of population to exist. "among Dyaks. Hunting races. of 1. a language is spoken with only differences of dialect equivalent to that between high and low German.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND America before Columbus. crossing. whose movements we must expressly declare are no less these . in o to 40 in the same area as it develops further. 24 square miles. Indian tribes. in the limited space of the habitable world. as the result of a the increased replenishment of the earth. we must grant that European civilization was not the first to set a girdle round the earth. has not been going on for many the European discovery of America. or the Papua. groups. we assume. we cannot. we find as many as 500. and the cattle-keeping nomads to about the same. important. in prehistoric times on thousands of their predecessors. their distribution. movements of mankind. look upon it as a union of species. must lead to permeation. But again. . with for the majority of anthropologists at the present day. rigidly As soon as ever a portion of mankind had learnt to separate from each other." must be regarded as the unconscious ultimate aim of man. The great and only distinction is that to-day that takes place deliberately which in former ages was the result of a dim impulse. partly Africa for instance. sub-species. to mingling. In the northwest of America the fishing-races who live on the coast run to 100 in 20 square Where fishing and miles. individual tribes in that if. to thinly scattered that there will be only one man. the mark was set for ever-progressing fusion.

Rapid using-up of the vital powers is a characteristic of . if at all. connected with the development of culture a population thinly scattered over a large district means low civilization. and all those measures of precaution with which sanitary science surrounds In the struggle with the too powerful forces of nature. While the history of the European nations decided tendency to increase which races offer examples of shrinkage others. uncivilized people is generally disturbed. . the uncivilized and retrogression such as we find in the case of the only lasting over a short period. trade and Here we of another form of civilization. solely to contact with superior But closer consideration enables us to recognise self-destruction as a no less frequent case. and kidnapping all contribute to reduce the population. the Arctic regions or the steppe-districts of the southern hemisphere. and the number of children small. .000 (as in Europe) to 24 square miles. they often succumb till they are completely wiped out. the less does what is acquired by civilization go to waste. There is no question but that these peoples were in many districts slowly dying civilization. and It is quite a mistake to refer. Their economical basis is narrow and incomplete. The closer men are in contact. .000. as is often done. on the other hand. are far more subject to diseases than civilized men are. Lastly. Polynesians. tion of barbarous races. for centuries past shows the same we observe even in ancient times. . the higher does competition raise the activity The increase and maintenance of the numbers are intimately of all their powers. man in a state of nature is far from possessing that ideal health of which so many have fabled the negroes of Africa can alone be described as a robust race. but an equivalent area of the intervening region of Central Asiatic nomads. civilized populations the as are marked by greater latter . of which we hear so much. on the confines of the inhabited world. The former are more dependent on soil than the in districts similarly difference endowed their distribution is a rule similarly proportioned. scarcity is a frequent visitor. or 15. all the races in the lower stages of civilization. Tibet.000 persons (as in India and East Asia). This enumeration shows at the lowest round of the ladder peoples belonging to the most different zones and countries. The which we see between the well-cultivated but thinly-peopled corn-bearing areas and the thickly-inhabited districts of spade-cultivation are results of civilization. and adapt themselves to new climates with difficulty. but also the immediate means of promoting civilization. industry combine to operate there thinly scattered . and then as the result of casualties The very thinness of the population is a cause of such as war and pestilence. cannot show a sixtieth of the number. their decay their smaller numbers are more readily brought to the point of dwindling or vanishing. Australians. East Turkestan. the extinca whole race perishes. The basis of a healthy this among increase in population is an approximate balance of the sexes War. In density of population lies not only steadiness of and security for vigorous growth. Mongolia. density. the more they can impart to each other. 600. as in our life are lacking. while in old or new centres of civilization we China and India reckon their inhabitants at find the people in dense masses.000. Human life is murder. frugality only too often verges on poverty. The two work as a rule together neither would attain its end so quickly without the co-operation of the other. AXD NUMBERS OF THE HUMAN RACE cross the threshold is sustenance for 1 0. ASPECT.SITUATION. . as human sacrifices and cannibalism sufficiently indicate. All races in a state of nature live nomad Where population. of small value. Americans. Six-sevenths of the earth's inhabitants belong to civilized countries.

A thousand examples show that in all this change and movement the races cannot remain unaltered.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND out by sickness before the appearance of Europeans. in North America. owing to these passive movements. give them. thus shall altering one of the conditions social upon which. Mestizos. and over wide districts. which mark the more highly civilized races. . European half-breeds. which on a new soil commit frightful ravages quarrels and fighting besides. . . In Canada nearly all the French settlements show traces of Indian blood in Central and South America the Mestizos and Mulattos are already stronger than the fullblooded Indians in Oceania. and we can speak of an absorption of the lower by the higher even where the latter for the present are not in the majority. It introduces wants and enjoyments which are not in harmony with the mode of and political living usual among them and inevitable diseases previously It brings upon unknown. the peculiar arrangements of races in a natural state were framed. it is the knowledge that a great part of them is being slowly raised by the process of intermixture. in Mexico. of whom the most remote tribes to the southern extremity of the continent show in their Semitic features how long these influences have been at work. others are going on. that in half-breeds the vices of both parents predominate. North America. In the place of the Hottentots we find the Bastaards. counting their hundreds of millions. As far as 95 ° of x in west longitude. Malays and Polynesians are crossed with the Negro of the Pacific throughout Central Asia there is a mixture of Mongol. is in progress. the advantage in this process. and superiority in all conquering arts. Australia. Negro and Arab half-breeds . North America can show only the debris of Indian tribes Victoria and New South Wales there are hardly a thousand aborigines left and it is only a question of time when Northern Asia. and therewith In the smaller. or their capacity for labour. such as these people. civilization disturbs society But no doubt the arrival of down to its roots. professedly based on old experience. Inter-breeding is making rapid strides in all parts of the earth. From North and East Africa. If there is any consolation in the universal disappearance of native races. as we hereafter see. wherever climate is not unfavourable. and that even the most numerous. and European blood. it is impossible to think of the people as in a state of stability. North America. or more favourable natural conditions. It contracts the available space. 1 [There is some doubt whether the actual number of North American Indians has Rather the natural multiplication of the race has been checked. as in any part of Africa. which will ultimately end no less in the abolition of the natives as an individual and independent race. the progress of civilization led to the crowding of the aboriginal races into the least favourable districts. Over the larger territories. also in Cuba and Haiti). quicker growth. The greater bulk. . but a glance at the national life of the present day is enough to show that Mulattos. such as oceanic islands (but to the diminution of their numbers. in some cases been absorbed by the stronger race.] much diminished. . Australia. Where the greater toughness of the inferior race. Arabs and peoples of the Berber stock are pressing upon the Negroes. Great shiftings have already taken place. New Zealand. has delayed the process. and Oceania will be Europeanised. reaching far in the direction of Europe and affecting the whole north and east of one quarter of the globe. cannot keep their footing in the tumult that surges around them. an intermixture. Chinese. . in any case they have disappeared. they have nearly died out. No doubt people like to repeat a statement.

as intercourse prefers. and each fresh infusion of higher blood tends to reduce the interval by levelling up. of civilization throughout the earth. conclusion. (From a photoa degree that no one of the original graph in the collection of Pruner Bey. The mixture once begun continues to progress. however. appears as a outgrowth over the world of civilizing races. from whom they seemed at the time of the Conquest to be separated by a bottomless chasm. leads us back to two great contrasted divisions which survive in the races of to-day. gets spontaneously Sandili. ever striving more completely to effect that unity desire of the human its race which forms at once In trace aim and if task. we find the startingpoint to be the neighbouring existence of several variations. The people who increase the more quickly pour out their surplus upon the others. its and hope. . the Whites and Mongoloids in the These embrace the further northern hemisphere. or. If the history of the world shows a spread.SITUATION. we seek to backward the road which the most important parts of mankind have followed. interrupted indeed but ever progressing. contact. varieties now exists in the form once peculiar to it. the natural numerical preponderance existing among civilized folk is an important factor therein. ASPECT stand in America AND NUMBERS OF THE HUMAN RACE and in Africa at the head of Indians and Negroes. as degenerated forms of the one human species. which itself was the cause or condition of the more rapid multiplication. of civilization accelerating Thus the spread self- king of the Gaikas showing the Semitic type of the (From a photograph by G. We need only consider how nearly the Indians of Mexico and Peru have risen to the level of the people of European descent. the Negroes in the southern. . These were at first confluent at a few points only but. came more and more last into at penetrating and mingling with each other to such AGallamonk: Hamitic or Semitic blend. Blumenbach increased. the upper hand. . What remains. and thus the influence of the higher culture. Fritsch. Kaffirs.

and noticing the wide gap which seems to yawn between them our business is to propound the question What is the position which the natural races hold among mankind ? For centuries this question has been treated with an indolence which. owing to the provision which he had name that which the reader has ." We speak of natural races. The more uncivilized the country. We do not become any the freer of Nature by our more thorough utilisation and exploration of her we only make ourselves less dependent on individual accidents of her being or of her course by multiplying the points of contact. but in the kind of their association with Nature. We must not content ourselves with contrasting natural and civilized races. and that which is cut off by the ocean from polar influences. much of the same sort. in any or the Pacific. not because they stand in the most intimate relations with Nature. : . they always held the more southerly position under the impulse which has assigned to them this present place of abode. nature than do those whom we call " cultured " or " civilized. felt no further necessity for establishing the relation of " savages " to the rest of the human race. contrasts of the world of continental compactness and oceanic disconnection deeply interlaced with the north polar regions. while the latter touched in the very sinews of life by every tempest which shakes the ears into the water. very curious it was highly interesting to read of them. " races which we shall frequently who live more in bondage to. We have no occasion to laugh at this attitude our own delight in descriptions of travel is .i 4 THE HISTORY OE MANKIND . It is just by reason of our civilization that we are actually to-day more dependent on her than any former generation. narratives. the wisdom to store up. Culture is freedom from Nature. but because they are in bondage to Nature. of mental talent. The Negro races. as to the name of " natural have to They are those races position . and that was quite enough. since. \ 3. Asia. . which is . The distinction between natural and cultured races is not to be sought in the degree. it therefore doubly suitable for our purpose. this neutral assumes nothing and prejudices nothing in those directions." What the name expresses is a distinction in mode of life. language. the more fascinating . religion — In — Bodily differences — Civilized races — Common property of mankind ? the remaining elements of civilization the difference is only one of degree. the chain is is longer and its pressure accordingly less severe . and is For we shall perhaps have to make contain what is in many respects so different a conception as been wont to attach to the term " savages. . These black and brown men were very strange. when its desire for facts. The farmer who stores his corn in a barn is ultimately just as dependent on the soil of his fields as the Indian who reaps in the swamps the rice which he did not sow but the former feels the dependence less. but. may once have lived further north than they do now case. THE POSITION OF NATURAL RACES AMONG MANKIND retrogression culture consist The conception of a natural or barbarous race— Progress and The brute in man — Wherein does the possession of — in reason. of historical FIRST a word use. or in dependence on. not in the sense of entire emancipation. but in that of a more manifold and wider connection. whether in Africa. and descriptions was once appeased.

we cannot everywhere. their results deserve our gratitude. but that a retrogressive degeneration has made him what we find to-day which we can easily divine. the "behind" is involuntarily converted into " below" it is regarded as on a lower round of the ladder by which mankind That is the have ascended from their original state to the heights of civilization. . somewhat too hastily called the original conditions of the human race. reconcile ourselves to their conclusions. dividing races into strata whereby. " development meet with a certain mistrust such a search. and popularity of works of travel towards the end of the last century consisted in the shaking of beliefs in that blissful state of nature which beautiful spirits after Rousseau venerated as the most desirable existence. as even they did. lumped together as a kind of heterogeneous foundation. to . It was sought. steeped in the idea of evolution. A man whose head is full of one possibility holds others very cheap. Förster. but never found. To them is due the merit from the day of having placed a rich array of facts at the disposal of science when they took it in hand must we date the thorough research into what has been . Inquiry has far less to dread from it than from the opinion most chief adherents students. it would be unjust not to recognise that it has called forth. on the basis less of considered facts than of general sentiment. What a disillusion for hearts of sensibility such as were possessed by the readers of The Indian Wigwam^ or George Forstef's sketch of the paradisal Otaheitans. They look for origin and Are we not entitled. In every field the most difficult research is that into origins but it is just this onceneglected but most profound problem which the evolutionists have handled in ethnology as well as elsewhere with an admirable unity of purpose. on scientific territory. in our view too far. Meanwhile it has at the present day been pushed far. One can understand the almost passionate need which was felt of providing supports in the world of actual fact for the bold edifice of the theory of evolution. and if we cannot ally ourselves at all points with this feeling. or on the shores of fortunate islands. nay. making. Whether negative or positive. and gave little subject of consideration to the philosophers. did this notion of retrogression appeal to students of religion and language. . for reasons among " natural among physical " races. which knows so well beforehand what it is going to find ? Experience teaches us how near to this lies the danger of premature assumption. proportionately almost to the greater distance by which we are ahead of them rather in intellect than in those amiable dispositions and expressions which had hitherto been regarded with predilection. The only deeper emotion aroused by the increasing number. Just as the idea of evolution found its . AMONG MANKIND IS But the researches of Cook. excellence. Slowly did the consideration of savage races make its way from the sphere of and at the same time the estimate formed the emotions to that of the intellect sank good deal of these races a lower. While we are duly thankful for these pioneering achievements. only to be realised in the solitude of primeval forests. extravagant notion that man came into the world a civilized being. possessed for their contemporaries chiefly a romantic interest. as must be clearly pointed out. a movement which is bringing fruitful truths to light. and so on. . into the background. finds a race which in several or even many respects is behind its neighbours. no less in the study of the life of races than in that of all life. Barrow. uncivilized races were. some effort after a deeper insight into and clearer views of natural life. Then came into the world the idea of evolution. countermart of the one-sided. Lichtenstein.P0S7T/0X OF XATURAL RACES the talc. so. If the inquirer.

latter But even his Descent of Man. in evidence for case. Here we see the two extreme conceptions of natural races. or estimating their past and belonging to the Barmen Mission. no dying out. We can understand how fundamentally different must be the resulting modes Young girl of the Mountain Damara tribe. do we not at once progress. who. no decay. assigns . see . and Darwin. he has found the no he. (From a photograph of considering every side of their existence. decidedly opposed to basest and most abstract form would be of which the fundamental conception expressed in its somewhat as follows "In mankind there : exists only upward effort. as a great creator of ideas. into barbarism although. held his views with the fullest tion.i6 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND it. he cautiously adds. such a how one-sided is way of looking at things ? It is true that only extremists go so far in this direction." Put in this way. some utter even fallen . sense of proporadmits that many nations may undoubt- edly have gone back in their civilization. For what difference can be greater than between a conception which them this place far below us. development no retreat. has not always been able to escape the temptation to imagine more various and reaching in its supposed lowest members more nearly in itself mankind down to the brute world than on cooler reflection appears possible. where all the capacities which have matured on the long and difficult road between their position and ours are as yet undefuture.

tions have shown differences in the skeleton referable in the one case to the Virchow has influences of civilized. normally-developed German. But that is a matter of anatomy and physiology. that is. 1 [One . and only the history of the world suffices in — is now for the first time progress. Bushmen. life. in respect of mankind. and even convinced that well-developed bodies. He states plainly in one place that the healthy. miserable. firearms being barred. is not only a brilliant feat of humanity. But the most important experiment for of civilization Kaffirs. that the Indians are the best model of Deeper investigathe Apollo Belvedere.would be curious to see the result of a fight between equal forces of normally-developed Germans and average Zulus or Matabeles. will necessarily be transformation. one of the toughest and most powerful races of Africa. but robbed by ill-luck of a large part of their share of culture. with their important results. and in arrear ? May we be permitted to examine the facts at the first hand. and readers of feel . and In recent times we have often heard similar judgments the saying of an American ethnographer. an anatomist who has studied the natural races in their natural state. in the Kaffir branch of which he is here speaking. It would. readers must be referred to books on the subject. are. such as a sculptor would call beautiful.POSITION OF NATURAL RACES veloped. we may safely predict. asserts that the shapely development of the human body is only possible under the influence his descriptions of Hottentots. physical distinctions. surpasses in fact the average Bantu man. what was considered the lowest race the blacks have had all the advantages. we may add. plainly noted Lapps and Bushmen as " pathological " races. Gustav Fritsch. The question of relative beauty is one which each race will answer differently. but at the same For the first time millions of time an event of the deepest scientific interest. at an equal or similar stage of evolution.] C . cannot pass even as a flower of speech. nothing all the rights and duties of the highest civilization thrown open to them and herein which prevents them from employing all the means of self-formation lies — — the anthropological interest of the process — — . the " played-out " children of civilization. since these must enable us to form the most trustworthy conclusions as to the nature and magnitude of the general difference to be observed among mankind. and to approach a little nearer to mean where the truth lies than it has been granted The question which first occurs is that of innate these hypotheses to do. settling the value of racial distinctions — one for which the resources of science are too small. and thus impoverished. and the overthrow of the barriers which once were raised high against such introduction. will . from which the great distinctions in human civilization. The introduction of the so-called lower races into the circle of the higher civilization. and as such concerns the anthropologist For separate facts and all wider excursions in the field our rather than us. and one which regards them as AMONG MANKIND i 7 it were on the same line with us. 1 The Bantus. in the other to those of uncivilized. just as on the other hand the bodies of natural races have certain features clearly indicating the operation of a mode of life marked by the lack of all that we are used to call culture. be found first of all that qualities appear in the bodily frame of civilized races due to the fact of their civilization. impoverished and degraded by hunger and want. From our ethnographical point of view. the first thing we wish is that the notion of culture -races. might be somewhat more thoroughly tested than has yet been done. are rarer among them than among us. are most clearly to be recognised. both as to proportions and as to strength and completeness of form.

our study of people of whatever race we come upon traits that may be called bestial but this is only what was to be expected. in others a little less. black or white. what will become in the course of generations of the 12. Since . what we individual portions of demur to is the assumption mankind are so much more In that like the beasts than others. races who have on the whole no greater naturally-implanted tendency towards the bestial than we ourselves. We all. but is purely one of ethnography and civiliza- . This sad faculty of being or becoming like the brutes is unhappily present in all men. and who will. But it is civilization alone which can draw any boundary between us and the " natural " races. When a starving family of Australian aborigines retrieves from the vulture a piece of carrion. this testifies to a brutality in their mode of life which suppresses travellers all movements of the soul. and flings itself like a pack of greedy jackals on its prey. have multiplied to 100. Nor are we surprised when African can compare a startled swarm of Bushmen. in the enjoyment of freedom and the most modern acquisitions of culture. (Christy Collection. we could with certainty answer the question as to the effect of culture upon raceBut as it is. with nothing else than a troop of chimpanzees or orangs We must not. recur to the Steel European make with old bone handle. without fear of blame for illogicality. and might.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND If we could say to-day with approximate certainty. we must be content with hints and conjectures. distinctions. who see an enemy in every stranger. in some a little more. which often corresponds to that of civilization. let all our blows fall on these poor " natural " in flight. anthropologists as to racial distinctions.) homo with the Apes an order of Primates. safely asserted that the study of comparative ethnology in recent be may It years has tended to diminish the weight of the traditionally-accepted views of. which by all natural rights has long been his property. There exist Europeans who are morally degraded below the level of the Australians.000 of negro slaves who have within the last thirty years been freed in America. man has retained in his bodily structure so close a resemblance to the apes that even the most recent classifiers have attached importance to this only. from New Axe of Zealand. prove how frequently our fancy is called upon for old Linnaean grouping of the genus in ! corresponding images. a reduction of the spiritual element in human nature is quite enough to allow the bestial part of the material foundation to emerge in a pretty glaring form. Whether it manifests itself with more or less frequency and plainness depends merely upon the degree of acquired capacity for dissimulation. and that in any case they afford no support to the view which sees in the so-called lower races of mankind a transition-stage from beast to man. tested The general similarity of man to the brutes in bodily structure cannot indeed be con.000. however.000. alas are familiar with the idea that a beast lies hidden in every man. We may declare in the most decided manner that the conception of " natural " races involves nothing anthropological or physiological." " brutalisation. gorging until repletion compels slumber. and " brutality.000." and other only too familiar terms.

endowed by nature in every degree. to guard ourselves with the utmost care from drawing hasty conclusions as to their equipment either Highly-gifted races can be poorly equipped with all that in body. beings two groups of human independent. and so may produce the impression of holding a low position . Ainu beside one of their store-huts. accidents has operated in all that determines the height of the stage of civilization The gap which is differences of civilization create between in truth quite reached by a people. intellect. (From a photograph in the possession of Freiherr von Siebold. or have retrograded in respect of it. of the We need only observe what a mass of differences in their mental endowments. every race. makes for civilization. whether in its depth or in its breadth. or in the total sum of their civilization. to Gauls appeared no less uncivilized beside Roman civilization than do Kaffirs or and many a people which to-day is reckoned as a portion Polynesians beside ours of civilized Russia was at the time of Peter the Great still in a state of nature.POSITION OF XATURAL RACES tion. AMONG MANKIND *9 There may be peoples belonging Natural races are nations poor in culture. or soul. . Vienna. who either have not yet proThe old Germans and gressed to civilization.

an equally important fact that for thousands of years in all civilizing movements there has been a dominant tendency to raise all races to the level of their burdens and duties. the highest civilization but." It is certain that language has exercised an influence reaching beyond our sight upon the education of the human spirit. race ? the common property of the human To language some measure the noblest forms of expression. RISE. — and narrow course of events which we arrogantly shall call the history of the world. let the But us only look outside the border of the brief not believe in on the other hand. stand out like islands from a sea of more highly-civilized people. instead of the Mongols. AND SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION — Natural and civilized races Language and religion universal possessions Races with and without history Reasons why many races are in a backward state The development of civilization is a matter of hoarding So-called semi-civilization Material and spiritual elements in hoarded civilization The material basis and the spiritual nucleus -Natural conditions required for development The part of agriculture and pasture in the development of civilized politics Zones of civilization -Loss of civilization. forced their culture. It the possession of civilization. and see in talk the heavenly spark which gradually kindled into flame our senses and thoughts. and in have to recognise that members of every race have borne their part we which lies beyond. many of the Ainu. history the § 4. difference in Chinese and Mongols belong to the same stock but what a This is even more apparent if. . but of which many still do specially realisation. Yet they are a " natural " even in the eyes of Mongolic Japanese. probable that race. we take any of the barbarian tribes which. in the frontier provinces of China. without expression of Hamann reason no religion." No less certainly does the religion of the less civilized religion. In the fine " Without speech we could have had no reason. and declares that it ? this question the evolutionist faces us . their civilization. Is not reason. it endowments and have acquired a richer possession of This assumption we meet with fthe question of culture consist ? Wherein then does nay. the source of this possession all. As Herder says " We must regard the organ of speech as the rudder of our reason. and without these three essential components of our nature neither intelligence nor the bond of society. who lap them Or again. stand nearer to the Caucasian than to the Mongolian stock. NATURE. the history of primeval and pre-historic times. They are survivors from the uncultured who have in the struggle for existence : way have long ago emerged. as in : : and races contain in itself all the germs which arc hereafter to form the noble flowery . the latest researches make it round and will soon overwhelm them. and therewith to make real earnest of the a conception which has been proclaimed as a great conception of humanity distinguishing attribute of the modern world. was done with long ago oldest strata of for who can doubt existing ? that the natural or savage races are the mankind now to higher ages out of which other portions of mankind. the aborigines of the northern island of Japan. or white. and connect them closely with reason. — — — — — — — — — — What Upon is then the essential distinction which separates natural and civilized races with alacrity. Race as such has nothing to do with would be silly to deny that in our own times has been in the hands of the Caucasian. the basis.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND among mankind. we must give the precedence over all others. races it is .

(After Serpa but for a very great evolution. Even here. In political matters connected with and economical insti- tutions we in notice among of the natural races very great differ- ences the sum their civilization. the case that the more it is not. will been be one of our tasks in the following pages to prove the unfoundedness of this assumption in the light of many facts. For the present we will venture to assume the universality of at least some degree of religion. such as that of chipping out the front teeth and cutting off the little finger.) have to look among them not only for the beginnings of civilization. RISE. its has also played part. and lastly first the capacity to carry them question must be. It is at once art and science theology and philosophy. the popularising of them in the largest sense is and deepest-reaching indication of progress in culture. then in in the fixity further or with which these are retained. But the subsequent dissemination of the clearest among the people. the two different classes of Damaras practise rites in ment than to great differences in the conditions of their development.NATURE." in the presence of facts by agreement than by difference.) part of its and it is equally certain that these differences are to be referred less to variations in endow- Exchange and unprejudiced observers have often been more struck " It is astonishing. and was formerly believed. how is it possible to realise the first . Accordingly we Ambuella Drum. as simply constructed languages belong to the lower races. the richest to those who stand highest . Igorrote Drum from Luzon. Hans Meyer. as the same traveller Now since the remarks. their agreement with the Bechuanas goes even further. our lies first in the amassing of experiences. Of the priests of these races the saying holds good in the truest sense that they are the guardians of the divine mysteries. exclaims Chapman." It is less astonishing if. (From the collection of Dr. " what a similarity there is in the manners and practices of the human family throughout the world. so that that civilized life which strives from however great a distance to reach the ideal contains nothing which is not embraced by it. AND SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION forest of the spiritual life among civilized races. Now while no man doubts of the general possession of reason by his fellow-men of every race and these mysteries is degree. with the New essence of civilization to increase them. Pinto. while the equally general existence of language a fact. the existence races of religion among savage has It frequently doubted. common Zealanders. when considering the customs of the Damaras.

especially in agriculture or cattle-breeding. inward coherence degree of and therewith of the fixity or duration of tions in the breaking-up intellect.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND fundamental condition of civilization. since the deepest distinction seems to be indicated by internal coherence which occurs in the domain of historical fact. power. the " natural races cannot be said to form a definite group in the anatomical or anthropological sense. or of childhood. we must not assign them a place at the root of the poetry. and its power of growth do the higher. But are historical facts therefore lost to history when their memory has not been The essence of history consists in the very fact of preserved in writing ? We should happening. the ultimate aim of which himself of an orderly representation of Nature. no less than the social and political is in the first place a progression from individual to united action. not in the recollecting and recording what has happened. the lower its inalien-' characterises We find in low stages a poverty ability. prefer to carry this distinction back to the opposition between national life in its atoms and national life organised. intellect it of And man in truth it is in the first place external nature the the educates itself. capital ? the first step thereto is the transition from complete dependence upon what Nature freely offers to a conscious exploitation. fire. religion. call any of them cultureless. that it is still a long way from the first step to the height which has now been attained. that is and science. sibilities of Nature. opposition of historic and non-historic races seems to border closely upon it. but we must always remember. if we are not entirely through the adoption and fostering of any stimulus. The mistaken. is the basis of the deepest-seated differences between races. The want of coherence. of tradition which allows these races neither to maintain a consciousness of their earlier fortunes for any appreciable period nor to fortify and increase their stock of intelligence either through the acquisitions of individual prominent minds or Here. human child family-tree. — . the amassing a stock of culture in It has long been agreed that the form of handiness. nor regard their condition as that of a primitive race. the stock of of this stock. The intellect of man and also the intellect of whole races shows a wide discrepancy in regard to differences of endowment as well as in regard to the different Especially are there variaeffects which external circumstances produce upon it. " Showing as they do every possible variety of racial affinity. seeing that he strives to put is in construction within an attitude of recognition. respects. namely. through man's own labour. We call them races deficient in civilization. at the same time. because internal and external conditions have hindered them from attaining to such permanent developments in the domain of culture as form the mark of the true Yet we should not venture to civilized races and the guarantees of progress. There is a distinction between the quickly ripening immaturity of the and the limited maturity of the adult who has come to a stop in many What we mean by " natural " races is something much more like the latter than the former. knowledge. and The intellectual history of mankind therefore mainly in the domain of intellect. of such of her fruits as are most This transition opens at one stroke all the most remote posimportant to him. upon which the himself towards creation of art. Since in the matter of language and religion they share in the highest good that culture can offer. the stages of civilization no less than its coherence. so long as none of them is devoid of the primitive means by which the ascent to higher stages can be made language.

Among we find great differences in endowments. such as domestic animals and cultivated civilized. but not quite fair these gifts are of in many That kinds. .NATURE. (From a photograph. a explanation. implements while the very possession of these means. is the first rank. We the savage races of to-day need not dispute that in the course . RISE. The reasons why they do not make use of Lower intellectual endowment is often placed convenient. dealings with those races which are completely Queensland Aborigines. AND SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION many others weapons. and numerous and varied to testifies plants.

in progress. the absence of the salutary pressure exercised by surrounding masses on the activity and forethought of the individual. Thus it often comes about that in spite of abundantly-provided and well-tended means of culture. the Arctic regions. in deserts. . we are to indicate concisely how we conceive the position of these races as compared with those to which we belong. When we speak of stages. in conclusion. we can see the chain which hangs heavily on their feet. wasteful of power. and dim memories from civilized spheres which in many cases must have ^existed long before the commencement of history as we have it. mingled with others which have been pushed aside or dropped into the rear. so far as can be seen. us to be assume that the highest and richest display of what we conceive by the term is found among ourselves. can be more clearly recognised and estimated and it is juster and more logical to name them first. even when an indolent agriculture seems to tie them to the soil. strong nucleus of positive attributes in the value and advantage of studying them. of semi-civilization. of the earth which offer so few facilities for agriculture and cattle-breeding as Australia. and from this again results the small total amount of intellectual and physical accomplishment. of civilized and " natural " races. But this idea of a stratum must not be understood in the sense of forming the next lower stage of development through which we ourselves had to pass. consequence of this insecurity of resources all. in We understand their backward condition in parts secluded mountains. By the word " civilization " or " culture " we denote usually the sum of all acquirements at a given time of the human intelligence. the rarity of eminent men. in the cold and hot regions. on a level with us. and confines their movements within a narrow space. and therein lies the The negative conception which sees only the what they lack in comparison with us is a short-sighted under-estimate. respect to their furthering or hindering effects. but as combined and built up of elements which have remained persistent. unfruitful. and the promotion of a wholesome division of labour. no secure growth it is not the life in which the germs of civilization first grew up to the grandeur in which we frequently find them at the beginnings of what we call history. It is full rather of fallings-away from civilization. while in natural parts and dispositions they stand in some respects. " natural " races . their numbers are small. Civilization means our civilization. of higher and lower. in remote islands. We can conceive why the habitations of the savage races are principally to be found on the extreme borders of the inhabited world. from the point of view of civilization these races form a stratum below us. while the less-endowed remained behind. If. As a consequence.THE HISTORY OF MANKIXD endowments have got possession of and gained steadiness and security for their But external conditions. and it must appear of the highest importance for germ. In the insecurity of incompletely developed resources. the understanding of the thing itself to trace back the unfolding of this flower to its We shall only attain our aim of getting an insight into the nature and . we apply to the various civilizations of the earth a standard which we take from the Let degree that we have ourselves attained. partial races. There is thus a . in others not much lower. A of development races of even slightly higher more and more means of culture. or the extreme north and south of America. their life is desultory. This life has no inward consistency. is the instability of natural A nomadic strain runs through them rendering easier to them the utter incompleteness of their unstable political and economical institutions. we should say. which operates in the division of society into classes.

in semi-civilization .NATURE. and operation we shall see the basis of Only through co-operation and mutual its higher development help. But the difference between the various " sums of acquirement of the intelligence " resides not only in their magnitude. essence of civilisation it RISE. AND SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION 25 when we understand the impelling force which has evolved from its first beginning". villages. the building. as work in the highest civilization the forces which well as those it is concerned with extending and latter remain essentially the former which are called into most activity. When we see energeticretain. the largest possible sum of achievement and acquisition. sidedness and incompleteness of semi-civilization lie on the side of intellectual Two hundred progress. all of them- soon as a retaining power watches over In all domains of human in creation intercourse. no So would even called the — — . of retaining. individual ties members now stand." largest and . Every people has intellectual gifts. were less favourable to it than the larger communithe modern world. has mankind succeeded in climbing to the stage of civilization on which highest the nature and extent of this intercourse the growth depends. As the essential feature in the highest development of culture. races. Civilization is the product of many generations of men. which isolates huts. and the interdependence of ancestors and of development The union of contemporaries its secures the retention of culture. when Europe and North America had not yet taken the giant's stride reshaping. The hoards grow them. the of contemporaries the possibility successors. Between this and the opposite extreme lie all the intermediate stages which we comprise under the name " semi-civilization. if the impulse to retain and secure were operative in it. we note the most intimate interdependence among themselves and with past generations of all fellow-strivers after it and as a result of it. But this is lacking and so it befalls that all these plants destined for a larger growth remain on the ground and perish in misery. less than successive generations. while the The onebehind and thereby bring about the inferiority of that state of things. On Thus the numerous small assemblages of equal importance. draw every new generation higher towards the light. To use an image. The development of selves so civilization is a process of hoarding. involves the negation of culture intercourse lies . with their encouragement to individual competition. . piling up. This notion of a ally at " half-way house " deserves a few words. and securing the results of each individual year's growth. in its opposite. a civilized race is like a mighty tree which in the growth of centuries has raised itself to a bulk and permanency far above the lowly and transitory condition There are plants which die off every year. whether between contemporaries. striving for the air and light which above they might have enjoyed to the full. whether from one generation to another. in space as in time. in which the and states of had no freedom. The confinement. the linking of generations unfolding. this transitory growth of savage races which have in fact been undergrowth of peoples beget something permanent. The distinction lies in the power others that from herbs become mighty trees. and develops them in its daily life. years ago. while on the material side development sets in sooner. and of races deficient in civilization. but in their power of growth. formed by the family stocks. and afford it firmer supports in the achievements of predecessors. Each can claim a certain sum of knowledge and power which represents its civilization.

height many a civilized race of to-day we may refer to the Russians and Hungarians. : — — . for them for no one no single theory. and above capacity of development. which steam. Intellectual come Every question. it is not Nature's wealth in material but in force or rather. for it shown whether and how decisive a far these races will progress on the ways of civilization which Europe and North America vie in pointing out to them for there has long been no doubt that they But we shall not come to the solution of this will or must set foot on them. and frequently at the same time signs of an entire If they possess in themselves absence of hope in all attempts at a higher flight. both in the height stationary character. the greatest and electricity have rendered possible. The sum of the acquirements of civilization in every stage and in every race is composed of material and intellectual possessions. which must be most highly estimated. and indeed by all semi-civilization. China and Japan caused astonishment to European travellers by their achievements in agriculture. the need of progress will bring more powerful organs to their head and gradually modify the mass of the people by immigration This process may have first raised to its present from Europe and North America. Does this lack arise from a deficiency in their endowments. It is important to keep suppresses genius ? Since it is maintained through their we must decide for the defect in . as to the origin of civilization resolves itself into the question what favours the development of its material foundations ? Now here we must in the first place proclaim that when the way to this development is once opened by the utilisation of natural means for the aims of man. further. manufactures. which But Europeans. which also is the sole tion. which sees in the incompleteness of China and Japan the signs of a thoroughly lower stage of the whole of life. free hits Here we may perceive the solution of the riddle it has reached and its What but the light ? in intellectual creation has made the west so far outrun the east Voltaire the point all when he says that is that Nature has given the Chinese the organs for discovering useful to them but not for going any . and the daughter races have now fallen far towards dilapidation. question if we approach it from the point of view of complete civilization. The gifts of Nature most valuable for man are those through which his latent sources of force are thrown open in permanent activity. them apart. or does it lie in the rigidity of their social and political organisation. and trade. nor simultaneously. They have life while we are indebted to become into the connection and deeper insight causes of phenomena. presented by Chinese civilization. therefore. in stimulus to force. . creations acquired with like means nor with equal ease. and even by their canals and roads. since they are of very different significance for the intrinsic value of all for its the total civilization.26 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND iron. to put it better. only the capacities for semi-civilization. but gone far ahead. lies They are not The material as the luxury at the base of the intellectual. Obviously this can least be brought about by that wealth or so-called bounty of Nature which spares after bodily needs are satisfied. and to the fact that millions of German and other immigrants have stimulated in many ways the progress of these semi-Mongols in Europe. which favours mediocrity and great in the useful. No their social system. have in the last two hundred years not only caught up this start. doubt the the rigidity in future alone can give cause of will in the first place have to be answer. in America and Australia. in the arts of practical all changes of their organisaendowments.

1 The storage by means of labour of a sum of force in a clod of earth is the best and most promising beginning of that nondependence upon Nature which finds its mark in the domination of her by the intellect. too. Man's power over them is originally which he can widen but never break down by developing the forces of his intellect and will. soil. the utilisation of Nature depends upon the will of man than the likeness of the conditions in which all savage races live in all parts of the earth. But it is unsafe to say with Buckle that there is no example in history of a country that has become civilized by its own exertions without possessing some one of those conditions in a highly favourable form. but the supply of the most necessary varies from year to year and cannot be reckoned on. RISE. and it is easiest to But. particular elevations. The gifts of Nature in themselves are in the long run unchangeable in kind and quantity. in all climates. It is thus that link is most easily added to link in the chain of development. . various kinds of limited by narrow barriers in all altitudes. are thus undoubtedly of the greatest in the development of civilization. civilization come to birth.NATURE. they look as dry and barren as steppes compared with the luxuriant natural beauties of many places in the lowlands. His own forces. AND SPREAD OE CIVILIZATION 2? him certain labours that under other circumstances would be necessary. the root of all that we understand by it in its widest sense. on the contrary. conceive of the original man as a dweller in the tropics. soil importance 1 [Of course its employment to denote the cultivation or refinement of the mind and manners (which though found in classical Latin seems comparatively recent in English) is a mere metaphor. The of the natural conditions which permit the amassing of wealth from the fertility and the labour bestowed thereon. and accordingly in these Even now. and lies mainly in the following directions. They are bound up with certain external circumstances. He cannot only dispose of their application but can also multiply and strengthen them without any limit that has. cultivation carried to a high pitch. on the other hand. belong entirely to him. with plateaux we find the highest development in all America. If we compare the possibilities which Nature can afford with those that dwell in the spirit of man. due to no accident that the word " culture " also denotes the tillage of the Here is its etymological root here. zones. For the first existence of mankind. in which we may no less surely see the cradle of civilization than in the tropics that of the race. been drawn. if we are to conceive of civilization as a development of human forces upon Nature and by means of Nature. without any suggestion of the fact noticed in this paragraph. warm moist regions blessed with abundance of fruits were unquestionably most desirable. for in the yearly repetition of labour on the same soil creative force is concentrated and tradition secured and thus the fundamental conditions of It is ground. the distinction is very forcible. confined to certain zones. .] . In the high plateaux of Mexico and Upper Peru we have land less fruitful than the surrounding lowlands. The warmth of the tropics makes the task of housing and clothing himself much lighter than in the temperate zone. this can only have come about through some compulsion setting man amid less favourable conditions where he had to look after himself This points to the temperate with more care than in the soft cradle of the tropics. at least up to the Nothing gives a more striking lesson of the way in which present. In tropical and sub-tropical or on the terraces not a day's journey distant.

considerably lower than in both these regions temperature and rainfall the greater part of Central and South America. Beyond the historic operation of climatic peculiarities in favouring or checking civilization. discipline with in who force. and in fruitful whatever climatic conditions. from the soil. the highest expression of political force among the hunter and shepherd races. as lowland. slopes. In This brings us to the recognition of the fact that. hilly and mountain . according to all the experience which history up to the present day More than one group of facts puts at the disposal of mankind. that surround the desert. as it develops As a nation grows its farther there is no necessary relation between the two. — . courage. differences of climate interfere most effectually by producing large regions where similar conditions prevail region's of civilization which are disposed like a belt round the globe. which may be recognised as a historical law. while in the countries . Lakes Ukerewe and Tchad in the interior of Africa. mobility. as we look over the earth. on the contrary. Now these civilizations were both situated on capital. We find. the centre and — the are lay at a height of 7560 while Cuzco. we find among the so-called semi-civilized races result The distinctly agricultural Chinese have been And. can here be turned to the absence of settled abode. as seen in the cases of Lake Titicaca in Peru. unite agility with the faculty of moving in masses. the lagoons of Tezcoco and Chalco in Mexico. — developing that power. who are in many respects the natural antipodes of the the desire of possession and a settled agriculturists may — the shepherds especially. first civilization sets itself free for itself ever fresh root. strength. is not because they offered a cooler climate and consequent inducement to agriculture. and The very faculties which are a exercise of hindrance to the agriculturist advantageous account. and Turks all nomadic races. then by the Mantchus the Persians by sovereigns from Turkestan the Egyptians successively by Hyksos. creates it organs which serve for other purposes than enabling to take One might say that in agriculture there resides a natural weakness. and. In Central Africa the nomadic Wahuma founded and maintained the stable states of Uganda and Unyoro. is an interesting but less essential phenomenon. or shepherd kings. high plateaux city less of that in modern is of Mexico — Mexico. Tenochtitlan feet. Arabs. in Peru. That lakes have played a certain part as points (Tappni and centres of crystallisation for such states. high plateaux are never so countries. is the temperate. that in fact the firmest organisations from a blend of these elements. Soudan every single state was founded by invaders from the Mexico the rougher Aztecs subdued the more refined agricultural In the history of places in the borderland between the steppe and cultivated lands a series of cases will be found establishing this rule. The real zone These may be called civilized zones.28 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND soil countries the fertility of the generally diminishes at high elevations. no than 11. In Toltecs. the and skill with weapons. which be explained not only through want of familiarity with weapons. of civilization. ruled first by the Mongols. though civilization in its growth is intimately connected with the cultivation of the soil. Thus the reason why the less fertile high plateaux and the districts nearest to them have been so favourable to the development of higher civilization and the formation of civilized states.500. — . but because they brought about the union of the conquering and combining powers of the nomads with the industry and labour of the agriculturists who crowded into the oases of cultivation but could not form states. but through life enfeebling to courage and enterprise. in proportion as it develops.

one which has been most fruitful in results is undoubtedly the crowding together in the temperate zone of the greatest possible number of individuals most capable of achievement. self-contained and complete. geographical foundation. even after the transplantation of European culture to those new worlds which sprang up in America. we may learn from the persistency of the most effective historical development in the temperate zone even after the circle of history had been widened beyond Europe. is morally and aesthetically a higher phenomenon than one which is decomposing in For this reason the first results of the the process of upward effort and growth. contact between a higher and a lower civilization are not delightful where the . most steadily progressing in infinite The most important number of threads all are plaited into this great but since that races do rests ultimately web upon the deeds of . the belt comprising for the interpretation of the relics of civilization in tropical Another mode in which civilization may perish is through the absorption of higher races by lower. and Australia. the Russians in in their ability to do this more effectually than their competitors. who profit by the advantage of better adaptation to conditions of hardship. ay. the . to Eskimo habits. and civilization new tion grew. lies The colonising power of the Portuguese Africa. and the arrangement in succession and comprehension of the individual civilized districts in one civilized belt. belong to this zone. corroborates this. in other words. Yet a civilization. A study of the geographical extension of old and seems to show that as the tastes of civilizait shrank into the regions where the great capacity for achievement co-existed with the temperate climates. Europeans that has penetrated the Arctic ice-wastes. RISE. Old semi -civilizations. exchange. No doubt an connected. most organically and by means of this connection. where the conditions were most favourable to intercourse. been obliged to accustom itself countries. Africa. and externally most exciting. make such mighty demands upon the labours of indiand when for that very reason its blossom sooner faded. This observation is important for the history of the primitive human race and of its extension. The despised Skraelings have merged themselves in Indian Mirror from Texas. Asia. And has not every group of ical Museum. and to learn the arts and dexterities of the Arctic people in order successfully to maintain the fight with Nature's powers in the Polar zone ? But so has many a bit of colonisation on tropical and polar soil ended in falling to the^evel of the in wants of the natives. That it was no accident which made the heart of ancient history beat in this zone on the Mediterranean Sea. AND SPREAD OF historical CIVILIZATION developments. belong to relics a period we meet with in when civilization did not viduals.NATURE. during the period of its stay in those dreary fields. the maintenance and development of culture could display its activity on the largest individuals. the increasing and securing of the store of culture where. even with imperfect means. (Stockholm Ethnographthe Northmen of Greenland. whose tropical countries.

vol. patterns. and lost the sense of necessity and self-reliance. and decay of — there a relation between racial and — language — Fossil words dialect and language — Relation between language and degree of Poor and rich languages — Modes of expressing number and colour — Gesture — Speech —Writing. examples of the complete mastery of foreign languages. so circumstanced. a little farther removed. deteriorated after a glimpse of artistically inferior European . Some races can still pretty well understand each other in some languages. is a universal faculty of modern mankind Is languages : civilization Man is so endowed. § 5. growth. region of decomposition. that speech is And as speech is the property everywhere and without exception his possession." said the Winnibagoes to a white inquirer. independent families of languages. and therein the civilized Many of the persons in high races have no absolute superiority over the savage. vessels. fill the homes and homesteads of mankind with varied tones. and such is his history. the same is going on to-day in Polynesia. sounds no less than the accompanying gestures. so is it the privilege of humanity. LANGUAGE linguistic ? Language — Power of natural races to learn languages— Changes in peculiarities — Origin. behind that a higher civilization. It may be said human mind . are very similar all the earth over and the inner structure of language not very learnt the . The media of language. some Arabic " . have a you the coast all the untouched far interior. many of the Nyamwesi have position in Uganda speak Swahili.] 1 [Cf. human language is one at the root. 1 and native activity not produced by dint of long-protracted. 187. dialects. "He created the white the poor Indians. In the trading centres of the West African coast and in the Indian there are Negroes enough who know two or three languages schools in Canada nothing astonishes the missionaries so much as the ease with which the youthful Redskin picks up French and English.30 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND higher is represented by the scum of a world. Innumerable languages. and Religion. In Africa it is a declared rule that on the poorest Eskimo. the lower by people complete in a Think narrow space and contented with the filling up of their own narrow circle." Thus Herder. p. and of the effects produced by the first In the case of North America. of the first settlements of whalers and runaway sailors in countries rich in art and tradition like New Zealand and Hawaii. man to make tools for . diverging from each other in every degree. only man possesses speech. Myth. which strikes deep into the but it has parted into many very various branerüs and twigs. and so in course of As we know. . out the rapid decay which befell all native industrial activity as a result of the introduction by the white men of more suitable tools. We see daily measure. clothing. Schoolcraft first pointed brandy-shop and brothel. wearisome labour it achieved important had results. and we may add that mankind possesses it in no materially different Every people can learn the language of every other. that . and among in Africa. Ritual. i. even a discrepant. of in best the and independent as it was. Lang. time art itself perished. of all men. but saw itself only fell off in the field where weakened. same language. sister and daughter languages. Even the art of Japan. and so European trade provided easily everything which hitherto had had to be forth.

mingling of races goes its way that of languages. Xor does language go with geographical. while minds equally endowed and working on the same lines cannot make themselves understood to each other. we find among the race which has developed the highest and most permanent civilization of Asia what. that the names change while the thing remains." It is clear that in the light of such deeper considerations. even the characteristic. In the course of centuries a word can assume very various meanings. like Narcisse Pelletier who. endowment use the same language. though constantly affected by the other. or one taken from another language. while those who formerly used them live on. after twelve years in the Australian bush. But. remaining all the time unaltered. implement of man. Under these circumstances . according to evolutionary views. can disappear altogether. their importance as an indication of distinctions within mankind is uncommonly small. creation of races. but to be wholly rejected as misleading and that. a Bantu race. we may find here good evidence for the higher degree of changeableness shown by language in comparison with other ethnographic characteristics. — . If the comparative study of religion teaches us as the science of cattle-breeding. We should not think it necessary to linger over a point so obvious to all who know anything about the life of races. like every other tool. in deep that only appearance quite the relations they express. had in a few years wholly forgotten their native speech but whole races abandon one language and take to another. or the Akka Mianis who. the uninflected Chinese with its 450 root words. often the most immediate expression of their minds but they often escape from their creators. it is liable to alteration. brought as boys to Italy. speaking quite other tongues. Even so great an authority on philology as Lepsius has found it necessary to protest against the notion that races and languages correspond in " The diffusion and origin and affinities. incalculably great as may have been the value and influence of languages as a support and staff in the mental development of mankind. in others these lie so science different — can them. While hunting-savages like the Bushmen speak a finely-constructed and copious language. are not only valueless. often not with racial. became himself a savage. which may be put together like pieces in a puzzle and taken apart again. the parts of speech which they distinguish. as if it were a suit of clothes. Not only do individuals lose their mother-tongue. can be replaced by some expressly-invented word. were it not that linguistic classification is still apt to be mixed up with anthropology and ethnography. in Lastly. conceptions like that of an Indo-Germanic race. It may be called the first and most important. But these distinctions are Individuals of every by no means associated with mental differences variety of in the speakers. distinctions. . and overspread great foreign peoples and races. a great in number their are to all not only the words but structure. Some of the acquirements of civilization are more permanent than language. a Semitic race. Like a tool. — : .LANGUAGE superficial 3i observer detects similarities find . Language must civilization always appear as the preliminary condition to the work of among mankind. as is still far too largely supposed. its own Languages are the most individual often very different. How much wider is the gap between the Englishman and the English-speaking Negro than that between the Chinese and the Micronesian who linguistically is so far The importance of language to ethnology must be sought elsewhere from him ! than in proof of racial affinity based on affinity all of speech. or die out. must be a most simple language. it is laid aside and taken up again.

These three languages did not die childless they survive in Coptic. which represent the family. is now thought to owe its poverty and stiffness rather to retrogression than to undevelopment. now existing are old in themselves or descended . So far speech is the dearest and most universal sign of the important effect of social life in limiting . Plutarch. 1 [This statement seems to need qualification. including Meleager. as others do. which are just as good among savage as among civilized folk. Not only it is Haeckel's Alali has long passed into oblivion . not as we ourselves want to do. The universality of language is the simple result of the fact that all portions of mankind have existed long enough to develop the germs of their capacity for speech to the point at which we can apply the term language. Dionysius. Eusebius. the simpler utensil ? At the basis of speech lies the desire to impart it is thus the product not of the single man but of Man in society and history. when we find a poorly organised language spoken by one of the highest races. old Egyptian died even before the Egyptian civilization old Greek did not long 1 survive the independent existence of the Greek race Latin fell with Rome. close to Itself drawn from the mobile mouth of the living man. the starting-point of living expression. once compared with the chatter of birds and other animals. Monosyllabic speech. Clement. We hear no more about remains of the primitive speech. But here the universalness extends farther modern languages are organised to a very similar pitch. . . all his successors with their imperfect or childish speech are no more. No one generation notices any material change. the artistic impulse. Basque. As to Latin. More rarely do languages perish without successors as Gothic has done. while the South African clicks.] . constant change. We speak. Does not the like hold good with the universal spread of the religious idea. . standing solitary . but we cannot be expected to believe that anything is thereby gained towards the pedigree of mankind. All languages families origin. which once grew at the root of the tree of language. . . and the Romance languages respectively. For the sake of and by means of imparting we acquire our earliest knowledge it develops and enriches the language it creates its unity by limiting the exuberance of dialectic variations. to promise less than formerly in the way of a universal pedigree of languages. . But to say that a language dies is a misleading metaphor. to understand we speak as is intelligible. Yet even this has been survived by languages nearly akin to it. : . and a The newer philology appears indeed highly organised one by one of the lowest. Modern Greek. Epictetus. Longus. individualism. 146. from old first all bear the traces of historic development interpretation philology has all are far from their " and for their now laid aside the bow-wow " theory. to be understood we hear and learn. are now regarded less as survivals from the brute than as the characteristic expression of linguistic indolence and decay. yet it lives with them and undergoes changes dying at last itself. Lucian. Müller and Donaldson give several pages of names of "old" Greek authors subsequent to B. Even if it survives the generations of those who The spoke it. Appian. and remaining the mind. Certainly the language continued to thrive for nearly 1000 years after the removal of the Emperor's residence to Byzantium. . Chrysostom. Philo Judaeus. Demetrius Chalcondyles. Anna Comnena. Strabo. but see in this domain only development and retrogression. Galen.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND no doubt possible to make a pedigree of languages. if we knew when the " fall of Rome " occurred we could better test the accuracy of the illustration.C. Herein language is like certain universal arts or implements. language bears the stamp of life.

pass out of use. rather import themselves. which a dialect? At this stage only dialects are spoken. is to be found not in its written form but in dialects. which spoke a language. But where is the boundary between dialect and language ? At the present day we understand by a language a dialect which has become fixed by writing and widely spread by dint of intercourse. and hence more exposed to change. or survive taking place in many forms. into language. while languages are possessed by those alone who write. where Gordon collected twelve dialects the wide diffusion of in the neighbourhood of Manipur alone. will die. are frequent in the unthinking life of the natural races. and describes even their syntactical Alteration is naturally more frequent in unwritten usage as remarkably unstable. languages than where writing has produced a certain petrifying effect on speech and if we must admit the assertion of philologists that the life-blood of a language ! ! . Thus a Fijian in battle challenging his opponent. But this is only so long as we compare them with written languages.LAXGUAGE as it 33 a primeval does with no near kinship to any contemporary tongue. new words and terms of speech are imported. . Especially is the literary language rather an artificial than a natural form of speech. the more fruitful and wider intercourse of races that have writing has at the same time a tendency to widen the area over which a dialect or a language is distributed. and with it It is only #the mutability of languages family will become extinct. as Pliny tells us. Yet we venture to predict that success will one day attend the effort to ascertain the elements of speech in their world-wide distribution. While writing tends to fix a language in a given form. and Arakan with their brisk commerce. that is " Cut up Cut up the temple receives. Of the 300 tribes of the manylanguaged Colchis. It has been pointed out that since 161 i. 388 words only in religion and poetry. pronunciation. required 130 interpreters. or ancient. Old forms of speech still in use. the age of railways and steamers has shown by their means the language of all civilized races has been enriched with The Azandeh or Nyam-Nyams assert that many words hundreds of new words. We may put it that races without writing speak only dialects. that prevents us from seeing in them the characteristic the support of that uniformity which we find in marks of an old connection. produces language and what preserves dialects we can see by comparing Burmese in the thickly-peopled countries of Burma. less definitely settled and brought under rule. we can understand that we have to regard languages as organisms no less variable than plants or animals. spelling. unintelligible to others. and the far more limited area of languages in the hill countries of the Upper Irawaddy. . but long become unintelligible. Pegu. every tribe having its own and we need not be so much surprised at the Colchians when seventy dialects are reckoned in modern Greek. and meaning. There are besides innumerable changes in have become obsolete in English. shouts Sai tava ! Sat tava ! Ka yau mat ka yavia a bure. to do business with whom the Romans. Meantime in the life of every language a gradual dying off and renewal is Words become obsolete." But no man knows what the words mean. which were in use among their ancestors are at present no longer employed. This is the scale by which What D . though they are held to be very How with new things. even of an arbitrary kind. and where often thirty or forty families speak a dialect of their own. myths and material objects. Junker believes in a rapid transformation of the African languages while Lepsius attaches little value to their store of words. Dialects we conceive as languages less copious. .

Public speaking. whether abstract or concrete. and shortest methods of expressing ideas. languages as special organisms with a development of their own. will have reached the highest stage of developAnd hence it would follow that a thorough parallelism rules between the ment. which offers the most complete. uniform its usages and opinions . We can only assume some great error of observation when S. development of language and that of culture. and the like. the In more intimate its intercourse. the more firmly articulated its society. though far apart. The multiplicity of the dialects spoken by the Bushmen which show differences even between groups separated only by a range among or a river. Bushmen. is a much-altered idiom showing many peculiarities in different groups. singing. in a pure form by means of public discussions and frequent meetings for conversation. without these external influences. Even in the best of those made by English or Americans for savage compiled. owing to arbitrary transliteration. however. national laws. the Djurs by the whole breadth of the Bongos. have The latter are divided from preserved the Shillook language almost unaltered. which also is a conservative force. quite culture allowing of no common useless for a Frenchman or German in intercourse with " natives. to the fact of their stage of no common interests. would have enjoyed but a transitory existence. in short neither possessing nor producing anything which might contribute to the fixing of a It is interesting to notice that the language of the Bechuana standard language. dialects. it may be taken as a rule that the larger a race is. the more so much more stable will its language be. who live as a race of pariahs with and among the Bechuanas." any case. popular songs. the Sechuana. Just as in the will . But by this term we do not understand merely that which best fulfils the end for which it is designed. and assuming a too easy fluidity in linguistic forms. the Balala. and give permanence to speech-formation which. exercise in a lesser degree the same influence as writing. the possessors of the highest culture thus speak a language which deserves the name of a first-class implement. languages a large number of words are. is referred by Moffat exclusively centre. says that he could no longer use a vocabulary which had only been prepared since We have good cause to know how carelessly vocabularies often are 1820. Waldeck. They set obstacles in the way of the natural tendency of language to flow into the countless streams of dialect. Permanent growth in the degrees of enhances the value of language as of civilization. writing to Jomard in 1833 from the neighbourhood of Palenque. most intelligible. These facts show clearly where we have to look for the real and essential distinctions linguistic development. oracles. since the Australian languages in all their poverty perfectly We rather look upon subserve the simple wants of those who speak them. Without prejudice to the varieties in the structure of language. since the highest culture requires and creates the most copious means of spoken expression.34 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND to we have languages of hills measure the frequent statements as to the immoderate number of small nations. while their masters the Bechuanas maintain and propagate their language. We learn from Schweinfurth that the Djurs and Bellandas. and these again are separated from Consider too the slight differences in the most distant Bantu the Shillooks. F. The language which has means to express anything without becoming obscure through redundancy. Yet we must beware of under-estimating the effect of customary speech.

a A light is thrown on the list of whose colour-names yielded as many as seventy. We just as often find same name used to denote different colours. The nautical vocabulary of Malays and Polynesians shows similar development but not far off we find great barrenness." the fact that the greatest way in which this excessive wealth of terms arises by and their kin.000. otherwise uncultivated. as the most different names applied This is merely the copiousness of confusion. : asserted that the Hottentots have thirty-two words to express colours if they are exceeded more than two-fold by these Australians of Queensland. they cannot count beyond 10 or 20. as the French say dix-sept and quatre-vtngts. has for we must be cautious in drawing conclusions from one to the other language is only one among modes of expression. attention must generally be drawn to the fact that the inefficiency of a tool does not always imply a corresponding inability in the hand using it. In reply to the constant repetition of the statement that as the languages of these races contain no numerals above 3. white. . employ Arabic words for higher numbers at the same time calling 100 by their own word.000 {crore)\ we have none. fulfils although the latter requirements . Here they started from the unproved assumption that expression corresponds .000. it is no less be reproduced in consciousness. simple needs just as well as the former meets greater so must we hold the supple yet firmly -articulated. possess the greatest conceivable choice The Herero has of words for all colours brown. Hindustanee has words for 100. the high development. exactly to perception — in this instance that the number of colour-terms corre- sponded to that of the various degrees of colour which pass through the retina to Erroneous as is this supposition. . so. Alfred Kirchhoff wrote . " It is After testing a native of Queensland. the result of . Greek had a word for 10. — no scruple about using the same word to denote the colour of the meadows and of the sky but he would regard it as a sign of gross mental incapacity if any one were to comprise in one word the various gradations of brown in different cows. upon the perfection of which a great deal of the mental development. many can show an unusually copious list of colour-terms. and no token of to the same colour. of a race depends. the Hereros. But reached. Least of all should the mode in which it deals with particular conceptions be taken as Counting and reckoning are doubtless very important things. and consequently the culture. who can only count to 20 10. dun.J. dapple. But in view of the alleged inability of man}* savage races to think higher numbers than 3 or 5. So among the Samoyedes there are eleven or twelve designations for the various greys and browns of reindeer. A AG CAGE 35 class of mechanical tools. Bleek has very properly pointed out that this conclusion is as much justified as would be the conclusion that. instructive for the recognition of the true nature of language. the people cannot count beyond 3. if the language of a race be the measure of the stage of civilization it . we should give the plough a higher rank than the axe. in their own language. imil. and has its own life. such a measure. who Dinkas cattle-breeders among the African Negroes. clear though copious languages of the Indo-Germanic family of more account than the poorer idioms of the Bantu. Both copiousness and deficiency alike spring from immaturity. and so on. are passionately devoted to that occupation. the deficiency of which among many savage races and many peoples of antiquity was unhesitatingly ascribed to a corresponding deficiency of perception. and The Nubians. Just the same holds good in colournames.000 {lac). to observe that races.

which includes just about as many words of Teutonic as of Romanic origin. they have names of their own Arabic Spirit. indolence. \) good example is the freedom with which Nubian has been sup11 plemented by Arabic. hour. Owner's marks the others. slave.000 words. on the other hand servant. temple. . English language claims to possess 100. A . to read. ideas of relationship. Glancing at the heavy burden laid upon those who are naturally without speech. who used just the same signs as uneducated persons of his kind in Europe. river Nile is called For all native but the animals. and everything connected with breadmaking. for water. weapons. They the are rich in Berber. and the Japanese as a rule calls blue and green indifferently ao. the parts of the body.3$ THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Nor . iron. " friend. we will only call to mind the interesting fact that in Kazembe's kingdom Livingstone met with a deaf and dumb man. enemy. But then in its impoverishment allows no conclusion as to the degree of civilization. missionaries to interpret the of Christianity. domestic or wild. the fruits of the earth. We in the need only think of the planting and engrafting that has had to be undertaken garden of in -< every African. God. and American tongue *-0 order the make it possible lor M. month. It is obvious that the language of signs and grimaces is all the more tempting to use in proportion as language proper is . have Nubian names except . to believe. Many of the despised foreign words are really inv . For the most civilised among modern European nations the rule seems to hold that a man of average education actually uses only The a very small part of the words which his language contains. Polynesian. . the for all relating to building and navigation. The peasant of central Germany frequently includes violet under brown. day. simplest facts of Scripture history and the writings which form the foundation In every mission the rendering of " God " especially has a history rich in difficulties and errors. is shown among European languages by English. they borrow from the Arabs. in contact Where races of a higher civilization of the latter a with a lower. Arabic. the language easily lapses into impoverishment. The Nubians have their own special words v for sun." How much very mixture of tongues does to enrich a all to adapt it to its purpose. yet an English *t F field-labourer gets along as a rule with about 300. VG x dispensable. year. language. Requirements decide what the wealth of language shall be. poor in Arabic. is it only " natural " races who are content with one word for different colours the same want of fertility in the formation of language holds good in higher stages. : column from the Ainu (after Von Sieboldy rudimentary writing from the Negroes of Lunda (after the upright . moon. With them essi serves Tossi. since it takes over come number of words from the former. sea. but can only bs looked upon as a historical fact the life of that language. are All metals have Arabic names. Büchner). to pray. and above V Y X 1 \T7 N/ \l . and stars but the indications of time.

as though to combine the idea of laying it on the person and drawing him towards them. has given a list of principal signs. Indians of North America. Among all races of the earth we find simple methods of fixing a conception. which present themselves either in picture-writing or in sign -writing as allied inventions. purpose defined by mutual agreement. and the like. But then they have already reached the boundary at which their arrangement in succession brings us to a higher stage of develop- . Our boys use a form of picture-writing when they draw an unpopular schoolfellow on the door of his house with a donkey's head. Races deficient in culture can put far more into the simplest winks and gestures than we are in the habit of doing. " will . and which brings them nearer to art.LAXGUAGE defective 37 and simple. Lichtenstein gives a pretty instance of the expression of numerical conceptions by means of signs. by combining which the most various sentences can be formed. and the lend expression. and makes a movement as if he wanted to catch the other by closing his fingers and drawing him towards himself if the other is farther off. . in which shepherds converse over great distances. By less varied and abstract the ideas to which it can frequent use this kind of language can be brought to a who always have thousands of words at command. who for that purpose use the drum language (drum signalling. they attain the stage of picture-writing. Here belong also fire and smoke signals the whistling language of Gomera. contrived to explain the difference of their respective views to the magistrate. He relates that a Hottentot. make appointments. may have sprung from ownership marks of this kind. he said. the inventive. My Baas. If the person wanted is close by. Many signs which are hardly recognisable under the ornamental character which they often assume. who was " disputing with his Dutch master about the length of time that he had yet to serve. for instance. Livingstone tells us that when Africans beckon to any one they hold the palm of the hand downwards. . But adults who possess no higher form of writing are able. the beckoner reaches out his right hand in a line with the breast. can form no conception. But gesture language has not been developed to a real system of signals among the Africans. —— . Yet both are familiar to the youth of all races in later times. Mallery. in his great work on the sign and gesture language of the Indians. or be directed to make a notion plainer. American Indians often carry a complete this brings us to the measure with various subdivisions tattooed on one arm rudiments of writing. as when the road is indicated by a foot going or a hand pointing in a certain direction. extends from the Cameroons through Central Africa to New Guinea. by means of pictures placed in a row. as. the movement is emphasised by holding the hand as high as possible and then bringing it downwards and rubbing it on the ground. thence to the Its highest cultivation seems to be reserved for Jivaros in South America). . As soon as by mutual consent a conventional character has been stamped on these representations. and so forth perfection of which we." " Here he stretched out have it I have got so long to serve his left arm and hand. to express a good deal more than isolated notions. and at the same time taciturn. and laid the little finger of the right hand on the middle " " but I say that I have only got so long And therewith of his forearm he moved his finger to the wrist. it may be said. marks of ownership simply express the fact that the article upon which they are painted or cut has such and such a definite man for its owner. making them intelligible to Signs can only serve a wide circles.

makes use of signs of things which indeed are now B.38 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND The " Wabino song of the Ojibbeway Indians. RELIGION religion? Difficulty of the subject — Have "natural" races — Are : their ideas survivals from a higher sphere of all religion lies in thought. which denotes different words by means of one and the same syllable." Thus. grew up. not only one idea but a whole series of statements can be expressed by simple all the higher kinds of writing means to which a definite sense is attached picture-writing. This descent is recognisable in the Mexican have sprung from . A monosyllabic language like Chinese. and in its development into telegraphy and shorthand attaining the highest possibilities of compressed expression of thought. Not only does the entire inquiry into the religious life They give information about their conception of the : . death. which. writingr fixed and secured civilization the essence of which upon tradition to be the we have found the connection of generations based living. or with the intention of deceiving. for the purposes of their language. from obviously manifold beginnings of picturewriting. in one spot of the earth only. and passed into all western " alphabets. often incompletely." Religious ideas as clear and simple as monotheism are not found among savages. adapted to all languages. Ina more decided fashion the Phoenicians did the same when they dropped the superfluous signs used by the Egyptians to denote things. even in the very oldest 3000. but still is obliterated in the Chinese . arranged a really phonetic script out of the Chinese letters. When Merensky asked some Christian Basutos what they had thought about God while they were still heathens. and signs of sounds were similarly blended. Therewith mankind achieved an extraordinarily important step in the progress of its develop- — ment. The Japanese. have an even more powerful than natural phenomena — Ascription of souls to objects— Fetishes — Idols —Temples — Modes of burial —The idea of a future — Morality in religion — Classification and propagation of religions — Missionary effect all life — The origin of the activity. but besides this. or germs to be developed later ?*— Hawaiian Hades-legend search for causes this — Phenomena which stimulate search great natural phenomena — Superstitions connected with animals — Sickness." represented on our coloured plate entitled " Indian picture-writing. but traces may be noticed everywhere . on the other hand. one of the finest implements of human thought the art of writing by means of letters of the highest pliancy. The and thought of natural races is difficult. they also denote certain definite sounds." gives an illustration of the way in which ment.C. for the reason that they have no clear ideas on the subject. and Egyptian hieroglyphics. we only dreamt. being polysyllabic. they said " We did not think about God at all. for itself. and only adopted such hieroglyphs as were most necessary for writing down the sounds. In the Egyptian hieroglyphics an ox or a star indicate the things themselves. we may say the inspiring nucleus. in in fixing and securing tradition. § 6. going back to In the Mexican picture-writing signs of things hardly recognisable in order to define phonetic signs for syllables. Supreme Being only with reluctance. The Phoenician names for the letters made their way into Greece. dreams. even it in the cuneiform writing we may find echoes of the picture-writing from which inscriptions sprang. Very often it may really not be easy to them to give such information. is more adapted to phonetic writing.

And so indeed Tindall presently qualifies his own statement by saying . in many they lack the secure progress and development of thought from one generation to another which brings about the organic growth of the thought of a former age into that of the present." This has no doubt been understood to mean that they had scarcely any inkling of religious matters. intelligible writing. in many places obliterated. must equally show itself on the surface. c^^ ^ "X^ // expression. All mental stirrings and strivings which are not directed possible to get at often We makes it must therefore immediate practical aims of life find in them to the their r. be on our guard against too narrow a notion of the religious surmises and imaginings of " natural " races. from San Christoval. historic Cranz says of the Greenland angekoks" They may be called the Greenpoetry. move cases without sequence or connection most a mutilated fragment. arise from this prejudice. tradition.RELIGION thought-life of these people 39 of dreamy indefiniteness. doctors. Tindall the missionary. full of intrinsic contradictions. or in order to give some He insight into the habits and peculiarities of wild beasts. as well teachers. and as soothsayers !" In reliall gion there is under circumstances for conjecture much room and inquiry. philosophers. clearly proclaiming any religious message but survivals of an ! ! . spirits. Melanesian sea deity. seems to indicate that they were not wholly ignorant of these matters even though nothing further appears in the terms of the language or in ceremonial usages and superstitions to give evidence of anything more than a crude conception of a spiritual world. science. believes that the superstitious tales which travellers have picked up from them and narrated as religious reminiscences. is Reli- gion at once philosophy. One who knew the Xamaqua Hottentots well. were regarded by the natives themselves as mere fables. How shallow is the view of Klemm that among the " No common religion exists Arctic races every one believes as he likes Klemm has quite misunderstood a remark of Cranz. The most unfair judgments. that the fact of their language containing appellations for God. This expresses far too . In one respect they are always comprehensive. are not lacking. the dislike to giving away the secrets of religion in pictures . related only with a view to entertain. Such religious ideas as do exist are often known only to a few elders who guard them jealously. has also made the statement that "in regard to religion their minds seem to have been almost a tabula rasa. Certainly in the soul of a Namaqua there is no intelligible writing to be read. the evil one. Even where this does not occur. But we must not start with the view that everything which exists deep down (After Codrington. landers' physical -science moralists.

in the course of in our description ? in presence of the question : Is religion to : be seen to usages. on the other hand. among " natural " races shall we meet with religion in that narrow sense but. we shall arrive at recognising that the spiritual side of a race nowhere finds . This. as civilization progresses to When we find ourselves development." We venture even to predict that in the religion of the most in remote African and Australian peoples.4o THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . debased fragments of Christian or Mussulman ideas in Indian and Polynesian. has straightway thrown up scions in foreign ground. of monotheism. and with the power of reproduction which is peculiar to these creations of fancy." Ethnography knows no race devoid of religion. or at least to a long-protracted process of growth. Malay and African myths and if we had no inkling as to the history of their introduction. Nay. views. Beside the material destituFrom tion of the Bushmen. " Like the anomalies of language. the crystal of a purified belief is built up. at least they are of the elements from which. they show by their peculiar character that there was an epoch when and what is now devoid of rule or sense formed itself with a definite object according to laws. or of looking at it not the truer and fairer way to hold that the elements of religion are to be recognised in every department of human thought and feeling which can rise above the affairs of daily above this corporeal existence. In a notice of Callaway's Ahtrsery Tales of the Zulus (1866). and Rarely. may be the result of an to degrade : undermining. more copious utterance than in religious matters. . with a corresponding faculty for religion. these lie small and inconspicuous as in the germ. they would appear as evidences of an underlying germ . legends we shall put the counter-question is Is religion be apprehended only as a cut-and-dried conception. von Strauss in opposition to this tendency " Complete absence of religion. in its deepest degradation. fairies. however faultily and confusedly this may . narrow an apprehension of the idea of religion if these usages and tales are not religion. these point to a remote The poetry of " natural " some twig from the tree of civilization. just as the rest of the culture possessed . always retains the craving for religion. they will religious Let us Buddhism. Mongolian not always Mahommedanism. no doubt. at least so far as they deal with ghosts. great The propagative tion. true atheism. but only differences in the degree to which religious ideas are developed. are not their myths suggestive of a treasure ? was scientific conviction we must unhesitatingly endorse the verdict which pronounced by the religious feeling of V. and giants. suspicion that races again in any case arouses a European story and fable has there dropped into the soil. we shall not analyse a single race on its spiritual side without laying bare the germs and root-fibres of religious feeling. isolated and cut adrift from any organic connection with a great living Already we find mythology. Soudanese thoughts have dwindled aw ay beyond recogniimperfections. r force of religious ideas is as great as the certainty that dwindle where they are cast forth into the wilderness of the materialistic savage life. or a system of teaching imbued with spirituality. soul-deadening over-culture but never the effect of crude barbarism. operate. Max Müller has connected with this the deeper thought that like our folk-lore stories and so forth. some. or rather as in the chrysalis while among others But we must they have expanded in a splendid wealth of myths and legends. Among want to see primitive conditions in their remember how in Abyssinian Christianity. into the realm of unknown causes ? life.

and that one has to the What ? than Often a similarity of sound. After long negotiations with the chief. The god hid himself behind a rock. : . now under the protection of Wakea.RELIGION will be found germs or survivals of Indian or Egyptian tradition. and jeered at him for a stinking ghost who had stayed too long by his putrefying After all kinds of games had been played. who were so engrossed in their game that he was able to join them When they did notice him they took him for a newly-arrived soul. Indian elements in the Malay religion belong now to the domain of proved and perhaps reach as far as Hawaii and beyond. split on this they slid down to the lower regions. and are profoundly supra-sensual A . he found the court filled with a crowd of spirits {Akua). suffices the sportive fancy of The same aspect of a these people as an attachment for far-reaching threads. It returned to earth and was on condition of releasing the soul of the chief's wife. . As they were now all blind. more often to attend to the How ? relation looks far more impressive on the parchment of some manuscript of a Greek poet than in the oral tradition of a Polynesian or African priest or sorcerer. the under -world with its parallels in Greek mythology. He caught them in the air and hid them observe which way Milu's eyes went. which at last weave around this latter a close network of entwined with the sense of Nature. inconsolable for the loss of his wife. its soul is clean gone plants no less than to men when strewn on a body. even to America. venerated trees and streams. kingdom of Wakea. The profundity the expression. if the rice rots. unobserved. . obtained from his priest. follow the human soul to the other world. an echo. and after smearing the chief with an ill-smelling oil. cause and effect leads to the assumption that there are relations between this soul and the human soul. is must not be measured by the imperfection of it must not be often less like clear speech than like overlooked that this multiform weft of legend the prattle of a child. On reaching Milu's palace. But if we try to extract the more intelligible sentences in the savage we get a picture which is in its essence not far inferior to prattle of the Let us compare a Hawaiian legend of the more adorned poetical expression. Agathias tells us that the Alemanni and we may boldly assume for all and dales mankind the universal " animation " which lay at the base of this veneration. and the chief suggested that they should all pluck out their eyes and throw them No sooner said than done but the chief took care to together in a heap. but afterwards also their relation The Dyaks ascribe a soul to to their surroundings nearer or more distant. of the thought In considering a mythology like the Polynesian. Thus its deepest roots come into contact with science. and there A false application of the law of again be incorporated and serve it for food. in answer to his prayers. certain chief. reunited to its body. Milu got his eyes back. the company of the chieftain's god as his guide into the kingdom of They journeyed to the end of the world. body. where they found a tree which was Milu. by attributing to them a soul which guides in the first place their own motions and changes. Religion is everywhere connected with man's craving for causality. 4I by them. hills . but it can. they had to think of another. he succeeded in escaping to the in his coco-nut cup. which will ever be looking out for the cause or the causer of everything that comes to pass. The facts. sent him forward by himself. where Milu's hosts might not set foot. This craving is very suitably met by the tendency to vivify or even incarnate all the higher phenomena of Nature.

and has more influence than When Melanesians are asked. . Thursday. writing from the Upper Nile. literally caught. and Saturday are good days for travelling in these parts Wednesday is neither specially good nor In Java. . evil influence of the moon. experience. p. Of night the savage is more afraid than a badly brought-up child.) Cf. Felkin. purpose unknown. There you have a method of sending is caught in it. are. says that at night the natives will never should over his doings. 4S. Monday. and frets himself to death. the thieves their silver dial. and none of them is forgotten and in this net of . after Kosa chief has often been told. (After Büchner. and Friday are unlucky days. So a thousand threads arc knotted together. and try at least in some measure to secure themselves under the constant feeling of being threatened by invisible powers. Tuesday. showing. own power of imagination. to the point of absurdity. perhaps to avert lightning. he fancies his soul leaves. they for full half the At the same time. The cord with several open nooses fastened to it is hidden in the If the man for whom it is meant catches sight of it. He died shortly causing a piece to be broken off an anchor which was cast up on shore. and from that time forward the anchor was treated with reverence. tradition the simple child of nature flutters like a fly in the spider's web. Hence the terror of phantoms due to his which it is one of the distinctive traits of the savage.42 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND The story of the causation. by extending the idea of unlucky days. who they answer " Men. a person A out of the world which in the Banks Islands has been tested by Fetish in Lunda . after the fashion of a calendar. from comfortable in the daytime." in order to let it be known that they are not ghosts or spectres. says Codrington. common to all mankind. and ever soul is entangles himself more with every attempt to find the right clue. have not even bad but Sunday. like a watch. for fear of wild beasts and the year they feel far . march.

which he. On his next visit to his patient he found him flitted. as otherwise they would have to avoid those roads and spots. forcibly depicts the terror . the mortality from fever was very high. On the occasion of the funeral of a Bakwiri woman he was urgently entreated in a special speech by an envoy from the negroes. like everything new and unusual. The bit of paper was restored him with the utmost solemnity. because the house was bewitched. West who regard it wound for a man when . as the first white man. and then hastily dash into the house. Africans. kindly not to throw bits of paper about in his walks. Many a sad episode in the history of the exploration of the dark continent is explained by this connection. When Chapman visited Lechulatebe's town on Lake Ngami. unconscious of danger. meets me in the street. Paper with writing on especially is a fetish for the Buchholz was bandaging a severe a scrap of paper fell unnoticed from his pocket. in his Missionary Travels. the fetishic. : Ä^i->^ ->. which is natural enough days ? Livingstone.'•« •>••^<-' M f Entrance to a fetish hut in Lunda. and kept his doctors constantly at work by having his threshold incessantly sprinkled with decoctions of herbs. inspired in the negroes " The women peer from he. p." He scarcely showed himself outside his hut. to assist 43 them in their choice of luckyWhite men. The relations of those who had died were subjected to tedious processes of purification before they were allowed to rejoin the community. The chief was in great alarm and excitement about " the death that was roaming all around." in the negro's spectre-teeming brain. 45.RELIGION the best time for burglaries or robberies. have almost inevitably been mixed up with these superstitions. as sheer witchcraft. he screams. ) Cf. things owned or used by the white man instantly raised into the sphere of the it miraculous. When a little No less are the child. the best friend they ever had among the whites behind the walls till I come near. (After Büchner. made his wives and children undergo frequent ablutions.

is everywhere in the first place to seek out the causes of death and sickness. But interrupted experiments. Shamans.44 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . Where lie the sources whence ghosts and ? spectres rise incessantly in their millions The most striking change closest associations is in a man himself or his sickness. Here it is clearly seen that no straight road from objects of external nature to the soul of by the fundamental lines of primitive religious systems for we shall seek in vain for any direct relations between their teaching and the measure of extent and activity which the fetish-system has reached. pain. Thus an animating breath blows not through Nature only. as when curiously-shaped stones are laid by a tree to try if they will improve its bearing but old acquaintances are tested. timidly searching around in the whimsical way in which the emotions of alarm are apt to express themselves for any support that may be at hand attaches itself to objects often in the highest degree unworthy of its confidence. setting Wooden idol from the Niger (Museum of the Church Missionary Society). are tried with regard to supernatural agencies. in the course of time the process of godconceptions shows itself throughout making has become pleasant and easy to the . It is not the fear of Nature which = meets us as the first basis of superstition. but remained in intimate contact with this world where every family possessed . often with fear and . so to say. but The business of that of death and the dead. . and whatever else these wizards are called. awe its own tutelary spirit in the shape of a beast else. Directly from this springs fetishism. up in all manner of complicated ways relations between the countless tribe of souls and all possible articles in which these take up their abode. sleep. wrought by and death. Koraji. or something in gods and idols must have sprouted and flourished and entangled the whole mind a thicket of fantastic fictions. In the act of animating is something beautifying. for offered • — man is — . but all things and there is in all dealings. . even in the decoration of men and the ornament of Therefore the word things. and then to communicate with the who are regarded by their spirits of the dead relatives with deep aversion. A tendency to multiply polytheism applies to all religions of the lower grades. troubled spirit to which all this is due. We do not wish to see therein only the base creations of terror. Not only is search made after new spirits. much more spiritual value and purpose than we fancy. medicine -men. as. such as on their higher levels poetry and philosophy strive after. . but rather that the fancy. Where the mass of the chiefs were looked upon with where souls did not as demi or entire gods only survive.

actions. by an extraordinary coincidence. This and Stubel. is only one stage from the socalled idols. round its neck. An little Eskimo's weapon tutelary bears a A mummy wrapped in clothing. and set up about the graves. though in Africa any stone may become a fetish. The only difference is that the primitive temple more often grew out of the churchyard than the churchyard was appended to it. but as a rule is connected with large upright the leather pieces of rock . wishes. too. they often look much like our churchyards. in the form of the African fetish huts. which used to possess a well-known body. while the high priests. which are cut in wood or cast in metal. keep their dreaded medicines in them ? Whence comes Alfurs ? Dyaks and osities in Anything the almost comic veneration for pots. and from whom he gets advice. The Shaman of northern Asia surrounds himself with a whole series of wooden idols. There are amulets which taste the water before you drink. the tabooed places. who are the kings. for evil spirits are partial to this flickering. while in Cameroons pillars of basalt are used. also the founding of special places for venerating them. and since many and so on. long poles serve for idols the the Azandeh stuck prefer shapeless blocks with nails. As these are frequently contiguous to the places of burial. or moulded in the huts out of clay. fluid. and so on up to the temple. which hang about the neck and waist of a Kaffir magician indeed it was pouch hung round the neck' of such a person that the first great find of diamonds at the Cape.of Malays and Polynesians. Among the gus. which are laid out round the churches without close connection any consciousness of the which prevails between care for the souls of the dead and the worship of God. and often for years to come takes its accustomed place as in the case of the Shaman of the Goldi. Both are animated only the soul of the ancestral image is a definite one. and give warning of anything noxious therein foaming. (After Reiss god on the band.RELIGION instance. ever-changing . the abodes of the souls of the departed. hanging them in quantities on the persons of their magic-men. . Why have all the African negroes such a predilection for horns. who stands in his old place in the yaourt until he is broken up with memorial services. from Ancon. have their special fetishes. With the making of such visible images of souls comes . Stone-worship is widely spread. is many a man heavily laden with these salu- tary objects. figures of dead persons. and now has passed into this doll. and be decorated with rags of many colours wound Mus. with whom he converses during his conjurations. displayed by striking finds a place in the wilderness of curi. . It would be hard to find an African who has not a fetish hung on him. was made. 45 by giving them bad or putrid meat.

' 1 Supposed idols representing souls. decided whether we have a higher stage in the fetish-huts where there are no images or other embodiments. (After Cameron. Bongos assumes the character of a monumental edifice the founding and maintaining of regular mausoleums in the case of chiefs show how little the inanimate body is regarded as a mere thing. in Oceania as shrines. that the soul docs not leave the body immediately. (Ethnological Museum.) from Ubudjwa. come in. Idols from Hermit Island. and a glimmering of left this action among it.)' . and his It must remain unyaourt is a very home of souls. Among is Malays and Indians of north-east America equally clear. or at maintains a certain The Polyit nesians state clearly that the soul after death haunts the neighbourhood of the grave descends to for a while. In little Funeral ceremonies races. are a department of religion all is among least all The thought underlying them alliance with it. especially bears. Among many races provision is made for the temporary return of the soul to its .46 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Figures of animals. until finally the realms of Milu or Wakea. . which among the corpse Chiriquis. Africa we find them as genuine huts. Berlin. and the mummy-like arrangement of the the marking of the grave. the races of east Asia this reason we is find For for some time unburied — the corpse often a whole year among the The widely -spread custom of burying gifts with the dead.

without a perception in all cases of the consequent necessity of Still that belief doubtless accounting for the place in which the souls abide. tested with especial thoroughness in respect of their origin in higher and more . a wooden bird Usually the man bearing the soul away is swung over the head of the Shaman. ruin them. If the hut of the deceased is deserted or destroyed his household furniture is broken up. the soul of a king but the ordinary soul. remote spheres of thought. or on their own premises. is never more than a part of religion. The forcible recall of the soul into the corpse by means of witchcraft was regarded as no less possible than its extraction by the same means from the living body. we find agreement among many races. From this boat is derived the shape of the stone slab used by North Germans. The soul in its wanderings may travel to any other persons. naturally depending on the affection This explains bestowed upon the dead. and from time to time meat and drink are put by the corpse or poured into the grave. In the North the sledge on which the corpse was drawn to its last home is used in the same way. Curiously enough in this respect for while the Kaffirs often simply drag their the strongest contradictions occur dead into the forest and leave them to the hyaenas. That the soul does not rest when it has reached the grave is indicated by the boat which is set up on the mound. The brief and fragmentary thought of savage races allows of a profound belief. images and what is commonly called idolatry. bewitch them. they bury others in stone graves. at a memorial service for the dead among the Goldi. the carrying on a pole. With the grounds for reverent treatment of the corpse fear is associated as a powerful motive. and transference to that . as remaining souls. as when. this last is a speciality much in favour with African magicians. . stand in a different relation to each other from ideas which are attached to them These latter must always be only in the second or some more distant degree. expressing itself in as many forms as we have seen. his slaves and flocks often put to death. often highly conventionalised. and to this end an opening is left in the vault. The myth already given of the soul-snatching Hawaiian In the fundamental features of chief shows clearly how far the resemblances go. so effective is the dread of spectres. can enter into any one. Polynesians. a trick practised on the lord of the nether world. What is called an idol is originally nothing but a memorial of a deceased person an ancestral statue. remarkable rather in its relation to the geography of mankind than to the psychology of races. immediately reflected images of the reality. and American Indians. we may look upon this as a fact of geographical distribution. a woman by the roadside.RELIGION 47 decayed tabernacle. and his very name devoted to oblivion. In the Cameroons a man is buried in his hut. a descent. at any rate imbued with it.. — . It is more rare to find the soul embodied in a symbol. the hasty interment at a distance from the hut. are all operations if not prompted by fear. and if this renders their acceptance of the idea of a future state more ready shows a remarkable similarity among ancient Europeans. But with the assumption of universal animation. Musimu. the avoidance of the door. in the animation of the human body. The rapid swathing. of some beast . involve a certain element of necessity. though beasts naturally occur first. the jealousy of the Conceptions which. The connection between these is given as he was. the fancy need see no bar to any transmigrations on the part of the soul. In Uganda every sorcerer is tenanted by or raise them to unexpected honour.

an affirmation in the new life There lies which is The opposed to the power of destruction. His spirit trembles before the infinite and unfathomable. phallus as a symbol of protection against use among the most evil powers is in and therefore we do not various races . is woven into relations with the supernatural. but are an admixture occurring first in the higher stages. with generation and birth as in its more enigmatic and significant processes. with Schmeltz. ferent races. to bring the appearance of phallic emblems among the Maoris into relation with the obscure question of the composition of the race. and hardly troubles itself ethics . and very that of birth also. it is Walhalla is only for brave warriors who have It is fallen in fight . Fritsch. imagine divisions in the future life. allied tribes. in a higher stage of development. In Tahiti. too. between tribes. on the ground of the special prominence of the same among the Melanesians. (this maturity riage. by invisible rendered the image. or the more impersonal idols. commonly of this the presentation of the feet signifies a special relation to the myths. . The " natural " races. Of this. tu. it is chiefly the latter who are national the from distinguished tit. Two classes of natural phenomena exercise the most profound effect upon the innate sense of insecurity and man must find out how he stands with regard to them. quiet and dignity prevail. as for instance among the Arfaks. no doubt. and amuse themselves with games and shouting in the latter. The former is the rowdy place where lower-class souls dwell. suited to the chiefs of whose souls the abode. To the notion of a future life there has now accrued. on . a more advanced and higher element in the shape of a doctrine of future rewards and punishments. is The farther the idea of memory retreats. The moment In the case of generation by predilection represented carvings and images. Anyamong most difattainment of (After G. for between connection intimate the can understand also New the skull is a memorial of the dead. the how Grave of a Zulu chief.48 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND otherwise inexplicable variety which in the in this matter prevails among closewhere the Nufurese have a long list Guinea. where the personal family idols. are very particularly). the contrary. On all sides innumerable obstacles offer barriers and hinder his will. while skull and idol worship. In presence of the mighty activity of natural forces he compares himself with the power and majesty of nature and acquires the consciousness of his own inferiority. not moral. but these are social. and mar- surrounded by ceremonies intended to render in a perceptible form the importance of these events. it is the case that birth. essential to point out that do not necessarily form a primitive ingredient of religion. are of them often gives rise to wars theft The wrappings. however. the Indian warrior has his select heaven. and so. many races show no trace. Besides death we find life. Now we whatever none are there of idols {karowar). think it necessary. Thus the Polynesians distinguish the realms of Milu and Wakea.

to stars souls of departed heroes make their way to the setting sun. The trouble they took to exorcise the obscuring spirit in eclipses of the moon. and have retained experiences of them in their traditions the stone-hatchets found in the soil they call thunderbolts. naturally exercised an influence on the mind even All. even Bushmen and Australians.RELIC It hX further about the particulars of 49 which that exalted grandeur consists. the man with the least field of vision. to bring also. and the been say that the sun as giver of light has divine being and the universal benefactor. sure to be woven about a . and the degree to The part which they play in the which they enter into economic prosperity. beliefs or superstitions of mankind is thus easily comprehensible. The is With the sun luck . connected the worship of the fire which must not be put out and is kindled under the bond of an oath. volcanic eruptions. especially among agriculturists. Legends connected with the various positions of the sun in respect of the earth. their brightness. are widespread. more perhaps in cooler regions than in the tropics. Weather phenomena impress by their immediate effects. the purveyors of fertility. It is too much revered by all nations as a But sun-worship is widely spread. The existence of these strange appearances so remote from earthly things. These phenomena are from the rustle of the woods. E . lighting the darkness. Somewhat beyond lies the domain of those phenomena which never or seldom come into immediate relation with man. the high place allotted to the moon in the religious ideas and legends of all races. are doubly welcome to savage races with their fear of ghosts. heavens. are evidence of this. radiant sun is represented. and with the changes of the seasons. . Are they images of souls. the bubbling of the spring. constellations. earthquake. and where ideas Even on the magic drum of the Lapland Shaman a are more developed. question to ask if these races have a sense of Nature. a survival of the transference of the fire itself. drawn into the range of superstitious conceptions. by reason of the majestic calm and regularity of their motions. have names for the of primitive men. the most prejudiced creature in human shape. In common with mother-earth the fertilising sun creates all living things. The boat with the corpse is launched on the waves in every brook a spirit is imagined.or sunshine-makers. The fantastic idols with which forest and field in the Negroes' part of Africa swarm are in fact frequently memorials of lightning-strokes The deepest impression is left by the phenomena of the starry and the like. and shows itself in the frequent occurrence of rain. receives an impression from the rainbow " the bridge to the sky. . . their great number. Even the savage. ." from the roar of the sea. Moon and stars. which the Ainu place on promontories where an awkward current prevails in order to pray for a good passage or a lucky haul ? Savages know how meteoric stones fall. The Japanese solemnly brings into his house at the new year fire which has been lighted in the temple by rubbing wood Even the Russian in the district of Tamboff carries all on an appointed day. Legends are mountain in the plain the dark forest harbours ghosts storms. the ashes he can and some stones from his old hearth into a new house. impress by the unexpected and stunningmanner of their outbreak. which in their turn are called forth by nearer causes. the dark forest is overlaid with taboo appears a highly superfluous it Poetry here entwines its roots with religion . and therefore are noticed by him only when they force themselves on his attention. The warming power of the sun must have been felt with gratitude.

and even to heaven. as totems that is. hedgehogs. Legends about beasts and plants form a chief. and for this purpose those who were chiefs below are also the best adapted in the next world. and that only through chinks in the thicket of idols.5° THE HISTORY OF MANKIND But social observances arc also • mixed up in this. drinks the blood of dogs out of the hollow figure of an animal. crocodiles were kept in may perhaps have another interpretation. It is only incidentally that a glimpse at Him opens. from even Japan once its had sacred this. apes. not to say typical. the Lord of heaven. savages beasts. sacrifices to the river god out of fish-shaped shells. The inquiry about the One. as when Lobengula. The millions of departed souls must have chiefs to lead them. puts on a pair of artificial stag-horns. The Giljaks employ bears. Besides beasts impressed irresistibly themselves by means of the good and harm they did. Further. . Beasts ever find a place at the base of the genealogies of tribes and the chiefs. king Matabele. The conception of His existence which we gain is all the less clear from the fact that the streams in which He is mirrored flow from different sources. Every year they have a solemn feast of fat bear out of their own wooden dishes. the beast may be assuming an indirect form. if it pertains to the essence of a god to accomplish the most various results from one point. the condition of far-reaching dominating influence is fulfilled. part of the literature of primitive races. Even so. however. their especially transition in apes . (Christy Collection. is not one of the first results that emerges from the mass of religious ideas. especially in sickness. Undoubtedly ancestor-worship leads to a gradual exalting of prominent figures above the common herd. We can point to such apotheoses in Africa. Wherever of world Indian spread. as well as in Oceania among the Incas they even began while the subjects of them were living. By the transference to heaven. and tortoises for magic purposes. felt Man-eating themselves akin to the man-eating Fish-headed idols from Easter Island. made it a capital offence to kill a crocodile because mischievous — religion magic could be practised with a dead crocodile. thought has the belief in the trans- migration of souls extends. We know the part played by beasts as symbols of the social groups. the All Creator God in short. The Shaman goes about with beasts as with his fellows. has a hollow wooden bird swung over him. The custom — of sparing theseanimals indeed sacred ponds of the among the Malays and the Joloffs of Senegambia. without — .

whether The origin of all may be the same but here it is memory has grown so faint that the image of the first . and innumerable small . the name of evil spirits (where they appear In as destroyers and renewers of creation). which the missionaries took for " God. the name of a secret society. has been adopted to render " God. naturally hinders the growth of the monotheistic idea. and therefore disregarded and corresponds to Molimo among the Bechuanas and Basutos. so long as no one of them for the is in the majority. The missionaries to the Hereros took Mukuru and Kalunga (for which they had at first put " fortune ") as the expression for " God " Nyambi was not adopted till later. or the adherent of ancestor worship will be led of himself to put a mythologic form upon a first man. The Polynesian Atua. will One . ." but " spirit " generally. ones for the small things. Siiqae. . In the small area of the Society Islands. become fetishes a few become tribal gods. Oro in Tahaa. or breath. The fact." The familiar Manitu of the Indians of North America is not " the Great Spirit. which conduct their worship in secret societies. Lastly. one God everywhere we hear the name of a highest spoken. and . In some cases. In ." the New Hebrides. he must be raised on high. : — Rua we in find the following gods holding the in in Tahiti. eldest. Regulations of rank in veneration is no sure guide. consideration of Nature demands great ruling spirits for the great things. . important to notice. . has been used for this purpose and in the Torres Islands. is still so recent that our conception of degraded by the use of His name. by dissemination. but Frequently he is literally to be regarded as the only faintly and indistinctly. or this image God is . Jehovah is received as the God of the Creation requires at least a first man. Augud. that within one race different spirits are assigned to different groups. supreme place Bolabola. On the Gold Coast. the ancestral lord of the whole race. may proceed gods recognised to a distance. that too close a contact is prevented with notions which the heathen would seize upon'. of outrage. soul. In pre-Christian days the Hereros actually lived in a state of pure ancestor-worship." may have originated in some similar idea but it is so universal in the sense of ghost. the Sovereign over the souls of the departed.RELIGION 51 The weakbeing tied to thing and place of action. in Tu in Maurua. and beyond him a God capable of world. who is at the same time is Creator. Thus Unkulunkulu resembles the supreme heaven-god of most negro religions a being unaffected by earthly doings. It is dangerous for our missionaries to assign his name to their and the Creator. name of the god venerated as supreme changes from one country to another. we shall see that more pronounced developments in and with these Christianity need have less the direction of monotheism appear scruple in linking itself. Tao Tabueamanu. Thus from different points there a striving after one high Being. referable to ancestorworship. Tangaroa or Taaroa Tane in Huaheine. . . which means " totem. Spirit in heaven. our God. but is the original ancestor mysterious simply because the Kaffir has abstained from figuring him precisely either in fact or fancy. Nyambi or Nyame elsewhere. even a bad one. and often use this secrecy for purposes parent has been spiritualised. the spiritual Lord of the tribe. and from these perhaps. of course be the First. and in parts of East Africa. Unkulunkulu he is himself the creator of men. Eimeo Raiatea. . Usually the sky or the sun is called to this dignity there live the sacred primeval ancestors who now coalesce with the creating God. creating him. a mysterious figure. ness of remembrance accounts for his appearing to forget his roots in earthly affairs Thus the mass of souls become spirits in their images they and to soar above.

equipped with reward and penalty. who all are only of importance in mythology. only to to recognise the An alliance with the secular arm. territory. Nothing but rapid extension over wide areas. effort after selection lies American form of the deluge-myth. that is. for example. setting aside all questions of hierarchy. which was inhabited by a privileged and much -respected the booty taken chief's . a special is some isolated and higher fail fact. only recently admitted to immortality sometimes he is the thunder-god's ancestor. The shiftings and exchangings of names. with him Wakea and Maui. often the whole village. which . . as we see in the diffusion of Christianity and Islam. is man who approaches spirits. and so on. and in a shape Nor has religion. fetishes. It is therefore only possible to disentangle them by keeping fast hold of the underlying reality. to whom man stands in personal relations. even to milk them. all The no man ventured to touch their wealth was kept concealed in the Niekam's In Abbeokuta. is also necessary. inadequately. incurs the Indeed Shango is an instructive phenomenon. especially among non-writing races. or even orders. Rangi In Hawaii. Thus pure form. and. The up in a notion of man's position towards a personal Supreme Being. and then thunderer himself. is needed to raise one idea of the deity above local limitations and waverings. multiform varying nature of the myth generally. not by guidance only. and whosoever lays his hand upon it. selves. like the characteristic feature of the elevation and deep down in the human mind. caste — a kind of lords These claimed a share of cows. . has nowhere grown in fragments. owing to the recurrence of the same deities and divine functions. in the lower stages. with . but sharper differentiation of the moral element in religion. owned in every village a temple or a house. sometimes his companion. we are told in regard to the Shillooks. To see in survival of the first parent of the human race. New gods. the highest disposer of things. that the Niekam spiritual. these supreme beings can lose nearly deities. bundles of straw indicated the property of the thundergod Shango this is inviolable. rules him. is accompanied by the clearance from it of a mass of elements which without any deeper inward affinity are apt to be bound up with it as. and the keeping of all decomposing influences at a distance. the moral element. On the other hand. But the acquisition of power. Some hold him for a king who in his life was very cruel. But as we shall see. Nothing has contributed to this struggled to keep their own god or spirit strictly to themgrew powerful. but always only full of misconceptions. This may be followed through many stages. Heaven). in the course of its development. not only the service of the superhuman spirit. but has passed into more and more intimate alliance with other efforts of the human mind. it received its higher influence upon general civilization. All points to the soul of a chief lately raised to Olympus. vengeance of Shango's priests. remained alone. most important adjunct. their worship in favour of ancestral sectarian groups. and thereby acquired a While in the cruder stages of religious appears almost entirely as the demanding party his wishes development. as all other Tane comes Kane . Others say he was a late-born scion of deity. form a constant source of confusion even in the fundamental threads of mythology. above all with the stirrings and cravings of his conscience. all and the war-god. they imposed their own divine service on weaker As they simply local so much as the formation of who brethren. the execution of which paid for in sacrifices the spiritual side now comes to power. takes the highest place at the head of to the front.52 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Zealand. . but also by constraint.

and the sciences all in independent activity in Egypt they were attached to the priestly of The alliance of the temporal and spiritual powers is to be found in all stages mankind at the present day. societies. under one cover with the prince. art. by a multitude of examples. In Nature of " taboo. the to ancient Greece . In this connection we recall a remark of Merimee's to the effect that the preference shown by the Romans for the Etruscan above other Italian races. Secular and to keep the people stupid is. as in all beginnings of science. the profound — The This gives the blending of temporal and spiritual interests. as magicians. that princes or warrior-heroes stepped into the first rank of the gods. states. God . The alliance of religion with the civil law. The power of a chief is incomplete without that of witchcraft. arts. and also of property this last in the form of the highly selfish laws demands of morality.minstrels. have grown up early and spontaneously in another way. Eve. frees it at the same time in an increasing degree from the alliance with all the activities of the mind which are to develop independently with art and science. and poetry. may . On the other side. such as made a saint of each of the Cuzco Incas. Then if all good is to be ascribed to the soul of an ancestor. the variable noble requirements of society. Man needs it. But at this point the Good long remains as There is aii the benefactor of the individual.RELIGION also the care of the spirit in 53 man. must. in any case. which. The feeling of thankfulness animation their countertoward the Good is constantly being called forth anew. we find the harmful and the beneficial." . The succession of power was thereby materially fortified. no mere fiction. first History caste. The separation takes the line of a distribution among a number of persons of the priestly functions. not of the whole community. when we come shows us poetry. cannot With the immutability of the and in part but be "beneficent. divine requirements. A failure in rain-making may totally destroy all respect for a prince and Africa affords many instances of dethronement and murder owing to ill-success in witchcraft. though involving many humiliations. . especially at this stage. may have been partly due to the knowledge of the oldest religious traditions and the interpretation of omens which distinguished the Etruscan fighting chiefs aristocracy. spiritual law are fused. image-carvers. Oceania shows. the safeguarding of marriage. like. and must be able to pray to it. are content to be allied where they enjoin respect for age. court. has in the end an elevating effect. of children. The distinction between good and evil. we have a mythic embodiment of the Good. exercised by himself or in the closest union with the priests only . spirits What is good for society and the state is indicated as pleasing to who have to do with the welfare of families. the priest. rain-makers. If the chief is a sacred person. and the to form a few clear Thus we have a point which we might compare to that where a number of vague winding tracks meet and straight roads. and so but only arrives at completion on the threshold of the age of art and science. form exceptions. healers. cunning priest whom enlightenment sees at work. and in the universal parts pass from her into the spirit-world. which the profound sentiment of the Mosaic story places at the very beginning of the process of the Incarnation. matters connected with the sorcerer. any revolt against the order at the head of which he stands is sin and now religion serves for the more easy taming of the agitator and subverter. one can hardly conceive a more powerful support for the tradition of a sovereign house than ancestor-worship. forth .n here the bard has to go with the prince.

institutions.) mythology. . hallucinations. is ascribed to one single being To Kabinana (" the wise ") other harmful things to another To Kovuvuru (perBut when the two halves of the race.54 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND approach to this notion when. which is imparted to The priest the intercourse. the We have. even a form of transmigration. which exercises in itself Magicians of the Loaned Coast. whom . and has spread over the whole world that other false ideal of the cunning is divinity. whether lands. as in New Britain. deep gap between an unmoral religion and one full of morality is attested by the human dwellers frailty of the in heaven. but those called Kovuvuru are found throughout on the . even business. too. (From a photograph by Dr. of these creators. looks as only a very weak con- The trast were felt. the creation of all good things. or only traps for fish. embodiment of the world of spirits with whom he has to hold he bans and exorcises. outwitting others in adventures of love. fable-making agreeably element. show no recognition of rank -distinctions. the training assumes the character of the miraculous. and vivid dreams. Those whom the fetish loves are taken away by him into the suitable youths. As a transformation from the normal man to a controller of spirits with magic powers. He is fitted for his duties by the expulsion of the ordinary soul and the entrance of a new one he best adapts himself to them when he differs mentally from the ordinary mass with a tendency to mental derangement. war. The traditions of the fetish priesthood are propagated by instruction. Why are the mythoof the logical figures gods often so abandoned from a moral worse point of view — even than the men ? who adore them perverse of the force and A conception power whereby they have to raise themselves above ideal the masses produces a y-J false of divine greatness. who bear the names haps " the clumsy "). — same level as the it Kaif binana. Falkenstein. epilepsy.

and reading.) and the The people themselves knew secret. and to — . The sanctity of tradition and in this sense we can say that it replaces Writing and printing have damaged the position of the priest.RELIGION bush and buried in 55 the fetish house. this knowledge can and of politics. hatred. but the sorcerer always kept the best a is Consider the power is that resides in the mere fact of tradition. . whereby also troubles other than sickness. so that it is possible to speak to him. all memories. Bleek among the Kaffirs of Natal their doctors. envy. The production of hallucinations was familiar to the priests. may find a cure. if possible. better than others. . content them- selves with natural remedies derived from the animal and vegetable kingdom. and after his education is completed the priest takes him back to his parents. The position of the sorcerer is that of the doctor on a higher stage some doctors understand certain disorders for example. also be put at the service of the sovereign making it secure. . but that in time of war some have secretly dissected this is men . as a rule. as with the Egyptian Special priests' languages recur among the most different races of the earth the fundamental ideas of Shamanism are accompanied everywhere by details similar or agreeing even in the smallest points. the art of writing priests. At first this can only be done by blows. Naturally. — these patients are sent asserts that by the sorcerers. Often they would not recognise him did he not recall past events to their memory. When they brought these about they were faith. all but as sorcerer he the receptacle of knowledge. America. such as those of love. worms. before science they were in possession of the Dice and amulets of a Bamangwato magician. and all fore- Many Europeans have been in a position to appreciate the operation of his medicaments of herbs and roots. dissect beasts. is not everywhere intelligible. merely creating fresh supports to secrets of suggestion. in some respects. in a special script. but gradually his senses return. (Ethnographical Museum at Munich. but his understanding is gone and the fetish man must instruct him and teach him to perform every movement like a little child. life thus carried off awakes again to When the person he begins to eat and drink as before. hypnotism. a good deal. the only kind of knowledge of history possessed by these races the tradition of important events which handed down secretly among the priests. indeed. Long like. tional signs and pictures in higher stages. Arrows to be shot off at the completion of a conjuration in order to lay the evil spirit form part of the sorcerer's equipment on the Lower Amoor as well as in Africa. Often. and astounds those who seek for counsel by the appearance of had also the object of a supernatural knowledge. as they think. but they obtain. The bodings. no more than their patients. The art of tradition had also been specially cultivated to it belongs the knowledge of tradiwriting. a solitary statement. In any case they. nucleus of his art is lies in his intercourse with the spirits of the departed. the deepest and most secure effects by the intervention of super- natural powers. and Oceania. often for a long period. of a kind which.

The same evil significance attached to the springing of a dog or a calf on a hut. Eating milk products in a thunderstorm attracts the lightning. Their number is so great teem through everything and hamper life on all sides. as also among Eskimos. the renewal of fire. Beast masks and human complicated head-dresses. and African Negroes. and the most important periodical incidents in the field. and has luck in the chase. Thibet. with such comically disfigured features that one is inclined to take them for dancing masks. India. Ceylon. As it is just these which are the motive forces in its forward development. The spiritual elements of a civilization are constantly exposed to the most rapid decay. Dogs who eat the beak and claws of birds become strong and courageous. down more hail. The horrible and widespread belief that no fatal accident which is in any way unusual can be natural. If a cock crows betokens death for man or cattle. in The history of religions is specially instructive here. He who it it kills is hawk must be put to death. this fact alone explains the great tendency to stagnation with a rabbit in a kraal. You must not do field work the day after a hailstorm or you will bring Masks from New Ireland —one-eighth of a real size. all find a use in religious performmonsters and masks. among the old Mexicans and ances. If you eat milk in a strange kraal you will commit a transgression there. Prognostications alone involve a complete science. and to the appearance of The whisker of a leopard brings sickness and death upon any unaware in his food. To give only a few examples from the Kaffirs. Melanesians. Ordeals which in Africa are intensified by means of strong poisons are surrounded with a strict ritual. (Berlin Museum of Ethnology. Peruvians. it one who eats inevitable If retrogression. we ask which elements Christianity has undergone the greatest modifications . gives rise to a mass of magic practices. but if any one eats it with some of the flesh of that animal he becomes brave. the cattle-stall. and now are connected with serious conceptions of life and return that they after death. He who steps upon a thorn must eat it in order to protect himself from it next time.56 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND The employment of masks in religious ceremonies is widely spread in all form countries where the of religion is polytheistic. which pre-suppose a great knowledge of personalities and their influence. and the chase. They recur in China. If a bird of this kind settles on a kraal before midnight is a sign of bad luck for the owner. The Aleutians put masks along with the bodies in the graves. which at one time served a profane end. as are sorceries connected with rain.

Some isolated Christian notions had anticipated the missionaries. the answer must be the most spiritual. or Buddhism among the Mongols. like those articles : . to which later reformers at long intervals their successors. The spirit evaporates without leaving any creations behind fully corresponding to its own power and grandeur but the forms remain. What we have to say on this point is connected with and supplements what has been said above about the common possession of mankind." The idea of a Devil. of independence." and a dualism of good and evil spirits. looser there ? The answer involves more than any classification can offer indeed. life In to we taste the bitterness of the sharp experiences of known monotheism advanced age. That is why among the so-called " natural " races the forms. even the most rudimentary. in in Burmah and Ceylon. they are too universal and too deeply entwined with the whole mythology to allow us to assign them so recent and so casual an origin part of them. or the Christian crosses which in Tuckey's time were carried as fetishes on the lower Congo. the deeply. often no less suspicious. impoverishment. was spread long before Christianity by uneducated Europeans. endeavour again to raise themselves and their fellow-professors.differing is principles at the base of religion tend to disappear behind forms shown by nothing better than temples by the simultaneous Buddhist and Brahmin worship that takes place in many The magnificent ruins of Angkor Bat. Thomas long ago gave his blessing to our land. used in Buddhist worship. Artistic facility does not keep pace with power as we may see by comparing the spiritual imaginings of Polynesian mythology with their representations in stone or wood. we shall not be in a position to classify aright until we have made it clear to ourselves how much is the common property of mankind. which have passed into the paraphernalia of Shamanism. . . with regard to the legends of creation and the flood. at least. whose origins date from pre-Christian times. belong to the world-myth. brought thither by the active traffic between the more opulent Shamans and the Chinese. How easily. . dwindling numbers. an old cacique said " Father priest. and not only in . spiritual but in purely material affairs. often hold a higher place than the essence and this alone marks a stage in degradation. how much the separate possession of a race. St. impaired strength. Who can wonder that young and naive races do not esteem it in all its pure Abstractions are not fit for the masses. in the extension of races. are a unique surviving testimony to this state of degradation of religions into a blend. Cambodia. Then the work of destruction is carried farther loss By external decomposing spiritual influences. . and it is are formed. Have we in religion isolated developments or a network with closer meshes here. Outwardly decay shows here that the first rifts itself in the split between form and essence. worth ? The same holds good in matters It is not purity of dogma for which the fanaticism of the multitude of dogma. On the other hand. and has led to the assumption of " devil-worshippers. In almost all religions we meet with blurred traces of higher conceptions. you need not have come to him we need no priests. but for having the religion to which it is accustomed left undisturbed. All founders of religions have borne higher ideals than and the history of all religions begins with a declension from the height reached by pure enthusiasm. and their curious accordance with Genesis. When Dobrizhoffer was trying to convert the Guaranis on the Empalado. creative . cares. the most conspicuous evil spirit.RELIGION among in 57 the Abyssinians.

In the work of creation the sun medicine-man and the Australian sorcerer are alike to . just in the revolution of the sun. and form a united body of fundamental features. comes behind him. the American in their nature. The Maui-myths are common to all mankind. crippled in a limb. and some extent in their expedients. or after Daramoolun. " wounded knee. We have . many a religious system. . Maui. in volcanic proportion as heaven remains remote from him. The Shaman of northern Asia and the African rain-maker." or " lame. denser or looser. popular mind of regular natural phenomena. Demiurge and chastised he stands at the centre of -bringer. . doctrine consistent in " its fit with wonderful precision. sometimes as the sun. who have power over these things agree so extraordinarily in disposition and character." No myths. their aims. lightning (or the god of thunder). fire Hephaestus and Prometheus. in proportion to their wider or narrower. earthquake. that the brightest of the heavenly bodies would at all times be seen uncovered nor do we forget the influence of historical facts such as meet us in the legend of the primitive abode of Iroquois and Algonquins. it quite is enough if the characteristic features turn up elsewhere. seen how the " universal animation of Nature connects itself with this. . as the future home of the soul. can be made. the thunder -god of the South Australian races. life -giver and destroyer. is the assistant of heaven. They are interchangeable thus among the South Americans a belief in heaven replaces the very marked belief in the sun. existing things. man in in particular.e. remains that they were bound together by like fundamental thoughts from which what we call the world-myth was constructed. . volcano. and dwells in the earth if the South . The chief trait in the world-myth is the opposition between heaven and earth. Heaven appears sometimes as itself. is With sun. As we may learn from funeral customs. and heaven. like Hephaestus. and so not these. are subordinate all it is The earth is always opposed to both its creatures always regarded as the female upon whom heaven begot . For this reason the men with like bounty. the sun is the eye of heaven. it is not often some slight abnormality which is felt as such far beyond the measure of its magnitude. as when the sun is distorted on the horizon we do not overlook the fact that the extent to which sun-worship flourished in Peru rested upon the certainty in that land of little rain or cloud. which exists among the North Americans. They might just as well be called after Loki. From them we could reconstruct a universal " : doctrine of souls as held by savages. i. in which they saw not only their home. not specially Polynesian. All mythology has outgrown the small local influences which once must have We do not mean that in the mythological reflection in the been powerful in it. far distribution. . who is also a crippled god of the under -world. the All-father. Fragments from China and North America." or again after the Hottentot Tsuigoab. the bases for conclusions which have reference only to limited raceis relationships .THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Animism " and ancestor-worship are common to all human nature Bastian calls them elementary thoughts. whose name Ridley translates by " leg on one side. German}* and Australia. fire. but also the places whence kind white men with beards came Here one element may preponderate over another the main fact to them. in the lightning-flash. No doubt the objects which it animates are different in Greenland and in Fiji but from like sources it draws. superstitious usages absolutely alike. their manifestations often agree even in details. associated also the idea of an assistant creator who approaches the earth eruptions.

separate from an earlier one which was destroyed by some great catastrophe. the returning restless spirits of the departed. or it becomes a rough beam for them to totter across in short all creation has come out of it. Supra. The men of the present day are in many accounts only a second later-created race. as if in daylight. spread over the earth at another date and from other sources than the cosmogonic legends. 1 [Dragons also live in mountain-countries. and acting. And this serpent is. has as it stands before us the interest of an ancient building constructed of strange stones. cut on the next page) the kindred idea of an origin from plants occurs among Polynesians and South Americans. can have carried from one people to another. especially ] on mountain-tops. But we find the story elsewhere also with local alterations. . Kaffirs. A single one received him kindly. ways which the soul has to travel. us in a multiplied form in one-legged fire -god it is 59 the same. The water especially is regarded as inhabited the negroes on the Nile can tell of splendid herds which the river-spirits drive at night to pasture. with all his energy. the myths of gods. This whole mythology. through Arabic or Abyssinian tradition. 41. again. which is far greater than the missionary. the ash Yggdrasil. : . the tree of Paradise. and so saved himself and his house. roam about in a thousand forms.RELIGION Africans believe in a lame god dwelling in the ground. of Aragon. held to be of iron. its dangers and escapes. just as the thunder-god . West Africans (cf. put together fragmentarily and only half-understood. to the Tarascos. The to the Nahuas the to the creator of man. or Ndengei Fijians and he again is a serpent who grew with the foundations of the and whose movements produce earthquakes. is said to be watered by means of a tree " always covered by a dense cloud thence the leaves of the tree received water which constantly dripped. Cameron heard at the lake of Dilolo that in the depth of the lake men were living. of animism and all that is twined round it. as the Mexicans sung of Aztlan. 2 Compare Salimbene's account p. . It stands between heaven and earth. the gods descend upon it. to which nevertheless it is only in a The fundamental ideas few places that they assume a relation of intimate kinship. the souls find the road to heaven by it. and therefore the home of souls waterless. . as may be read in Schreyer's Neue Ostindianische Reisebeschreibung (1680). As a geographical fable it has preserved its connection with that of one of the Canary Islands. lies a mass of similarities. In connection with the opinion of many races that the god of heaven and the light who dwells in the east is their creator and benefactor. moving. It may be thought that is a version of the story of Noah. the 1 sacred dragon of China and Japan with its endless variations. and the the tree of the . of the ascent of the Canigou by Peter III. the land of brightness. where the In the description of the Islands of the Blessed rise in the golden glow of sunset. their entire village having been submerged for their cruelty in sending away an old beggar man. Hesperides. they place their original abode in the east. so that men and beasts got drink enough. Readers may remember the Hawaiian tale of the soul brought back from the under-world." This was believed down to the 1 7th century. He even meets is gnomes who dance round the cave-dwelling cloud -serpent with the lightning is of the Araucanians. The region in which men are conceived as sprung from trees embraces Hereros. the falling of the heaven or the flooding of the earth. Still more often the place of departed souls is placed in the western sky. in which the very gods of modern men. 2 There is scarcely a single legend of creation in which a tree does not occur earth.

roots. Here also belongs circumcision." or at least " free variation. portraitures of the next world the latter. the smaller ones. the same plants growing little of the earth. of which they are often survivals. is found in India. which come into intimate contact at a few points only. and Europe. a custom which. the Nyambe worship of the Balubas is not the only case in which the suggestion Beside the great similarities. while even then there intervenes a peculiarity which we may call " free invention.6o THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . of these races with no traditions must be Much comes into existence in sport deeply rooted in some historical association. and the former were certainly much earlier than Both show the most striking similarities in the remotest regions but in every region they are two independent worlds of ideas. whatever is taken from the bod\-." We do not share the view that every custom. Arabia. when in mourning or after illnesses. but in hands and horseshoes as counter-charms to it. a custom most irregular in its and traces of thoughts . Cemetery and sacred tree in Mbinda. . we find of a whim has had consequences. every usage. we meet with in the most various forms in all parts of the earth. These help to explain the others. or offshoots. finally. In Morocco the women. It is only one portion of a complex mass of usages the aim of which is respect towards. hang little balls made of their hair on certain trees. sprout up as The belief not which are universally diffused. North Africa. concealment or offering up of. as the hair-offering. (After Stanley. where Europeans have built houses and so in rubbish or springing from seed . superstitious usages. only in the evil eye. As we isolated find in all parts ploughed the survivals soil. of importance in themselves.

(a. in order not to break up mankind into casual fragments. In one group we find the association of natural phenomena to be only slight. which allows a position of sovereignty to several locally varying gods without always recognising any moral superiority in them. it is found in it New Caledonia. saints. and In dissemination strikes one of those usages which seem to have of which for that very reason the wide Ancon and Flores. above the human sphere. superficial forces. and so on. If we survey the religious development of connection elsewhere.) Monotheism in different grades 01 development. At the base of the religious development of existing men we find Religions wherein the divine is not exalted far above the human. but to distinguish them according to the true height and depth of their religious development. and progressively detach themselves from any mixture with other efforts of the mind II. allied with this are sooth -saying. medicine. 7. Jews. conclusion. and other ghosts . or a star. the rafters. we recognise that its great landmarks Monotheism arises even in the midst of polytheism as a natural effort to provide one Supreme Being while the monotheistic creeds are invaded by the impulse to distribute the one who is distant into several. the ancient Americans. These rest in all cases on belief in souls or without any strong moral element. but not in the Loyalty In special ritual form again runs through the most various and distant countries. cultivating proportionately the moral element. we find them in Vancouver and Chittagong without any nearer definition of their purpose. frames made of reeds. Christians. Bechuanas do not In its . Christianity. if we If the only demand estimated figures. (b. rain -magic.) Polytheism. are put into the grave with the corpse (Figs. poetry. Polytheism. many Negro races Asiatics in the other a higher development of cosmogonic the divine and and mythological conceptions to entire systems. : . to the statistics of which. playful we may about us. an approximation can be obtained. as the Brahmins and Buddhists. who intervene between the one God and man. Monotheism. soon laid aside the prejudice that their souls were not destined to — . as with . 61 Zulus practise Isles. with their total development. pre-Christian Europeans. Religions which exalt far in the direction of science. at the beginning of its intimate and manifold contact with nonEuropean races. and I. The belief in souls recurs in a purified form in the assumption of a future life with rewards and punishments. refer something them. it. In Egypt they form ornaments for horses . we must not always take mankind in lie into consideration the traditional. Paganism. superstitions. or many more accessible. grouping is to be based on the deepest-seated differences. 8 in the coloured plate " American Among the Pirnas a religious significance is attached to them. as with Polynesians and Americans. it is customary to divide them into a few large groups. in the highest moral perfection Christianity. and to having many-coloured threads wound over them in the fashion of a flag. according to the number and importance of the beings akin to gods.RELIGION distribution. and the tendency the Northern to fetishism accordingly strong. in Bolivia they are stuck in In order to take a general view of the extension of the various religions. and the like. and Antiquities). The single God appearing Mussulmans.

much they must extend their influence upon the farther into the domain of the purely secular than and therewith be revolutionary economic existence of Certain Their Christianity must have a social and economic side. You will probably find important things that example is the most influential instructor. though better. . the inevitable accompaniment of trade and attach themselves to such a In most cases wavering uncertain conception as that of Nyambe or Manitu. and to rear pigs. the entrance of the missionary is salvation. Theoretically for the understanding of the much-despised condition of religion among the " natural " races. they could not even use the name of the supreme being whom they found in misunderstandings would have been too great. To cherish the memory of ancestral souls is in no way in contradiction with Christianity. Tierra del acquisition of better dwellings. Missionaries seek to reach their aim by reforming the their disciples. Among these may be reckoned the forgotten spot of earth. often in striking agreement lastly. but generally as an effect produced by strangers among a race of whose nature they often know very little.. wrote in his instructions intercourse with the Fuegians you will bear in mind that it is the temporal advantages which you may be capable of communicating to them that they will be most easily and immediately sensible of.62 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND and from the beginning of the sixteenth century the missionary formed conquest—even of the slave trade. morals of their scholars did the heathen priests. it is worth while to emphasise these. The idea of the continued life of departed spirits. Not only as an institution with religious aims. and other vegetables. The monotheistic religions could not well stituent of Christian doctrine. in and to more commodious habitation. Consequently you construct a will consider a primary duty to instruct them in cultivating etc. is fundamentally akin to the Christian doctrines of the soul and immortality. to philanthropists who sent a missionary with Captain Fitzroy : that " In your Fuego. but into which they try most forcibly to penetrate. no less than practically for estimating the prospects of Christianity. why were its results so meagre ? Such an attempt to men over from a poor but easy state of existence to one which. You will also fence in a piece of ground for a garden and get it well stocked with the most useful vegetables. poultry. great stumbling-blocks. Polygamy and slavery form two in its effects. cabbage. possession to denote their one God But the possibility of forming a connection. In spite of Abraham's sacrifice the missionaries must set their faces firmly against life. human sacrifices and the low value attached to human What is more difficult. and also surround yourself as quickly as possible with a plentiful supply of pigs. the Christian doctrine of God as Father and Son may be attached to the ideas of a Demiurge. furnished with all necessary this as in articles. is doubtless presented in other religious ideas of the " natural " races. and fowls. the potato. and kept clean and orderly. even of fruitfully cultivating the already prepared soil. important from an ethnographic point of view. and it better and more plentiful food and clothing. You must therefore take care to have a comfortable habitation yourself. but it must pause before the deification of ancestors with which idolatry begins. that essential con." This bring is a beautiful plan . In the cosmogonic myths of natural races Christianity finds traits of its own doctrine of creation reproduced. The gap opens as soon as we set foot upon the moral law. goats. but may easily go too far in that direction. on which that of a future world also rests.

The aim which the German missionaries to the Hereros set before them has for its basis an economic and social development such as strictly . and the The existence of the Fuegians may very well latter sooner than the former. but we races.RELIGION 63 demands more of them. The universally-recurring combination of chiefhood and priesthood leaves no doubt that the success of missions depends upon a right estimate of political conditions. with some exaggeration. collapsed without leaving any traces worth mentioning of its devoted activity (Speke. Dresden. he should soften the transition by the practical schooling of his disciples This contradicts the mystic should not play the part of artisan or tradesman. can be nothing" but an economic revolution which is not only capable of bringing blessings. The appear dreadful to European eyes and pleasant enough to their own. says without having accomplished a single conversion). missionary must certain to have a in all cases start with a notion that the higher civilization effect is decomposing upon the conditions of heathen life. The Austrian mission in Gondokoro. superstitions resides a mass of in the priesthood of which together with element must recollect the vows of This must not undervalued. kept or the bodily is Shaman when he Christianity might entertain deeds are more effective than spoken doctrine as they are shown in the demeanour of the missionary. instead of any government which could . Xot till the missionary can obtain the backing of a powerful chief will the discharge of his task as a rule be possible. (From a model in the Ethnographical Museum. but also certain to cause mischief. be natural taken with special ceremonies frequent Africa. started with such sanguine hopes. and above all in the calm security with which he regards and treats the things of the world. In fact. Finally the priest can only make a breach in the chaos of superstition if he is at the same time capable of acting as physician. which are in and self-denial so . chiefly because it took a perfectly independent attitude. and that but he Boat-coffin from Timorlaut.) and spiritual acts of self-injury performed by the sending out his soul in convulsions. . It is in the healthy alliance of self-denial with practical work that the success of the missionary monastic orders lies.

it must not allow itself to be seduced into snatching at opportunities which seem to afford a chance of more rapid progress. From all this it should be clear that missions can only go to work with a prospect of success after thorough study of the religious notions and secular Ethnology owes most valuable contributions Very frequently it has been the inevitable study of the languages which has led to a deeper understanding of the life of a race. and must be the work of more than one generation. where we find among the Furs. is the chief satisfaction derived from their wealth. Its extension may be merely superficial. to which even missionaries do not always venture to offer stubborn opposition. or when they have enjoyed the protection of Basutos and Makololos under Sechele and Sebituane. and for whom .64 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND in keep in its check the Bari population. at all events until a profound moral renovation takes place. : than Christian ministers. many missionaries who have realised this. it must shirk no trouble to heap up grain upon grain. Islam is the chief proselytising monotheistic religion. The least successful missionaries have always been uneducated men. . or the missionaries of different denominations under Mtesa though in this instance they have unfortunately not and Mwanga in Uganda powerful chieftains. and its practical commands may be lived up to with a certain laxity. as in the negro countries of Africa. the bslief in a god called Mola and sky-worship in full vigour. In many respects it seems better to meet the comprehension of the more backward races. and which quite recently in the southern Ural has caused hundreds of Tartars to renounce Christianity under the eyes of Russian officials. such as have been sent out in numbers by England and America men without love. incapable of a right conception of their own faith. diverted from its true aim. and was nothing but a society opposed very essence and aims to missionary activity. Next to Christianity. A mission allows of no hurry. under a Mussulman varnish. all those persons of property whose higher social position is above all things indicated by the ability to keep several wives. The permission of polygamy and slavery gives it an incomparable advantage compared with Christianity. Results have shaped themselves quite otherwise where the missionaries have been able to develop their operations under cover of even such toleration from a chief as Moffat got from Mosilikatse . In conclusion we may again point out that the implanting of a new faith always implies a simultaneous transformation in civilization. there of utter political decay. suited to the society The general upshot least is that Islam races. who have often been rather traders or political agents to institutions of the " natural " races. In Africa and Asia it makes progress. But he who would teach savages what is deepest and most essential in Christianity must also understand it himself. a great part of the this influence of Islam depends. It offers no logical difficulties. while in West Africa the transition from the Mussulman mollah to the fetish priest is imperceptible but still it strikes its roots deeper than Christianity. even were it only temporarily. is is usually better allied its and polity of the theirs for in locality advanced and with a is civilization all the closer to the reason that the place of origin nearer their own both and in climate. The prohibition of the former indeed excludes from Christianity. Upon this institution. that of the slave-traders. all in their state protect their property against themselves. and thereby. as Livingstone among the — been able to keep clear of parties.


. UTENSILS.Printed by Ehe Bibliographisches [nsütut. Leipzig WEAPONS. AND ORNAMENTS OFAMERICAN INDIANS.

All from Ethno. War-dance : flute. Fishing-arrow Shakaya (Orinoco). Bowl Pueblo (Acomo. : Wooden Pipe club : Haida. : : 10 Conibo. 28. : 31. 19. 22. Breast belt : Conibo. 5. 6. : Shakaya. 12. UTENSILS. Arrow Conibo. Arrow: Apache (New Mexico). 20. : Scalping knife in sheath : : Blackfoot. 18. 23. 27. 3. : : : 4. 7. : : : : Feather . Berlin. 11.raphical Museum. 21. Pueblo (Cochiti). Haida.sceptre used in dancing Mundrucu. Fishing-fork Pano. : 16. Makusi. Rio Pastaza. Hunting pouch Cherokee. Harpoon Pano Arrow Cashibo. it is lacking also in the Museum Catologue. Bow 32. Arizona). Stone Tomahawk America. . Spear ornamented with feathers (Uaupe) Brazil. : INDIANS. Wooden : : . Arrow 24. Blunt Arrow Apache. 34. Club. : : North-west Medicine bag of otter skin. 2. 26. They are good old pieces from the former Royal Cabinet of Art). Dancing Tobacco Shield : (?) Apache. Pemba. Ornament for the back Post erected in front of house : Cashibo. Blackfoot Indian : 14. i. 15. Racquet Choctaw.. Necklace : Lengua. 29. Queen CharSioux. 25. 13. AND ORNAMENTS OF AMERICAN rattle pipe. Quiver and bow-case (?) Apache. Arrow 33. Bow Apache. P'eather-crown 30. 9.WEAPONS. (When no place of origin is given. Carved spoon Cocama. lotte's Island. 17. Bowl One-tenth natural size. 3.




Not a third of mankind has yet been won to Christendom. Out of 570,000,000 estimated of monotheists 440 confess Christianity. Of the remaining 900,000,000 of the earth's inhabitants, the Buddhists with 600 occupy the largest area, and the most inaccessible to Christian teaching. It is practically from the residuum of the lowest heathendom that the missions, which now control 3000 ordained men, have gained their converts. The most conspicuous successes have been in Oceania, where a whole list of island groups have been won for Christendom, and are now sending out from among themselves missionaries to In Africa, Madagascar is almost wholly under Christian the neighbouring islands. influence. The Hottentots and Hereros, the people of Siberia and Sierra Leone, and numerous tribes in Angola, on the Gold Coast, on the lower Niger, have In Asia perhaps 1 -400th part of the population of India has become Christians. In China the tale is yet less in proportion to the mass of the been baptized. On the other hand the Indian Archipelago shows a population 65,000 in all. In America nearly all the Eskimo of Greenland larger list of Christian districts. and Labrador, many Indians in North America, and the greater part both of In South and them and the Negroes in the West Indies, have been gained. Central America the Spaniards, both in Church and State, have been working

at the conversion of the Indians ever since the beginning of the sixteenth century,



success in accessible localities.

It is

obvious that no one can have a thorough knowledge of missions


thinks that these few figures express their successes.


must always think of


in alliance

with other civilizing forces, to which they act as a stimulus or a


As a spiritual power they effect much which in its essence As Warneck says, " the Gospel puts new religious views and moral


into gradual circulation,

with a

and these surround even the heathen part of the race Wherever a mission has taken a firm footing, paganism is no longer what it was a leavening process begins which ends with And besides that, the emitted its decomposition and the victory of the Gospel." warmth. lieht of faith radiates back

§ 7.



—The slow expanding of the sense of Truth — Religion and Science — Friendship with Nature — Science under semi-civilization — Systems of and science — Poetry of science among "natural" races — Religion as the common ancestor of — Images of souls and gods — Priests and Artists — Origin of "natural" races — Lyric and musical — Arts and crafts— Sense of colour— Modifications ornament — Ornaments of men and beasts — Plastic of —Materials— Popular
condition of scientific development
of fear and of mythology








activity pursued their course,

All other forms of economic hand with this, ever more rapidly towards perfection, till they attained in all points what would be achieved by industrious and skilled hands patience, devotion, and lastly, a fine taste, so high a mark that later generations, working with improved tools and clearer insight, have in

fundamental labour


that of agriculture.




cases not been able to surpass


They remained, however,

stationary at

manual and individual

labour, and, under the restraint of caste, stiffened in tradi-





Inventions, machines,


on a large


were not




a creative impulse brought into

these activities

the mighty element of advance which

we now

call science.


manual labour

provides the basis of civilization, the training of the mind in the maintenance and
In the opening renewal of mental possessions gives the force of life and increase. of this second source lies the cause of the great advance from what we vaguely

by us Europeans, and is, the civilization of 1847 the following question was propounded Wherein really lies the at some meetings of the Paris Ethnological Society. more profound distinction between white men and negroes ? Gustav von Eichthal answered it at that time " In the possession by the white man of science, which, owing to writing, the elements of calculation, and so on, penetrates ever deeper and gives permanence to itself while the negro is characterised, and his stationary condition explained, by the total lack of it." Of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and fixed measurements of time and space they are completely destitute, and Meanwhile therewith of what on that occasion was named initiative civilisatrice. we must ascend high in order to find what is in the highest sense science. We claim to live in the age of science, and if perhaps yet more scientific ages are in store in the future, yet we more than any of our predecessors enjoy a science A few centuries ago science was still in that has of itself achieved great things. a dependent position as handmaid of the Church we can trace her entire deliverBut that was only the conance, not without great conflicts, from that bondage.
call semi-civilization, to



the nineteenth century.

In the year




clusion of a long conflict fought out within the








show us

science in


lowest stage.


are not wholly without

but their

They are two is symbolic, poetic, still hidden within the bud of religion. which cannot expand rightly until they are no longer in so close contact,
and the poetry which forms no question of truth only of getting
; ;

but each allows the other space to unfold freely. In the lower stage religion includes all science



her most powerful




an image.


sense of truth




in his last diary in "In this can believe nothing is not in black and white, and not much you that country circumstantial report is often pure imagination. One that the most even of half of what you hear may safely be called false, the other doubtful or not The authenticated." The sense of truth must have been developed slowly. most highly developed races seek it most eagerly and we could even undertake

The kindly Livingstone wrote

among Unyamwesi






grade the present holders of civilization according to their love for truth. With every higher stage of humanity the sense for truth increases, and in every

higher race the

number of





a period at which the universal animation of nature forms a principle

universally valid.

Fear or attraction, truthfulness or usefulness, divide all nature That is the highest form of the subjective conception. The between them. next is mythological explanation, which clothes correct interpretation in an intentionally distorting figurative language. Above the dreary terror which forbids the Nyassa negroes to mention earthquakes how long may the mythbreeding effect of such a phenomenon, from which science at last issues, lie soars the loving quietly under the terror which enjoins a superstitious silence dealing of poetry with Nature. One can speak of the age of belief in ghosts,










science are laid in the affinity and acquaintance with
peculiarity of " natural

former the bases of natural Nature, which is a great

races. The mingling" of men and other creatures in art The feeling of an absolute spiritual distinction no mere external feature. between man and beast, so widespread in the civilized world, is almost entirely Men to whom the cry of beast and bird appears lacking among savage races. like human speech, and their actions seem as if guided by human thought, are quite logical in ascribing a soul to beast no less than to man. This feeling of khiship shows especially in histories of creation, and as a deduction from these An enumeration of the animals to which beliefs and superin the beast-legend. stitions have attached themselves, however copious, would give a defective picture. In some parts of Africa the chameleon would be prominent, in others the jackal, in north-west America the otter, in the eastern parts the beaver. Nahualism (na/iua/=a. beast in Quiche), the belief in a familiar spirit in animal shape who is friendly to man, suffers and dies with him, is one way of bringing oneself into alliance with the animal world totemism, which makes the tribe descend from As a rule the myth-forming powers of the mind are an animal, is another. concentrated on certain selected points while many others, which to all appearance recommend themselves equally well to the myth-forming spirit, are neglected. The predominance of traditions over new creations is nowhere shown so clearly as in this limitation, which indeed has a touch of the whimsical. The fettering of the intellectual powers by giving the priest a free hand, and the special direction which is therein given to them through the preponderance of mystical tendencies in the service of superstition, explain much of the backward condition of many races, and produce a hampering, one may say even petrifying,
; ;


not only upon the so-called natural races, but also
In order to understand this effect



who enjoy


we must form

a clear view

Shamans, medicine men, or whatever they Mexico they received a special training and attained knowledge and power in the following subjects hymns and prayers, national traditions, religious doctrine, medicine, exorcism, music and dancing, mixing of colours, painting, drawing the ideographic signs, and phonetic hieroglyphs. This science and ability might be shared with others in its practical employment,





be called.

In ancient


it remained a privilege of their caste. The superstitious dread of magic power, of their alliance with the supernatural, their innate or acquired capacity for states of ecstasy, increased by fasting and vows of chastity, raised

but as a whole


in the eyes of the

people at large to unattainable heights.



unintelligible priest-language contributed yet



mark them

but since the

aim of

God, or rather of spirits and science remained unaltered in the germ. This religious torpidity among races whose intellectual life is not yet supported by a more developed division of labour between classes and callings, and for whom religion is the entire intellectual life, means a fettering

these preparations

and labours was the

service of

the widest

sense, the elements of progress in culture

of the intellect.
in this alliance

Science which,

when left The Lushais
not science.


itself, is

naturally capable of progress,

call their

witch doctors the
can, for


who know

it would knowledge proceeds only


be better to designate

them those who

great ones from their



the intellect









US are practically unlimited.





must necessarily

revolve about certain points without going very far from them.


the former










therefore forms one of the greatest epochs in the
civilized nations

of humanity, and


the deepest cleavages result from the lack or possession of

The own

orientals as a

whole do not understand how to value the sciences




Bare interest



them but



When we find in esteem knowledge, but on grounds which are alien to science. Chinese tradition one and the same prince inventing or regulating the calendar, music, and the system of weights and measures, while his wife is regarded as the inventress of silk-worm breeding and silk working, one of his ministers gives the

invent writing, and another carries out the order at once with great

find in the same age astronomical observations held in such importance by the State that two statesmen are punished for neglecting to calculate an eclipse of the sun properly we see in this close connection of science with State power a proof of the purely practical estimate of science, or, For this very reason the most one would rather say, of knowledge and skill. modern scientific works of the Chinese look to us like a survival from the Middle Ages we see the greatest intellects of that race proceeding upon an old road from which a sounder new road branched off centuries ago. It takes centuries for a people to disentangle itself from such errors. The Chinese have had thousands of years, but they stifled all originality in their hierarchic examination system. Good observation and false conclusion are by no means irreconcilable. The Chinese who, as indeed their art testifies, have good eyes for what is characteristic in Nature, are above all no bad describers. Their books of medicine, in which 2000 to 3000 remedies are described, are rich in definitions full of


when we



knowledge and apt
of thought, but
is it is


often prolix,



richer in excellent pictorial illustrations.

Their classifications too


often claim to formulate carefully correct principles

not pure truth which stands as the aim of

these efforts,


rather the case that a philosophy
fact that this

of preconceived opinions leads




Physique Mensongere, as Remusat



ments of the supernatural, and fancies that

interprets all



Explaining as it does everything by extension and compression, Chinese physics finds it easy to account for every phenomenon, it is triumphantly enthroned upon empty words. All civilized races are also writing races without writing is no secure tradition. The firm historical ground, upon which a step in advance may be tried, is lacking. There is no chronicle, no monument of renown or mighty events intended to immortalise the history of the past, which may spur to emulation and brave deeds.
simplest possible way, lends a double vitality to the errors.




outside of the sacred tradition passes into oblivion.
it is

Human memory
to glorify a recently

being limited,

impossible but that



poems intended

deceased Inca are learnt, those which were fashioned in praise of his predecessor
should be forgotten.

In the schools of the Indian Brahmins


learn the importit

ance which was attached to getting by rote, and the trouble which




to the


have, in spite of writing and printing, been orally propagated


Every scholar has, in the traditional method, had to learn the nine hundred thousand syllables. Yet writing could never be replaced by these means. It is impossible to give a general view of all the germs of science among
present day.

natural races.
to ruin, the



Much is no longer to be known, more has disappeared and fallen amount possessed is very unequal. Hitherto too low an estimate has The reckoning of time and astronomy, both of which come into close

needs, are indeed the most widely extended, just as they also up in the pedigree of our science. We may point to the star legends of the Bushmen, or the observations of the sailors of Oceania, of which we shall have to speak later. A primitive astrology runs through the religion of the natural races. Their attempts to drive away eclipses and comets with all sorts of noises point to a feeling of discomfort from the

relation to men's


disturbance of order in

the firmament.

Falling stars denote the death of








races distinguish

seasons, not only according to the terrestrial

processes of flowering, ripening,


but also by the position of the constellations. But the year is an abthe
straction foreign to

many, and even




are distinguished, their cycle does

not talh' with the year.


step to

made when

sections of the year,

labour and such

are associated


of particular


assumes observations. Naturally these are carried out most extensively and most acutely among the
stellations, for this







Ornament on coco-nut Solomon Islands.


from Isabel

in the

(After Codrington.

Islanders using a special name, masoi, for the planets on account of their rounder

Civilized races see in poetic literature the highest achievement ot their great


it is

precisely in this direction that the natural races have risen highest.


has called

poetry the mother-tongue of humanity.



poems, and these express love, sorrow, admiration, and religious sentiments. Wherever the poetry of the natural races has been put into words it is also sung, and thus poetry is closely allied with music. As in the case of our own poets, we find here also words and phrases which have only been preserved in poetry, and unusual lengthenings and shortenings for the sake of metre. In the dancing songs of the Banks Islanders obsolete words borrowed from neighbouring islands form a regular poetic language to themselves. There is no lack of bold imagery, and a whole list of artifices such The as repetition, climax, abbreviation, and artistic obscurity come into play. alliance with religion is always preserved. In Santa Maria the following song is sung in honour of a person away at sea
natural races
scarcely find


any but

" Leale ale


have soared to the furthest dim horizon. have flown and landed on Mota. With whirring: noise have I sailed round the mountain.

am am

an eagle, an eagle,




have gone down island after island in the West to the base of Heaven. have sailed, I have seen the lands, I have sailed in circles. An ill wind has drifted me away, has drawn me away from you two. How shall I make my way round to you two ? The sounding sea stretches empty to keep me away from you. You are crying, mother, for me, how shall I see thy face ? You are crying, father, for me, " and so on.



words of the poem are


was the poet who


Ask and hear who wrote by the road to Lakona."


the song of




the form of this lyric, as given by Codrington, music.


see the alliance with


Choric and religious songs were accompanied by music, and there are sacred drums and trumpets which may only be

sounded by the


The Tucanos





invoke the spirit Yurupari. Women may not look upon him and conceal themselves at the sound of these instruto

ments, which at other times are kept under water.

But there is more than this in poetry. It embraces legends which are not merely fiction but contain in them the whole intellectual possession of the race, history, customs, law, and religion, and thereby are an important aid to the preservation of knowledge from one generation to another. Many legends are mythological fragments differing outwardly from myth by their fragmentary character and lack of point. Many myths are nothing but picturesque descriptions of natural events and personifications of natural forces. These bridge over the interval to science, for in them mythology becomes, like science, the way and the method towards the knowledge of the causes of phenomena. The original object falls into the background, the images become independent figures whose quarrels and tricks have an interest of their own. Therewith we have the fable, especially the widespread beast fable. Here the immediate operations of Nature are indulged with a wider play. Just as the sacred mountains and forests, the sacred sea and its cliffs, protest against any denial of the sentiment of Nature among the races Piece of bamboo with that have no literature, so do their myths and hymns testify to C * *ke deep impression made by Nature. The connection of many New^eb de™ (After Codrington.) a little poem with the song of birds is obvious. Light and darkness, day and night, arouse feelings of pleasure and discomfort white, red, and green, embody benevolent natural forces and daemons black those that are dreaded. Sunrise and sunset, storm, rainbow, the glow of evening, are most adapted to find a lyric echo where sun and fire are objects of adoration. What light and darkness are for the eye, sound and silence are for the ear. The rumble of thunder, the muffled roar of beasts of prey,

contrasted with the clear ripple of the spring, the plash of the waves, and the song of birds. Ina series of pictures, copious though limited by the constraint of

customary expression, the poetry and

pictorial art of the natural races contrives

Literally measured.

to express this.



one side of the mysterious Papuan bull-roarer, the object of depicted the resting- moth, on the other the whirring moth what a simple and impressive picture language
religious devotion,


Pictorial art has also, even where it seems to have passed entirely into a trade, connection with religion. its The execution of carvings was among the tasks of holy men, who imported mythological ideas into all the detail. If we look at the instruments used by a priest on the Amoor or the Oregon we see the connection




religion as plainly as


if we entered a village chapel or a Buddhist presents an astounding abundance of carved work which

unhappily with its enigmatic fancy is to us a seven times sealed book. But we know that at one time the axes of Mangaia in the Hervey Islands might only be carved with sharks' teeth, that the openings were called " eel- borings," the projections cliffs, and that the whole ornamentation was one mass of symbols. The clay

Plaited hat of the

Nootka Indians showing eye-ornament.

(Stockholm Ethnographical Museum.)

bowls of the Pueblo Indians have step-shaped edges, to denote the steps by which
the spirit


get into the vessel.
like the


perpetual repetitions of the



figures are just

555 images of Buddha

the temple of Burubudor in

Java, the expression of inarticulateness in religion and rigidity in


art of





prefers its elements to be of small bulk, but

from these


together the largest works.

In the squeezed or twisted figures of


or animals

piled one on another in the door-posts of the


Zealanders or



or the family pillars of the Indians of



being fairly

decorative combination.

North-West America, no single detail has a represented. No freedom is shown except in their For this reason out of all the many magnificent works


in America, sculpture never succeeded in attaining to freedom. Tradition was just as depressing here as in the much cruder work of the West African carvers of fetishes, who inhabit a regular industrial village in the

neighbourhood of Beh the sacred village of Togo. Even under the patterns of the shown on our coloured plate, symbols are concealed. Thus, as Bastian puts it, all decorative art appears to be a system of symbols, preliminary to writing, and is intended to convey a definite meaning. Art, in its efforts after expression, develops but slowly, and does not emerge into full freedom until the
tapa of Oceania, as

moment when

for its

own sake


has forgotten that purpose.


the symbols,

simple masses and lines are composed, which are coloured, shaped, and arranged But even then the ornament is so as to correspond with the sense of beaut}'. only an idealised copy from Nature, most often from a human face or figure.

From almost

which averts the

every Persian carpet there looks at us at least the one widelyevil eye. The decorative treatment of the face turns



such abundance and










most elementary.

The occurrence


presence where


be least suspected.

In the objects dis-

the most magnificent grouped about large faces or figures with very prominent faces as

covered at









Tiahuanuco are human figures, arbitrarily conventionalised, and composed of similar but smaller figures. Attentive comparison seems at last to justify us in rediscovering

human form


almost every ornaof

ment and





striking to see



the subjects of primitive art


Australians rarely
tions of the

make any


and they are in East and South Africa. very rare Livingstone makes his reflections on the fact that idols do not become frequent while on until north of the Makololo the Upper Nile, in West Africa on the Congo, in Guinea, they occur in great number. These images were also used for secular purposes. May not the Kioko clubs, carved with human heads, have been originally idols, carried in the hand instead of being stuck in the ground ? Carved clubs from Lunda. (Büchner collection What we regard as the work of a sportive the Munich Ethnographical Museum.) whim, those gnarled birch-roots often of very curious forms, which the Chinese convert into human figures with one or two cuts and dots, carry us back to the widespread tendency to see in such freaks of Nature more than chance, something indeed which may be of mysterious service in magic or medicine. In art we find once more the bias of religion towards universal animation. An element at the base of all primitive art is the close alliance of men and animals in the ornament. This corresponds to the religious view which dreads or


reveres a












conventional sculpture which


possess, that of the ancient Americans,
eyes, occur



most frequently

the greatest abundance.




figures, feathers, ribbons parts of plants very seldom. Reiss draws special attention to a Peruvian robe of state exhibited some years ago in Madrid, for the very reason that its ornament, contrary to the usual rule, is

them come animal


Feathers, tortoises, lizards, crocodiles, frogs, snakes are taken from plant forms. represented with remarkable fidelity. The sun-bird with outspread wings is a favourite symbol and theme for ornament from Egypt to Japan and Peru the portal of Ocosingo shows a typical Grotesques of men and beasts, disdevelopment of it.


and involved out of


knowledge, such as even



writing displays, are often drawn with great

and boldness of

phants' trunks on

The often-quoted eleUxmal, and on golden of men, may be explained either by the tapir's






of the



Death's heads are


the most widespread subjects


they form long friezes, and adorn the approach to temples at Copan and elsewhere. corresponding case is when the temple gapes upon the beholder with a door shaped like a serpent's jaws, or,






horrible monster,

house at Palenque, the whole front forms a whose mouth is the wide doorway, and
lintel his teeth.

the bars of the sculptured




abundance of images there comes to light of any importance that, in countries where the

Tobacco-pipe carved out of slate, from Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. (Berlin Museum of Ethnology.)


Zealand tobacco(Christy Col)


it much easier to go without clothes than in Greece, the representanaked human body was scarcely attempted, this can only be explained by the religious fetters in which art was bound. Almost everything is clothed, the faces tattooed or covered with a ceremonial mask. In these external points, so He unimportant for us, the Mexican or Peruvian artist put his whole strength. his death's head represented beautifully the feather robes, the ribbon ornament



tion of the


or his frog


true to nature, but almost every



on the contrary,
are rare.

childishly crude

and disproportioned.

The wide distinction ? do we find even a living nose or a between the highest point reached by barbaric art and the Egyptian art from which the Greek and all faithful imitation of Nature started, lies in the

The exceptions speaking mouth

to this



that the former

to represent the human form as such, but symbols. When we consider the stiffly designed smothered it in wrappings and impression the that they were on the road to get Egyptians, we figures of the works in some they already came near to it. indeed, sculptors become great

made no



The Mexicans,

Peruvians, Indians, were upon quite another road, which led




them While the

highest aim

of sculpture




in the representation of

human body,

the essence of their

carved work consists in neglect of
phasis on accessories.

body and disproportionate emOnly in the

technique of arabesques could they
to anything of importance, but that led them into a blind alley,

craftsmanship instead of


what are nowadays


the industrial arts, the restraint
far less


we do



of red

A Peruvian vase earthenware a beautifully polished, perfectly symmetrical, bow




a steel



with copper or brass from Kassai;

a spoon carved by Kaffirs in

the shape of a giraffe

a club or

helmet from




These are things upon which the
highest art of the west could



In plaiting, the industry

of the natural races produces better

work, both technically and


than the civilized races could show. With the support of its
prevails in

close ally, embroidery, the applique
Ornamental goblet from West


tion of

the ornamenta-


in leather


throughout North and West Africa, and to some extent also America. The scale of colour is frequently not great, but the sense

and cotton in North




Africans, especially



choosing the colours of their clothing. colours, the evidences of machine industry which art has deserted.

Houssas, often show more taste They pre-eminently avoid calicoes of

precisely in the matter of colour that the characteristic of a geographical region
lies. The hard red, white, and black, is typical of New Britain and the surrounding parts. One of the districts richest in colour is North- West America, which makes the contrast all the more striking as we pass from the Alaskan region



Magemuts and Kuskwogmuts, whose


round masks, with



a little wood and stone. from Aleutia. produces less in the way of woodwork than some small island which possesses nothing but coco -nut. back from a spring- meadow of many have come Many are yet as are the directions in which style varies. Also some groups in Oceania. stand apart as less fertile but original territories. The achievements of the Africans in iron. Similarly it Australia. They avail themselves with naive acuteness and taste of the special properties of the material. and more its A nation's sports are a valuable evidence of mode of . achieve less in proportion than the isolated Eskimo. often over-estimated. But none of their performances excels the perfection of a beautifully polished fine Everything which they produce lacks the especially proportion. . Australia and South America. The richness of Polynesian work is astonishing. in spite of their limited materials— shells. are coloured white. nothing can touch the work of some of the Pacific races. all the inhabitants of the North Pacific are allied by similarity of style with Japan. fray. beauty of perfect and perforated stone hammer. among the natural wealth of timber. Japan. coco-nut shells.) throughout Africa. Whereas the Moorish Arabic style runs Chains made of walrus-teeth. to some extent combined with copper and brass. especially the Maoris we say nothing here about the still higher Peruvians. do not give a very strong colouring fa to the snowy landscape. with its imparts faint shades of colour. AND ART One seems to and dingy brown. which betray more talent than industry. Frankfort O. In these laborious combinations of small things. The material is of only small importance in regard to the degree to which arts and crafts are developed races. with its wealth of things development The position of most successful imitafrom Nature. such as obsidian. the dark brown wooden dishes inlaid with white bone the" thin strings ot pearls twined round ears and lips. of the material some American tribes surpass upon the art. excepting Peru. Materials. (City Museum. but does not determine it. and richness. finish. and shells . The material often gives its direction to the technique. however. who are provided with iron and other from Asia.SCIENCE of feathers. artistic The reaction The patient in hand of the shaped the most works the most refractory stone. is ancient [Mexican all others in pottery. too. seems less strange when tions we consider ber the numcareful and the execution of animal figures human and among the tribes of the Pacific. colours into winter. the degrees of more various. The Africans and Malays. are pre-eminent. The African works in iron and ivory. especially the North-West Americans and their neighbours farther north. M. The Polynesian produces his best results working in stone . fineness. there is far more labour than in most of the African objects. are unequally apportioned and used. and leather or hide the Australian in wood or stone the man of the far north in walrus tusk. the Indian style through Malaysia. but the human intellect and will is at the root of the matter. In originality. The pegs of green stone in their lips.

such as we may call quite generally tones of mind. and making their friends guess at their identity. (Museum of the Berlin Mission. in order. whether his contemporaries thought him one or not. with the villages. to make its way to the minds of several or many persons. the villagers go round the circle of gossips. One-fourth real size. games akin to viorra. less developed kind. Any one who knows the multitude of the games in which. and the limited made on life. Only suggestions of a lower. INVENTION AND DISCOVERY Difficulty in Essential characters of invention the — Primitive science — Finding and retaining— of a tradition — How inventions get forgotten — Pottery Polynesia— Importance of individual inventions primitive conditions Tapa — Obscure derivation of such culture as possessed by "natural" races wholly without external relations — EthnoExamples of imitation and other correspondences — No race graphic poverty and impoverishment — Distinctions of degree evolution — Monbuttus — Curious cases of degrees of special development — Kingsmill Islands — Difficulty of determining lower stages in in is is in relative culture. In the small area of the . Many gain a special interest from the fact of their having spread with scared)' perceptible variations over very wide regions. and for the improvement and embellishment of his life. And then as now. prisoner's base. for producing fire by friction. and are capable as it were of giving their tone to the mental physiognomy of a race. and considers the simplicity of many of them. yam harvest the game of tika is eagerly played between contending On moonlight nights. appear like epidemics in many simultaneously. we find hide and seek. whatever intellectual gains were due to natural suggestions must have grown up in the individual intellect. mankind rests upon an ever-deepening and widening study of natural phenomena. football.76 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND life and view of life. The inventor of the bow or the harpoon must have been a genius. hidden behind a screen. they fly kites and in connection archery. § 8. from which results a corresponding increase in the material THE progress of Kaffir fire-sticks. children and adults take part with ever fresh pleasure. wealth of means at a man's disposal for his own emancipation. stump and ball. Intellectual . including the Banks Islands. cent of childhood in the careless squandering of time. The discovery how to make fire by friction was an act of the intellect which in its own degree demanded as much thinking power as the invention of the steam-engine. exercises in spear-throwing and When the harvest has been reaped. cannot but remark that in the life of these races there is an element reminis- demands Solomon Islands and Northern New Hebrides. among simple races. when circumstances were favourable. hoops.

not finding only. therefore. The agreement between type and copy seems very close when we find the tail of a gnu or eland used by the Bushmen of South Africa. Since this is strongest in those classes who either have leisure or are led by their calling to attend to intellectual matters. not attain an equally effective character Every- . the force which tends to preserve what the intellect has won is also dependent on the social organisation. The degree of vitality possessed by discoveries depends. everything which strengthens the force of tradition in a race will have a favourable effect upon the further development of its store of ideas. into the world. we shall discover many other cases of similar suggestions justifying relates . weapons. Some natural occurrence strikes a man he wishes to see it repeated. First. . Those natural conditions. mirrored in his soul. diffusion and incorporation with the permanent stock of culture. But it is the individual alone who. The discovery which the individual keeps to himself dies with him it can survive only if handed down. inventions. so important for progress. Other discoveries go back to the earliest observations of the sequence of cause and effect and with the course of discovery the beginnings of science also reach back to the earliest ages of mankind. is we will shall comprehend that this element of invention. a store of intellectual possession has a stimulating effect upon creative minds. which is a preliminary condition of their preservation. since . and therewith the enrichment of the community. may be regarded as indirectly most especially favourable to intellectual development. Nature came to meet She gave him the materials of food. upon the force of tradition and this again upon the internal organic interdependence of the generations.INVENTION AND DISCOVERY games is ?? are individual achievements. with these suggestions that all In invention. which brings one possession after another into the treasury of mankind and secondly. in all stages of civilization. just as it was by its first owner. it more easily. even in their most primitive form. and the history of even the simplest discovery a fragment of the intellectual history of mankind. as in that is spiritual in . Thus he is led to inquire into the particulars of the occurrence and its causes. we have the concentrated creative force of the individual genius. which affect the density of the whole population. and. the diffusion of these among the masses. the Hottentots look only for such roots and tubers as are eaten by the baboons and other animals. and so two ways. but the preservation of what has been found —by If we consider. And lastly. clothing. therefore. and is thus compelled to put his own hand to it. similarly. makes the discovery and profits by it. . and offered him suggestions as to the most suitable methods of turning them It is primitive man was brought naked we have now to concern ourselves. . which would otherwise be condemned to be always beginning anew. When him in forth. the external world. has a larger share of brute -instinct. to keep off the flies of that fly-abounding region or when Peter Kolb to account. in the first instance. man. the productive activity of individuals. We cannot doubt that much has been taken from it. When we come to consider the evolution of agriculture. But the wide extension of a race and abundant possibilities of commerce are also operative in this direction. More is required if it is to become an addition to the store of culture such as the history of culture can take into account. how us in the reflection that in the lower stages of culture learns from man is nearer to the beast. plays a part. For the mode in which the acquisitions of the intellect are amassed is twofold. discoveries. . — through a wide sphere essential to invention.

was generally known. most favourable laboriously dug up again and so preserved ? And who can measure the inertia of the stubborn opposition which stands in the way of the birth of new ideas ? We may remember Cook's description of the New " Zealanders in the report of his second voyage landers : The New Zeaperfectly seem content with the scraps of knowledge possess. their not surprise them as much . and the for the progress of culture direction other acquires an ac- celerated pace.7« THE HISTORY OF MANKIND tends for thing stages. seems to . of lost How many inventions men may have been in the long ages be- fore great communities ! were formed fallen Even to- day how many do we see with their inventors oblivion. into in the case. the less the interdependence of men this kept reason up in . which they without showing the least impulse to im- prove upon them. the most important of inventions. as one Novelties do nay. to limit its effectiveness in the lower the lower we go is in civilization." We know now that on It the remote Easter Island writing. have died out there without leaving any offspring. Nor partiin do they show any cular their curiosity either questions or their remarks. or. they would expect do not hold attention for an instant.

passing as time goes on into oblivion or rigidity. implements. possessed little of the more copious by the Bechuanas. they would never have proceeded to pottery without foreign aid. but the Maoris lost the art of its manufacture. The indolently declines some things and all the more readily accepts others. no more. It seems far more correct to credit the intellect of " natural " races with great sterility in all that does Migrations may also have given not touch the most immediate objects of life. since the raw material often occurs only in limited Tapa plays an imquantity. The bulk of civilized methods which a race is capable of assimilating is in direct ! proportion to this is its average of civilization. and the its contact with some other people. it is In these lower stages of civilization the whole social life is much more dependent rise than upon the loss of some simple invention than is the case in the The nearer life rooted. portant part among the Polynesians. a condition into which a movement. Here we learn that inventions do not spread like a prairie-fire. This is an instructive phenomenon. occasion for sundry losses. the Bushmen have appropriated astonishingly store of weapons. Any one who starts with the view that pottery is a very primitive invention. dexterity. but that human will takes a hand in the game which. the . manages to get And when he finds it in existence only in Tonga and along without that art. will note with astonishment. less remote than almost any other from the natural man. we learn from the absence of this art among the Assiniboines of North America. next door to the Mandans. on the other it retrogrades or stands still. that even here again intercourse is very capricious. domestic animals. not without caprice. tendency to stand still at a stage that has been once reached is greater in You do just what is enough and proportion as the average of civilization is lower. such as garden plants. and a comparison of various degrees of this stationariness is specially attractive. how a talented race. to a people. upon the higher. If we draw conclusions from certain acquisitions of culture which may be found among like. and remains of no importance to the life of the race. we may easily forget this simple but important circumstance. evidently in its nature not strong. To this must be referred the ethnographical poverty found in the lower strata of ethnographically richer races. Many institutions among the inhabitants of our mountains fail to betray the fact that they have lived for ages in the neighbourhood of a high civilization. hot stones into Just because the Polynesians were able to heat water by putting redit. in the face of needs by no means inconsiderable. and every great migration causes a rift in tradition. the thinner the layer of culture in which it strikes down to the natural soil. We must beware of thinking even simple inventions necessary. Anything that is offered to it beyond only received externally. he will be apt to think how much more the intercourse between lands and islands has contributed But to the enrichment of men's stock of culture than has independent invention. times were submerged. the small Easter Island at the extreme eastern limit of Polynesia.INVENTION AND DISCOVERY What a vista of eternally futile starts opens 79 when we think of this mental immobility and this lack of quickening interdependence We get a feeling that all the sweat which the struggle' after new improvements has cost our age of inventions is but a drop in the ocean of labours wherein the inventors of primitive The germ of civilization will not grow in every soil. who excel in it. the shorter the fibres which stands to Nature. implements. not in Australia only but in Polynesia. On the one side the stock of culture progresses. easily passes.

The fact that the most necessary kinds of knowledge and dexterity are spread throughout mankind. Mesopotamia. points to the communication of an instruction which must have proceeded at some time or another from a superhuman being. things ? Undoubtedly before there were any relations with Europeans. Nor is the examination of their nature and significance anything new. a certain taste in wearing a and in the selection of colours means of amassing capital by preserving stores of this and patterns.So THE HISTORY OF MANKIND in more comprehensive. which. is fairly applicable here existence of various implements which are in use among the Africans and other partially civilized races. The invention of the way to manufacture clothing. and Japan. are referred to both one and the other form of work. inventive talent possessed races. Now if we pass in review what is possessed by the natural races in artifices. China. This suggests the relations between basket-weaving and pottery large earthenware vessels were made by covering baskets with clay. and deduct what is and has been imported. to call the whole art of pottery. which are worn through successive generations and laden with the Tapa. as contrasted with plaiting. There is no need on this account. not only in order to estimate the measure of the . relations existed with other races which reached down to these lower strata. the further-reaching every change that soil naturally in is. and thus many a crumb must have fallen here from the richly spread tables of the old civilizations of Egypt. : by natural . on the other hand. naturally represses the weaver's art. by means of trade with modern civilized races. for it must be possible to read in the stock of culture. though made with another intention. of an Eskimo's skin coat or a Negress's leather apron. in some cases already to a large extent. or the art of making bows and arrows ? To discuss these questions is important. surely natural and yet rich in results." but this outgrowth is instructive. is is inconceivable without the inconspicuous material verted for known as tapa. implements. is whether the form of woven entire stuffs or of beaten bark. we are inclined to form a high conception of their inventive But what guarantee have we of the independent discovery of all these talent. The ethnographer knows cases enough of such borrowings every single race shows examples of them. so that the total impression of the stock of culture possessed by the " natural " races is one of a fundamental uniformity. a " servile art. lastly." Think for the history of primitive . which also a certain provides not only a plentiful covering in the body but luxury the frequent change allows. trouble. material which are always Think. gives rise to a further feeling that this scanty stock is only the remains of a larger total of possessions from which all that was not absolutely necessary has gradually dropped out. a material which can be provided in quantities without much dirt of them. and so on. Bark it con- a stuff for clothing. and. We may specially recall an original remark of Livingstone's " The which. if anywhere. resting upon clean- and into modesty. and sufficient by itself to give them a high place. but also to obtain the right perspective humanity. and has continued here in a mutilated shape perhaps quite alien to the original uses served by it. Or can we suppose that the art of producing fire by friction made its way all alone through the world. which can only have proceeded by a In the lake-dwellings there are products long and toilsome road from plaiting. with equal justice. India. from what elements and by what ways mankind of to-day has become what it is. Holmes. weapons. The refinement of existence liness among the natural races of Polynesia. with William H. convertible.

or Muata Jamvo's.domesticated by barbarous races. At one time people pointed triumphantly to the turkey as an animal which had been independent!}. Polynesians. together with its consequence of the widest possible propagation. are. But may not the Indian. or one and the same touch of art in a dozen different places. and was invented by those races themselves. In the matter of utensils. always too apt to think of invention as easy. we find points of accord. which for a but it it is otherwise with the retaining of what has been down to the more remote origin of apparently quite spontaneous productions of " natural " races. bear about them. they slit the stock. and they retained the pattern. and people were quite ready to credit the former with the invention of this ingenious weapon. at least. while the inhabitants of New Ireland and others in the neighbourhood have not. Indian traces run through the religion of the Malays. as reported by Pogge and Büchner. origin. Bastian found out. considering only brain of genius are small . borrowing from civilization is naturally more difficult to prove. . especially in the Melanesia and Polynesia. who got his maize from from the same quarter the art of his delicate stone-work ? Such introduction. it is far more probable that this art reached them all from a common source than that it was independently discovered in all parts alike. On the one hand the natural races on the other hand inventions are ascribed One is them which not of an easy kind. producing and working iron after one and the same method. as described by Lacerda and Livingstone. like plants the marks of their Mexico. in this matter. have learnt and animals. from Moors to Hottentots. When wc find all races in Africa. So in the domain of politics that nothing but tradition is left to explain them. while Now. the* difficulties of finding out. G . In some cases has been possible to penetrate list of cases in which certain elements of European civilization have been formally imitated a good instance being the characteristic Fijian form of club copied from a musket of the last century. The institutions of Kazembe's country. must seem to us more natural than the independent invention of one and the same utensil. The savages thought they would have the dreaded weapon at least in wood. and extend perhaps to has compiled a . cosmogonic legends of Bushmen and Australians. are put to down to the level of the brute.Y 7 7< W AND DISCO VKR ) this remark. after four hundred years. and North Americans. are. As has been already pointed out. its main point is fully justified as assumption that everything which natural races have to show of their own came into existence in the place where it is now seen. Attention has been quite recently called to the fact that the Solomon Islanders have bows and arrows. people wonderfully inconsistent. A head-dress used in the New Hebrides is a colossal exaggeration of an admiral's cocked -hat.AY/ "A. however obliterated. the cross-bow turns up again but as the Fans have neither the patience nor the tools to fashion a lock. since these do not. on the coast firearms came into use. and produced a club remarkably illadapted to its proper purpose. we should be able to gather a much richer harvest among them. The remarkable cross-bow It reached the Fans of the interior from used by the Fans is more to the purpose. the Portuguese discoverers on the west coast. We find such striking similarities. If it were less difficult to seize the manifestations of intellectual life among the lower races. until Spencer Baird discovered in as we may about the conclusion of a contradiction of the widespread Mexico the ancestor of this ill-tempered sovereign of the poultry-yard. as in Europe. and use the cross-bow to shoot little poisoned arrows which might just as well be shot from a light long-bow.

the women wore a kind of short petticoat." We may civilization be permitted to add the conclusion that no one understands the natural races who does not make due allowance for their intercourse and connection. that they arc invariably also those an ethnographical sense. wares of European origin. . nothing is more instrucof grinding tive than the consideration of races which are poorest is in Of them we can say others scantiest. the first in many we cases possibly that of very direct intercourse. radiating out till they form a close network over the Museum. the question of intercourse. in truth. These most remote islands. (Vienna Ethnographical affinities. long before the Nile route was opened ficial observation. even to the Azandeh. made of now they tufts of grass or rushes strung in a row. For centuries the Japanese have had very little intercourse with the races of the North Pacific yet it may be that we ought to refer to some such intercourse as this (which. Thus a century's progress has resulted in the replacing of the grass petticoat by woven materials. Thus. . from (?) relations with others. and no new dexterity arises in its stead. Where instance strong resemblances occur. earth even the most remote islanders can only be understood when we take into account their neighbours. is the art amber and obsidian. When Hamilton visited Car Nicobar in 1790. Tahiti. especially pearls. which simply hung down universally cover up their bodies with stuff cloths. a group of men who could be said to be devoid of medusa in walrusivory. more Thus. other travellers of the sixteenth century prized so highly. the coincidences arc striking. he says " Even to the islands slumbering on the bosom of the Pacific. however. not only enlarges. On the lower Congo we no longer find the bark-stuffs and fine webs which Lopez and . the more convinced we are of the correctness of an expression used by Bastian at a date when the sharp division of races was a In his Journey to San Salvador gospel. . so like Japanese armour. Where. are quite justified in asking whether it We by think that fugitive is not slaves that so many elements of African civilization have been spread through South America. too. too. with each other. and always guised as it is. The deeper political conceptions and institutions. oceancurrents seem to have driven the message of the more abstract triumphs of perhaps even to the shores of the American continent. so far as our historical knowHuman figure and ledge shows.82 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND In the domain of social and remind us partly of India. but. which produced such conspicuous results in ancient Mexico ? or the goldsmith's work and tapestry of the old Peruvians ? For estimating the importance of external suggestion. the domestic industry perishes. whose intercourse with the extremities of the Why arc the most remote races at . always tends to decompose) the wicker armour worn by the Chukchis. Everywhere we see agreements. : . we search into these matters. show how indigenous industries always dwindle where European or American manufactures come. as time goes on. and with civilized peoples. and the unity of mankind was scouted. Meanwhile. races formerly depended on each other and no more than at present was there ever on this earth. between them than one would intercourse suppose from a superhas been. often disThere is. should always be raised . partly of ancient Egypt. to traffic. far and near. similarities. of in communication from abroad. made their way from Darfour by Hofrat el Nahas.

000 square miles wherein firearms. but it also shows the impoverishing Shell and bone f. origin. and by nature poor. though small. graphically rich . The out-of-the-waySouth America. When Stanley crossed the Dark Continent. " that we had Xyangwe not missed the way. If any one is inclined to see in this a sort of contagion of effects of remoteness situation of Australia. in the shape north of upon them again to the westward at Nbenga. is one of the poorest and most depressed that has been allotted to any race on the earth. It is true that other things have been of those four old Portuguese muskets. as. and forms the luxury of barbarous races.glance at the conditions and mode of these people's life shows how sharp their case is their struggle to maintain bare existence. first sign from which the party learned. at the most critical moment of their journey. But even in the most favoured northern tracts within the tropics. and especially to the fancy. which presses on a people. the general poverty. is ethnoand hardly any barbarous race is superior in artistic development to the Eskimo. referable to the smaller number of suggestions offered under these conditions by Nature to the mind. with which the coasts of Africa have roared these four hundred years. almost destitute of useful plants and animals. southern poverty. This has been readily recognised in the case of many races. In we need not seek far for the causes of their ethnographical poverty.) from the great streams of traffic.sh-hooks from Oceania.000 to 250. ever to be historical as the ." and X"benga are on the borders of an area of 200. We know how the utensils and weapons of civilized races have spread as it were by stages and continue to spread to races which previously possessed no notion of them. they are almost totally devoid of that tendency to the artistic adornment of existence which flourishes so profusely among this Papuan neighbours. hasty conclusions. the interior of South Africa. Even. exercises the same impoverishing influence everywhere upon the indigenous races. the last point where firearms were seen in native He came hands was left on the east at the famous market-town of Xyangwe. 6' Xyangwe. and that the great stream really reached the sea. the Australians. he must beware of Easter Island. and eastern Polynesia. The larger one on the right probably of North American (Vienna Ethnographical Museum. whose life on the arid steppes of their continent.INVENTION AND DISCOVERY continents or on the less accessible islands the most destitute? Ethnographic poverty is only in part a consequence of the penury. for instance. on his first remarkable journey along the Congo. were a few years ago unknown.

To this fact of the importance of intercourse we must ascribe the striking uni- — . which were not brought here till the sixteenth century But they too have travelled by stages maize. and rarely mingled with such peculiar growths as wonderfully animate the picture. as when the island-world of Melanesia and Polynesia. have appro- some remarkable style of weapon. suddenly receives from some side It is or other an impulse towards freer unfolding. to such an extent that one might suppose one . as for instance those more quickly American products tobacco. even in the It is interesting too to see at what manifold forms or I ' the people of small islands in Polynesia have arrived in a set of fish-hooks. so Weapons Islands. the Damaras have only come to know tobacco within the last few dozen years. formity of motive seen in productions of ethnorich districts graphical interest even in . here less good only condition. prethe picture in sent's of a meadow same the in which the elements main spring up everywhere in vegetation.84 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND diffused. as And just amid the monotonous herbage on the barren soil of a steppe. demanding much industry and ingenuity. how others. first these isolated developments. while to study grotesque. The in- from the Gilbert (Munich Ethnographical Museum. we often suddenly see one plant above the rest unfold itself in luxuriance. thicker in another.) it tellect of races. torpid as it is in the matter of well worth following up what has got. through their devotion to fishing . thinner one place. The art of fitting-up weapons with priated sharks' teeth. by * dint of a consistent progress in a definite direction. here showing better. is it here. and potatoes. set with shark's teeth. so far as concerns the distribution of utensils and weapons.

INI ENTIt )N AND DIS( '< > J 'ER ) 35 had to do with a people of no small numbers and strength. among the forest-negroes we have the frequent the place of leather. fundamental idea almost every islandgroup conceals its own more or less perfected special features even if it be only that invariable little human figure. When the storms of the period passed harmless round a peaceful oasis. — employment of banana-leaves interesting in a theme upon which the Monbuttus play This race offers at the same time an example of a general high-development of industry under favourable conditions. reached highest point in the Gilbert or Kingsmill living in constant Islands with an area of 185 square miles and a population of not more than 35. These weapons surpass in gruesomeness those of any other race in Polynesia. a musical instrument used over a great part of Central and South Africa. which establish themselves with Carved and painted figure from Dahomey. (Berlin Ethnographical Museum. every circle of culture.000. has its own little peculiarities. easily overlooked. But even here. however narrow.) a certain consistency in the most various domains. or stuff endless variations. so Zanza. as was once the . its war. and the equipment which corresponds to them is brought to a else finish in that we find nowhere but Japan and New Thus under uniformity of Guinea. are Among con- tinental races such features naturally more limited in their appearance. Just as among is the West Africans we can point to the predilection for representing what ugly. found on all . Tongan carved-work. as a characteristic of this kind. hide.

the rich soil of wealth in material and natural abilityIts destined however to a short existence. the cleverness of the people in the repair of warlike weapons is and peaceful utensils highly esteemed. position The high which the negroes of Africa hold in the facture of the manumost varied is musical instruments a unique quite phenomenon. of Polynesian descent. since it contributes to the confirmation of our view that the Melanesians. The actual discovery of the Monbuttus by and wide in Africa. allowed a fine flower to expand . as here. above all. noteworthy extent the Fijians. Yet with all this the industry of the Monbottus in- always remains a negro dustry. Yet it is obviously always difficult to judge with certainty in such a case. and yet at the same time those if such tasks are Fan warrior with crossbow. we have to define a gradation in the degree of perfection reached by any branch of human activity. received the high development of their shipbuilding and navigation from the later arrived Polynesians.86 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND case with Monbuttuland. appears an anomaly. any genealogical conclusion to be drawn from this gradation. not only of rumours. is (After among Du that can best be justified Chaillu. But. The cleverto a . all the more so that a race superior in general culture may in the matter of individual points of knowledge and knack be behind some who on the whole belong to a lower stage. who have been longer established. reaching even to Europe. The difference is not great. but Bahr-el-Ghazal he gathered from district of the the in even himself reports that upon looked as a peculiar were how they ivory-traders the conversation of the fame spread far . in this matter surpassing . and distinguished people. The superiority in smith's work of the Djurs over the Nubians. We notice a difference in the development of shipbuilding between two races dwelling so near each other as the Fijians and Tongans the latter. and has provided endless material for eulogistic descrip- tions. One of the most difficult tasks we can undertake is when. often applied to the same themes the the as we find among and Nile negroes Kaffirs. but very important. and not vice-versa. who are to be reckoned among Melanesians. or the manifest advantage which the Musgus possess as agriculturists over their Soudanese masters. by preceded Schweinfurth was and that traveller degree of civilization high their of their brown colour.

Even the food to his mouth. any one would be predisposed to ascribe to people like the Arabs or Borneans. for smaller animals. . without trouble. the education of the negroes to the excellence which they have attained in these arts. none of the suggestions which she offers to him will sooner prove beneficial than those which tend to modify that under his own control the bonds which animated world. his get order to Australian who. who in main. But the very fact that the Arabs had something to learn from the negroes and house-building testifies to the antiquity in Africa of an indigenous upon agriculture. or files some other kind of shell for a finger ring. nor roofs his hut adequately over his head. net. nay. of smiths . Xo doubt they are for the most part articles for immediate use and not for traffic. The way to this lies in the permanent appropriation by means of tillage and breeding of useful plants and animals. to help himself. or traps take some trouble. and that not entirely bodily.other respects possess so superior a civilization. grub or spade-ended stick to dependence by so link far as possible placing him to the rest of the support his feet in climbing. It is quite wrong to believe that we do not meet with division of labour before reaching a somewhat advanced stage of economic development Central Africa in agriculture semi-civilization based : has its villages of blacksmiths. shelter. Guinea its potter villages North America its finishers of arrowheads. or hook. a sharp prepare than more does no victuals. of time. in axe to with his trees the in nicks or chop roots. pitfalls for larger —even he must fish-spear. who stand towards in mutual a relation of traffic in products. and trade profits little by this limited though persevering labour whereas an active trade is closely connected with the industries mentioned above. others distributed Xew among those people who practise their art only occasionally as The form and fashion of their work therefore often appears in the need requires. and from castes privileged classes in a race. Doubtless there never was a time when man could. and quite at ease. of agriculture — First Ix view of man's profound dependence on Nature. acquire Nature nowhere brings the food. by drawing upon Nature. § 9. a great troclius for an arm band.AGRICULTURE AND CATTLE-BREEDING ness of the negroes in both these directions has astonished even Europeans. AGRICULTURE AXD CATTLE-BREEDING stages Origin of cattle-breeding upon national — Limitation of nature — Breeding animals — Taming animals — Influence destiny — Nomadism — Influence of agriculture— Low place taken by agriculture among "natural" races — Food and feeding. who only make throwing-knives . Hunting-races. facts 87 If the were not so clear. or make weapons. or prefers to do the engraved work on a club to which he has for years This habit of working with the most liberal expenditure past devoted his leisure. goes far to explain the perfection of the things produced. A man who has just then nothing better to do polishes shape of a busy idleness. are scattered with the agriculturist Besides these specialised activities there are special frequency about Africa. Hence arise those remarkable social and political groups which from guilds become castes. livelihood. which he manages to Even in his case the various artifices by freely gives indicate a certain developNature what exploit .

stick used by Bushmen in (Berlin digging roots. These countries then offer him not only the inducement to store up and season. dexterities Some tain steppe regions confor by no means a small . however. supply of food crops in the effort to hoard nutri- future ment and moisture for the germ during the dry Nature has stored and fruits exactly what man can best use. only emptied with such grows up.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND ment of the faculties. It is. and stone weights for the same. Even now many of those Australian races whom we They regard as standing on the lowest step of civilization. So with other animals man allows them to lay up the provision which he subsequently takes away. Thus to this day the Zanderillos of Mexico come to the . On the other side. all Nor does this go on regardless of rights and laws. Here Nature frames a check for man. Our varieties same time the most suitof crops must come in great measure from these regions. strictly prohibit the pulling-up of plants which have edible fruit. at another lying dead and benumbed. Where large provision of fruits is found whole tribes come at the gathering time from all sides. and teaches him thrift. It is other hunting races. To this shaking-up and awakening. man raises himself to a higher stage by engaging Nature in certain directions to more durable performance. a simple solution of the problem lies in an attempt to bottle up as it were the sources of his food supply. in grains. even the Eskimo. no permanent gains in the way of culture can accrue. Nature at one time emerging in the fullest creative vigour. a grain-bearing grass in Namaqua-land. Wild regularity that a kind of primitive bee-keeping : long as the food lasts. like districts. the tendency to settlement is encouraged. the seed of which the Bushmen take from the ants.) put in barns. and remain as bees' nests are often taking thought not to disturb her. tubers. tion of birds' nests. are bound to definite their only within own hunting-grounds is that they shift habitation according to the time of year and the supply of game. but at the able growths for the purpose. Museum of Ethnology. Drege instances the case of ArthratJierum brevifolium. and thus is led in another direction to the verge of cultivation. dependent as it is. The their Australians. as in the steppes. When man sets to work to add something from his own resources to what Nature does for him. having supplied various countries very variously with crops which can be made available for agriculture. and from which From this situation. and for that very reason easy. bulbs. are content simply to let Nature and the destrucwork for them. but a poorly productive capital that invested in all these and contrivances. want is more favourable than abundance. which have only a momentary use. We may regard as especially favourable those regions where there is a marked difference in the seasons. In many respects Nature comes to his aid.

or water-rice.AGRICUL TÜRE AND CA TTLE-BREEDING . grows or the Australians hold a kind of harvest festivity in the neighbourhood of the marsiliaceous plants which serve them for grain. Thus on two sides the barriers of savage nature are broken down. Generally. 1 [May not his use in hunting. may point of far. have been discovered by men in the hunting-stage of development . parrots. or what seems less likely to make him conscious of his own weakness and smallness. to become stage settled. we Thus them. The son of the desert is beginning to look ahead. Falkenstein. in man may have It may be that the strong impulse to companionship which exists animals than domestic acquiring towards step effective first had more to do with the the lowest among less no find. which ?] is considerable. time have been it but as we think of step the long. tain periods is who for cer- quite away from mankind. though separated by a deep gulf from man of to-day. 89 sandy lowlands of the Coatzacoalco when the melons are ripe or the Ojibbeways assemble round the marshes where the Zizaiiia.) he likes best to associate himself.making that he must commit the seed to the earth in order to stimulate Nature to in richer performance. Now the animal world. includes. in its gentler and more docile members. Their huts are full of monkeys. or Nile-negroes take in taming wild animals is well known. the natural qualities with which Loango negress at field-work. From great this to the discovery epoch . (From a photograph by Dr. The delight which Indians. enough. of any eye to the use to be made mankind than in the remains of civilization anterior to the intropermanent duction of domestic animals and cultivated plants. or Dyaks. limited companion and his usefulness is races of existing . tries to get from Nature either what is most like himself. and is on the way . The roamknitting of part ing barbarian. does not seem The cattle - of beginnings breeding show yet further in how man succeeded an important Nature with his own fortunes. the dog as the sole 1 it is difficult indeed. and other playmates.

the to civilization. tends to increase the contrast between nomadism and agriculture. and agrees with the restless tendencies peoples suffer from the narrow basis The desert is preferred to the fertile country. a restless nomad life. so important in history. But the great influence which cattle-breeding produces upon a race is to make it restless. but the theft of their cattle alone was enough to reduce them to impotence. and well-watered plain of China. is a fragment of nomadism. the measure of wealth. Prjewalski.9o THE HISTORY OF MANKIND draw any certain conclusion from the purpose which an animal serves in our which man first associated him with himself." as marked with wonderful sharpness. and esteemed his own savage freedom the greatest happiness on earth. even in more civilized as for the milk of their females. when pecus gave its name to pecunia. Similarly the rinderpest of recent years has ruined the Masai and Wagogo. and looked on it as the greatest misfortune while on the other hand the it to — — : : . . attaches the shepherd to the members of his flock. Even when their culture in well advanced these cattle-farming' which their livelihood rests. It is more often is a pursuit which arouses more enthusiasm than agriculture. How little nomads care to utilise Nature more thoroughly we may learn from the fact that as a rule of the more forcible races. and in a state of mutual hatred. In Africa We may suppose that the horse and the and Oceania the dog is used for food. has described this boundary. camel were in the first instance tamed. and so thick that as a rule the Namaquas allowed This sort of indifference be burnt without attempting to use it. as more The Rhenish missionaries had specially to undertake the task of inducing some of the Namaqua tribes to settle on fertile oases. lastly even Many a race has carried this to identification existence with stage of its favourite animal is a dangerous excess. fertile. which lies in the bend of the upper Hoangho. not so much for the sake of their speed A certain friendship. as the herds the basis of life. all things considered. Even our own alp-system. spacious. always avoided war. they were destined by Nature to remain alien to each other. Pastoral life requires wide spaces. was inconceivable and despicable. In the country about Gobabis on the high. in his account of his first journey. who from time immemorial has attained to a comparatively high and very peculiar civilization. Chapman found the grass growing a yard it would have been easy to make hay in abundance but . To the Chinese. they hoard no provision for the winter. with its changes from valley to mountain pastures. He agrees with Ritter that this question of situation is what decides the historic fortunes of races which inhabit countries closely bordering on each other. as means of acquiring all other desirable articles. This is the actual source of the distinction in character between the races laborious the Chinese. both in mode of life and in charthe races in those parts acter. Thus cattle-farming countries. between steppe and farm land. Nosob River. of its especially women . as to that for currency. intersected by mountain-chains. and exercises a far deeper influence on all private and public Nowhere in Africa do the fruits of the field form to the same extent relations. full of privation. The Basutos are. he says of " Dissimilar as they are. the nomad looked with contempt at the life of his agricultural neighbour with all its cares and toils. the source of pleasure. When he enters the Ordos country that steppe region. the best branch of the great Bechuana stock. the men's work. between " the cold desert plateau and the warm. Pastoral life and nomad life are practically synonymous. the boundary of both Nature and culture. and assumes the character of a great obstacle to civilization.

If he failed he lost but little. the Battaks hoe from Kordofan. it ? is taken out of fact As are a matter of even the best cultivators races among the African . One much more often Agriculture.) luxuriant nature. a kind of gardening. It was never carried on here to the same extent as in the it fell mainly into tropics. hardened against all physical consequences. But the force of the soil and the man is not utilised to the full." Here we have the contrast between the most characteristically nomad race and the most sedentary agriculturists. with the unpractical hoes shown in our illustrations. He contends with a Ironrency — one-eighth real size. astonishingly movable and the majority of villages. imperfect tools tend to perpetuate the lower stage. . but rather formed a subsidiary branch of economy In conthe hands of the women. though they were from the little. as. continuity. and security . do no more than scratch the surface.AGRICULTURE AXD CATTLE-BREEDING active 9i and savage inhabitant of the Mongolian desert. was ever read)' for raiding and reiving. may be applied to many other " natural " races. while in the event of success he secured the wealth accumulated by the labour of several generations. is equally so in the temperate zones by the lesser fertility of the soil. limited in the tropics . " horticultural people. comes across terracing and artificial irrigation. a contrast with whose historical results in many gradations we shall meet as we go along. The plough. importance. and was a provision only for the utmost need. consider the position of agricultural barbarians. in the chapters of this book which describe races. fells trees. Codrington's expression. Apart from the fact that the man does not in many cases devote himself wholly to agriculture. and burns the coppice. Only we must not forget that sedentary life in this decree — of ancient civilization. has nowhere become customary among genuinely barbarous peoples manuring." used by him of the Melanesians. even of the smaller races. He grows more than he requires. and preserves the surplus in granaries above or under the ground. trast to the wide diffusion which newly-imported plants obtained among the Africans. It is a small cultivation. in other respects of so much ethnographic is found in a race When we a sedentary of life. it is significant that the Xew Zealanders. It is otherwise with the " natural " races. . The African Xegro " is the finest agriculturist of " all except perhaps some Malayan tribes. between nomadic and settled races for what is the significance of mode of life if its great civilizing advantage. and if possible of progress. we shall often no doubt attach less weight to the difference. and the less favourable climate. say. not to mention the harrow. seldom re- main same for many generations in the spot. The blade is also used as curof Sumatra. to make room for the plough Round the hut of a Bongo or a Musgu you will find a greater variety of garden plants than in the fields and gardens of a German village. (Christy Collection. except for the ashes of the burnt brushwood. by the hostility of the forces of Nature. Thus the distinction be- tween pastoral and agricultural life becomes much smaller. The women and children. just as natural races.

those " communists of " nature who equalise all property. undoubtedly lies one of Hoe or grubbing-axe of turtle.92 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND contrary. from European cultivation is an entirely new system apart its more effective implements and methods. than cattle-farming can do. Even the most active cultivators in Africa have to go without security against changes of luck.the imperfections whereby agriculture will necessarily be bone. the devastation of ants and weevils makes it hard to keep the chief crop. millet. However much they plant. again. from the Mortlock beset among a race in whose customs foresight and en(British Museum. with persistence. Contrary to our physiological notions. everything must be consumed in the year. and famine often forms a scourge of the population in the most fertile regions. renders possible higher wholesome habit of labour. and the development of industry and and therewith by the occasion for a fuller organisation of social ranks. damp makes the storage of provisions difficult. human foes. beyond which their development to a higher civilization is alone possible. In the tropics. In Mexico and Peru it is and forces on a man the first followed by the accumulation of capital. and are incapable of linking the activities of individual persons and individual days with a strong thread of necessary interdependence. never planted any of their own free will. whatever may be the fault of the climate. In Africa. This again is one reason why the negroes brew so much beer. The races of the far north eat. durance are hardly developed. Some nomad groups support themselves with superstitious exclusiveness on meat . developments It is steadier. agriculture had tilled for their benefit. too. but. Drought especially does not spare these tropical Paradises. trade . even by that of the industrious peoples of east and south Asia. as formerly by the civilized In the matter of food. no doubt. And here. and however plentiful the harvest turns out. on the up almost the whole of the ground which Captain Furneaux Still. it is just here that. fat more than we suppose flesh of wild plants . All the good of a good year is trodden out by a famine year with its results of cannibalism and the sale of children. races of America. " natural " races. The nearest approach to vegetarianism is made by the rice-planting peoples of east Asia and the banana-planting negroes of the forest. strive with avidity to get animal adjuncts. even when they carry on agriculture. grubbed very fond of potatoes. This alone is sufficient to prevent these races from passing a certain line. It has abandoned the gardening style possessed by the agriculture of Negroes and Polynesians. but they rely especially on the and of sea-inammals. take good care that the steady prosperity of agriculture shall not create too deep a gulf between it and nomadism. This kind of agriculture does not make the daily bread secure. like the Polynesians and it is just in these things that gluttony is practised. too. fat and blood are consumed in quantities even by purely tropical races. . it proceeds on broader lines. . Herein. however. The behaviour of the elements cannot be reckoned upon. Islands. till the next harvest.

tell — — — — — We have heard of races to whom clothing is that the few cases of this for which there is unknown but it must be said good evidence are exceptions that . From this root. and here or there a negro horde. of many poisons has come to civilized races from barbarians. When . Salt the fondness for meat and blood is based in is 93 liked in all parts of the earth. however. the separation of the sexes. the first thing required is to come to an understanding as to what we mean by clothing. The methods of chewing betel and coca are strikingly alike. The knowledge. As a further step in this direction may be noted the veiling of the bosom. decisive is of protection. One need hardly discuss the question whether there is tribes in tropical countries the any thought of simply protecting the parts concealed. It is surely impossible to designate mere ornament as clothing . some measure on the craving for By rapid and thorough roasting the salts of the meat-juices are rendered more highly serviceable. more was clothing of dress are not wanting. the feet and ankles would surely be sooner covered. nothing remains save what is required by decency. the less induce. out-of-the-way tribes among whom we more especially find no mention of customary clothing such as some Australian races. and to cover herself as a means of diminishing her attractions. which must have arisen when the family was evolved when the man began to assert a from the unregulated intercourse of the horde. since the more confined and more destitute the life of a tribe is. claim to individual and definite women. If.CLOTHING AND ORNAMENT Roots are eagerly sought. most degraded. most fragments alone remain. sprang the feeling of It was a great stride modesty this developed powerfully. ment is given to a rigid separation of the sexes with its attendant jealousy and the more readily do they dispense with the troublesome covering. sexual life. . of which scanty Thus it is always the smallest. and clothing with it. and it. Tobacco is not the only narcotic herb that is smoked. CLOTHING AND ORNAMENT — — — — Complete nudity nowhere found as a regular custom Caprice in the matter of clothing and non-clothing Better clothing is no absolute indication of higher culture Fashion Clothing begins as ornament Natural clothing materials Climate has little influence on clothing Example of the Fuegians Eskimos —Ornament found everywhere Similarity of principle in ornament— Ornament and weapons Mutilations Difference of ornament according to sex Material of ornament Ornament and trade Precious — — — metals — Imitation pearls— Cleanliness. but the married woman. have arisen under such special conditions as only to establish the rule. the woman gained complete. primary cause of wrappings. some Even with them survivals forest tribes of Brazil. we are to discover the principles which underlie the usage generally. — . He it was who compelled the woman to have no dealings with other men. and milk. the observed fact that clothing stands in were a question What is most unmistakable relation to the If it and that the first to wear complete clothes is not the man who has to This gives us the dash through the bush in hunting. Every race in all parts of the earth has hit upon some means of enjoying caffein compounds and alcohol. the extinct Tasmanians. and of all the superfluity of our northern apparel. § io. . among motive of protection against cold entirely disappears.

(From a photograph by Richard Buchta. Tropical tribes use it __^ _____ primarily to keep off the rain. which the first also latter proves that were the clothing worn by men. in New Guinea no more than But all in ancient Greece do the representations of ancestors. stands in general . Curiously enough. In all places we find the shoulder-covering the body. can sub- have been does sidiary. while it in colder for climates serves warmth and cloak-like also as a sleeping -cover. as has Karl von den Steinen As pointed out. Another contributed circum- stance undoubtedly has to develop the sense of modesty. attained. in worn and the degree of culture The lady of Uganda or Unyoro who drapes herself with elaborate care her robes of bark. or Nyam-Nyams. and have the same good only may in held regard to other Still this functions. though here again this cannot be rightly assigned as the root-idea of modesty. no relation can be traced between the amount of clothing carefully concealed. clothing are These of less articles far widely diffused than for those which serve decency .94 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND social immensely in charm. It is position. and keep up her wardrobe. seem to give any offence. esteem. with their free is exhibition of what in the living these various mutually. supplement each other and causes tend to react upon Further. and not Woman of the Azandeh. so some tribes think it highly inde- corous to look at any one eating . account for the original Finally concealment. the wild beast drags his prey into the thicket. we must not overlook the superstitious dread of the possible effects of the evil eye. so that she had every reason to intended directly to protect quite otherwise with the portion of the dress in the shape of a cloak. in it un- order to devour disturbed.

Necessaries have to give way to luxuries.CLOTHING AND ORNAMENT no higher than the Nyam-Nyam negress. The facts no doubt show that the delight in ornament preponderates over the sense of decency but it does not follow that it was anterior. . or. seems is to be lacking. Thus it would obviously be unjust to form any judgment as to the absence or deficiency of clothing without regard to the other attentions which the " natural " races pay to the body. In this way what was once an article essential to decency imperceptibly approximates more and more to ornament by the addition of fringes. Ornament holds such a foremost place that some ethnologists have that his leather apron declared it impossible to decide where clothing ends and ornament begins. dressed in bark-cloth. clothing seems to . Modesty in the woman is especially apt to take on a touch of coquetry. The man of low culture demands much more luxury compared with his small means than one in a higher stage. who deal with these simple folk how quickly the fashions them. Princess of Unyoro. . One may say without exaggeration that many races spend the greater part of their thought and their labour on the adornment of their persons. hold Nor any higher position than the Duallas. lastly. The former motive.cost. (From is in a scandalously tattered state. any discomfort. is 95 a leaf. this is due to some accidental or transitory But this not the only feeling which is the simple man endeavouring to satisfy Next to it stands the gratification of vanity. public. a photograph by Richard Buchta. whose sole garment do the former race. when he be attained at an).. we may say that in mankind of to-day modesty is universal it and where conditions. The know change among The natural man in will undergo any trouble. All things considered. is quickly done with the other is sought to clothes his body. as soon as a plentiful importation of varied stuffs and articles of ornament takes place. for an example of which we need look no further than the low-necked dresses of our own ball-rooms. do we find any marked national distinctions in these matters. These are in their own sphere in the greater fops than can be found traders highest civilization.. If we look at all together we get an impression of predominant frivolity. though it may well happen .. and never c torgets to wear it. The poorest Bushman makes himself an arm-ring OUt of a Strip of hide. who take off every rag for their work in the Nor. who treat it as a capital offence to strip in sea. order to beautify himself to the best of his power. as a mere injunction of custom. All them to have proceeded by way of modification from ornament and they hold that modesty played no part in the earliest evolution of dress.

and celebrates its revival by appearing in manifold forms. by the attachment of strings Even more grotesque combinations of concealment and parade especially where there is a religious motive for the former. even to the universal a kind of Lecythis. and thus is found in all lands . All countries are not so benevolently furnished in this respect as tropical Brazil.) " shirt-tree. and completeness of the clothing naturally depends in great measure upon the extent to which Nature or labour has provided material. widely spread from Polynesia to the west coast of Africa. where the may be observed style The Village chief of the Loango coast. or was. cut two armholes. Falkenstein. The use of bark as a clothing material It is. In the same forests grows a palm. recurs in America. soak and beat it soft. strip the bark off. . (From a photograph by Dr. grows with cut The Indians rush-cloak." its pliant and easily-stripped bark. The fig-leaf of Paradise recurs in a thousand variations. and the shirt is ready.96 THE HISTORY OF MAXKIXD among the Fans and bells. up the stem into lengths of 4 or 5 feet. the spathe of which provides a convenient cap without further preparation. as of jingling some of the Congo tribes. with wife and dignitary.

better adapted themselves to the demands of their surroundings and their climate and their clothing of furs and bird-skins is in any case among the most rational and practical inventions in this class.worship. according as the wind blows. 97 this. the only " natural " races of the temperate or frigid zones whose clothing is completely adapted to its purpose. says Darwin. (Munich Ethnographical Museum. obviously limits the against the rude climate. are best situated. The outliers of them in the Xorth Pacific. when they go into mourning. is shown by comparing the dwellers a severe climate with those who live under more genial skies. But in Polynesia the manufacture of a material called tapa from the bark of the papermulberry was carried to great perfection. The Eskimo dress. Here probably. but among the tribes near Wollaston Island a piece of otter- skin. and those of the w est coast. Only the Arctic races. the invasion of which has made clothing arbitrary and undirectly home invented garments. usual to wear skins instead of clothes. H . But many. as in other matters. Races who no longer make use of this material procure it for special occasions. In this there a perfectly right sentiment. The laws of Manu prescribe to the Brahman who purposes to end his days in religious meditation amid the primeval forests. Thus the mere settled Kayans of Borneo. from Nature. that he shall wear a garment of bark or skin. those of the east coast. which covers the whole body. the bark of a species of Fines was used for the purpose. hardly large as a pocket-handkerchief. may be recognised at once beside their Indian neighbours by their clothing. have at r seal-skins as . the bast or inner bark of the lime was used days by Germanic tribes. and on the west coast of connected it Africa. to . Considering the abundance of animals. it is pushed one side or another. however. that these - borrowed have a higher intrinsic value than the rubbishy European fripperies. always inventive and sensible. have in this. They are. we can only attire refer the scantiness of their to laziness. go without even this minimum of protection. How Want races little the great schoolmistress " can impress upon the that seriousness natural which behaves in appropriately at the bidding of hardship. The South Australians and Tasmanians hardly wore more clothes than the Papuas. as in Africa. from Brazil. dignified. wear guanaco cloaks least Patagonians. The Fuegians who like the Cap made of a palm-spathe. such as the inhabitants of King William's Sound and others. throw off their cotton sarongs to wrap themselves and besides in for similar purpose old in bark-cloth at .CLOTHING AND ORNAMENT within the tropics a . certain festivities is with lies fetish. often forms the only protection Fastened across the breast with strings.

of stone or bone. .98 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Hence we never find arm or leg-rings. buttons. but. however. Berlin). not uncommonly decorate and ears. Bawenda children belonging to a mission school. Wangemann. indicates a former residence in a warmer climate. like sleeveof animal's teeth or European beads . and only rarely necklaces use of ornament. The fact that they tattoo the body. on the other hand. lips buttons.. (From a photograph in the possession of Dr. Fur and bird skin clothing of the Ainu. Vienna. (Collection of Baron von Siebold.

. in a treatise on ethnography. The Irengas of the . deserve a place between weapons and ornaments. either of their ornament the contrary to what rich and poor alike. are adapted for both parrying and striking. says " Amulets are regarded as defensive weapons. avoid any person or of their clothing. many of whom. but is an indispensable implement in kindling and maintaining the charcoal fire. in his admirable work on the Wakamba. wood " essentially the same all " worn on the march it is generally made of hide. The fan is used not only to flirt. Among we find natural races no one goes without among civilized people. which are hardly ever missing. ornamentation. assume the shape of decorations. nor only even for purposes of coolness. In the amulets. and so. with which the negro bedecks himself. less Curiously enough the method of fastening sandals is the world over. ( From a photograph Lieutenant von Biilow.CLOTHING AND ORNAMENT Footgear often of is 99 universally or bark. Woman of New South Wales. in the possession of ornament seems easier when we consider its by -aims. The massive iron arm-rings. But the universal . Hildebrandt." But they have more affinity distribution of first place the : with the latter than with the former. Berlin.

The savage warrior can no more do without ornament than Are without his weapon. ? (Vienna Ethnographical Museum.) Ornament and distincin tion again go hand In East hand. the decorated paddles. ornament and currency should be interchangeable. fitted with weapon. . half half is neck smart dagger attached to the upper arm or hung from the Upper Nile wear ornament. (After Baker. in — — wealth can be more effectively displayed Hence the than the owner's 'person. from Hawaii. though for this brilliancy and costliness are not always necessary. distinction. caps from the hide of a particular antelope Tonga. in battle they serve as fighting-rings. reckon corative But we must genuinely declubs of the among weapons the beau- tifully-carved Melanesians and negroes. ligible that in the lower grades of civilization. Of a similar kind with a leather sheath. giraffe's tail while in West Africa. the batons of command.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND In peace they are covered these sharpened to a knife-like edge. where even great capitalists can carry their property on their persons. necklaces of the cachalot or sperm-whale's teeth serve at once for ornament. frequency with which we find forms of currency which may at the same time serve — . we to suppose that this connection has so deep a psychological basis in the stimulus to self-esteem and courage given by external has it that splendour. The pair of spikes. and shell armlet. and money It is quite intelperhaps also for amulets. and Central Africa the chiefs wear arm and leg-rings made from the hair of the Sandal from Unyoro. a are the arm-rings of the neighbouring Jurs. There is no safer place none where the distinction conferred by . reached even to the heights of our own military civilization Les ornaments of dogs' teeth.

armlet. . 7 head-di (Vienna Ethnographical Museum. 4. 5. 6.I. 2. armlet . . worn by the Jur tribes . Stone lip-plugs . 3. necklaces of the Shulis.

coins with Silver and gold currencies a hole through them. probably from Fiji and carved adzes. Irenga - we may how eloquent for a rins sheath. and copper rings. in the districts of Famaka native arm with ( and Fadasi. denote other among the Shillooks. dentalium.) and disfigurement. iron . Vienna Ethnographical Museum. from Lagos. and it similar practices is difficult to separate with a hard- and - fast line the motives fulfilment of decora- tion. reflect Lastly. (Munich Ethnographical Museum. pre- Doubtless much of the ornamentation Paddle-shaped clubs. as carried by chiefs. have grown up in the same way but among the for ornament — cowries. or the amputation finger.) . (Christy Collection. Tibboos. and reli- of a social gious or cept. It was left for Europeans to discover the great stores of this metal in Australia. and Africa. One- savage the silent language of bodily mutilation : fourth real size. only the Americans seem to have appreciated the value of gold. and near kindred.I02 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND and other shells. barbarous races of the older world. Dagger for attaching to the upper arm. of a any attempt embelthese in at personal ishment. such as the Australians produce with no other ject apparent save that obof ornament. distinction." Tattooing serves for a . if Africans. and so also do various mutilations of teeth and artificial scars. the which is applied to body is a mode . To this day. they embroider their skins. London. Radiating or parallel lines of scars on cheek or breast. plays no ornament or is trade. or announces a manhood. As Theophile Gautier says " Having no clothes to embroider. tribal or family mark it often indicates victorious lad's arrival at campaigns. California. ) 2. cachalots' teeth. although it almost every part in torrent brings down gold. from the Hervey Islands. the loss of Even see in we cannot circumcision.

White shells. These luxuriant developments of the impulse for ornament exhibit the innate artistic sense of a race often in an astonishing phase. The old people alone leave off adorning themselves and let the painting wear out but it is at this age that the indelible tattooing begins to be often indicate relationships. we meet here. and that at the cost of much labour and pain. avoid harsh colours and elementary stripes and dots. with endless variations on a limited theme. Lovale\ (After Cameron. often in the lower. being materially — . teeth. the Manganyas. wear a plug in their upper lip. The articles which savages use for ornament are calculated to show up against their dark skins. and it is not without interest to trace it from its crudest beginnings. and such like. The Indians are less distinguished in this respect. Customs affecting the same region Modes of hairdressing. Hence we find far and wide painting with red and whitecosmetics were among the objects buried with their dead by the old Egyptians dressing of the dark hair with white lime and similar artifices. produce a very different effect on that background to what they offer on our pale hands or in dark cabinets.CLOTHING AND ORNAMENT of '°3 the primitive artistic impulse upon which special attention is and thus the tattooings of the New Zcalanders. valuable. Their neighbours to the eastward. aided in this task by the stiff character of their wigs. But the highest summit of the art has been attained by the Monbuttus. must be reckoned among the most conspicuous achievements of the artistic sense and dexterity of expressing . while among the Negroes few devote so much attention to this branch of art as to the arrangement of their hair a po nt in which they certainly surpass all races. causing the lower to project . Thus some races take to painting. Thus the Batokas knock out their and push out the under lip. As in all primitive industries. often the work of years to execute. and thereby arrive at a similar disfigurement. bestowed that race. in the great variety of patterns with which they paint their bodies. some again to hairdressing. as a characteristic phenomenon. who. of the body may upper front teeth. some to tattooing. .

tobacco. We must. for an imitation of the Christian or ascribe the crescent on ? Polynesian carved work to the influence of Islam Among the other advantages en- joyed by the male sex is that of cultivating every kind of adornment to a greater extent. which But would any one take is so natural a motive matted work. of the respective races. brass wire.io4 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Among one and the same race. (From a drawing by the same. however. can always little tell a Tongan club by the . beautifully woven shields of the Nyam- Nyams. it is necessary specially It is true that you to emphasise the space to be allowed for the play of caprice. which is . The objects exchanged. and the European colonies. in the most civilized communities. almost universal among the higher animals the male is the more richly adorned. so to say. brass and iron rings. spirits. men only revert to the custom of adorning themselves when they happen to be soldiers or '" this relation. Setting aside the partly civilized inhabitants of the coast. and devoting it. The only articles in a different category which have attained to any importance are cotton goods and firearms. special decorative themes are generally adhered and varied only within narrow limits. within which a great persistency of tradition can easily be aimed in the cross. the important articles of the African trade are beads. Finally we may find a place in this section for those implements of the toilet wherewith all those works of art are performed upon which primitive man. Of trade in the great necessaries of food and clothing there is hardly any. as it appears on the at. A practical result of the is tendency to luxury in the midst west of destitution races to a the confinement of trade with the "natural" 111r -i r small list of articles. almost entirely limited by the purposes of ornament or pastime and sensual enjoyment. more rule time to savages In the lowest groups of follows ornament the West African body-tattooing. Otherwise. things of value and taste. of the temptation read too much conscious intention into these manifold In face of the tendency of prehistoric research to treat particular themes as the signatures. attendants at court. human we have figures which stand out but in the mosaic-like carved pattern here to deal with a limited area of culture. beware to to most rigidly. the number of which is African mode of filingthe teeth. ornaments. (From a drawing by Pechuel-Loesche. are primarily luxuries. civilization has pretty well reversed and the degree of progress to which a race has attained may to some extent be measured by the amount of the sacrifice which the men are prepared to make for the adornment of their women. in this . As is well known. symbol.

lad)" : his civilized brother. These knives the women use for all tions. Tortoise-shell combs from Pelew." for parting and dividing their plaits. sharpened on both edges and decorated with tooling in many patterns. and the Negroes. clasps. it While the the Oriental is civilized European regards it cleanliness as the best adornment. bells of different kinds. 1. Combs are well known to the Polynesians. (Kubary Collection. which seem necessary lady's dressing-case.CLOTHING AND ORNAMENT respect nowise behind 105 quering. Rings. in a case attached to the all dagger-sheath. (Vienna Ethnographical Museum. are stuck into holes bored in their lips and ear lobes with lancet-shaped hairpins. even very far from giving a high place. their domestic opera- especially for peeling tubers. Barbarous races practise . complete the Bongo A pair of tweezers for thorns. One-tenth real size. the Arctic races. gourds. Many it carry a porcupine's bristle or an ivory pin stuck into the hair to keep smooth. bases his hope of pleasing and conLet us hear how Schwcinfurth describes the dressing case of a Bongo For pulling out eyelashes and eyebrows they make use of little tweezers. slicing cucumbers and 2. which . and the like. Peculiar to the women of the little 1 Bongos are the curious elliptical knives fitted into a handle at both ends. One half real size. forms part of the outfit in almost parts of Africa.) Azandeh or Xyam-Nyam shield. and buttons. Berlin.

and which puts their civilized brethren to shame." the ethnographer will find a somewhat narrow notion of a temple in view of the fetish huts of the Central for him the step beyond the most primitive hutAfricans or the Melanesians . as among almost brute-like habit of living the half nomad Bushmen. the building of the first temple. hasty edifice with boughs or skins. or as the scattered Bechuanas That first hut was no doubt very simple and perishArchitecture in the real sense. until they drop off in tatters. however. No race lives for a continuance in hollow trees. lie nearer to the present time. however. " the birth of architecture. The kindred germ of stone architecture was given by the habit of dwelling in caves. sequently decorated edifices. huts cleanly. them this is nearly akin to it. and in that case contributes to keep the neighbourhood of the when it docs not become a custom cost too for . building begins much earlier. was called into existence by a need which primitive and universal. and subable. as certain of the in Tasmanians did in Cook's time. binding together the upper ends. a reserve prevails among natural races Among Negroes. Gallas and Hence we are brought by a long series of more permanent and gradually more decorated buildings to the richly ornamented wooden houses of Papuas and Malays. truth superstitious. The germ is hut. it is a widespread custom that parents and children should not sleep in wear their clothes. principally met with among such and for races as are compelled by uncertainty of climate or by custom to keep their bodies always covered. and not yet the obsolete. as Jenghis Khan In the most intimate family life. this A reason they usually prescribed. Indians. sticking in the ground it in a circle. widely spread in primitive times. By cutting down branches or saplings. daily change will involve rapid wearing out. HABITATIONS The — Germs of buildings in wood and stone — Temporary character of most hut architecture — Hispermanent building — Classification of the natural races according to their style of building — Shelter as a motive — Pile buildings — Assemblage of habitations — The ethnographic importance of towns first huts torical value of — Various descriptions of towns — Ruins of towns and of of architecture.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND much trouble. Malays. In certain directions. marks the beginning of the historical period. the same room. The use of pendent branches. the inspiring grandeur of architecture We may mention first the ways was to unfold itself. Furneaux was astonished is to see latrines among the Maoris. In the somewhat vague statement of Laprade. The first germ from which. We shall have to speak of the in which this need drives men to rely on Nature. is and roofing Somali. that is building made to last. in later times. counterbalanced . But what especially promotes cleanliness Dirt as a general rule is the absence or scantiness of clothing. It has an advantage in the durability of the material. in trees found among many races. which are hastily plaited together and strengthened. § ii. and the stoneless palaces of the Monbuttu or Waganda kings. or the Pelew Islanders. it can example. lay in the need of shelter. the first civilizations. the negro pays much more attention to keeping The horror of ordure is often in his teeth clean than the average European. the next step towards simple hut-building as we find among Fuegians and Hottentots. the Matabele kingdom.

hen we find a similar fact recurring elsewhere. can be reached. So. that form of hut used by Hottentots and Bechuanas. but that it is only in a tranquil development guaranteed by peace and plenty that the higher stages. \\ made most is progress . than more favourably situated races. the Tasmanians must be indicated as having been the most backward of all Australasians in hut-building. while it is most wretched in the coldest where the hut in fact a protection rather for the fire than for the people. dwellings rapidly in bee-hive style. What is required above all is continuity. build not more. which pre-supposes access to the flexible half-grown stems of the . which is the fundamental condition of all architectural beaut}-. is shown by the case of the Fuegians who. But the advantage outweighs the disadvantage. too. Nomadism strikes deeper than we realise into the lives of The famous art of constructing even agricultural races. where most harsh and the plant and animal world most scanty.HABITATION'S by lcj its lesser adaptability to decoration and ornament. incredible as it may sound. even in the matter of hut and housebuilding. but the climate is the hard pressure of necessity can do to call forth a greater activity in satisfying those demands for shelter and food. it establishes with all the force of an experiment that it is not the schoolmistress need that has most power to compel a progress towards culture. as we do in South America and South Africa. which are most imperious little How Caves of the Bushmen less. In Australia itself it is surprising to see how it is just in the warmest regions that hut-building has parts. for as soon as an effort is made in the direction of taste it was easier to satisfy in the matter of symmetry.

There is nothing monumental about negro architecture. the black limestone of Persepolis. inhabitants in soil . even though. the knowledge of their nation. are of high historical They witness to the significance as trustworthy props and bearers of tradition. vying in firmness with the solid earth. of quite in the sense of " all Nature. (After Jagor. not fully appreciated. proportions. to guard it from premature collapse. vary from one Nothing but their tribe to another. the deeds. and for that very reason anything durable is all the more conspicuously significant of nomadic building. had a significance very different from that of settlement in huts of bamboo and brushwood. of boring beetles. which have retained even to our days and the smoothest polish. Tree-dwellings in in that land The granite of South India. they desert them in order for without trouble to get virgin cultivation. as on the Upper Nile. only shows that the distinction between the hut and the tent is as yet These edifices disappear as quickly as they spring up. Nor do the human any way cleave to the they regulate things are in their on the contrary." How great an influence has been produced on us by the fact that those remains. with flux. temporary character prevents the development of a style of art relying on types The destructive force of Nature and creating new works on the basis of the old. After a very few years what was once a well-ordered settlement displays at most a few posts standing in circles. and weeds sprouting ever afresh from the seeds of what once were cultivated plants. In any case the fact of settlement in stone houses. The most symmetrical and most elegant huts used by Negroes. soil Junker found in the Bahrel-Ghazal country hardly any of the zeribas which Schweinfurth had so precisely indicated. Everywhere in tropical latitudes the flimsy dwellings are subject to speedy decay by reason ants. devouring tropical storms. are often hastily run up of reeds and grass. Syene. " No work of art truth of a remark of Herder's has died in the history of mankind.ioS THE HISTORY OF MANKIND mimosa. the religion. life their mode and." whom instead of restoring dwellings. have been handed down to us uninjured ? But how much greater was the value of these stony witnesses of the greatness. form of roof. so far removed both in place and time from the modern civilization of the Nile valley. their ground-plan. comes as additional to the perishable character of the structure. for the people who walked beneath them ? This hard stone gave as it were a skeleton to tradition. the most' delicate sculpture : .

but put up temporary shelters of brushwood and yaourts. whether felt. their tents be of leather like those of the Arabs. form the transition to the Malays of Madagascar and the Indian Archipelago. the lowest be held by nomadic hunting and fishing peoples of the type of the Fuegians. whose richly-ornamented and often large houses. Arabia. partly nomadic Negroes who build huts of beehive or conical shape. from Ugogo all across to the Fan and Dualla countries. who inhabit no huts built on a fixed plan or placed regularly together in villages. The Polar races live in stone A zone of stone buildings or in huts in which snow takes the place of wood. The Negroes of Central Africa who. offer the most Among perfect work found in the way of timber-building among " natural " races. . These again suggest those partly agricultural.) to be arranged in a circle inside of a fence or and thus has grown up the more regular disposition boundary wall. very various in design. are not reeds. with gates. tent-dwelling nomads. them. in the most various stages of perfection. much superior to those above-mentioned but the necessity of guarding their herds has made it a characteristic of them all Fishing village on the Mekong. houses with several stories passes through India. build rectangular houses with several rooms and ornamented doors. the Tasmanians. Contiguous stone houses for hundreds of families occur among the . or of the Mongol or Sifan . (From a photograph.HABITA TIONS In 109 any will grade classification of races according to their method of building. we find at the same time (as on Easter Island) the beginnings of masonry in connection with monumental sculpture. however. and the Berber regions of Africa. and to the races of the Pacific. the Bushmen. so far as plan goes. and many The Australians.

(After Charnay. P»SÄ aräaa('?sä. and these bring us to the great monumental buildings of the races who were outside the sphere of Old-world culture. Central Americans. and inhabitants of the South American plateaux. Men were led to found permanent abodes in the water not that of the insecure and violent sea. Independently of all these variations. but always only in calm inland lakes or rivers with gentle current at first obviously by the wish to protect themselves from beasts of prey and enemies of their own — — . as the Mexicans. JfSPS The so-called " Dwarf's House" at Chichen-Itza. special kinds of habitation and building develop themselves from the fundamental idea of shelter.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Indians of New Mexico and Arizona .

as of the Battaks in Sumatra. old Irish crannoges. they are Indian Archipelago. and contain at the same time their warehouses. of South Indian tribes. but later. but arise simply from the employment of trees as posts. in order to protect themselves from wild beasts. or our many other means We may recall the on piles always necessary for the construcwere employed to isolate and protect St. modern cities built —Amsterdam. large rafts or condemned whence again pile buildings were evolved. most of is which pile-dwellings certain Africa and and South America. In a smaller measure the same end is served by the post -supported dwellings on dry land. especially in universal application to storehouses. and to be found in Africa. Nor were piles dwellings and stores. with the view of avoiding beings in a limited space. by Melanesians. phenomenon natural than | y \. especially the spotted hyenas. and the former case the favourite water was to build on piles barges served for dwellings. From the effort to gain the greatest possible security. In' larger scale than in the former stage.HABITATIONS species. very common among the Malays. Tree-dwellings. if that the is we please. together with the desire for a more healthy foreign position. no less frequent. Petersburg. which are moored out in rivers or harbours. by crowding. or fenced villages. while the custom remained. ] passed into oblivion."5^-^ superfluous and House in Central Sumatra. or the like. Thus our ~ : lings call for ficial European pile-dwelno artihypotheses as i. Etruscan warehouses for trade flBjlF goods. They are of many Melanesians. parts of Further India. ljj| s \i to specific pile-build- jj|j ing races. comparable to the arboreal residences of the orang-outang. (After Veth. Venice. the crush and pressure of as in at assemblages of human China with its excessive population. not really a primitive stage ot dwelling. Even built by most of the the Americans of the North-west. We can easily convince ourCentral selves. .re civilization. tion of such dwellings . arises the practice shores to take up their in vogue among traders settled on abode on ships or hulks.^Slifrs. ? may come often have be. some method of surrounding oneself with the protectim*and platforms in the other. but on a . tribes in in our own days races of the marked rather by isolation than are numerous. Livingstone relates that the Batokas on the Lower Zambesi build their huts on a high framework in the middle of their gardens. " llSj^^ SäffeÄlIllL. come under this head. and on higher planes of g. In idea later ot times the i__ ___ - protection ^'^Ärt^i.

and the danger was vividly before their eyes. until they form the principal cause which decides the situation of an inhabited place. or remember that nearly all the oldest maritime trading cities are placed on islands. swamps in the north-western . The Indians of a great part of North America make pilgrimages to the beds of pipestone and we have mentioned the crowds who go yearly to gather the harvest of the zizania. considerations of defence are We need only set before our minds often strongly stamped on their situation. The great cities which belong to the most marvellous results of civilization stand at the further end of the effects produced by this tendency to unite men and their dwellings Nothing will enable us so well to recognise the power of about a single point. The tendency to pack together may pass into an extreme. and often are only accessible by steps in the rock or by ladders. and the assemblage from all parts of widely-scattered Australian tribes on . Even at out at a time a thin population of hostile invasions primitive stages of culture large populations assemble temporarily in spots where useful things occur in quantity.) of rivers or on tongues of land. A third cause to be considered is common interests in labour. as in the case of the Indian dwellings in Colorado. when the but when it tends to pack men together it gives . the way in which nearly all the older towns of Greece and Italy stand on the tops or sides of hills. We find fortified villages crowded together on the tops of mountains or on islands. (After Cameron. the motive of defence as a glance at the situation of cities.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND The huts which the trees support often belong to the best -made things of their kind. when lakes. Since most centres of habitation have been laid was beginning to spread. in the bights to developments Village on a tongue of land. which shelter numbers of persons in the narrowest possible space. Lake Tanganyika. The rise effects of the it essence of is only isolation craving for protection reach neither far nor deep. These of course increase with the progress of economic division of labour. which have a wide and mighty bearing. combining the character of caves and castles.

So mighty is traffic that it bears with it the organisation necessary to it into the midst of an alien nationality so that again whole races which have become organs of traffic bear the stamp of town life on their brow. are the desert-dwellers urban races for the nature of their place of abode crowds them together around the springs. too. We assume by a kind of instinct a certain connection between cities and higher culture. in a lesser degree. The larger isolated aggregations. Then of in later times these compulsory towns in follow the natural requirements of trade. and not without reason. numerous ruined cities are characteristic of the zone where semi-civilization comes find cities we may of quite into contact with semi-savagery. feeling themselves secure only close settlements. they are not always the result of that race's own force There are towns of international trade. These arc life But when once the step is taken from a roaming the first to a and if. which they belong. and gives an impressive lesson of the real extent to which cities help to serve that life of trade which is less dependent on culture. Most of all. and forces them to more durable building than would be possible with timber and brushwood. the population increases and division of labour comes in. again. in the coal and iron districts of Central and Western Europe. which have become points where the streams of traffic meet or intersect. or in the goldfields of Australia and California. The first conquerors of an inhabited country. But the fact that just this development of cities is so important in China. or. when life has become settled. whether as cities of the world like London. along the upper Hoang-ho. show those unwontedly dense populations 400 and upwards to the square mile which we meet with in the fertile lowlands of the Nile and Ganges. and change their situation. settled one.HABITA TIONS the Barcoo river for the seed-time of the grain-bearing Marsiliaceae. . of towns is Premature foundation a symptom ruined young colonisations . nay. The fact. that the oases are widely scattered renders it almost impossible for any assemblage of habitations to become a centre of traffic in the wide-meshed net of the desert roads. or Mombasa. pelled to live in towns. places of just this kind will be among — — . product of national to life. since it is in the cities that the highest flower of our culture declares itself. Zanzibar. come into existence at definite points. indeed. The wish for exchange of goods first causes the need for drawing as near as possible Everywhere that Nature simplifies or traffic creates towns. In the Chinese region of colonisation on the frontier of nomads and Chinese. If cities are an organic selected . like Singapore. independently of traffic in . are often com. North and Central America modern date. shows that a certain material culture is independent of the highest intellectual culture. transitory assemblies. larger habitations will spring up until such spots of the earth as are furnished by Nature with any special wealth will. such as Batavia. or market-towns like Nyangwe. as the highest stages of civilization are reached. . on the contrary. . and also for defence. which are closely akin to these. even for the most part spring from it. the Arab and Swahili stations on the coast of Madagascar or colonial towns. intensifies traffic great assemblages of men spring up.

The capture of women often connected with slavery. The fundamental basis of the family is the union of the sexes in a common home in which the children are brought up. according to Felkin. but not a state. seven women to every three men. though in all parts of the earth we find celibacy regarded as the highest perfection in military and sacerdotal organisations. Thus an enormous variety of shiftings lies between the modern forms of monogamy and those survivals of old forms which are referred to group-marriage. With its development the security for economic advantages. extending even to the possession of thousands of wives. infanticide. Extraordinary as has been the spread of polygamy. Marriage is an endeavour to bridle the strongest natural impulse one which advance in civilization has as yet hardly diminished. and From the point of the emigration of the men. FAMILY AND SOCIAL CUSTOMS " in Head and — Polygamy — Position of women — Female rule — " Mother -right — Exogamy — Capture of children — Morality — Society — Social inequalities — Slavery — Races bondage Distinctive character of property— Extent of the distinction in tropical countries — Property land Examples of various conceptions of private property — Civilizing power of ownership — Poverty and labour family women — Parents and in in uncivilized peoples. excess of the female element in the family. Even elsewhere. even among the most promiscuous nomads of the forest and desert. Where marriage has been supposed to be absent. two -thirds were women.] .000 inhabitants. one wife remains the first in rank. But all are variations of the same problem. Yet not only do we find in Uganda. The and the most natural form of society is the Family. first comes into existence with the family. that The consequence is an out of 345. view of the relations prevailing among ourselves. and her step towards Every higher development involves : Animal sociale of Linnaeus is justified by history. If there was any union before the family. and then reimposed in new forms.ii4 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND \ 12. after some years of war. it is hard to conceive a state of things in which the women are two or three times as many as the men. But in a far higher degree is the natural development of the family hindered by the unequal number of the sexes. In every great community we find smaller groups of persons who are disqualified or withheld from marriage. as a rule. Continence as a religious duty holds no very important place. how to bind man and woman to a lasting union. children have. which are based upon an equality of numbers in the two sexes. grouping in societies. war. which forms the foundation of all higher civilization. Within the wide limits of this definition we find marriage universal. the rights of primogeniture. its existence has sooner or later been in every case established. but in the half-civilized Paraguay it was reckoned in 1883. as a rule the establishment of the family begins in the union of one man with one woman. It is the only source from which all social and political life can be developed. bring about an excess of women. which is the most immediate cause of 1 — [And of Aristotle long before him. The stability which every political organisation capable of development must needs possess. goes hand in hand. it was a herd. The restriction is at all stages and under all circumstances constantly being loosened or broken.

and the children belong to her. perhaps a transition to groupmarriage origin in . is less frequent in the lower grades we find it where there are slaves. In all races we find nations among whom the chiefship descends through the mother. even the household. The small number of women among the imported labourers in Fiji has caused a true polyandry to grow up. Each will even avoid the footprints which the other may have — in — made was the sand. and the lord of her children and her earnings. A superfluity of men. An name of his mother-in-law. It is where mother-right prevails. was introduced by an Assiniboine friend into his wigwam. The husband enters the tribe." It family of the wife. But we now know that this custom. Here comes in what in one word is called " MotherThis takes. as the corner stone of the family and of society. too. the naturalized Ojibbeway.FAMILY A. such as civilization brings with it in new countries peopled by immigrants. . It is tempting to see in this a survival from an older form of marriage. or polyandry. and in great centres of commerce. among a slave colony of Dinka slaves in Lega In Tibet. and especially his mother-in-law. These onerous ordinances. under similar conditions. in which nevertheless the follows the man while he is her lord. of his wife. The child may be so closely attached to the kindred of the mother that in tribal feuds father and son may fight on opposite sides. one man may belong to several land. has by closer observation been shown to be a development from altered or abnormal conditions. which was formerly regarded as a specially deep-rooted and ancient form of the family. The small attention. appears almost exclusively in the cases where he enters the wife's family. which the father pays the children to the bringing-up of his offspring. in which the man enters the woman's community. and pedigrees were reckoned in the female line. the one right. and among the Nairs in India. YD SOCIAL CUSTOMS polygamy. Australian indignantly repels a suggestion to utter the When John Tanner. married groups. he noticed that two old veiled their faces while their sonpeople his friend's father and mother-in-law in-law went by. When Herodotus found among the Lycians the custom whereby the children took the mother's name. Independenth' of these outgrowths of marriage. either practised consciously and completely. stand to him in a much closer relation than do those with whom he is forbidden ever to mate. The custom is of naming the father after the child. since this too looks for the only unquestionable certainty of a child's his kinship to his mother. and a whole series of customs. ." woman — — certain fact in all relationship — the kinship of children to their mother. women wdio. are among the most also certain that strictly enforced. and thus equally ignores the father. may only mate with a man belonging to another. he thought that that people differed from all others. or only as a survival. is probably due to a like cause . recurs among many races. as Moffat called " Mary's father. we find that form of marriage. too. so far from any promiscuity of intercourse arising. Tylor has collected statistics indicating that the curious practice whereby the husband avoids and refuses to know the wife's parents. may where the husband has migrated into the be explained as an indication that the non-acquaintalso found ance continues until such time as the birth of a child has established a connection between himself and the family. points to the fact that in spite of the bond of wedlock he is regarded as a stranger there. and it has arisen. Plurality of husbands. in many cases very extraordinary. equally possible with monogamic or polygamic institutions. owing to their kinship to their own group.

for example. A Zulu family. but to the mother and her tribe. tendency to exempt from the mother's right of bequest land which has been cleared by the father with or without the aid of the children. cases where the father acquires property by his own exertions which then may be called. Again. The in transition from this system to that in it which the father is the head of the house. by which the husband has to assign certain special portions of game taken by him to his parents-in-law. and as a natural consequence . such. or as appears to come about spontaneously. women. it must happen that. look for traces of mother-right in every insignificant custom. local separation furnishes a point of origin for the extension of the new family. however. movable property shows the same tendency. We must not. Wangemann." . as the provision of the wedding-breakfast by the bride's family. settlements in a new country must be at the disposal of the father and besides this. Tending the herds especially demands hard labour. " father-right. (From a photograph in the possession of Dr. being compelled in a time of dearth to migrate with its naturally belongs to him.n6 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND do not belong to him. became In view of the in its new situation the originator of a tribe with father-right. for example. Powell relates that an Indian tribe in which mother-right prevailed. A survival of the privileged position of the female side appears also in the etiquette prevailing among the Kurnai of Australia. .

is strictly forbidden. Its twofold nature consists in the use by men or women of certain forms and words only when speaking to persons of their own sex while on the neutral ground the . . and we find it as a superstition among the Chinese it penetrates so deeply that the very language of a race may be divisible according to male and female descent. for all intercourse within the prohibited limits is treated as incestuous and punished with death. but showed in their names for the degrees of relationship the traces of an earlier system. which has lasted to our own time. known as " exogamy. This custom assumes so rigid a legal form that many tribes in Africa. as they multiply. America. but allowed so freely between them that the two groups may almost be said to be married to Remarkable each other. Morgan first recognised in the Iroquois a people who by that time had reached the mark of marriage by couples.FAMILY AXD SOCIAL CUSTOMS the patriarchal system has reached its 117 highest development among pastoral races . occur under monogamic or polygamic forms. the rigour of which extends even beyond marriage." while they him " " father " " . which. traces of a state of things which has either vanished or is preserved only in These all fragments. that of the men being deducible from the Galibi or true Carib. and only undergoes fundamental changes when the idea of uncle to them. The division takes a local shape where a village is divided into two exogamous halves. similarly form a dual society. group-marriage of the Mount Gambier tribe. women's Arawak speech predominates. Iroquois at that time called his brothers' children called " son " or " daughter. that of the women from the Arawak. brother. Melanesia. appears to us to be a mere procreative hugger-mugger. where foreign influences have made themselves much felt. him " nephew " and " niece. and sister children of brothers and sisters are spoken of as the common children of these." Many tribes forbid their young men to take a wife from among their own body. Over large districts. but his sisters' children were to and he the family proceeds from a lower to a . . The often -quoted exogamous This holds among the Dieyerie of Australia. but give clear evidence of the previous existence of other forms of marriage and that not as rare curiosities." Morgan to establish the rule that the family has fundamentally altered. the Closely connected with marriage under the influence of mother-right remarkable custom. Adam reports of the Carib language that it is a mixed speech. The influence of the . It has been suggested that the kin-names of Hawaii may be referred to a system like that of the Iroquois. Exogamy even reaches so high as to the Brahmins of India. Krokis and Kumites. are visible in the kinship-systems of the most various races.tribes. Thus it seemed possible to find in the an older mode of reckoning kinship of which it might be that nothing else had actually survived. thus compelling them to marry one of another tribe. the tribal organisation comes under this law. have their regular " wife -tribes " out of which they always choose their partners. Australia. but widely extended. and call each other " brother " and " sister. This observation led higher form in proportion as society develops to a higher stage but the system of kinship only registers progress after long intervals. or where two exogamous villages or tribes dwell side by side. even in the Malay Archipelago. Thus L. so that the introduction of cattle-breeding into the industrial life of mankind is may well have played an important part in the extension of this system. but even wider since there all in its employment of the names for child." But we are in no way justified in names traces of . where all intercourse within the two half.

their tutelage. who will gain most by the supremacy of the son who is likely to remain longest under . but. its acceptance or rejection is taken as their decision." still not wholly extinct in this country. prove the existence of absolute promiscuity may be regarded as unsuccessful . though in other forms and more concealed from view.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND seeing in — ulterior purpose is. The purchase of a wife is often concluded while she is still a child. while happens not uncommonly that the lady's inclinations are also considered. Questions concerning property and society will make us recur to this subject. not excluding the traces of capture. and charming family life under the influence of paternal authority and affection. stamps the contract as a form of purchase. have called the "consanguine family. Engels. often enjoy a most closely-welded children's The modes of a of contracting marriage offer many traces. The notion belonging to different generations lowest forms of marriage of which we have with the very of incest is bound up any knowledge. In this we may see a regard for the interests of the mother and the family. considered low in the scale. developed in a beautiful degree. even to the point of line. The wooer usually expresses his wishes by the presentation of a gift to the parents of the girl he has chosen and It as . among Negroes the love of parents for children and these races. and after him not without an Marx. child. when old. at which the widow yields herself to the mourners. The traces . if very considerable wherever children allow their fathers to family only as a case of the right of the strongest. especially in regions where the sexual instinct is less restrained. of a former state of things. were excluded from result from this Iroquois kinship-system. yielding obedience to the eldest son. nay. persisting to the present day. is On the other hand. or brothers the common husbands of several wives. A present given in many cases by the founder new household to his father-in-law. parental dispositions are absolute. Still less — does the so-called Punalua family — in which brothers and and. parent. while she is still unborn. a rule. — Bachofen's researches take us back to group-marriage at farthest. Intermediary suitors are . and the rest. but always meets with opposition. as in the custom of " borough-English. of a community of that women. are not unknown even under our own code of morals. whereby sisters were the common wives of several husbands {Punalua). occasionally. the parents. The ancient Britons may well have had a similar form of marriage but All attempts to on this subject we have no information to carry us farther. and many similar customs. their children. and the bar has been fixed far further back than in our conception of marriage. etc. tie is not extremely lax. Similar relapses. sisters. " Patria potestas the " is. that survival of what Morgan. while the brothers have to work for him like slaves but we also find privileges conceded to the youngest. can indeed be explained as survivals from such a state of things but it seems more natural to regard them as relapses from the monopoly of women in single or polygamous marriages which is constantly being attempted. such as surrender taking the form of a religious rite curious feast held days' mourning for by the Congo natives at the conclusion of the three the dead. as a probable further consequence. . ." a family in which the only bar to intercourse was as between relatives this a — grandparent. In Hawaii this form of marriage marriage existed even in the present century. Primogeniture is no more universal than the tracing of descent in the male No doubt we find it strongly marked among most races. In Africa sell them without a murmur.

by any older relations. or absence. and so forth mainly of merriment. resembling as it were a pedigree. has so often been loosed while adoption rends the natural dependence in favour of an . satisfactorily. In it many cases the religious but element does not . . What Cook said of the father of a New Zealand boy who was about " He would have parted to leave him without hope of return. Contrary to the notion that a comparison of the various forms of marriage will reveal a great development. then the the bride's parents. women of the tribe. the more capriciously does the symbolism work. the bride making a show of yielding marriage procession embellished by a fight between the bride's people and those of the bridegroom. unnatural tyrannical law. we have obvious traces of what was once conducted in a different spirit. or. of the Polynesians. then more . and these are taken as booty. Blood-relationship among most races regarded as a bar to marriage yet the heir often takes over his father's wives. Marriages " on approval " are also frequently found is. but she must pay for permission to go in peace. by the Benjamites. but have to meet the bride's relations and shoot harmlessly at fight between the bride's secretly. too. but where it does appear. or The ceremony consists enter. To the same class perhaps belongs the custom prevalent in the Loyalty Islands. : . of her regret at leaving her parental home. when we find at the present day. not unjustly. to the homes of the victors. or against her others. nor dwell in the same house. is in the form of an invocation of the souls of is ancestors. So." The slave-trade again has increased the ease with which the bond between husband and wife. u9 . bv the exclusion of first nearer. like Andromache. that the great laxity of their family-ties has played an important part in their migration. declare plainly that a different state and a whole series of curious customs can only be ex- by a off. the marriage relation is most lax until we meet with conditions such as the most advanced corruption of civilization does not attain to. But stories like that of the Rape of the Sabines. Or the sham and bridegroom's people does not take place till after the wedding feast. whether among Arabs. from its original identity with the whole tribe. or the them with arrows. includes symbols of the bride's loss of her freedom. traditional objection to seeing daughters. The nuptials are then performed either by the grandmothers of the young people . culminating in the carrying off of the bride.FAMILY AND SOCIAL CUSTOMS often employed. is true of many with more emotion from his dog. sisters. no longer practised as the sole means of acquiring though in the wars of savage races often only the younger women are spared. in cases where things turn out the girl. Not only has the bridegroom to buy his bride. The capture women wives and founding families the daughters of Shiloh of things once existed plained carried . Divorce difficulty is in these cases wont to be as easily concluded as marriage. South Slaves. showing a progressive contraction of the area within which intercourse was permitted. in their by the parents. or of of is . parent and child. Wherever polygamy is most widely extended. of the expected joy of motherhood. The less reality there is in the custom. the chief being the recovery of the purchase- money. whose abiding is interest in the family concerns everywhere presumed. to compulsion. whereby the newly-married pair may not see each other in public. the course first the offering of presents to gift to then the building and furnishing of the hut. priests. In a district of East Melanesia the boys -of the village await own desire. It has been said.

At the stages of civilization with which we are here somewhat differently ? concerned. Despots have often. and especially improved woman's has the same time. the greater influence. ness in marriage is in the growth of sentiment with the growing cultivation of the individual. or if. according to the custom of exogamy. by and less honourable forms of it to the woman. believing the fidelity of female slaves to be more trustworthy. the women are a great power in the clans and elsewhere. at his violence and possible firmer position the basis of a in society. though not without exceptions. who are stronger than the men and handier with their weapons. among Negroes. and the closer union resulting from the multiplication of points of contact between the sexes. We should rather say that we are here in development of a limited group of ideas. that woman is physically and intellectually more on a par Might not the question of power. the frequency with which female sovereigns are found in Africa and America. which comes with increasing civilization. of development by encouraging an invigorating cross-breeding. public or private. based upon present possession and the future hope of the stock. viz. removed of labour as easier. has unduly influenced this theory races which did not breed cattle must have been far from . and still less as an ordinance. as is the case. the only difference being that in the former case injustice and ill-treatment appear with less disguise as the natural Polygamy alone hardly explains consequences of her physically weaker powers. Has it not. recognising anything of the kind. as Arthur Wright says of the Seneca Iroquois. and Higher civilization. it was not found difficult to allot a position of authority to the woman. The breeder's motive repression of the weakening effects of in-and-in breeding. labour. Even where monogamy is the general rule. and exclude her from warfare. the female troops of Dahomey. We may recall the influence of the priestesses among the Malays. which. making such a indeed. Nature has no doubt implanted elements of weakness in the physical organisabut tion of women. Indians. put her in an even less favourable position than Nature intended ? If we descend the stages of civilization we shall find. Malays. the is practically possible. only after they have finished. and the northern races. of a consistent and refined . which perhaps civilization only tends to develop further there can be no question that the fact of her bearing and bringing up the children is a great source of strength which can never fail her. like the present king of Siam. In primitive society woman holds a position quite as full of anomalies as her position among the most highly-civilized races. they can presence of one of those cases . once have stood with man. by depriving her of the dignity injustice. it is usual for the woman to live in a separate part of the house. If the children belong to the mother. . her lower position. no perfect solution for selection. formed a bodyguard of women. seldom to eat out of the same dish as the men. the husband enters the wife's family. lies on the female side. while it has in any case. or rather strength. of which we find so many examples in the ethnology of Such development as we can perceive with undoubted clearthe natural races. until various monogamy at last was reached we see in all the forms attempts to do justice to the hardest of all social problems. indeed. one of . as we come to the lower. position by softening the man's rude instincts. he adds. division of to give the more limited. On occasions.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND distant kindred. That does not prevent the hardships but even so it must of life weighing upon her more than upon the stronger man often happen that. and sport.

In the form in which we find it among the Nyam-Xyams. . a weak one tends to license. point to a higher position of woman at one time. to the point of its being held creditable to bear children to her lovers elsewhere wives are surrendered. and reduce him to a mere ordinary brave. and traces of it in Unyoro. who go clothed in skins. We often meet with the same contrast a strong nation keeps its laws on this subject at as high a level as on others. Adultery is universally regarded as an attack upon rights acquired by the purchase of the wife and thus the action of the man who makes a temporary surrender of his of wedlock. . but are rather bound up with the very various circumstances of national life. Certain features of family life which we are apt to consider as restricted to the richer The mourning growth of the affections in civilized life may be specially noticed. the most cultivated society is on a level with the natural races. was thoroughly corrupt and on the high road to decay doomed to perish neither more nor less than that of Rome under Heliogabalus. among them we find less violence . lazy. The conditions which lead to national decay often present a striking parallel. In regard to sexual morality. . scattered laws and aristocratic organisation subject-race. comparative observation it shows that in all grades of civilization very different conceptions of rather in places where there civilized nations. There is no sharper contrast than the rigid jealousy wherewith the Masai guard the purity of their maidens. Conversely the condition of the Zulu Chaka was one of rude and youthful health. it may no doubt be regarded as an indication of higher social development but at the same time it lowers that society materially in moral worth. or the double chieftainship. women community with as to this doubt the influence of the women would be thrown against influence is due the disfavour with which public opinion among the facility Xo North American Indians views ingly of divorce. the Wakamba. constant intercourse with the lower classes of Apart from this. On the other hand. who stroll about without a rag on but the former are a proud race with strict the latter a complaisant. and the laxity which their easy-going neighbours.FAMILY AXD SOCIAL CUSTOMS even depose a chief. or that of Paris before the Revolution. In some regions the utmost freedom allowed between unmarried persons. display in regard to their girls. wife to a guest. The manifold forms of female rule. we find great differences. to guests while some tribes kill a girl who has borne a child out is a girl to . does not necessarily shock morality. Indeed. societies allow freer play to the sexual do the higher . male or female. in disregard of moral obligation. as a means of averting forms of profligacy which might endanger family ties. The fact is that the influence of moral ideas upon races at this stage is very small. instinct than In general the less civilized and accorddone to ideas of law or morality. is obtain. such as are hardly to be explained by primitive conditions. and that such morality as there is exists less in compliance with any moral feeling. . nation under Dingaan and . but that these are by no means most relaxed among the poorest and most wretched of natural races . as Cook and it was Forster found it. such as we find in Lunda. ." it. freely or for payment. than as an obstacle to the infringement of private rights. however. Society in Tahiti. It remains to inquire in a how the growth of this custom bears upon the position of " mother-right. As It the bonds which unite man and wife are drawn closer a change takes place. . the Masai attach no importance to chastity in married women. is at this point that professional harlotry appears.

Zadruga or Bradstro. finds no . is expressed with mence which must partly suggest superstitious ideas. 27) indicates their existence. or of parents for children. We may the how skull women their carry about the corpse. often impress Europeans. how Melanesian women wear mummied not to mention the widespread custom under follow their husband or lord to the grave. Nansen has depicted the great good-nature which prevails among the Eskimos. the obedience to those in authority. holds the society together. rather is it the children who tyrannise over the But even they seldom quarrel or fight among themselves. It hold. . the meaning of housesignified a society. father's part towards his offspring. of their departed husbands observance adult. the slaves being included in and thus has a yet wider import among races in very various stages of civilization. in the Caucasus. Among the Slavonic peoples we find house-comradeship. and slaves which widows Motherly love is so natural a sentiment that the modes of expressing it need but we often come across instances of tenderness on the no authentication No doubt there are many cases of cruelty. . and is inclined to refer the repose and peacefulness of family life mainly to the intimate associaThe educational effect of this tion customary between mother and children.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND of a widow for her husband. which preserves its supremacy by force not of intellect but of habit. I This is one of the great and permanent elements of society. doubly striking by contrast with the dark practices and disregard of human life with which it often co -exists. praising the peaceful and kindly way in which those of one household live together among uncorrupted natural races. even in it The word Family its . Solomon's maxim that he who loves his child chastens him betimes. eldest. " brother- hood. By the comprehension of kinsfolk of several generations and inclusion of strangers in the position of slaves. most conspicuous in the societies where mother-right and exogamy obtain in which the sharp division on the basis of blood-relationship divides the They divide whole stock into two halves. closely-knit fellowship upon its members has often been under-estimated. which arc at once family and society. and many other races of Africa and Oceania. in face of the most unexpected occurrences. the property. But among many natural races life moves more securely in fixed lines than it does among the most highly-cultured. The respect for elders. or . the willing subordination. individual property being unknown and this. of their dead children on all marches. original Latin use. it broadens out into an important element of society. Here then we are in sight of the family and of society. apart from kinship. who need not Traces of the same appear among the old Germans and the Celts we find them in India. in a generations of descendants from one progenitor. among the Kabyles. or some bones. the great house with its numerous apartments for single groups particularly the "long-house" (see woodcut on p. had. Where we know nothing of their internal organisation." embracing several their wives. but in any case is Australian a vehea great recall act of sacrifice on the part of the living for the sake of the dead. For political purposes some family stocks unite in organisation which effort is . and community of goods and labour under one head. and forms with them an always be the . The cool self-contained Redskin of the Indian tales is a product of this closely-knitted society. The family holds its members together with a bond closer than that of marriage. the apathetic calm. All who have gone deeply into the question agree in but these are exceptions. among natural races .

do not Wanyamwesi. or hunting. as Livingstone says. and indeed . The Masai . of movable value. Slavery and serfdom soon bring. These form the favourite merchandise. which we call simply the tribe. to accumu- for the desire of in owning slaves is just as insatiable as the craving for property lies and wealth any other form. and in Wherever the status offers a welcome means of expiation plaintiff the last sacrifice which the creditor can claim from »his debtor. who in most cases would be prisoners of war. the reason is to be found in the participation of both slave and master in the general indolence. is the business of the women and slaves. by means of labour. . To these applies the maxim that the final abolition of slavery is owing to the creation. lies the dependent position of those whom poverty has reduced to the verge of slavery though nominally free. that is. is no work for male slaves. the agricultural kill their prisoners neighbours. the most important standard of . The custom of enslaving such prisoners when the captors do not wish to kill them is to this day very widespread. the only medium of exchange beside ivory that Africa possessed. at Africa.FAMILY AXD SOCIAL CUSTOMS groups. So long as no great differences of rank from the point of view of culture exist. no improvement in the slave's position can be expected. . . is the surrender of personal freedom. we see that among all merchandise slaves and women stand in the closest relation to the requirements of the negro. The impulse to level downwards which exists in primitive societies shows nowhere more strongly than in the position of relative freedom which the slaves enjoy. and it is in The interval no way ameliorated by humanising progress generally. a third people of that region. while the there a. the best investment for capital. Slaves are also bought for human it Central Africa the death of a chief creates a brisk demand. sacrifices. There is a great distinction between slavery as a national institution and as a means of preparing goods for trade. fighting. are a form of capital. females are always wanted. to provide in exchange for goods in request — Above at all they are the articles easiest one time. of slave is recognised. a good market for slaves. the from the defendant. it is among all pagan nations. which separates master and slave increases in proportion to the desire of gain so that. If Arabs and other slave-holders treat their slaves well. wage wars on purpose to acquire them. and their issue forms yet lower social grade. having. and thus that capital and freedom are exception sisters. Here are three situations of typical significance. Therein the greatest danger of this institution. a shepherd tribe.about a further gradation. But between the positions of slavery for debt and freedom as enjoyed by the masters. Their sphere is a large one for all that does not concern trade. and have neither their labour nor provisions to spare for slaves. The oldest occasion for slavery was the compulsory entry into the society of foreigners. has been abandoned only by the most highly civilized nations. as . like other capital. A curious is found among the Ewe people. through their close connection with the Arabs of the coast. capital. in East who subsist upon herds of a fixed kill size. which may be compared with the old Greek Phratriae several of such groups form the highest political unit. indeed. Africa. and trading Wakamba. If we look even if the slave-holder does not return to or remain in barbarism. not much demand will be made upon the slave's labour but as society progresses and wants increase his lot becomes harder. being able to find a use for slaves. where the insolvent debtor incurs the penalty of death. their tendency is. When men late. property. If them .

the so-called Pygmies. It splits . appearing as a peculiar social race beside their agricultural masters and protectors. fish. that they The last result is the depopulating keep no slaves to weaken their warlike force. possessed by the powerful conquering nation of the Fans in West Africa. The tribal membership becomes connected with the realm of the unseen by means of special stock-symbols known as Totems among the American Indians. For that very reason. . is so in Africa and parts of America to-day. classes of Pariahs are distinguished some of them degraded by birth. that some 100. Latuamasangas the whisk. the social difference is all the more strictly maintained. of planting for their benefit. as imparted by the god Pili. and Thus often enough leads to further divisions among the lower classes themselves. by the introduction of economical causes. with Father Bauer. In course of time an assimilation may result from though the family regarded as a kin-group seeks to maintain an But it attitude of reserve and opposition to this. sacred to and each member of a stock bears the emblem tattooed on his person. tyranny. cannibalism. If we may assume. in some parts of Southern Arabia four. of the totems in proper names. of which an ever-increasing proportion falls into slavery it brings on war. may also. not always differing ethnologically. devastaIt has been alleged as an advantage tion. however. and local dispersion. A particular form of this inequality is the subjection of whole races to a conquering plundering horde. Atuas among the Polynesians which have been promoted to the position of tutelary spirits. that before and enfeebling of wide areas.i2 4 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND is was so in Rome up the nation. some by occupation. that is to plunder and rob and in the interval leave their subjects to misery and the task . Almost every race of Asia or Africa which has made any progress towards higher development embraces some such.000 were torn from their homes in the same Excessive slavery it one of the causes which destroy states . who live as a sharply-separated and deep-lying stratum. this gradation. and birds. Forster called attention long ago to the fact that among the Polynesians personal names are often taken from animals. others through following unclean The caste divisions of India show the same distinctions. in the Yetas of Japan. A — — . it of old. . under a conquering race. human sacrifices. for in the lowest trades. preferably reptiles. till we find the hunters of the Central African forests. but as an amulet and Among Indians and Australians we also find the influence an object of reverence. and compared this with a similar custom among the North American Indians. 65. In some parts of the Sahara the Arabs and Tibboos look upon certain oases and their inhabitants as their private property. . the gods not only with a view to his recognition and classification. Nearly allied to slaves are those despised and degraded portions of the popula- tion. the conclusion of Sir Bartle Frere's treaty in 1873. They turn up at harvest time to take their tribute. lead to a sharp and permanent separation. allowing for those who escaped or were left behind on the way. and others and it is at once interesting and melancholy to see how in North America numerous remains of the Indian population have sunk to a like level. this means. Among the Samoan stocks we find Atuas using the shovel. Mononos the fishing-net. Here the cause of the degradation was the invasion by a foreign race. in others two. More especially are animals. by objection to misalliances. period.000 slaves were annually imported into Zanzibar. G. Aanas the lance. Both causes meet in our gipsies. castes we equally find some degraded by birth.

as in Samoa of the tendency to intrigue which enlivens the native indolence. Among some . Especially among nomad. no other organisation in the subject. which does not man to put all his strength into work.FAMILY AND SOCIAL CUSTOMS . is the way in which rights of property are in some cases neglected. Many peoples respect property in locked chests. 125 Tahitian chief was called Otu. and is there- fore thinly-scattered. or the exaction of penalties for law-breaking. etc. for this purpose. I cook my meal with the nearest wood. consists in Part of the duty of these secret If there is societies and other bodies the maintenance of traditions. tackle or fish-hooks personal and private. Property shows in its relations a natural analogy with family no less than with social institutions thus as we find remains of group-marriage beside monogamy. I let If my team is tired. themselves with religious forms. I unyoke where I will my cattle graze wherever I think I have found grass for them. These are almost certainly clan-names. so far from objecting to eat particularly lucky. so we find traces of common ownership side by side with individual ownership. protection. which unites its forces to till the common land and shares the produce. or an injury to his property. Honu. . The first thing that makes a European. surround great public motive for a hierarchy of ranks. asking no man's leave and no man looks upon it as an If I like the place where infringement of his rights. it for pasture. sometimes it is an object of dread. feel that he has left the constraints of civilization behind him. thinks the capture of Similar totem-stocks in different tribes lend each other for close alliances mutual assistance. the tortoise. take control of important functions. reminding us (and in this latter respect both in their nature and their operations) of the German Vehmegericht. nisance it is the cuttle-fish. races the notion of private property unequally developed in different directions. but there so much communism in the institutions of savage races. that has often appeared more important to combat Missionaries have. brings a piece of ground under cultivation. but hold what lying about to be as free as air. but insist upon property in land only so far as they want is . their members is are systematically instructed Xo this race is actually communistic it . and thus the system affords a ground distant tribes. no doubt. A boat is common property. of European goods. between Secret societies also ramify through the community. the ground of various undesirable characteristics. We shall come across institutions which are deliberately designed to prevent the undue amassing of In Polynesia the effect of these has been decidedly good in rendering capital. creating a division into adepts and uninitiated. the heron a Marquesan. . They have a natural tendency to appear in communities which lack any They draw artificial boundaries. such as the initiation of young persons arriving at maturity. such as we find also among African tribes. The attitude adopted towards the stock-symbol is Bechuanas. this becomes his own private property with right of bequest. whose cogit. Ashantees. They stick to their herds to the point of miserliness. stocks it is a capital offence to injure the original of the symbol while in Aurora (Banks Island) a member of the Veve. wear masks of which they alone understand the meaning. been too ready require a than to introduce Christianity. among the pastoral races of Africa or the hunting tribes of North America. with mischievous rapidity. sometimes of honour and very various . in to his find communism. . difficult the admission. When a member of a family community.

of the damage and devastation which is thus caused. The exact contrary is seen in the thickly-peopled region of the Upper Nile. upon the done in clearing and cultivation. happened with the advance of white settlers on Indian soil. and. there is a constant strengthening and deepening. The hereditary dislike of the Indians towards the partitioning of their lands into individual properties. just as are cornfields and vineyards to in Europe. but only with the assent of his tribe. In Oceania the transition from one form of ownership to the other seems to be taking place under our eyes. . I must allow others to find the spring copious and the pasturage abundant. its results differ fundamentally. he clears out. such as a copious spring. distributed in the proportion of one to 2000 square miles or so. The Hereros. have a way.126 THE HISTORY OF MANKIXD find bit anything to attract me. The Indian the buffalo-hunters of the prairies confine them- To the present day the Bechuanas pay toll game which they take. Hunting. according standing with them about the use of it. All higher a forest clearing. and it accordingly the members of the tribe pay such a tax to him for the use of as be agreed upon. or pasture-land. lay claim to certain tracts of land on behalf of the family or tribe. which takes no pains to store or spare the source whence it draws. of whose halfdeveloped proprietary instinct we have just given an example. to Büttner. of making an unpopular newcomer dislike his quarters by the simple artifice of driving all their flocks and As soon as he has had enough herds into the neighbourhood of his residence. But in any case. a full renunciation of the use of inconceivable to them. we shall see that important historical consequences follow upon this demand for land. create for the most part a mere transitory possession. or only passes lightly over it. fishing. good I can stay there as long as I please. The Spaniards of the sixteenth century tell us that no Indian had any free disposal of land. in spite of their communism. has contributed much to the difficulties of their position in regard to the white man. Hunting leads to tribal ownerand even the Australians and Eskimo. where lakes and ponds. and equally so that pastoral nomads demand broader areas than settled cattle-breeders. if I settle in a particular spot. The thinness of population usually found when we come down to the lower stages. people) in profusion. on the contrary. carefully avoid any selves to settled natural boundaries. which yield fish and lotus-seeds (almost the sole sustenance of these fishingI have halted. and to come there with their herds and I must come to an underThe Hereros of Damaraland. will for the most part allow of abundant elbow-room but it is obvious that a family subsisting by the chase wants more soil than one of agriculturists. nomad pastoral life. as well as towards the sale of superfluous territory. . which acts not least powerfully through the other branches of human activity which it keeps steadily going. or a of fertile garden-ground. . and regard as an enemy any one who enters or uses these territories without leave. in Africa From the idea of tribal possession arises the is notion common that the tribal chief the sole owner of the soil. In agriculture. and build myself as big a house as I like. under the plea that the latter were the original owners of the hunting-grounds. These contrasts have prevailed at all times and in all countries and when we come to the races of the steppe. are respected as valuable property. just as basis of labour may ship only . the Bushmen on formal surrender of their property to strangers their land is . . The effect of labour in creating property does not stop with the fencing-in of According as labour attaches itself to the soil.

with all their . In the cooler zones men want stronger food. the soil affords room for.FAMILY AND SOCIAL CUSTOMS development of human powers its fruits. where man requires less nourishment. for without wealth there is no leisure. In hot countries. life poverty-stricken. and allow an intelligent class to come into existence. misery great. with the result that more is done and wages are higher. But under the protection of civilization Interior of a house in Korido. when it is once established. This. tends to increase. no intellectual progress.of wealth is a matter of the greatest importance. the population will multiply more quickly. The relations between harder labour and higher wages is calculated to narrow the distinction between labourers and owners while. 127 rests upon this steady labour and the storage of It is just in the lowest stages of civilization that the amassing. the indolence of the dweller in the tropics increases this distinction. while the land produces less of it. In European countries we see advantages of soil and climate fully compensated by the excellent disposition of men who have to work. An absolutely poor race develops no culture. New Guinea. on the contrary. therefore wages will be abnormally small. according to the laws of political economy. and thus maintains fewer persons the individual has to work harder. ) more men this will be born and grow up than the increases. to an enormous degree. Men become many. . work scarce. . The faster disproportion greater will be the gap between Haves and Havenots. whose activity guarantees the progress of civilization more securelv than natural wealth could do. rich and poor. Natural forces. and production is at the same time easier than in cold regions. It is not till production materially and permanently outstrips consumption that there can be any superabundance of property. (After Raffray. and without leisure no ennobling of the form of life.

abhors hence comes that trait — traditions pointing to tion. steady labour all things a progressive training of every man to work. the Maoris are among the highest of the races to which they belong. trade. Cannibalism. exhausted generation of mankind there is always a new one ready to step. full Resting on this basis. on which he often pursues the herds of wild animals for days together with extreme toil. and allows any use to be made of them. and of gorging on the game he has taken. cannibalism would have seemed as inconceivable a people has the their economic production. by fits and starts as the is humour takes him. which causes strangers to be regarded as enemies. and have not risen high enough to make a good its prevalence — use of their superfluous is population Human eating . but into the place of an inexhaustible. even that of supplying nourishment. or where by increasing Now . the Battaks. But this force had to development among the dwellers in the temperate zones. The Negro's passion for For the same reason he hates to learn a handicraft. Another cause is the sharp separation between one race and another. The life of the an alternation of hunting expeditions. springs to a great extent from this distaste. civilization is always most capable of of youthful vigour. until hunger Bushman Ashantee drinking cups of human skulls. to new exertions. Within an exclusive family-stock or in a group consisting of such stocks. and therefore we find it power to get plenty of slaves. are essentially limited and stationary the intellectual force of man is The best soil is worked out at last. and not in a regular fashion. forces Regular work at high pressure is what the savage of obstinate apathy in his countenance which is an infallible means of distinguishing the spurious from the genuine Indian. ending in slothful repletion. and the development of civilization is before be developed in slow. well illustrated by the fact that in Sierra Leone almost every fifth person is a shopkeeper. savage is often not less than that performed by the civilized man but he does it . and was once more for even Europe contains prehistoric remains and widely spread than now him . Undoubtedly every man must labour in order to live but if he likes to live The total sum of labour performed by the in misery.128 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . life held cheap among them. Among the Bangalas there are more slaves than are wanted for the labour. grandeur. . . (British Museum. so that meat is abundant. is not peculiar to the lowest stages of civilizanor yet a phenomenon due to a single cause. Peoples like the Monbuttus. cannibalism presumes men for either where the population is dense. which is found in every quarter of the earth. he need not labour much. But they are well off for men.

129 so that it if is the practice has in recent years Solomon group. then the employment of portions of the in human frame witchcraft. till we find races among whom human flesh is an article of trade. ancient races fall to pieces new ones quickly form themselves out of the fragments. without political organisation. who are often held together only by superstition and want. bones for daggers. disconnected spread of cannibalism. and envy. cannibalism is closely involved in the whole network of cannibal customs embracing first human .THE STATE as incest . cannibalism was not entirely at Human bone in the fork of a branch a an end in those regions. When a chief in the Society Islands swallowed a human eye on a festive occasion. infer cannibalism from the names of races. its attraction increases. from famine and need only be noticed as contributing to its maintenance and extension. or continuously. Mussulman influence. we can hardly doubt that there is a deep-lying connection between them ahd similarly we may account for the uneven. teeth for necklaces. which hopes by so doing to acquire his more desirable characteristics. Besides these reasons. zig Museum of Ethnology. THE STATE states All races live in some kind of civil union states — Farmers and shepherds as founders of — Development of —Distinctive marks of the primitive foundations— Cause of arbitrary power— Power of the chiefs War — Causes of of war— Universal mistrust — Rarity of a permanent frequency — Ruinous of alliances — Sham wars — Frontiers — Loose cohesion of primitive its effects state states. We cannot always safely (Leipcannibal memento from Fiji. . the idea of imprisonment for life does not readily occur. § 13. which is not unknown among Europeans. . sacrifice. even though it be so lax as among the little bands united for hunting or plunder are occasionally without leaders or as we find among other degraded or scattered tribes. To people whose loose style of building makes prisons untrustworthy. . Xo race is Bushmen. For where it has once got a footing. . so that capital punishment flourishes. as these were frequently given by way of insult. Since the introducers of both innovations are the Polynesians. suffer every year or two. which was found to exist even before the rapidly increased opposition to it caused by Christian and Further motives are revenge. What sociologists call individualism When has never been found anywhere in the world as a feature in any race. The indulgence in the practice from necessity. and funerals are almost unknown. skulls for drinking-cups. a fact of the same class as infected islands of the the relaxation of social order which has spread over the same region from a similar direction. which delights to eat its foe. the ritual of consecrations and preservation and use of and lastly the human human remains. flesh This playing with first and bones would be the step to overcoming a natural disgust. is quite intelligible among races which. like many Australian and Arctic tribes. whose .

In all countries of which we know the history. even through the consideration which attracts to them all the boldest and which neediest men from tribes. Is not all this constant fighting the primitive condition of man in its lowest manifestation ? To this it may be answered that hitherto our own peace has never been anything . " with them came firearms and therewith the formation of powerful kingdoms. swallowed up by one morevpowerful. Plunder important part. marks the most sharply-defined epoch in the history of negro states. not of a shapeless breaking up. is constantly going on. a force neigh- bouring is capable of converting the robber tribe into a conquerZulu chief in full war-dress. same stock who are and these lawless outcasts often obtain through their freedom from every legal restraint and every regard for tribal relations." is true of all. It will in course of time be some measure only a transitory phenomenon. people. or if more fortunate will split up into several smaller hordes which go off in different directions. predatory tribes have played an ing. another is community ap- sure soon to make pearance on the frontier com- posed of persons belonging to the subject to no ordinances.13° THE HISTORY OF MANKIND This process " is in " Each individual stock. What Wissmann says about the Kioko. and ruling and conquest pass easily into one another. One of the marks of the is civilized man that he accustoms of which himself to the pressure of the laws in the fulfilling he is himself practically in- terested. It is only seldom that the organism is of long duration. which permitted unimportant powers to rise rapidly." says Lichtenstein. Wangemann. know no more of each other. state-founding. and." These political mutations have always the character of a re-crystallisation. (From a photograph in the possession of Dr. But if a comparaconstitu- tively well-ordered tion has been founded among its negroes. of the natural races is the history The first importation of firearms. Most of what we know of the history of their wars. after a few generations.

we find bound up with agriculture the tendency to dense population. rather it evokes them. afforded the most important incitements. and that nothing has kindled violence and cruelty among them in such a high degree as has the slave trade. The most important step from savagery to culture is the emancipation of the individual man from complete or temporary segregation or isolation. as this population draws closer and marks its boundaries. that first to be much subdivided. since success depends upon In the life obedience. sea-faring forces.have carried on not among themselves but with Europeans. could write in his last journal these words " The principle of Peace at any Price leads to loss of dignity and injustice the fighting spirit is one When men have little or none of it they are exposed of the necessities of life. Yet even so it must be pointed out that among barbarians also there are peaceful races and peace-loving rulers. and in this property inheres Since this labour does not need to be again executed by itself the continuity of ownership and therewith the importance of blood relationship.THE STATE outbreaks of the warlike impulse arc interrupwhich are enjoined by the conditions of civilization. excluded. in the first place of the family. Secondly. but it rather represents a phase in the evolution of the national life when it has already been long in process of forming a state. it. But here the property requires stronger defence. and diminutive agricultural states spring up. instigated by the avarice of more highly civilized strangers. with its horrible consequence of slave -hunting. In the larger fishing boats a leader has to be selected all be the implicitly obeyed. undoubtedly living the only element which can concentrate their isolated will certainly never feel The agriculturist for an impulse making so strongly union . on the other hand. a condition like our mediaeval " club law " is very often permanent. food might in the first instance give rise to association in joint hunting and still more in joint fishing. Not the least advantage of the latter is the disciplining but armed. who must Governing the ship paves the way to ruling the state. of a race like that of is Solomon Islanders. Let us not forget that the bloodiest and most ruinous wars waged by the natural races have been those which the}. the possibility of denser population is. owns property. The acquisition of in the widest sense." we can see that the inevitableness of fighting between men is a great and obtrusive fact. just in proportion as the need for combination is more active and includes wider spaces. But this state of war does not exclude civil ordinances. like every multitude of men who live on the same spot of earth. Next. to unworthy treatment and injuries. and this is guaranteed by concentration. yet he too has motives for combination. but us serious tions in longer intervals of rest : among . From an economic point of view it is more reasonable for many to live by one great herd than for the herd occupation. — of the crews. usually reckoned complete savages. A herd is easily scattered. All that co-operates in the creation of societies as distinct from families was of the very greatest importance in the earliest stages of the evolution of culture. the peaceable David Livingstone. This indeed lies in the nature of their the inheritors of this property. while among. there follows of Thus while the family is in this case of greater importance than in mentioned. It is no longer war of all against all. he a capital for his labour.the races of which we are speaking. and requires strength to keep . When the most charitably just of all men who have criticised the natural races. and here the struggle with Nature. Among shepherds and nomads the formation of states progresses more quickly. acquires common interests.

The family stock has of course a leader. The chief's nearest relations in point of fact do not stand far enough below him to be mingled indiscriminately in the mass of the population over which he rules. We are apt to regard despotism as a lower form of development in comparison with the constitutional state. usually the eldest but apart from warfare his power is almost nil. (From a photograph in the possession of Dr. . . But this is contradicted at the very outset by the in opposition to the tribal or patriarchal origin from which these states have grown. THE HISTORY OF MANKIND It is it together.i j. and attribute to it accordingly a high antiquity. rule. Thus we less find them already striving to give a more oligarchical character to the is government. even when the form occasions. The so-called court of African or ancient American princes Arbitrary doubt- the council which surrounds find them on public in its we no doubt traces of is it everywhere though the lower grades. the strongest the centre of power. Wangemann. of government republican. and to over-estimate it is one of the most frequent sources of political mistakes made by white men. therefore no chance result that the family such political importance as in the among nomad is formation of tribes and states is nowhere attains to Here the patriarchal element most decidedly marked in a hunter-state races. themselves fact that in the forms of despotism stands it. has basis not in the strength of the state or the . in a shepherd-state the eldest. It used formerly to be thought that beginnings of political life might be seen shaping The Basuto chief Secocoeni with his court.

when they have incurred the wrath of higher Powers. he gets into his own hands everything coveted by his subjects. unless they have contrived to take the people with them. kindred in blood. The weak of [Melanesia. This system finds its .through all the political institutions of the natural a society which was built up upon the gens. even when they have who happens become slaves. In spite who submits almost without is resistance to the domineering power. and to obtain for them by prayers or charms advantages of This." But herein lay no doubt an obstacle to progress. but in the moral weakness of the individual. Since he is the intermediary of trade. The power of the chief is further heightened when the monopoly of trade is combined with his magic powers. in order not to be quite powerless. all kinds. and very often the import- ance of the priest surpasses that of the ruler in the person of the chiefs chief. (From a photograph. overshadowed of a priest by that A Dakota chief. Conversion to Christianity has almost always destroyed the power of the native chiefs. does not prevent the influence of the chief from being however.THE STATE chief. it Nor could well be otherwise in The power sovereign is of the greatly strengthened by alli- ance with the priesthood. under the system of " mother-right. apply the mystic Duk-Duk system to their own purposes while in . Africa the it is among functions of the chief to make atonement for his people by magic arts. democracy running. But the religious sentiment is the one thing that has maintained respect for a chief's children. A tendency to theocracy is incidental to all constitutions. communistic. and becomes the bestower of good gifts. of individual tyranny there " a " vein of races. to be in possession of some great fetish. the fulfiller of the most cherished wishes.

and that there were very few tribes who did not conceive themselves to have suffered some injury at the hands of another tribe and meditate revenge for it. former course be taken with a culprit caught in flagrante delicto even to the but in any other case redemption. for example. attractively depicted by Livingstone. and the Namaqua chief." These figures are quite sufficient to have contributed materially to the decrease of the population. among most of the " natural " Every race has some kind of legal system races. since in all more serious accusations the culprit is ascertained by means Meanof magic. frequently degenerating into mere caricatures of warlike operaStill the loss of life caused by them must not be under-estimated. while increasing the losses. since tions. the attack is made upon women point of killing a thief . that is a money penalty. Cook tells us that the New Zealanders appeared to him to live in constant mutual dread of attack. . various degrees are to be found among all barbarous races. In giving judgment. and in this duty too the popular council generally co-operates. are associated those catastrophes resulting from raids. In the case of Polynesians and Melanesians they reach a fearful pitch. Williams estimates the yearly loss of human lives in the period of barbarism at 1500 to 2000. was keen about having his son taught blacksmithing. they last for a long time. in a chief." and the like with more discretion. while whatever the chief's position may be. . their people. . is enjoined and similarly among the negro races. "not including the widows who were strangled as soon as the death of their husbands was reported. . however. Mr. The final aim of a serious war among the natural races is not the defeat. it reckoned the best. The wars of " natural " races are often far less bloody than those waged among ourselves. Firearms have diminished war. and the countries inhabited by " natural " races can in any case show only small population.134 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND in highest development Africa. The Manyema chief Mocnekuss. he needs no great abundance of Solomonian the most conspicuous incitements to progress. In Malayan law. the . is to be sought in the We also find chiefs. It is only among the war-chiefs the others are often scarcely distinguished from that regal parade is customary ." " palace. but the extermination of the adversary if the men cannot be reached. For at this where the most wealthy and liberal chief is source of great power and often of point we must not overlook the fact that one of the secure let us say more cautiously. was the most efficient smith among But of course it is in the art of war that accomplishment is most valued his tribe. so based upon superior knowledge or skill. But with this continual war. guerilla war as it might be termed. In the case of Fiji. Lamert. this fluctuates between that under which the injured person takes There the law into his own hands. it is never comparable with the power conferred by the wealth of culture existing in a European people and it were to be wished that descriptive travellers would employ such terms as " king. indeed. to changes in the amount of culture which a race possesses. wisdom. and tends to limit its sphere as among Blood-feuds in individuals according to the resistance with which it meets. In lies beneficial results. whose power is firmly will of prominent individuals. Among lower as well as higher races violence has a very free play. and that of money-atonement for the offence. in which great destruction of human life accompanies the outbreaks of warlike passion. may . or. all that is thought of is the indemnificais no question of the majesty of the law tion of the person who has suffered damage.

and recklessness. driven by the of inexorable arm for of hunger. and appear on the scene. as : Africa. of warriors at least better organised hordes and plunderers. . of civilized races are not distinguished by fidelity and confidence. ment often has the secondary object of marking a prisoner. Articles belonging to . these very recognisable marks would inevitably have entailed the loss of his life. But the culmination is of this devastating power reached or when more highly endowed. well practised in slaughter cruelty. This is the shattering of all trust in fellow-men and in the operation of moral forces. cutting off of noses and This ill-treatears. (1 and 2 probably been caught by them a second Munich Muöeum. to this must be referred the tattooing of prisoners of a Lichtenstein the saw Damaras had taken prisoner. Skull with engraved ornament he had and metal plate. Basket to hold a skull. Shield ornamented with human hair 2. Borneo. to disappear from the earth. Amputation of hands and feet. dreds Therefore miles hunof no trace native industry meets our eyes. and war. are usual. time." Losses of life and health may be repaired by a few generations of peace. had the great advantage . owing to this. human habita- never-ending wars pre- sent the picture of one unin- Rapine associated with murder to is produce a misery which civilhabited wilderness. those of the natural races are the expression The only means of the lowest qualities of mistrust. root human skulls." ized races can hardly realise.THE STATE and children. They had circumcised him and extracted his middle upper front teeth : f Xama whom ffg>£3 Dyak head-hunters :— 1. Sword and knife 3. of the love of peace and the and added ) . 4. treachery. If the politics Europeans with natural races they have. Harris says among the head-hunting Dyaks " Whole tribes have been drawn Of south-east their and branch from dwelling-places. In the dealings of employed to attain an object are trickery or intimidation. sanctity of the pledged word. but what remains is the profound moral effect. " He showed that if us this. or to wander with varying fortunes l oxer illimitable tracts. nor does any tion . from Kutei 3 and 4 from W. especially where there of is 135 a superstitious passion for the collection of Borneo.

of defined frontiers line is is in the essence of the formation as of barbarous The intentionally not drawn. were received there in a friendly manner. perfect results. The frontier spaces are kept clear. But we hear that among the Melanesians the question was discussed whether this was lawful. the frontiers of native districts. and other Bechuana tribes. for want of the mutual confidence which might unit«! them and Sfive a firm ground for their efforts. If scarcely one of the innumerIslands. power which holds the state together causes its strength to be felt through the outlying regions in varying measure. but kept open a clear space of Even when we reach the semi-civilized states the frontiers are varying breadth. but never came to completion. example of any great note American Indians belonging to the Iroquois stock. centre. when no weapons are carried. especially not upon the parts near the borders. the fact that they act upon each other by means of mutual incitement. might have been very serious. and recent years have again shown abundantly how little the South African tribes can do in spite of their numbers and their often conspicuous valour. as Finsch points out with regard to the people of Parsee Point in New Guinea. We have examples of frontier points and frontier spaces at every stage. and even . under a superstitious fear of misfortune and sickness. The custom of treating strangers as enemies. who were frequently driven upon the Banks regarded as uncanny. forces which make for culture both from within and without are alike weakened. Basutos. Constant fear and insecurity on the part of native races is a necessary result It is significant that the great of frequent treachery on that of their foes. the political " domain " with a tendency to the sharpest separation. and the consequence is stagnation if not retrogression. which the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. which have worked themselves up to the clear in heights of development.i 36 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND The single of very rarely having to face a strong combination of native powers. since they were not Polynesians. latent state of Who does not recognise in this natural races ? war a great cause of the backward condition of the lies The greatness of civilized states. as in the family and in society. able exploring expeditions in Australia or attacked by the aborigines." was certainly a great hindrance to expansion. The entire state is not closely dependent upon the area liable to be uncertain. more Want states. or of knocking on the head persons thrown on shore by shipwreck like " washed up cocoa-nuts. of islands they were not treated altogether as strangers. which was dangerous to Europeans in An attempt at an alliance. Only the political which it covers. Bakwenas. majority of barbarous peoples are so fond of weapons and never go unarmed and nothing better indicates the higher state of civic life in Uganda than that is the alliance of the " six nations " of North . is fixed. and that even strangers used to link themselves by If they belonged to a neighbouring island or group marriage with a new place. made its way without being threatened we must not overlook involuntary violations of for even to this day in Central Australia unlicensed we meet also in entry upon foreign territory reckons as a serious trespass. was made after the so-called Sand River treaty of 1852 by Griquas. and so are ever bringing forth this But The mutual incitement is just what is missing in a state of continuous war. Thus. the From it the most essential point of the whole structure. It is noted as a striking feature walking sticks there take the place of weapons.

(Berlin Museum of Ethnology. is This shown in the history . of all great empires even the Chinese can be carried back to small beginnings. Xo doubt they have been of short duration with the single exception of the Roman Kingsmill Islander in full armour. and of the ramparts thrown up by Turks and Cossacks.THE STATE serve as *37 common but hunt- ing-grounds. for desper- adoes of every shade of villainy. they serve also as habitations for forces hostile to civil authority. life. of and art endeaits vours aid to contribute by building earthworks and even walls. Leopold von Ranke has stated as a maxim when of experience that we study tory great first it universal his- is not as a rule that monarchies present themselves. districts but small tribal or confederacies of the nature of states. The cases in which sharp frontiers are soonest formed is where the two fundamentally different modes of civilization and nomadism and agriculture. The is region of the steppes the country of the great wall of China. come in contact. Not infrequently the formation of starts new states from these spaces. Here of necessity tiers fron- are sharply races drawn the against steppes.) .

the greater an empire the less its duration and the state. with all its wealth of population. (From a photograph by Richard Buchta. represents at the same time a political unit. exlittle that to remains rapid spare for the state. arise and maintain Apart from the way in which the teaching of history themselves for centuries. which can from time to time enter into combination with others of the kind to which perhaps . Negro Africa. contains no single really large In that country. so frequently coinciding. the nations have learnt how great territories must be ruled in order to keep them great in extent. The family Lansro chief and magician. their common barrack or village. not merely to found. even surpassing the Roman in magnitude. has been taken to heart. It requires greater organising and consolidating power. . The break-up of empires is counterbalanced by the sturdy tribal life. itself so looser its cohesion. When fall the empires pieces to new ones form themselves from the old tribes. of in blood -relations. rea- sons for the smallof " primitive Among natural most races the the family society and form unions so so large.138 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Even that of Empire. it is bound by more distant relationship. clusive. such as we meet with among the Fulbes or Wahuma. But there are deeper-lying ness states. From the Roman Empire China has passed through its periods of breaking up. But it is quite content to remain by long as no external power operates to shake its narrow contentment. for since its time history has seen many empires. the increase of population and the consequent accession of import- ance terial to the maof interests the people has un- questionably con- tributed to this.

. Ornamental Basonge spear. (1-10 from the YVissmann Collection 1 1 from the Pogge . and drums from the Southern Congo territory. chief's staff of iron the figure sheet- overlaid with copper. 9. double drum. Basonge orna- mental spear (Zappu Zapp) inlaid with copper. Insignia. woven big Baluba drum. Baluba spear. used at festivals. 2. 7.i. 8. Basonge . 3. 6. Collection. 11. Difuma dia Di- kongo. Baluba wooden shield with cross-weaving. 4. 5. Iron sceptre. spear from the Ruiki. Samba Baluba spear. Baluba bark mat. ornamental weapons. borne by the Bashichief. 10. lang Mana Katembe.

powers of South and East Asia lacked the clearness and definition in the matter of political allegiance. and the Chinese oases in the Shan States. The rules Alfurs for of the eastern islands in the . colonisation must have been as necessary the a life of a state as formerly in Greece. what takes place is the foundation of new ones by migration and conquest. renowned and redoubtable tribe of the Mandan Indians. was able to offer more than 'sufficient work to its embanking and draining heroes Schem. colonies which cut themselves loose either peaceably or after a war. abounding in streams and marshes. we may see in them a proof at once of the great part played by war in blending races in ancient times. Soudan we meet with this want of firm internal cohesion which is equally at the bottom of the weakness which brought down the native states of Central and South America. It It is is the multiplication of cells by fission striking how often the same legend monarch sends out a band of warriors to conquer a country or a town if the enterprise fails they settle down quietly and marry the daughters of the people whom they came to overthrow. it is said. naturall)' but A strongly uniting power. it rose Instead of the extension of single states. the less inclined shall we be to apply terms like empire and emperor to the loose confederation of chiefs on the plateau of Anahuac. or sea-monsters crawling on to the land. and at the same own country. Among common culture. races natural dangers. Without crediting all these traditions. which are a privilege of the higher civilizations. Instead of these we find instead of the growth of the organism. in warlike organisation. The more closely we look at the actual facts about Old Mexico. seems not to have been until the arrival of Islam that the formation of states Even in our own day the great above disjointed village communities. by pro- moting the value of Holland. with the extortion of the highest benefits for races in the foundation of states and the acquisition of culture.and from broken dykes and inundation by reason of furious storms and high tides has evoked a feeling of union which has had important results. have never been able to spread time maintain cohesion with their for permanently beyond their natural boundaries. or tradition recurs in Africa or elsewhere. Thus too are explained the Fulbc settlements on the Lower Niger. . whose land. Jao. and their like. in Germain. is low stage the cementing force of contests waged against community and binding them together for little felt. A .i 4o THE HISTORY OF MANKIND if but also. In Egypt a similar effect of the anxiety for the yearly watering and marking out of the land is obvious from In the low-lying tracts on the coast of the common danger — history. has a favourable effect on the general North Sea. the . to Even the Zulus. even with difficulty. threatening the entire defence. and of the difficulty of founding coherent states. Malay Archipelago have and in definite the government of their colonics in in Polynesia of old. we are astonished to In the Malay Archipelago learn that it numbered only from 900 to 1000 souls. They have not the capacity Even in the Mussulman states of planning a peaceable organisation. high as the)' stand maintain kingdoms like Sokoto or Uganda. . Such was the origin of the Matabele such. these hundred-headed hydras. the common interests. There is a deep meaning in the myths which intimately connect the fight against these forces of Nature. The greatness of When we hear of the the Inca realm was exaggerated to the point of fable. that of the kindred Masitu. Schun. No race shows this more than the Chinese.

THE STATE Generali)' all 141 common needs which draw men all. States arc created sovereignty and common requirements. it is only in small states that the entire people has along been formed of a single stock. out of barren isolation must they strengthen the con- which organises the work done to satisfy those needs. that into is by foreigners. we find for this reason various nationalities. The consciousness of national does not In come if existence until state-forming force the intellectual interests all and then makes its way as a of the race add their weight on the later. Outside the sphere of European civilization almost all states arc ruled by common by intruding conquerors identity . almost countries representing greater political units. have the stitution effect of promoting culture. Above too. then they all are co-ordinate . But the sovereignty must come first. same side. . At first one is superior to another.


§§ 16-21. Malays and MalaA. 31-32. Races of Australia C. ii. Civilized races of — — — early America — E. §§ 22-30.BOOK — II THE AMERICAN-PACIFIC GROUP OF RACES B. §§ 10-15. ^ § 33. . Americans and Hyperboreans U. Races of Oceania gasies D i. §§ 1-9. The' Arctic races.



from 90 of the RACES of OCEANIA and AUSTRALASIA Greenwich Bibliographlsches Institut Leipzig .MAP EX .


2. 3-5. State-clubs from the Marquesas. State-paddles from the Hervey Islands. Clubs from Tonga. 6-1 1. 1. .3 4 1 7 Polynesian clubs and insignia of rank.

When Africa was discovered by the Europeans it was manufacturing iron right away to the Hottentot country. This connection is one of the most important facts in the ethnographical distribution of the human race as it now exists. Among the peculiarities of the inhabitants of Guanahani which most astonished Columbus. If we can succeed in bringing the inhabitants of this the largest and most isolated island of the world into connection with the rest of mankind. became acquainted with iron from Asia. In Northern Asia only one strip on the coast where their traffic was small was without iron. which applies to by far the greater part of them. as he noted in his log-book as long ago as 13th October 1492. From this side America must have been discovered long before the Northmen found their way to its shores from the east. was their lack of iron.// A. it embraces . introduction has been pointed out in the first section of our how closely the inhabitants of the Pacific islands are connected with is the Americans by the stone-period civilization. The races of the Malay Archipelago wrought artistically in iron. Americans — The Malayo-Polynesian family of languages — To what period are the relations of America. Australians. for ancient America looks westward. especially in those districts we go east. the inhabitants of between the eastern and western portions of the its islands appear in a general survey as the instruments of an important ethnographical connection. when Even its more civilized races. then in any case the unity of the human race is established. They grow fainter as eastern islets of Polynesia. use weapons and implements of stone. and the relations of America with Polynesia. Oceania. but some remain even in the most and some are found again on the opposite shore. north-west. § i. Since the Pacific ocean lies inhabited earth. and at the same time With the exception of a strip in the in the stone age. which to the eastern half of common and fundamental mankind. ethnography in another light. which still putting this significant fact of old American. Peru. the ironless races lies on the eastern border of the inhabited earth L . silver. copper. America was. and bronze. of North-west America which are distinguished by points It of agreement with Polynesia. Malays with Malagasies. and Asia to be referred — The vacant space between Easter Island and position of the Pacific world . as well as by that inclusion in the Mongolian race. THE RACES OF OCEANIA GENERAL SURVEY OF THE GROUP The Ocean in history — The Indians of Columbus — Situation of America in the inhabited — Racial resemblances of the people of Oceania to Malays and Indians — Ethnographic relationships — Position of Japan and North-west America — The great groups Oceanians. But the connection can only be sought by way of the Pacific. It has been said that the key to the greatest problems of ethnography is to be found in America. No subsequent discovery has succeeded in of Oceanian. From its western border we can follow Asiatic traces far towards the east in a gradual transition across the islands. while producing highly artistic work in gold. Thus the domain of discovered.

there is to be observed also the want of the most valuable domestic animals oxen. on Mercator's projection. . too. sheep. are here unknown. and cast our eyes upon the earth and its races. America is at the same time the true Orient of the inhabited earth. and their resemblance to the races on the western border of the Pacific. (From a photograph. and did once share with Northern . Whatever isolated characteristics we may unroll a yet be able to adduce among all races at a similar level of civilisation. and furthest separated from those who have their dwelling on the eastern borders of who map the dividing gulf of the Atlantic ocean. goats. the Pacific Islands. for imperfect utensils is Absence of iron weapons and implies. The whole of America shares with Polynesia. elephants. not across the Atlantic. the Americans find their place on the east wing contrasted with. or wood. has often been more clearly indicated. and America. exclusion from the possibility of such industrial progress as Within the line which includes the ironless races based upon iron and steel. across the " Pacific. As the most easterly part of the Pacific-x\merican region of the stone-using countries. buffaloes. and consequently there is no cattle-breeding. Australia. but Araucanian man and woman. the Americans stand nearest to those If we live to the westward of them. camels. they are neither white nor black. In later times the difference of the Americans from negroes. bone. the implies limitation to the use of stone."' he means that he can compare them neither with Europeans nor negroes. The racial affinities of the Americans also point.146 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Arctic region. When Columbus said of the natives of the West Indies.

a region of extreme independence. handsome frequent Japanese or Jewish physiognomies. species of mankind that occur in the South Sea Islands were long ago brought . are strong muscular build. The specialty is not of kind but of all we look at bodily characteristics. even men with eagle noses. in Red Indians . sometimes whole tribes of the lighter-skinned straight-haired race have turned up while even among the Samoans. our view only apparently in contra- Within the lines of its affinity with the eastern lands of the inhabited world. independence. and. of the Pacific. . which have sometimes a more It is.GENERAL SURVEY OF THE GROUP Asia. sometimes a more Northern Asiatic character. nor the reindeer in herds Northern is Asia. But this finds expression far less in individual ethnographical peculiarities than in points of conformity which mark degree. by Forster into two main divisions. . almost insulated. Of both the similarity is shown in a comparison of colour. in place of assuming a pure Polynesian origin . leaner. the conformity of hair. With the ordinary idea that American evolution exhibits is an isolated. so long as we consider skin. all i 47 the distinctive marks of stone-age countries. among themselves is very great. in many possesses neither the pig nor the taro of the of Polynesians. better shaped. the skulls and physiognomy presence of the same contradiction that meets us as an internal point of difference among the islanders With A. almost more lively These are the " Polythan the other. moreover. smaller. it breaks down. stature. affinity of the no doubt as to the skeleton. with that branch of it to which the dwellers in Eastern Oceania belong. reminding one of Redskins. good-natured character the other blacker. and concealed under the insular uniformity of to-day. with fast to the external the Prince of Wied. " " They cannot always nesians and " Melanesians of more recent ethnographers. respects poorer than either. are not rare. : . and have here and there imparted to the original Malay colouring a deeper The Polynesian tint but neither are traces of them lacking in America. some of a red blonde. One was lighter coloured. Virchow is decided in assuming a certain negroid strain. and gentle. as Wilkes did with the Paumotu Islanders. nay. due to the final link in remoteness. from perfectly smooth Port Moresby as follows hair to the twisted wig of the Papua curly heads. Polynesian." The least we can do is to leave the possibility of mixed descent an open question. and with Morton. scattered examples. with hair becoming crisp and wavy. hair. in any case. The results of investigating will. Finsch describes the natives of " We find here every variety. If it off as a whole. is the unmistakable extension of the Individual Indo-African group of races into the midst of their island-region. be distinguished. diction. of . we can only hold elements is unity of the race. What in a racial point of view severs the people of Oceania most profoundly from their neighbours to the eastward. to all appearance. but at the same time more suspicious. von Humboldt. confirms us the notion that in America to we have a chain of distribution of which the beginning be sought on the eastern shore of the Atlantic. firmly based on the geographical fact of its situation between the two largest oceans. This poverty. small groups of these negroids are undoubtedly scattered over all the archipelagos. Here we are but if we include the skull. . Where it was supposed that only members of the latter group existed. only prove that a more ancient variety of racial But there can be American tribes with the great Mongoloid race. The question of origin becomes more complicated but it is surely better. America is. since it however. So too with the colour of the skin.

based on a multiplication of measurements. In the next section. Topinard even refers the mass of the Polynesians to North America holding that conquerors. owing to their obviously small resemblance to the Malays proper. . The real Polynesians are more closely linked to the races with negroid elements in them dwelling eastward from Java and the Philippines. insufficiently grounded on either philology or ethnology.MS THE HISTORY OF MAXKIND from the north-east. Those races of the Malay Archipelago which show Asiatic affinities in lighter skin or Bakairi girl from the Kulishu river. Suffice it to say that it replaces the artificial theory. by a permeation and cleavage of races. . points to it. two races may have migrated thither. are perhaps more strongly represented in some islands of Micronesia. The race-relationship with the inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago is apt to be asserted with all the more emphasis because the language-relationship so clearly But we must keep these two relationships quite distinct. von den Steinen. to draw also a line of affinity towards the north-west. Physically the Polynesians are less like the inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago than are the Hovas Since the time of the elder Lesson it has been usual to trace the of Madagascar. may have come from Buru in Celebes but we do not yet possess the fuller anthropological evidence. in no great numb2r. Maoris. required to prove this view." If two races dwell in the Pacific. especially if they were used to sea and ships. . Battaks. descent of the Polynesians from Dyaks. of a single immigration and simple branching-off. than with Crozet and others to drag up again the worn-out hypothesis of a dark-skinned " primeval population. Alfurs. we shall adduce a series of facts in support of it. (After Dr. R. on the migration of the Polynesians. ) Chinese eyes.

Even the shells. in liquors. details of decorative mutilation . In connecthe out refer common Central definite type of economic life. even prominent legends tain of life —-Boas like that of the foun- has briefly indicated the remarkable conformity of north-west American legends with those of the Ainus and of Micronesia and inconspicuous expedients of daily life. extend far into the island world of the tropics.GENERAL SURVEY OF THE GROUP 149 Given the existence of a group of sea-faring races. who. In North -west America. more especially in tiie style of the necklaces made of little polished disks of red. of cosmogony. and like them fastened into a piece of wood split into a fork. are alike in mented Maori girl. Throwing-sticks were at one time thought to exist only among Australians and Eskimos now specimens are known also from Mexico and Brazil. we have already pointed prevalence of a the weapons . or — the shape of the fish-hooks. the preparation of fer- both regions. and American borders of the Pacific but . and tion with this important feature. the impossibility of bearing up uninterrupted . white. are most widely spread on the Asiatic Wicker armour and cuirasses. namely. On Xissan. ethnography of the American races has progressed. just like the American. as in many parts of . the dressing of fish by steaming. and black shells. Probably many more finds of America or the same weapon this sort will occur. if we allow for Ion«periods. a stone axe has lately been discovered with a chamfer running almost round. in the possession of ) Max Büchner. Valuable evidence is given by conformities in tattooing. metallic wealth of America could not oust the use of stone. be maintained as the likeness asserted Since his day the knowledge of the host of similar practices. such as the employment of narcotics in the capture of fish. We may once more to the encroachment of the similarity of the Asiatic in bow upon North and South America and Melanesia. there follows necessarily. We see how both east and west of the Pacific religious beliefs and usages are based upon the same animistic belief and upon an ancestor-worship which not only stands on a similar footing. occupied various coast and island-districts of the Pacific Ocean. but often assumes precisely concordant forms just as the treatment of corpses and the procedure of the priests embrace a whole . From photograph Dr. bones. in the Solomon Islands. against the south-east trades. the The principles atless high importance tached to the tribal symbols. in painting the body. with protection for the neck. can as little by him to exist between Tagalese and Chilian. a wide distribution over this large district and therewith arises that ethnographic agreement which connects the lands on the eastern and western borders of the Pacific Ocean. Zuniga's meteorological basis of belief for asserting the South American origin of the Tagals. gradually by dint of voluntary and involuntary migration. .

no This arrangement of animals' heads less than the eye-ornament. like that of the early Americans. Particular forms of greeting. and a second animal. The masks of New Ireland remind us to by the Haidas. are common to both. than to the striking agreement in the a striking degree of those used connection formed by the tongue dependent between the upper part. (From a photograph in the Godeffroy Album. with the conventionalised figures of animals. and the ornaments in the shape of eyes. Less importance is to be assigned the fact that in both these cases the eyes. does the Dyak loom resemble that used by the Indians of North-west America .i5o THE HISTORY OF MANKIND in Oceania. In one region we find otter and frog. we drawings of and human which remind us of Peruvian. find pottery painted with line Among the Calchaquis of Northern Argentina birds. of Malay work. beetle. The ornament of Malay fabrics remarkably faces. arranged together . the use of human is hair for orna- ment. lizard. in selection and conventional treatment of the In customs too several features recur in a marked way. bird. the cult of skulls. which is an essential element of the Pacific and American styles. to fish. dancing-masks are used. reptiles. in the other snake. and no less. representing Men of Ponapä in the Carolines. YVe must indeed note that it is not always between races lying nearest to each other that the closest relations prevail.) a broad animal's head. are made with inlaid shell. in a row along the middle line reminds us of North America. the declaration of an agreement by the transfer of . beaver and hawk. but running all through the groups. the practice of head-hunting. On the other we meet agreements not Thus not merely merely at single points. especially curious ornamentation based upon the Bismarck Archipelago. themes.

what is from an ethnographic point of view a more important intellectual pos- But over all arises. while the Malays distinction to the the Australians they are . in common with the Americans. but for Micronesia Xo mistake on this point need as well. as we proceed eastwards. we may denote the second group by the name of Oceanians. in no way In the Pacific the most recent development holds holds good of mankind. The Melanesians are . the on. Melanesia then again in America. Still not only the points of agreement. sharply divided but on the other hand they are connected with the Malays by transitions which point partly to a closer connection of origin. insti- together with social and political tutions. seeing that the Pacific is the only ocean that possesses The possession so widespread a population having a character peculiar to itself. are in favour of America.) we can recognise a great difference of on the whole inferior to the Polynesians they represent an earlier development. (or lack) of a host of important articles links the oceanic races together in contra- From Malays on the west and the Australians on the south. partly to influences of long standing. and far out in the ocean. In the general position held by the two great Pacific groups of races towards each other Boy of New Ireland. while between the two. arise from the fact that more objects in our museums come from islands which have been ransacked later. however. We cannot. namely religious conceptions. (From a photograph. . at the present day decide whether the proximity of xAmerica or independent evolution has been the cause of this superiority in the eastern parts of Oceania. The impoverishment which we find becoming more and more conspicuous in the animal and vegetable world of Oceania. often repeated even in small details. retaining much which among the latter has already become obsolete. In South and North America we meet with the same system. lies a region in which it has broken down and become obsolete. in Polynesia. than the west and that is true not only for Melanesia. we find the east standing higher . the social order based We find it most distinctly in Australia and on " mother-right " and exogamy.GENERAL SURVEY OF THE GROUP a piece of stick. or which have fallen less into decay by reason of white influence. session. the west and south are backward. 151 method of communicating by means of wooden drums. but also the far shorter distance. notably the use of stone. and so a great edifice common to all. and the inhabitants of the islands on its western border. If we group the races of this wide region into the Americans dwelling on the eastern shores of the Pacific. the eastern parts The Melanesians occupy as it were a depression in the level of culture between Malays on the one hand and Polynesians on the other. . But on the South American shores we find in Peru a region of yet higher culIf to the works of art we add ture. level. on the south. But as they have many points. like .

the crews of the further. iron was found to have advanced as far as New Guinea. This influence was spread "~00^kS&^L Man of by those active traders and expert seamen. had extended to the same point. the Malays.152 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND within the are domain of iron. But of the connection reaches early the if Oceanians with them back to an period. which had not then elevated exclusiveness to a principle of state. position outliers towards of that these latter from that held example by the most westerly the Malagasies. it would have spread fleet. When the regions of Oceania were first unveiled to Europeans in the sixteenth century. H U I extent in the fact that they have been instrumental in the diffusion of these influences eastward. . According to the statement of George Spilberg. While the Oceanic and Australian races have. but had kept up an active traffic with the south. Aus- tralians indeed degen- erating in their isola- Malays and Malaby means of influences from Asia and Africa. tion. together with the Americans. and with the support of Eastern New South Wales. as shown by details of language and artistic style. which was equipped in 1616 against the Dutch in Manilla. ( From a photograph. in remained the the stone period of civilization. Asia. and the influence of India. for they hold a very different race. gasies have gained jj gj The importance Malays lies of the to a great g? jj.

rice. together with a great part at latest. layan starting-point for the Polynesian word in bolota. various kind of monkeys. and taro grew. The place of these weak and irregularly-acting influences has now been taken by the weight}. and that it was at no great distance from the sea. turtles.GENERAL SURVEY OF THE GROUP 15: were composed of Indians. now called Annam. and where they were acquainted with dogs. rattan. and possibly even elephants and horses. earth. He is most inclined to look for the district of their origin in the countries which are bodia. by the penin- But we on may mainthe tain a continental origin for individual tribes now living islands. CamThe MaDyak woman (From a photograph migration has been connected with the used by Polynesians for . lead in that direction to a point where the chain of relations with North-west America becomes more clearly visible. and dates from the fourteenth century . coco-nut. which a reminiscence of Buru has been imagined. probably also buffaloes and crocodiles. on philological grounds that the home of the Malayo-Polynesians. without any inducement from the desire Malays of finding an origin.advance of the Europeans. The Malayo-Polynesians on the earth . continental origin of the Malayo-Polynesians is of special import for the right all — have given rise to the the less when we find understanding of them. the abode of the gods cations in that direction. has been found in the interior of New Zealand it was the ship's bell of some Mussulman Tamil. and Siam. since in it reveals to us the possibility of their wider exten- sion in former times in the western coast districts of the Pacific. for all the races of the on the continent of Asia. including the Malagasies. H. of Borneo. of the population. Their presence Formosa. was situated in a tropical country. pigs. Kern assumes. we can hardly reconcile ourselves to the notion that a single insignificant island of the great Archipelago can widely-scattered peoples of the Central Pacific MalayoThe Polynesian affinities extending to the Melanesian Islands and Madagascar. The question whether these races had once a wide extension on the . the traces of them in Japan. banana. with an inscription in Tamil. like and Acheenese of Sumatra. where sugar-cane. or so-called cradle of mankind. In spite of various indi- the next world. Chinese. under whose hands in the course of 300 years almost all that was peculiar has died out. poultry. are at this day the most pronouncedly insular people their only remaining is hold on the mainland sula of Malacca. and Japanese. An Indian bronze bell. in the Damann Album.

more especially the part between Puget Sound and Cape Spencer. seems never to have been If we consider that this seen by any man before the first visit of Europeans. by a space of from the American shore which there are neither islands The single group of any size. east can only be interpreted as meaning North-west America. We no historical record of voyages. and that the Easter Islanders. the Beehive as Dall calls it. in the region east Easter Island. which can nor inhabitants. voluntary or involuntary. from which it results that South American races show in details points of conformity with those of the south-west Pacific. to which the Malayo-Polynesians extend at the present day. empty space is only one-third as broad as that between Easter Island and the most easterly islands of the Malay Archipelago. and from hence northward to the Behring Straits. we shall have to speak of it in the American — — division of our work. The coast northward from the mouth of the Columbia river with its numerous islands. there stretches a The points of agreement region where the art of navigation is highly developed. Peruvian annals mention coasting voyages and more distant naval Pizarro expeditions for conquest or discovery. with America of which we get glimpses even under the peculiar and high civilization of Japan grow thicker as we go north. either on the coast or on islands towards the north. . so narrow a gap is left that transference is almost But a more important fact is that with so much larger an extension certain. where continuous swarms of men are reared and sent forth.i 5 4 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND may here be passed over. this rift not wide enough to prevent us from regarding the Pacific like the Indian Ocean. On is some four thousand miles in a straight line from the Japanese archipelago. That very more recent extension of Asiatic characteristics over North America. be reached in three days from the South American coast. and in contrast to the Atlantic. the possibility of direct connection by means of migration. belonged to legend. But there is no historical indication of any immediate traffic between Polynesia It is far more probable that the agreements and resemblances and South America. while the North American are continent influences are more clearly traceable to the north-west Pacific. as an inhabited sea. namely the Galapagos. generally considered the in order to reach their island from the Samoa group common centre of dispersion for the Polynesians. until on the Behring Sea we arrive at identity between the races dwelling on the Asiatic and American shores. this side also. where north-west American and Formosa. had to traverse a much longer road than that space would involve. and the gold-bearing islands which the Japanese placed in the east Tasman was sent to discover them and found the Bonin Islands. As to the derivation of the old American civilizations from Asia. the gap will appear to us of much less Pacific islands are in the tropical zone separated The forty to sixty degrees of longitude in — — importance. is increased. are all contained within the four corners of a common inclusion of both parts in the The Chinese imagination again of a great land in the great Pacific group of races. and the Chinchas as well as the Chimus had traditions of a distant home across the sea. testifies to the advantages of the northern road. recognisable. met with trading ships. In is proportion to the inhabited part of the Pacific with its many have from islands. voluntary and involuntary. Between Japan.


Leipzig.Printed by Ehe Bibliographisches Institut. . POLYNESIAN WEAPONS AND COSTUME.

POLYNESIAN WEAPONS AND COSTUME 1. from the Ethnographical Museum. 8. Santa mill Islands. 9. Feather-sceptre : Sandwich Islands. Lance : Viti. 12. Feather helmets Hawaii. Feather masks Hawaii. Ornamental gorget Idol : : Tahiti. All one-tenth of natural size. Feather cloak Hawaii. 18. 12. : Tahiti. Christy collection. Fan '. 6. 7. 3. 19. 2. 20. Tonga. Club : Vanikoro. 2. 10. Nos» 1. 16. 9. 17. lands. : Is- 14. Sandwich Islands. 18. 15. 4. Dancing-cap: Cook or Society Islands. Tafia-cloth. Dance Cruz. Berlin. 13. : : : mill Island. 4." with shark's teeth Kings : Sacred staff Cook Islands. "Partisan. Club. Feather head-ring Sandwich : 13. Spear with shark's teeth Kings: 5. 11. Water-bottle: Fiji. Tile rest from British Museum and .


THROUGHOUT larger islands the western and central part of the Pacific are many thousands of islands scattered about in numerous groups. the chief of them being New Guinea and the two larger islands of New Zealand. but showing.traces of former habitation. the growth of differences between up-country and coast tribes. the former the volcanic islands. very unevenly endowed. On the west they are connected by with Australia and the Malayan Archipelago. and violent earthquakes occurring over the whole length and breadth of the region while the coral formation has been developed to an extent such as is nowhere else found in that tropical belt of the Pacific which is richest in islands. war. an evidence for the indolence and unproductiveness of true Papuan labour and its development. afford space for development on a large scale. THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS and their cultivated The island groups. Thus we have before us. forming Polynesia. volcanic phenomena. and sufficient to permit. and other the Pacific grounds of emigration and immigration Legends of migrations Migrations in mythology Community Legend of Hawaiki Polynesians in Melanesia and ol speech and agreement of customs in Polynesia Uninhabited islands Date of the migrations Ethnographical groups in the Pacific GeneaMicronesia — — — —-Ruins — Migrations— Involuntary migrations in — Number of the population.of the Australians. Long ago a natural division into high and low islands was recognised. Only certain islands. and widely separated from each other. nor the list now uninhabited. . there lies a second group of still smaller islands called Micronesia. its decrease and — — — — — — — — — log}. which is separated by a space of nearly 2500 miles from the South American coast. the denser population is is confined to the of islands coast spaces. Individual countries. have plenty of common peculiarities both in natural character and in the mode of their origin. more especially in Melanesia with its larger islands. being more sparsely inhabited than most of the islands lying in front of it. Rapid changes from habitation is under these conditions. while the interior to non-habitation are frequent thinly inhabited. surface phenomena. larger and smaller. the latter including the coralline. There is first of all . The separation between smaller groups within them may much the three groups does not penetrate far more naturally be excluded. Within the angle formed by a line running through the Mariannes towards Japan and another running through the Pelew Islands towards the Philippines. New Guinea does not indeed hold a position in Melanesia proportionate to its size. their climate shifting plants — Traces of denser population and of civilization Navigation and shipbuilding Orientation Trading journeys Famine. On the other side the distance of New Zealand from Polynesia prevented it from exercising those more penetrating effects which might have been expected to emanate from the largest among the islands. a short one. only the population of small and numerous areas. New Guinea with the Fiji group Fiji with the inner chain of the Melanesian islands ending on the east the New Zealand group lies isolated to the south-east. This simple classification does not indeed wholly correspond with the domain of phenomena. Of all people the ethnographer . and they stretch from the South Island of New Zealand to Hawaii. almost universally. East- ward beyond and northward beyond New Ireland lie countless smaller islands They stretch away from the Carolines to Easter Island.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS 155 § 2. must bear that well in mind. The . Further.

times. it does not always do so. By the time we reach . meteorology has no less shown us the existence of westerly is currents of than a study of the ocean has taught us that there an equatorial Polynesians counter-current in the same sail direction. between the It has often been pointed out how the prevailing east annual isothermals of 68°.i 56 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND majority of the Pacific islands lie in a region where the prevailing currents and winds move in a westerly direction. though it may often determine the lines of distribution of mankind. north and south of the equator. . and they have a corresponding tradition that their domestic animals were brought from the west. (/>) fruit. World. to west direction of the trade-winds would facilitate immigration from the New Bread-fruit tree (Artocarpus incisus) : (a) inflorescence. In small districts the influence of the winds and currents is no doubt but the facts of migrations and castings-away show that. great In more recent air. In their regular traffic the wait for a west wind to eastwards.

the coco-nuts with their spreading contribute to hold the to islands together . Islands of their nature make their Accordingly we have here a region of seamen and wanderers. and Melanesia . Micronesia. by a curious contrast. Polynesia. in spite of significant racial differences. where there is such ample room for extension in the interior. provides fabric vessels the leaves fibres of its outer side furnish durable . in spite of their wide distribution. in countries like New Guinea or New Zealand. when older. the pronounced Asiatic character of which Chamisso was the first to refer to the eastward migration of the Oceanians. extensive colonisation. the inhabitants . . and we find settlements from one group of races in the district of another though. . The oleaginous kernel. third Cook's In the It place comes the chief article of real agriculture. saying. and perhaps bananas too. the coco-nut. low -lying w While green. as extend their area they are. almost all the inhabitants of the If to this central Pacific have the more important conditions of life in common. is well known. The flora and fauna of this region. and domesticated animals have been imported But the tree which is most closely connected taro. the nut contains a liquid which is cooling when fresh and intoxicating when fermented. Lastly. with the island world.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS the 57 Hervey or Cook's. the taro plant. Next to the Taro {Caladium esculentum) — one-half natural size. the stem serves for building huts roots coral and boats. poultry. coco-palm the bread-fruit tree is the most profitable of all things grown and cultivated in Polynesia. and Tubuai or Austral groups. the are used for thatching houses. have little to offer for human use. and the bread-fruit together have made life almost too easy in those parts. The form a single ethnographical domain. that six bread-fruit trees would keep a family. Some of the most important cultivated plants such as pigs. or baskets . we add the common possession of a mass of ethnographic characteristics we shall see that. Thus. renders existence possible even to the inhabitants / \ \ of the remote and islands. sago-palm extends from the west as far as Melanesia a great part of the population of Xew Guinea is dependent on it. nut a The of the . and which does most to give a character to its landscape. and being. dogs. the west winds. among their earliest and most frequent inhabitants of the islands. which . sails. is nutritious and gives shell oil in abundance. plaiting mats. in the southern hemisphere prevail south of 20 begin to make themselves felt.

is reckoned at not more than a million and a half. played a special part in the destruction of the Maoraris of the Chatham Islands. while in the realm of religious conceptions there has arisen.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND people stick. is In the social the preponderance of of a large the tribe or commune over the family more pronounced than perhaps anywhere one of the most complete mythological else. to the coast. We must look not only at the figures. the Bismarck Archipelago. and consequently have much skill in the working of stone. without iron. The present population of the Pacific in the space between the western promontory of New Guinea and Easter Island. and to exchange healthy dwellings on fortified hills for damp sites in the neighbourhood of their potato-fields prosperity. we can sum up the causes in the words used by Pennefather in 1888 as applied to the case of drunkenness diseases clothing in bad European materials instead the Maoris of in their own close-woven mats a state of peace. the loom has spread from the west.] . In weaving they have attained a high level in . the Solomon Islands. The importation of European diseases has in many districts accelerated the 1 [Vet. 1 1. — — . in the great majority of cases. who will soon be the sole survivors. : . the usual are found throughout all of the field. systems owned by any primitive race. such a density as borders on over-population. Stevenson. which has introduced leisure and pernicious modes of enjoying it. the Marquesans are dying out in the same houses where their fathers multiplied. life three districts. show a population that is relatively not at all thin. The and the intoxicating kava or ava. and these crowded back into the while all the natural advantages have passed into the hands of the furthest corner more numerous and more active white inhabitants. So it is with Hawaii. we find them everywhere the same.000. After the remarks made in the Introduction (pp. while the cast and south they manufacture fruits few domestic animals. . or Gilbert. has overspread this vast area. and parts yet more remote. which has allowed them to fall into indolence. which has already given occasion for great dislocations in the regions of races and peoples. and between the Hawaiian Archipelago and New Zealand. which. But these are all cases in which the inhabitants of small islands have the run of the coco plantations and fishing-grounds belonging to an entire archipelago. and shells. to-day there are 42. bark and bast. says the late Mr. The number of the Maoris between 1835 and 1840 was reckoned with good reason at 100. The South Island of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands have no longer any but a small and vanishing aboriginal population. Progress on the lines of European custom is opposed by their hereditary usages. wood. group counts 35. Generally the smaller areas of land tend to a closer packing of the population. especially their political subdivision and the absence of private property in land. But the cannibalism of the Maoris has not including whites. including numerous half-breeds. Implements and customs They must all do connected with seafaring and fishing show a general agreement. 12). If we inquire the causes of this phenomenon. out number of ideas common to all Polynesia. the Marshall Islands 12.000. but at the geographical aspect. . Tonga too for one of the less bountifully endowed groups. Yet even to-day on some of the Polynesian islands we find The Kingsmill. : . and so even with the small islands. But the great majority of the Pacific islands hold far fewer persons to-day belonging to the original native races than they did before the arrival of European influences. with its luxuriance of legend.000 in 170.000 in less than 200 square miles.

— . Islands a dolmen. is wanted by the present popustone foundations of On Pitcairn's now deserted. In the small Louisiade group there lation. so great that total extinction . Even now they are reckoned at several hundreds . fenced with pillars of basalt and separated from each other by channels. There are eighty of these stone islets some of them having undoubtedly once served as sepulchral monuments. reveals a whole string of internal causes. 159 Kubary's inquiry into the astonishing" disappearance of the Pelew Islanders. The people make fewer things than they used to do their originality has died out they are in a way to become poor ethnographically. is not yet obsolete. built on to a morai in terraces. The deficiency of cause anticipated in the near future. and to inflict upon the others the heavy labour of taro cultivation. Huahine Windward columns. the prevalence of intestinal parasites. what with a tendency to by living exclusively on taro. of more considerable results from labour. particularly in must be sought in their the case of the women. with walls 10 feet thick. houses of former days and therewith a source of endless encouragement to fancy and skill has been dried up. stone-axes. birds. while in . on a base 6 feet high and 290 feet long by 230 broad. There the gigantic stone images are something wonderful. their height is is nearly 50 I feet. stars. while in one case of the breadth across the shoulders not less than o feet. induced . which planation. telling of another state of things. Kubary stated in 1883 that years only thirty-four heads had been cut off. these causes offer a sufficient exIn the light of the description given by the writer just quoted. The ruins of Nanmatal in Ponape consist of square chambers. Important phenomena in the social life of the island races. The most classical instances of this wealth of relics left by a more numerous and more active generation are preserved in Easter Island. the would seem to be in a morbid state. is found beside a road of cyclopean stones. of a larger population. to a height of about 30 feet. and even in arts and In Micronesia they have ceased to build the large club or assembly crafts. so far as possible. there are the morals. The natives wrongly ascribe it to but the main is way of life. on ancient fortifications crown the hills of Rapa. the climatic disorder. Early licentiousness in both sexes special features in married life of a kind to deter the younger women. This decrease is in close connection with a decadence from levels of development formerly attained in political and social matters. such as adoption in its various forms. the practice of headin the last ten hunting. influenza dissolute births is . A glance into the past of these races reveals remains of bygone entire population dysentery. keeping couples apart and placing considerations of utility before everything . Many them have . is a network of roads far closer than Island. the ruined state of large houses.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS rate of decrease. and the lack of endurance of the man under circumstances of bodily exertion. and so the and in the caves skeletons lying near drawings of the moon. from entering into bonds. lastly. the liability of all the older people to chronic rheumatism as a result of the climate and the exposure of the naked body. formed of basalt in . of more enduring works. the most complete and comprehensive inquiry that we have for any portion of Oceania. Among these ruins the tomb of the kings of Matalanim rises. Their great number is no less astonishing than their size and the comparative high level of their workmanship. generations. point to a long previous period of this lamentable decrease. the descent of titles to sons.

and nowhere offers a wide or fertile soil however. a region of constant intercourse. Oceania. Originally many are said to have had head-coverings cylinders. above or below ground. and the state of extreme simplicity in which the first Europeans found the islanders. engraved. . for permanently independent evolution. weighing many tons. Islanders can have executed these works both the sculpturing and the erection of them. been thrown down and half-buried in rubbish but others stand on broad platforms built of hewn stone. isolated evolutions of civilization. and impoverished. It is. that size. lastly. as being. as Earthquakes of course may have thrown them down but no observer. Sepulchral monument in Ponape\ Caroline Islands. old or recent. (From a photograph in the Godeffroy Album. seems at the first glance a most favourable soil on which to study their age. he thinks. and. These images. the poorest in land. according to Cook's description.) sober a judge as Beechey declares it to be simply impossible that the Easter . Even so prepared. is. has been able to divine the purpose they served. of 5 feet diameter. must at one time have been lowered down the mountain with hawsers. of reddish stone Some have hieroglyphics carved on their backs. feeble. and . whose number. What makes we it yet more difficult to answer these questions is the ignorance in which are as to why so many have been thrown down. the richest in islands.i6o THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . in pits below. of all regions which men inhabit. have given rise to many speculations as to their origin. . is strengthened when we find that Easter Island shows masonry adapted to various purposes in the shape sometimes of staged platforms. as to the reason to their object. Naturally these images. far exceeded any capacity of theirs. and clever workmanship contrast so strangely with the smallness of the island. sometimes of huts. The impression of decadence which one receives from the sight of such mighty works among a race now so scanty. and with or without interior ornament in colour.

all that there found Mai companion 1777. but even a man like Broca x could admit the idea that in this island-world we have the remains of a submerged continent. (From a model in the Godeffroy collection. and settling on Byam [Not to mention Darwin and Lyell. . and children.] M . elements but it the fund of civilization possessed by a racial natural shows us no persistency of a single type and a special Instead of the deep gradations which divide the Fuegian. and we cannot be surprised that not only older inquirers like Ouiros. his Tahitian who had been cast away twelve distant. rich. and driven 62$ miles to Barrow Island . miles Tahiti. only slight variations on worship . In 1825 Beechey found on Byam Martin Island forty men. who some years before had been caught in an unwontedly early monsoon. in the domain of culture. were left of twenty. and then with difficulty. the same ground-theme. while the islands are so small that even exploring navigators did not discover them No cause appeared too vast to explain such a till late. three fellow-countrymen. devoted to sunOceania displays. from 750 years before. an astounding fact. civilization. expert in many arts.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AXD THEIR MIGRATIONS It 161 furnishes in interesting evidence of the special directions " in " which individual race can develop. isolated has been Even the hypothesis of a separate creation of races so But migrations of the islanders are brought into play here. Leipzig when we remember that wide tracts of very deep ocean divide these islands. a kind of Bushman or Hottentot. subsequently leaving this on account of 1 its barrenness. phenomenon. New Britain. The distribution of Malayo-Polynesian races over an area covering 2 is I O degrees of longitude and So of latitude. When Cook came to Watiu in records of accidental involuntary migrations. from the Inca of Peru. the survivors of 150 from Matia. or seafaring men like Crozet and Dumont d'Urville. Its great problem is not the tranquil development of local peculiarities. but the equalising effect of migration from one archipelago to another. It gains in significance Outrigged boat. and ultimately from quarter to quarter of the earth. mentioned even by Forster and Cook and have been more and more recognised Numerous indeed are the as the great fact in the ethnography of the Pacific. women.

During his short stay on Yap. and Vavao. a distance of 1500 nautical miles. one of the Radack Islands. the presence of numerous Tongan and Fijian half-breeds exactly on the windward side of the Fiji Archipelago would suggest that people had been driven westwards. Island A remarkable point in this is against the trades. mentions as a well-known fact that the inhabitIn every case ants of the Carolines are often driven to the Philippine Islands. Lifu.i6: THE HISTORY OF MANKIND is that the course from Matia to Barrow 1816 Kotzebue found on Aur. Active as the regular intercourse may be between Tonga and Fiji. even had the other hand. seem never to have come to Pelew. and westward to the Carolines and Finsch reports a more recent case of castaways from Jaluit or Bonham Island to Faraulep in the western Carolines. though plenty come from Celebes and the islands in the Celebes Straits. who had been cast away with three others Inhabitwhile fishing. they make the island of Samar or the most southerly point of Luzon. inhabitants of the Philippines . and covered a distance of 1850 miles against the trades. Gilbert islanders to the Marshalls. . Miklouho-Maclay often met Martin. in account of the Pelew Islands. a native of Ulie. its boundaries being indicated by Tikopia. Kubary. Savaii. Another region where people are often cast away is in and about the Fiji Archipelago. with outrigger and sail of rush-mattinc Godeffroy collection. In . Boat of the Mortlock Islands. Ralick islanders ants of Ulie were carried to the Marshall Islands also in 1857 to the Gilberts. just where On the northern equatorial current breaks on the island wall of the Philippines. and then in Pelew. (After a model in the people his who had been cast away on other islands and had returned.

the Tubuai or Austral Islands. (After a model in the Godeffroy collection.) A third region is even more important by reason of It the Polynesian legends of migrations. accomplished a still longer course. (From the same Islands. and the Paumotu group. and there spread the first Between the Society Christian teaching. . To supplement the instances already given we may mention the involuntary journey of Williams in a boat from Rarotonga to Tongatabu. Paumotu or Low Islands. and the Loyalty Islands. especially Tahiti. often so clear. by a has been established by frequent castings-away both with and against the trades. and that of several natives from Aitutaki to Niue in both cases distances of a thousand . Boat of Niue. Cases have been known here also in which persons have been driven southward. driven Those natives of Manihiki who were storm to the Ellice group in 1861. a particularly close connection miles were traversed in a westerly direction. to the New Hebrides. the its local connection with embraces the Hervey or Cook Islands. and the Society Boat of the Hermit Islands. or still the traces.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AXD THEIR MIGRATIONS 163 we not clear evidence that they have been driven from Tonga and Savaii to the more westerly islands of the Banks group. Savage Islands. It is when we come within the Melanesian groups that these movements gain in interest. owing to the large number of Polynesians to be found there. Islands. They appear even to have got to the central Solomon Islands. of Polynesian influence.

'' . the Pacific Ocean appears no longer as a watery desert where islanders live in seclusion but mutual relations of the most varied kind. •. in it is possible for vessels to be driven against trade winds to say in the direction in an easterly direction. which the Easter Islanders must have reached their and currents remote land. Reports about castaways in this direction from the continent of Asia or from Wooden baler. equatorial easterly regions lead they are and away from Even if The only conclusions that are possible here. become in take people relations every direction. are based upon the data of ethnography. and Vancouver Islands. repeated instances of persons being driven from Japan northward and Lopatka. from China ships are said to have been cast away on the north-west coast of America.164 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND but never beyond the tropic. we have evidence in involuntary journeys made from Tahiti to Zealand. Even --• ... American continent South the there are no manifest relations. Evidence of journeys in the opposite direction is afforded undoubted northwest American origin which come ashore on the coasts of With the Hawaiian Islands. . both between the islands. the involuntary journeys. and Ethnography has to take account of these casual the long vista of years have stretched a dense network from manifest. (British Museum.. so that no connection has been formed with New Finally.. (British Museum Japan are more refer to the rare. Zealand — one-fifth real size. New Zealand — one-sixth real size. Kadjak. Byam that is Martin and Bow Islands that. Apart from some established historical cases we may here eastward /. in which Castings-away are no exception but the rule. and will be later investigated. which are equally to confirmed by history. New it. while in baler. we regard only continents. articles of by although westerly Wooden in higher latitudes winds and currents lead towards South America. and between them and the . especially during the summer.

But this view is met also by the life and ways of the Oceanians. in order that he might fly with his family in time of danger to . flight to (Godeffroy remote rences. we must not forget the low value placed upon human life and tools. of thought. . the enterprises. New Guinea — one-fifth real size. too. had a ship made ready in Kauai._. Lastly. Attacks occur- of one island upon another. and Samoa. and some others. since none but they have either authority or knowledge to lead the greater expeditions. are common At the time of the Spanish conquest the inhabitants of the Marianne Islands took refuge in the Carolines. Division It is specially to be observed of labour in trades leads of necessity to exchange. all all is of them islands off New prove always found to imraise the appliances of travel and transport. famines being frequent. human this. Constant contact with the sea has given birth to a spirit of adventure for which the aristocratic constitution of society provides nourishment The Tongans may well reckon as the Phoenicians of South PolySamoans and Fijians never ventured upon the journey to Tonga except in boats manned by Tongan seamen. fact that in The it 1_ the Polynesian islands is mainly carried on by the chiefs or on their account can only be favourable to Wooden baler. as of pottery in Bilibili. The inhabitants of Yap. either for the purpose of falling upon the inhabitants of neighbouring islands and getting heads for their canoe houses. Fiji who monopolised the trade between The Tongans. and allowing" all consideration to disunion and peculiarity. that the higher development of any industry. when threatened by attack from Kamehameha. motives for migration. hunger was a spur to migration. (British Museum. Infanticide. must give its due to every cause which makes for union. Guinea. cannibalism. Teste. a permanent state of war. and thus especially to level. one of the ocean islands. their mode There is in them a pronounced migratory sense. navigation to a higher Political disturbances again have created numer- ous Stick chart from the Marshall Islands. and Simbo. Lastly. are sufficient explanations of and from the same root springs also the love of emigration. and are specially renowned for the Tongans voyages of this kind. and their tradition. of Peleliu. between the races of Oceania. Nor. with the inhabitants of Sikiyana. sacrifices. The piratical inhabitants of Biak also traverse hun. are real wandering tribes lacking.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS 165 She must give up the idea of any sharp separation one land to another. are noted as genuine trading races. . or in order to meet on some appointed day of the year for a general exchange of goods. Collection). moreover. or Moresby. Journeys of many hundreds of miles are not seldom undertaken by them. nesia in all island countries with a tendency to over-population. islands._ dreds of miles in their canoes. Trade is naturally a chief cause of roaming. Tongans fleeing from a cannibal chief peopled the island of Pylstart or Ata Kaumualii.

It is not usual for single trunks to be used exclusively for seafaring but in coast navigation and fishing they meet local requirements. and dependent on drift timber while at Port Moresby on the New Guinea coast the Motus. having little wood. while the Tongans. We do not need to notice the rafts of bamboo made by the Pelew Islanders for the navigation of an inland lake. even where large regularly built vessels exist. or the double canoe. and oars 6 feet long. since opportunities for inland navigation are not usual throughout . which. They carry one or two masts. two triangular mat-sails. rendered difficult. usually sharp at one end and seldom holding more than two men. may undergo Fortunate voyages raise the spirit of alterations in the course of time. passingthrough holes in the platform. As a matter of fact these people have only a kind of rough raft. where for them. Vessels of every description. Naturally here also local limitations produce inequalities in shipbuilding. Among the families whom Cook found in Dusky Bay there were no boats. . A long oar serves for steering. with a platform. The Loyalty Islands' canoes are inferior to these. and also in the migrations of the different races. They do not. But the art of navigation." but draw upon their more expert neighbours Yet. built with great care in several pieces. the shipbuilding art stands as high among them as among the Malays and we must further reflect that they were without iron. Navigator Islands from the seafaring skill of its inhabitants this has now greatly Many of the low islands are so poorly wooded that shipbuilding is decreased. races of the Asiatic continent. It is a fact that at the present day the Fijians seldom go beyond the boundaries of their own group. wood is also scarce. Most of the If we regard their remoteness from the great civilized tribes arc genuine seamen. under the name of buJiu or shells. put together of coco-palm wood. sailed the seas on rafts. being fastened together and planked over. Such boat-rafts have led to the erroneous idea that the New Caledonians. and so they sail to New Caledonia. favoured by the wind. We find them in Tahiti. on the other hand. and this can only be done by sea. . build as a rule no vessels. content themselves with " wishing they could. . very pretty work. as well as in the extent of the voyages. no less than that of shipbuilding. are found in this region. that the smallest boats are. bad luck depresses it. but are also double. Next we come to boats made simply of stems. 1 6 feet long at most. but rafts are actually in use for coasting purposes. the islanders of the Paumotu group. build larger and better vessels than the Marquesans. however (like the Caribs in a well-known couplet). . But such is the development of boat-building. At Hood Bay in New Guinea rafts are used resting on five trunks on a single platform these carry as many as a hundred men and quantities of goods. The Samoa group got its former name of the enterprise. become raft-like vessels. and a mat-sail. and those of with a triangular mat-sail. from the simple raft and the sailing vessel with outrigger. resting on two hollowed tree-stems. only a single raft made of tree-stems for putting people across. the region . The small area and poverty of their islands force them both to peaceable migrations and to warlike expeditions of conquest. capable of being carried by two persons and of carrying two .1 66 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Among no " natural " races has the science of seafaring reached so high an average development as among the Polynesians and Melanesians. a stone anchor. often come to them. On Waituhi the Paumotu Islanders have a great number of small boats. for example. and carrying a mast The Kunai people have double canoes. where necessary.

elegant double canoes. Its beam and depth are very small for its great length. and vessels. The New Caledonian model to the extent of cleverly . an outrigger and two recurved paddles. and then hollowed by means of fire. and they bore his worship Even the gods themselves like to build ships. which must exactly match. build their boats of several pieces.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS or three . These single-tree craft afford the basis also for the larger built ships. The kabekel of the Pelew Islands is a vessel between 60 and 70 feet long. on which the leader takes his place. The Tongan vessels at that time were clumsy compared with those of Fiji. " They bear the high-sounding title of " the king's craftsmen and have the their privileges of real chiefs. form a special caste. but here too there are gradations. The vessels of the Loyalty Islands are also clumsy a fact the more remarkable since both these groups contain admirable material in their great pines. and serve as despatch-boats to the larger. The entire vessel is merely ahollowcd-out keel. is shipbuilding. he found Fijians there who had brought a Tongan of high rank to his own island in their ship. sails and and fitted by special workmen. bow provided with carved ornaments. Zealand and the number of boats is correspondingly large. in which. for the very that large timber. attached to the keel. Fijian ships long held the place in among the craft of the Pacific When Cook first visited Tonga 1772. or. by reversing the sail. . Thus Fijian chiefs took to employing by preference carpenters from Tonga which gave rise to the belief that the Tongans built their vessels in Fiji for the sake of the better wood. . The small ones in many cases travel very fast. patting made by together . The keel of these consists of a stem hollowed out by means of fire." known are two single stems. over the Ocean. sentences. of several. ships are like the Samoan. stern and ropes are all by others. In the Solomon Islands The shipbuilding has attained a high level. These highly-honoured Planks are artisans carry on trade of shipbuilding with particular care. The Tahitians in their island. but less well . They have only altered the Fijian improving the accuracy and fineness with which various portions are executed. fleet of Forster saw a 159 large double canoes and 70 smaller craft. 167 they have pointed pieces specially fixed on fore and aft. The islands. the launching. The tree or trees intended for a ship will be felled to the recital of religious While many of the natives are hands of a privileged class so closely were the interests of state and society once bound up with this art Even to the present day in Fiji the carpenters. These Fijian vessels with Tongan improvements belong to a type spread throughout Micronesia. and the outriggers prepared Everything is done according to old tradition the laying of the keel. does not In the Society Islands. such as the Maoris obtain from the Kauri pine. and for that reason they accepted this with its sails as a gift. Xew In Tahiti. usually hewn out of one large tree-stem. bow and stern are convertible. the actual building is in the . finished the finishing of the whole. good reason grow as " twins. qualified for this task. and pulling as many as forty paddles. whose chief work and mystery. built and slower. supported in the water by the outrigger attached to one side. A kind of deck made of bamboo is arranged amidships. Samoa. and undertake first daring voyages. in the bigger Large ships are found chiefly in Fiji. all take place with religious ceremonies and all festivities. and the baggage is packed. Tangaroa was the patron of shipmen. Tonga.

we do not find the double canoes common among the Polynesians. which project about 5 feet. sheltered against injury from weather by a small roof All other kinds of craft. coloured red and yellow. and do not check their way. In Micronesia. and has cross-ties to must have no flaw. wooden posts. holding sixty to eighty persons. is An This is important element of the Polynesian or Melanesian vessel shaped and in fitted on in various ways. composed of woven from the bast of the leaf-stem of the coco-palm. undertake. The ornamentation is rich. the Paumotu Group. The Pelew canoes differ from all those in use in the South Seas by being very low in proportion to their length and sail-area. and at the end of which is another piece of wood. These are by preference intersago-palm leaves after the fashion of the Alfurs. is hollowed out from a trunk which 2 to 2\ wide. as light as cork. Ireland. As an article of trade it is in demand . the . they are equally made of a single tree stem. which is as Amidships on the cross-timbers a square light as cork and serves as a float. bent at right angles. and from The hull. The Micronesian fashion of adorning boats with bundles of the the outrigger. Over the gunwale are fastened two light cross-pieces. is of various durable woods are used for this purpose which. have only an outrigger. Among the Fijians many kinds of craft are distinguished solely according to their outriggers. form a water-tight surface. and . is never more than one. and so In New Ireland the boats differ materially from those of New Hanover forth. and has a high narrow beak at each end. New Guinea. laced. shells. cabin of bamboo is erected. The in light and sharp kaep. driven by a large three-cornered breeze. are found in of coco-palm leaves. In more westerly islands the war-vessels are extraordinarily rich with fantastic ornaments.is three-cornered. The plaited mats. comes from Polynesia..1 68 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND most elegant and the lightest craft in that archipelago are built in Ulakua. made in one piece. Even the great war. and attached to the mast by a rope passing over or around — there — It cannot be reefed. Both ends curve upwards and are strengthened with keep it from warping. even it in the eastern districts feet. Light mostly Pisom'a. to 6 feet in As a rule the outrigger is fastened to the vessel by two length. or those of Mackenzie and the Ralick Islands. of the frigate-bird. reaches a height of 65 booms 5 while in the west is generally Hibiscus. or an ErytJirina. of which that in the stem rises high and is adorned with arabesques To raise the gunwale above the water line they employ the ribs of or painted. especially of the war-canoes. from the raft upward. they split feathers lift them and divide on the sharp angle of their stems. or frame of the mast-head. festoons of feathers and bast. but are not so long and not curved The boat of New Britain is mostly made from one stem. slips over the water like these lightning in the most gentle Heavy seas find no resistance canoes. It is not more than half an inch thick. and sticking into a strong boom. bent on a bamboos. and avoiding carved work. The larger boats of New Guinea are from 16 to 20 feet long. the after one bent and clastic. sail. just touching the surface of the water. Differences can be noticed between one island and another. the forward one straight and sail stiff. sizes. but in the gunwale. It is on the average larger than that of New has often a low strake on each side. where the vessels stand next in quality to those of Fiji and Tonga. and then being attached like tiles to the cross-ties.amicus. but for short journeys they are extraordinarily effective. For this reason they are not adapted for such long voyages as the inhabitants of Yap.

They even inscribe their geographical knowledge upon maps. In their conception of the world the ocean is imagined as being everywhere full of islands. serves. in Dr. with their often elegantly The ordinan. are carved forms. cocoa serve as nuts protheir also vision. The taking of proper bearings that they were ever found. speaks of 144 oarsmen. made . Even the balers. the distances are given very inaccurately.\-\<\ bread- fruit . When gether. show the value which is attached to the humblest nautical implements. They distinguish eight quarters of the heaven and winds to match. representing routes. shells and can be filled with water. carved about the handle with figures of animals or other ornaments. In the Ralick group the preparation of maps from small straight and bent sticks. Hans Meyer's Collection. Fancy paddles arc inlaid with mother-of-pearl. first is of double importance in this ocean. from a practical point of view. and islands. made Preof a long- capable for keeping time. often decorated at the pointed end. were placed by Rear-Admiral Strauch. a number of Boat of the Luzon Tarals boats are sailing to- (From a model Leipzig. The balers of the Admiralty Islands. The islanders are keen observers of the stars. In large vessels the steering. above those in Europe. is a secret art among the chiefs. and have names for a good list of them. in which is the individual islands are often so far apart and so low-lying that one astonished for the Many islands in the Pacific were discovered time in the present century. The blade is lancet-shaped. they can be used on occasion for clubs.paddles 20 heavy feet sea. but while on these the bearings are to some extent correct. which helps to explain their daring voyages. Wilson of 300 men in a single boat. its 169 importance.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS proportioned to long-. feet. with their single horizontal bar for a handle.oar to handle it is the blade over 6 requiring two or three men in a frequently the least practical part of the gear. The Marshall Islanders also possess a map of their own. currents. Where they are as strong as in the Solomon Islands. for are prepared voyages from paiidaiuisz. one man stands in the stern of the leading vessel and signals the course with a bunch of dry grass. large In the war boats the of number far rowers 1 exceeds 00. Forster The time of the paddles is given by singing.

excellent sea- mep. but. Their best place is at the oar. and to this very day many of the Malayan . commanded by a chief who has one or more pilots to Without compass. putting their skilful men. By this progress on a wide front for. they prefer to jump overboard and swim. for service according to Wilkes. 165). r the indi- vidual canoes are w idely that separ- (From model in the Munich Ethnographical Museum. On their greater go to sea in a thoroughly systematic way the longer voyages of from 500 to 1000 nautical miles are undertaken only in squadrons comprising at least fifteen canoes. The Hawaiians They are or Kanakas. on the other hand. apart from their limited physical strength. but even so. hard-working. the squadron pro- ceeds in line in which so Sumatran prahu. blows steadily from the The use of this run. where they prove themselves. In the eastern districts the navigation of the Malays connects itself with that Their distant expeditions for purposes of trade or piracy. or lead. and fearless. has been brought by the native pilots to great refinement.) ated they municate by closes in. The ocean winds. which ultimately became racial migrations. currents are also no less well known by to them experience. On their voyages of the stars. but not suited on board a man-of- more serviceable in small than in large parties. of the Micronesians. north of the equator. sideration in lay- ing their As in a general rule. they steadily observe the angle made by the canoe with the run of the sea sticks . so that they are able to take this also into concourse. are. being very fond of work upon some one else.170 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND little up of enterprises they and stones. chart. these men contrived to make their distant point. showing the whole group (p. in whaling ships they show themselves willing. caused by the trade wind. war. which remains constant even with shifting north-east. and with but limited knowledge advise him. comthey avoid the danger of can only sailing past the island they are looking During the night the squadron This whole style of navigation contradicts the supposition that before the invention of the compass only coasting voyages were undertaken. who are often tried in the whale fishery. order to get the largest pos- sible field of view. Polynesians and Micronesians often ship on board European vessels. signal. were carried on in outrigged or double boats with triangular reed or mat sails. On board a man-of-war they find difficulty in accustoming themselves to the word of command. when going through the surf. They are timid about going aloft. which.

also elevated and similarly ornamented. with whole fleets. Their active sea-traffic is one of the most interesting features in the life of the Malays. and also reaching farther eastward than the Chinese. keen. Palembang. raised high. and adorned with peculiar carvings while the vessel tapers aft to a narrow stern. is built up with strakes hardly more than an inch wide. They make use. whom they have obviously taken for their model. which indeed has known how to come to terms with it nor. formidable as these are in trade they act mostly as clever middlemen to them. The most renowned shipbuilders are the Ke islanders. Their usual boat is a " dug-out " with round bottom and no keel. and Acheen. These boats also have outriggers. are distinguished by their intimate acquaintance with the sea.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS 171 prahus of recognised excellence have not an ounce of iron about them. as it were. The Malayan prahu was originally a somewhat shallow boat with one sail. mostly pure Malays. — . though they once suffered it to reach their island. upon which the slim craft. — . where they are preferred by the native authorities. although not a year passes without some prahu from Goram being fallen upon by the inhospitable Papuans of New Guinea. of European communications. who are . In another kind of boat the floor consists of one hewn tree-stem. Their skill in navigation is sufficient to meet even European requirements. The pvcxlius belonging to the once piratical village of Sounsang in Sumatra on the Palcmbang coast. Tagals or Goramese. and the colonists from thence in Borneo and other islands. proverbially clever. Luzon. The races who have been most operative in the history of this widespread group. or of cloth. Entire populations have been. whose boats. most elegant in form. have no vessels at all. moreover. These are the races of whom it has been said that they would never build a house on dry land if they could find a place in the water. . and other islands. The Government of the Dutch Indies employ none but natives. provided with outriggers when at sea the Hova boats have no outriggers carrying large square or lateen sails made of mats of palm-straw. in Borneo. and the Malays of Billiton. . Piracy has never succeeded in paralysing this native traffic. Inland races in Malacca. built of wood fastened with wooden bolts and rattan. whether they be genuine Malays or Alfurs. does this injure it either. abounding in slaves and trepang. It is no mere coasting-trade that is carried on by some expert navigators among the races of the Archipelago. rendered fluid by means . notably the true Malays of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. The Malagasies must have lost much of the art of shipbuilding. of trade above all the Malays of Sumatran origin. carried the post between Palembang and Muntok for years. and hardly 3 feet wide. sail through the whole New Guinea Archipelago to Singapore and next to them the Badjos and Bugises of South Celebes. on board their large fleet of //-«/«/-cruisers though there are many Chinese and Arabs among the freighters. any more than it hinders the people of Tidor from visiting those coasts. are 20 to 30 feet long. pushing into the interior of the islands. and having a keel. omnipresent and the equally smart but treacherous Bugises of Celebes. and there are some fishing tribes who get along with bamboo rafts (so-called catamarans) after the Chinese model. The sharp beak runs out in a kind of neck. to which in great measure they owe their conspicuous position. . . They are not afraid of competition with the Chinese. across the tempestuous Banca Straits and never within the memory of man were these light vessels seriously behind time. and dug-out canoes.

the decrease of the population has caused shiftings in Immigrants from a wide area. on some island where the poor creatures had never lived. furnished Assistance in the erection of the islands was rendered the model for the temple. though in fact it was no riddle whatsoever. after a long voyage. In its beginnings it was indistinguishable from kidnapping. offering the appearance of an uncanny spectre-land for they walked through trees and houses without feeling them. Men and boys were dragged from their homes by force. their Kanakas back at the end of three years. It looked very strange to the new-comers. and where they were ill-treated and often killed by the inhabitants. . Samoa. after bringing men along. immigrated great their is in large numbers into Borneo at the instance of local So their influence . With the dispersion of the Polynesian races over the islands of the ocean. a ship was cast away upon a strange coast. A figure met them and told them that they were in the realm of spirits. no less than the narrow one of the island-world. which would give them an additional ground for a title to it. Since the arrival of Europeans. On the other hand Hawaii is one of the the Marquesas." On Raiatea it was told of Tangaroa that after peopling the world he changed himself into a canoe. several decades during the turning period of the world's history when Acheen was the busiest roadstead of the far east. was associated in later times the traffic in men. All things being taken together. and have recently chiefs. which. or Queensland. or decoyed by false representations. the capabilities of the Malayo-Polynesians It is only because this estimate of them has not always been taken that their distribution assumed the look of a riddle. They followed his injunction to return home at But they had only once. have come to Hawaii. and carried to districts where they had never wanted to be. The regulations framed later by various governments remained for the most part ineffective for want of Even when the planters were compelled to send officials to look after them. : : . captains often landed them. Since time to relate how they had gone astray before they departed this life. first through storms and currents. that they are allowed to govern themselves according to own laws and they are so conscious of their own strength that there has The Acheenese once been no lack of attempts to make themselves independent. too. called into existence by the growing demand for labour in regions of economic progress. there were. for their own convenience. When Savage Island was raised out of the sea. To quote Bastian " Once upon a time. at the beginning of the seventeenth century. In the world of Polynesian mythology and legend we constantly come across migrations undertaken from the most various motives. then by voluntary migration. After the decline of Malacca. and preparing the red of the sky from their blood. .i 72 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND spot from to be found in every Singapore to New Guinea. Everything important or peculiar has been brought over sea the wide horizon of the ocean. Malays had made an emporium. two men who swam over from as navigators are pre-eminent. which the Sumatran held a similar position. extending from New Zealand to most islands. by casual comers. gleams with a divine light upon these migration-legends remoter islands are half-way stations between this world and the next. groups whence native missionaries have propagated Christianity far into the Melanesian region. like Hawaii. and were driven along quickly by a favouring wind. then that deadly coast has been avoided.

and a hen in their canoe. to the next world. and the connection with it The Tongans were long in the habit often bound closer by special reverence. The Maoris found another ground for quarrelling having come from little islands where land was scarce. The scantiness of migration legends in Melanesia has been regarded as only a part of the general dearth of tradition which is a Melanesian characteristic. a man and his wife. who visited the island of Guam in the . every man laid claim to estates in New Zealand that were too large. of respectfully greeting the people of Tokelau. If. . When these lines of attraction or attachment intersect. priests and their gods to Hawaii. was preserved the stone idol brought from Hawaiki. and his brother the cloth made from the The gods. too. by means of an inundation of the sea. namely." soon came to be regarded as a land of the other world a spirit-land what descended from it was hallowed. and that all the spots whence souls go. with a strikingly homogeneous brought along. with a dog. The mother-country. Fiji offers us unwonted examples of legends of inland migrations. Tamatekapua. the direction of them being indicated by the casting away on these shores of people from Eastern Asia. were approached to obtain leave to settle. Political and social relations follow to this day the lines of old connections which link together island groups Legends of migration survive in individual villages far distant from each other. were to be dug up. Ulu introduced the bread-fruit which is named after him. we are led to see other relations. No doubt this bears upon the fact that the home of souls lies across the sea. out of all these innumerable wanderings to and fro to which various causes have given rise. the If we find tradition bringing white son of the south. " Hawaiki. a pig. Political connection. as being their ancestors. Men in from Ulie in the Carolines. which is buried in the latter island. namely with the west. followed the roads from old descriptions preserved in songs intercourse has become brisker. because a great destruction. one group stands out by reason of the great extent of its that. where the old home is still remembered. way with a canoe full of men and quarrelled with him about the prior right of possession. in order . and families. The Hawaiian account is simpler When Hawaii had been hatched from the sea-bird's egg. the son of the Clouds. face north-west. directed from the north-west towards the south-east. Traditions are not kept alive by memory only.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS Tonga put it 173 and the steepness of its coast on one side is ascribed to who worked there. which in still later times was uninhabited. that is swim. Fiji and Easter Island. and at the present day the Caroline islanders collect coco-nuts in the Mariannes on behalf of foreign traders. Mariannes since then the 1788. who were originally the sole inhabitants bast of the mulberry tree. or is often bound up with Islands objects that have been either are left behind Yap. would take place if an axe belonging to one of the gods. of these islands. as the Kumaras' god. quarrels cannot be far off. again. Matua-Tonga. the carelessness of the one : — . some people came from Tahiti. which has occupied the region between ethnographic operation New Zealand and Hawaii. Others think that these helpers stamped the islands out of the sea. subject to : The Uluthi — population — that is but part of the result of the great migratory movement in . Thus the Samoans relate that one of their chiefs fished up Rotuma and But in a later migration the chief Tukunua came that planted coco-palm on it. brought Rongomai to New Zealand as its tutelary god from the spirit-land and there.

They wandered far and near. the sweet potato. while the legends of the Marquesas and Hawaii refer back to There is a song in which Rarotonga. but hitherto the right way to identify by the them has hardly been taken. and Tahiti. settlements is a single existing fact belonging to that stage in the development of For that reason it is not easy to understand culture which we call the stone age. dispersion. Hawaii in the group of that name. YVe cannot ignore the possibility that closer are indicated distribution of particular articles. Waeroti arc now unknown. in point of time. of New Zealand. elements of this civilization are distributed over the islands with affinities little uniformity. " The seed of our coming is from Hawaiki. Raiatea and Tahiti. we have no means of comparison with similar achievements. least of all point whence Polynesian migrations had set out. Waeroti. or as . In the domain of annexation it was the greatest performance previous to the discovery of America. It is quite wrong to regard this as a single event. the same kind of rats. view of the great majority New Zealanders but also other Polynesians migrated to their present abodes from some southerly point in equatorial Polynesia. the taro the same kind of gourd. the inhabitants of which say they came from Savaii. none of these races was ever at rest. .174 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND It is an exception. Waerota. There can be no doubt that from Xew Guinea to Easter Island we are in presence of essentially one civilization. Hawaiki. Savaii. A special branch of it has developed in the narrower region of Polynesia. That the home of the Maui myth appears to be in New Zealand that the title Ariki is here applied to priests. is cognate with a whole number of Polynesian place names Savaii in the Samoa group. the seed of our nourishing. Evava in the Marquesas and others. or a nearer and further Hawaiki. The area which this colonising activity has rendered productive far exceeds the empire of Alexander or of Rome. The Rarotongans Waerota and themselves have the tradition that they come from Awaiki. : t . colonising consciously and intentionally. but Parima and Manono are small islets of the Samoan Wild dogs like those group. by those who imagine they see in New Zealand the For the distribution of certain weapons upon which this hypothesis rests in the first instance is everywhere so uneven and capricious that conclusions of very wide import cannot be based upon it. The the Pacific. The Maori tradition is that they came to their island from a place called Hawaiki they seem to distinguish a larger and smaller." This name. the seed of mankind. none of these are facts from which we can draw the important conclusion that New Zealand was the point of . one of the Samoa or Navigator Islands. Parima. rather one case of the rule for . has the greatest proAs Hawaii it forms also the starting-point for emigration to bability on its side. Manono arc mentioned as neighbouring islands to Tahiti. still more of remoteness. It was with astonishment that the close connection of the languages of Oceania was first recognised. Just as little could the general ethnographical similarity be overlooked the only difficulty was to find therein a scale of affinity. like any In any case this last series of great migrations and Greeks or Phoenicians. Apai in the Tonga Islands. are found in the Navigator Islands. Maori traditions again which call It is solely is upon the basis of the traditions that the of students at present to the effect that not only the . but in the rest of Polynesia to temporal chiefs and that New Zealand alone can be the home of the articles made of jade which are scattered throughout Polynesia. .

The various tribal groups trace their origin to their canoes. actual length 8 ft. and say that some of the in 175 New Zealand boats were Rarotonga. although language and customs rather point to Tahiti. The canoes were repaired on islands as they went along. must have been peopled at the same time. The songs of the New Zealanders tell us even now the reason for their chief by the name of Ngahue was emigration and their farther wandering. One canoe sailed round the North Cape. all in the North Island. and rats. as the emigrant's fleet departed. party in the war that was still going on among the islanders migrated to New The tradition still preserves the names of the double canoes Zealand with him. dogs. and how. (Berlin Museum of Ethnology. an old chief exhorted to peace. another made its way through Cook's Straits these two brought the first settlers to the west coast. sweet potatoes. nor the little quarrels which arose among the crews of individual canoes chiefly on account of the women. It was not till later that the Middle and South Islands received their population. Even to this day the north is called the Lower and the south the Upper Island. red paint were put on board the canoes. nor the doubt whether they should steer east or west. certain families landed where pleasant bays smiled upon them. parrots. karaka berries. what was left of the wanderers reached New Zealand in the summer time. and equally the names of the chiefs and the exact spot where the canoe landed. In this connection we may remember that in Raiatea also there was once a locality . . the the inhabitants of the southern part of that archipelago the Hawaiki legend appears again. The legend still recalls how the seeds of in which the voyage was accomplished. Finally. A he reached New Zealand and returned to Hawaiki with pieces of greenstone and Other legends give him the name Kupe the weaker the bones of a giant-bird. After a long journey driven to flight by a civil war which devastated Hawaiki. The inhabitants of Nukahiva in the Marquesas come with But among bread-fruit and sugar-cane from Vavau in Tonga or Friendly make their forefathers the Tonga Archipelago. and sacred — Carved boat from New Zealand . 2 in. Nor is the storm forgotten which got up in the night and scattered the fleet. are equally in favour of the journey having been made first from the somewhat mythical Hawaiki to that island which no doubt is the It is possible that the larger part of the Maoris "nearer Hawaiki" of tradition. some sixty nautical miles distant from New Zealand. A second starting-point is indicated by tradition in Islands. and even before the chiefs had decided on the place to land.THE RACES OE THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS Rarotonga the way to Hawaiki. Wharekauri or Chatham Island. the names of which they have preserved. taro. built are of Rarotongan origin. gourds.

God of dances in the form of a double paddle. (2) toothed club from Tutuila (3) ancient club from Tonga. Language and Hawaii or customs connect with their inhabitants Tahiti to which. myths On place the other hand.) . Streams of emigration are supposed have poured forth from it. lively re- collection of the Samoa Tahiti seems to have sent forth emigrants to Hawaii. We feel Hawaiki some scruple about making the indicate name one single island of a small archipelago. and also a part of those who made to the great journey New Zealand. other mythical (1) significance. as also to the Marquesas. Easter Island. travel Hawaiian point. The Sandwich Islands offer the same difficult}'. (4.176 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND designated Hawaii. Why just that one and that only ? No doubt the name possesses a general. and Austral with Rapa. names show a group. (Berlin Museum of Ethnology. wherewith many of the attributes of the legend . plicit tradition of the Rarotongans makes their island to have been settled almost simultan- eously from Tahiti. and like a place . 5) short clubs from Easier Island. Nukahiva. to Hawaii as to well as to to to New no Zealand. Rarotonga yet the ex. at the most various epochs. Samoa and But then from Rarotonga again came the colonists for the Gambier Islands. Tahiti less than Tonga.names.

and so as the land of forefathers. l general. Numerous place . took place from the northward. and its fossils. to Pakeha ' : stranger : ' occurs in the same sense in other parts of Polynesia. which they recognise as those of one of their companions who had been thrown out of his boat. in in- Lastly. The " old Hawaiians seem by " Tahiti Thakombau. Similarly it is the land where lost their man- kind once immortality. as the land of souls. as the land of the West. the last king of Fiji. One legend speaks of fair natives. Samoa. of whom the geological record of New Zealand. We are from the first warned to be cautious by the fact that this legend of Hawaiki origin. since they are never free from mythical elements. have so far revealed no trace. to traditions Marquesas and Samoa. is one of the few legends related by a race about has nevertheless thoroughly accepted. In New Zealand the new comers find footmarks. (From a photograph in the to have understood strangers in possession of Herr Max Büchner. various immigrations also takes various forms. points to another civilization than that The legend of the which met the first Europeans who visited the Maoris. but as a beast of prey. traditions . The geographical It Hawaiki is not absolutely certain in but rather shows a considerable fluctuation. and came up from it. the fact. and of the rise point the ) 1 in the forms Maori " native " in opposition Moot and Maoli. but several. still contested. and even Tonga. We know therefore why those wanderers are alleged to have found in these islands aboriginal inhabitants. A much later arrival is emphasised in all the legends. At any rate. gin the is If a universally assumed by also Hawaiians.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS 177 can more easily be combined than with that somewhat forced geographical interpretation. the fluctuations dividual traditions must not be Tahitian ori- overlooked. position of its which science At all times own we all are strongly averse to such traditions. even turns up as a spirit land. The Maori legends also testify that not one immigration only. from spirits became men. that the dog occurs not as the companion of man. We can of now the entire understand the that belief their Marquesans country once lay in this Hawaiki. N . and from the Marquesas the threads lead back to Tahiti. where the souls go with the sun into the under world.names show that a name may recur widely and without actual transmission. the ancestral land.

. in other cases. on a mutual footing of feud and extermination. for instance in Rarotonga. colonisation. populations began upon a higher level. however.178 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . varieties become clear. . and then fell off upon the remoter islands like New Zealand. Echoes of New Zealand meet right " us in the visible speech of New Caledonian architecture. In the case of colonisation of Rarotonga. The epochs of the Polynesian migrations must have been very various. having lost the consciousness of a stronger cohesion. They any Polynesians in the Pacific. bearer of them. On Nukahiva indeed we hear of eighty-eight generations and there are sixty-seven ancestors of Kamehameha but to these figures no credit We are entitled. the development of the new organisation. . New more Guinea. fact that there was a period during which the sending forth of colonies was enjoined by the increase in population. Colonies These migrations were not confined within the limits of Polynesia. In Micronesia. they retained the most traces of a past higher condition. islands they hold their ground on the larger they were merged in the mass of Ethnographical the resident population. Mangarewa. distorted at pleasure. with its power to maintain culture. the Kingsmill or Austral groups. however. who lived behind them. becoming ever more savage and cruel. The settlement of Many isolated casual migrations may have preceded Tahiti no doubt falls earlier. underground and could not be conquered till a chief made a hole in the earth Less frequently. tradition demands thirty generations. if we remember that one or the other element has been the Thus in the territory of the New Hebrides and Solomon Islands. but not without leaving their traces. . which they had lost the knowledge and the capacity to produce. decadence of the Maoris affords a conspicuous instance of a rapid impoverishment The larger states split up into small communities." and who left great shell heaps We reach quite mythical ground with the Pua-Reingas. The took place so long as there were . and frequent. Hawaii. The character of the people lost in demeanour and discipline. and the transformation of these into demons of the forest and the sea. immigration can only be a matter of some centuries back. Polynesian affinities are yet There many customs remind us with especial force of the western Polynesians and at the same time of the Fijians. in that of the the Maoris fifteen to twenty. But in any case we must clearly grasp the the greater deliberate movements. Not only. A superstitious cult of the individual took the place of the state or national religion. and was rendered possible by the political In the newly occupied territories too. of a darker stock through mixture with older inhabitants lived likewise of men who on these islands " after the great monster. The people have not had time to develop any marked peculiarities The date of their arrival in New Zealand and the other places of in culture. Polynesian colonists have brought in "fatherin this case a revolutionary institution. . Hand in hand with this went belief in their old native gods. They went back even in the arts even in Cook's time works of former generations were preserved as sacred objects. to assign no great antiquity to Polynesian can be given. in the advantages of culture. where "mother-right" prevails. by which the sunbeams entered. where disturbing influence pressed upon them less. have . cruel spectral caricatures. went forth into all the Melanesian groups where we obtain a general impression On the small of a permeation with Polynesian elements from the eastward. the legend is decided as to their being uninhabited. in the clubs of Eastern . Easter Island.

to respect of bows of In the in Harvey Islands the eastward. and it has an area of not more than 1 8 square miles. Of the little islets which rise from a common base in a reef. the most southeaster!}. among all the Polynesians the Hawaiians have the greatest similarity with the Samoans. the largest or most productive. In view of the many internal differences in the populations. and 1 a more extended eastern group reaching from Hawaii to New Zealand. north of separated by a band poor in islands. and builds its vessels differently from Samoa. The Maoris are next most closely connected this nearer relationship is confirmed by the language. of accurate demarcation between Polynesians and Melanesians. we find Micronesia over Polynesia joins on in the form of a great triangular space outflanking the eastern side of the two districts already named both to south and to north. Norfolk Island is the only one in the Southern Pacific which can be pointed out as having from . and is divided by a tract of sea with few islands into a western group of Tonga. characteristics Melanesia contiguous to New Guinea . shares with and pottery. This seems to be a similar phenomenon to that of the deepening of the lighter skin tint of the Malays into a darker as we go eastward. great but difficult. In this. the art of carving has been absorbed the preparation hatchets with pretty handles rich in symbolic forms. the large influential groups of Samoa and Tonga . as might be expected. Samoa. there is little purpose in dividing off smaller groups by physical characteristics. Indubitable traces of former show that the uninhabited regions did not extend beyond their present boundaries. such as the Guano Islands of the Central Pacific. habitation is inhabited. These vikings of the Pacific contrived to discover even small and remote islets.] The Society Isles show to it appears from the map that a line drawn from Hawaii New . Many of them were only visited periodically for their palms or the fishing but these were in all cases certain to be less well suited than the others for habitation. and Tokelau with Fiji. we will now make an attempt to divide the area of Polynesian culture into smaller districts. According to Finsch. it lies far from all migrations. This strikes us most clearly Fiji in our ethnographical museums by the abundance and variety of the wonderfully carved in Tonga shows linguistic peculiarities.islets of the Paumotu group. affinity with the neighbouring Fiji. and lie almost flush with the sea. its natural endowments deserved to be permanently settled but in the angle it makes with Australia and Polynesia. group. conditions and Local arrangement breaks up the wide district : into is geographical groups distinguished by ethnographic it. and considering the distinction. against the Moluccas and Philippines to the eastward. In the whole of the Pacific there is not one island of any size of which it was left to Europeans to demonstrate the habitability.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AXD THEIR MIGRATIONS Polynesians 179 made their way to Melanesia. It is just possible that a sharper racial distinction between west and east Polynesians may be emphasised. Nothing indicates more clearly the frequency and extent of these migrations than the very small number of totally uninhabited islands. These are proved to lie in those central Pacific Sporades which hold so important a place between the groups of Eastern Polynesia and Hawaii. the Penrhyn group. 1 [I leave this as in the original. but we have historical proof of Melanesian colonies in Polynesia. forming an atoll. and others. These can at most be suggested. Confining ourselves to tangible objects. show an clubs. though Zealand passes through the Tonga group. often only one in a .

But a further motive must be sought in the less secluded character of the entire Micronesian development. No part of the earth shows the power what the naturalist would call a " sport. objects in greenstone. and before the days of small-pox and kidnapping were reckoned by the first French missionary at not more than 1500. If the Maori dialect is in many respects richer and more primitive than other Polynesian dialects. Polynesian agree exactly. Also richly carved sticks. political institutions in their money. Above also . predominate especially in the Gilbert Islands tattooing instruments The agreements between Melanesia and Micronesia lie in a mass . The loom of Santa Cruz. The most trustworthy descriptions draw attention to the departure of the Darker coloured skin and small Easter Islanders from the pure Polynesian type. One might conclude that its settlement did not take place till late. In a population which eyes point perhaps to an admixture of Melanesian blood. little sticks the in young people of Astrolabe Bay wear. find their richest development in the sharks' teeth like knives. influences . New Zealand. not very even small admixtures would be of importance. their navigation they show traces of a richer development of the external life. But on the whole it preserves agreement with the rest ships. positive as well as negative. besides the comb in bound with grass and adorned with cock's feathers. and have weapons with wooden handles. each of which has its name and its significance. oars as well as axes and dancing stilts are carved with conventional ornaments. and of making gigantic stone images But on the other hand they have not the more artistic . called mere. this may be ascribed to the more plentiful contact of the tribes over wider spaces. Locally and ethnographically the — — Many objects are indistinguishably like those of particular Malayan localities . all other Polynesians the an obsolete writing. symbols of rank in the shape of oars. is the culminating point and the horn of Its favourite manufacture is small plenty in regard to art development in Oceania. of any region inhabited by Polynesians. thus the spears of the Carolines resemble those of central Celebes. which has the most peculiar climate Gilbert or Kingsmill Island. and spear. helmets. by the highest estimate reached 3000. of small details their hair. repeating curious head ornament of the Ruk Islanders. set with masks and feather These. unique the is the Melanesian region. Micronesians stand next to the Malay Archipelago and East Asia from a physical point of view they display many of In their ethnographic relations the Mongoloid marks with especial clearness. Easter Islanders possess the art of pottery executing human figures in they also build stone huts. made like many ornamental objects from jade. The It represents among the islands most unique existence is that of Easter Island. . But these peculiarities.i So THE HISTORY OF MANKIND agreement with Hawaii in their feather work and axes. of Polynesia. disappear when we look at the special ethnographical points. pillars for houses. . significant under any circumstances. In the Marquesas. upon which the neighbourhood of Asia has worked both advantageously and disturbingly. the power of wood-carving. closely akin to that of the Carolines. however. In social and they seem to be a race which has come down from a higher stage. their looms." of isolation with more impressive clearness than this little spot of some 50 square miles. but that from the remoteness of these islands a tranquil development resulted with the maintenance of many old notions of form. bow. forms of axe. hand clubs. reminding us somewhat of the Easter The Hawaii or Sandwich Islands are distinguished by fine Islanders' writing.

and the good- tempered. with such specific features as the loin-cloth made from the pandanus-\<za. In archipelago. the peculiar navigation highly advanced. average darker than those to the eastward in the western portion we no longer meet with light . one ethnographical province. In some distinctive details. or the stone clubs and the armour. Here we begin to find a higher proportion than in New Guinea of population partly straight-haired and fair-skinned. ing tribes The more in .{. they are Wilhelm's Land. cunning Papuas of the southcoast. warlike and enterprisdwell East New Guinea they are far superior to the natives of the interior.haired people. warlike. who might be taken for EthnoPolynesians. and other islands southward to Teste form. such as the use of coloured bast and grass for ornament. east and Between the Bismarck and Solomon Islanders. and bark belt. characteristics . the working of small disks of red spo?idylus-she\\ for ornament. (Berlin Museum. The Trobriand. graphical istics character- point parti}' to the more . mode of inserting Some of these the axe-head. there is a great agreement in Rattan cuiras throwing-sticks of dark wood. the stupid Dorese. The Papuas of New Guinea west of Humboldt Bay. and cannibalism. we ma)' note the arrows. too.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS iSr even* Within the region of the darker races the contrasts are naturally sharper. exactly like those of Ceram. quite spe- cial characteristics. with eastermost New Guinea. straight . west This character extends to the inhabitants of the neighbouring to islands north. coarse. lighter and darker groups may be distinguished. D'Entrecasteaux.) strong. but at the same time capable of work and receptive of education. from Kaiser character . Of smaller. the Solomon Islanders agree with New Guinea. easterly islands of the Sunda group the short bows of bamboo strung with fibres. are on the . and in New Guinea.skinned.

in one or another direction. an evidence of limited intercourse. the Solomon Islands. it is interesting to note that their peculiarities arc negative. . Except the spear they have no weapons lacking bow and arrow. But many other characteristics point to closer affinities. cases in remarkable abundance and variety. . with the inhabitants of Humboldt Bay. duced by this physiognomy has been noted as being the effort to portray the mark in the transition from East New Axes from the D'Entrecasteaux Islands — one-eighth real size. and axe. holding as they do an intermediate position among the rest of the Melanesians. one at right angles to the other. are speaking one . or New Hanover.) bored Englishman but it also reminds us of the " tortoise-shell style " of the Torres Islands. Alike Guinea and the next islands to the eastward there has been developed a style in which the human countenance is rendered by means of two straight lines. to indicate the nose and lower rim of the The effect of boredom proforehead.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND New Guinea to the more westerly regions. In the case of the Admiralty Islanders. in some . Bow and arrow are wanting also among other Melanesians. (Christy Collection. where it is made necessary by the material. In the poverty of the islanders of whom we might be inclined to see an effect of their isolation. throwing-stick. a corresponding line giving the mouth. and the Australians but the latter have other weapons. sling.

bear the closest resemblance to those of Samoa. filing . indeed. appear to have made more impression than the conquerors and rulers from the west. of teeth.THE RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND THEIR MIGRATIONS The more apart from easterly islands of Melanesia show. . self-founded Polynesian influences are Deductclearly apparent. the attachment of woollen also the broad jade blades. and knives soon became common in the palaces on the coast of Geelvink Bay. with strong middle rib. In style the productions of Fiji Polynesian dialects the nearest to the Fijian. as in Fiji Fiji 1 3 the largest proportion of Polynesian influences. Here we find forms of bows and arrows showing a remarkable similarity with the Melanesian so. New latter. too. the beak-shaped clubs. predominant. While Polynesian influences have flowed so copiously over the eastern boundary of Melanesia that they got possession of whole islands. ants of the former island are more pronounced negroids than those where. there still remain corre- many peculiarities sponding to the secluded position. shown by the northern New Hebrides.short swords. But the broad paddles of New Hanover." The relations between these two groups are most intimate. the people of New Guinea were ten years ago still completely in the stone age while in the west the working of iron had long been known. The colonies coming from the east. both bounded westward by a line drawn through Halmahera and elements appear so strongly that the region appears to be one of transition from Malay to Melanesian. . Special to (Godeffroy Collection. they decidedly On its eastern shores. of adornments. Mare contains a Polynesian colony. The inhabit- of the but in both ing the effects of the soil cli- and the unfavourable mate. Malay influences Only in western New Guinea are have been far less active on the west side. Spear-heads. an old connection must be . is quite clearly seen both from the negroid elements which. from the Fiji Islands. in spite of that. and tattooing. or cloth. older forms of spear. the peculiar clubs. to the In the district Flores. assumed. . who settled in the coast districts of eastern New Guinea. till you come towards Tagai. the tassels. also remind us vividly of this Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands form a district by themselves. the use of the pretty brown bat's fur for all kinds Carved wooden plaques." Tonga " lower. and the like The closest affinities to New Caledonia are absence or rudeness of sculpture. indeed cannot be understood Tonga Fiji is " upper. used as stamps. . are represented with especial strength in its eastern half. . But that. and also from ethnographic characteristics. the shape of spears and absence of the j bow. Physically the Fijians must be regarded as hybrids between the Mongoloid and the Negroid etymologically the Tongan is of all . and the New Hebrides. scattered as they are throughout the Malay Archipelago. New Caledonia are the binding of the grip of a weapon with string. group. Among these are the circular huts. have maintained a wide extension.

from New Caledonia. pointing to a long duration. whose main constituents are a fairer straightRelations with an older world may haired. (Christy Collection. thoroughly Ocean- and connect at least Northern Australia with the neighbouring New Guinea and its adjacent islands. The fundamental ideas. from the stream of migration which entered the Pacific from the westward. . which rapid progress crossing to has done obliterate. among North Australian tribes.iS4 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND It can hardly be doubted that. The evidence of Tasmania would lead us to assume a crisp-haired race as originally inhabiting Australia for the the existence of small-pox to before the arrival eat pig-meat. only that knowledge alto Papuas It is and Jade battle-axes and jade hatchet. too. we have a mingled strain. says Campbell. testify this. The extension of the bamboo in Arnhemland. a Malays live. the cause may be found in the coarser life . Here. a settled institution. and a darker crisp -haired race. the objection to Perhaps also we may trace to the same cause Without doubt these races the absence of the boomerang in North Australia. and more indigent condition of the Australians. insignia of chiefs. temporarily or permanently. must have begun to permeate long before the historical period. and exercise no small influence upon them while on the other hand there can be no doubt as to the temporary intercourse of the Torres Islanders with both Papuas and Australians. In former times consistent and more more For of its highly -finished customs may have the best prevailed. On the north-west coasts of Australia we can prove Malayan influence more certainly than any other. so far as our present lows. unquestionably be presumed. rills were diverted to the continent of Australia. the racial dualism. Traces of taboo also appear and if their usage is less sharply marked than in Polynesia. . boys and girls. Malays. and many details in the initiatory rites for are ian. The Malay fisheries on the North Australian coast are. we can look. of Europeans. fact .

too. are not alike and the New Guinea dog on the two sides of Torres different. objects. type. infanticide Intellectual boxing — Games of children. ." We cannot disprove that Malayo-Polynesian elements may have reached Australia from the eastward also. islands. Norfolk Island was uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. Ethnographical Straits. distributed as they are over a wide area broken up numerous varying greatly in natural resources. Tongans. just as easily as they got to New Guinea but no evidence for it is forthcoming. lastly. PHYSICAL QUALITIES AND INTELLECTUAL LIFE OF THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS Spiritual critics Bodily peculiarities tion — Racial marks — Colour — Head— Hair — Albinism — Muscular strength — Disposi—A race of contradictions— Optimistic — Stupidity — Frivolity— Lies and Dissimulation — Comedy of King Finn — Licentiousness — Human cannibalism. The apparently uniform conditions of Australia arc complicated by what Bastian calls " the shadow which the great continent of Asia casts over these oceanic groups of islands. and permeated by a It is deeply-rooted social organisation. Nor is the connection with New Guinea in any way intimate. mouths well shaped in spite projecting forward rather than sideways In general the lighter Polynesians. and — capacity Influence of Christianity — Creative power of the Polynesian mind — Invention — Mythology — Cosmogony Knowledge of geography — Medicine — Reckoning of time — Counting — Music and dancing — Wrestling and sacrifices. horizontally. probability is strongly in favour of his having been introduced is by human immigrants . usually placed dominance of short . § 3. AMONG into the Polynesian tribes. and among the Samoans the light-brown tint of Finsch considers Southern Europeans. The hair is black. smooth to curly. often causing the facial angle to be equal to that of Europeans noses more often snub than curved eyes small. But whatever may be the history of the Polynesians. they form a special group of mankind. Post-pliocene or not. but many . such as might on the average be designated as olive-brown though among the Micronesians we find the Chinese yellow. with a prevailing tendency to light gradations. as has been said. with remarkably wide opening . the prelow. though doubtless negroid constituents turned up among them. . more especially Maoris and of thick lips. racial distinctions emerge very clearly.THE POLYXESIANS AND MICRONESIANS iS = Tasmanian hair was decidedly more woolly than the Australian. . that within these limits the Micronesians do not vary more from the actual There are Polynesian colonies Polynesians than Swabians from North Germans. Crossings have taken place. almost superfluous specially to emphasise the fact that in this race too we can find no absolute unity. resemble most the European type even in expression while the someThe what darker Micronesians. nearer to the Melanesian come Micronesians in the Micronesian region. often exaggerated by artificial deformation generally well-shaped foreheads. Among the more important bodily characteristics we may mention . Whether remains of the dingo are really found in the Australian . of which we can no longer determine the individual elements. and eloquent expression cheek bones and. In close affinity with the Malay race they have a brown skin. . approach the Melanesian. but skulls. lively.

many them perform hardly tends . straight Mongol- The for it best term is " crisp " hair." so commonly used it of the Polynesians that may be worth while to point out that European standard. and reddish of or yellowish col- oration tips. larly A lighter particu- rusty-brown wisps running through dark hair. the small amount of labour which thorough development of the body. up and fashion. The expression it nobly-formed races. Samoan woman. only a fraction of an Englishman's lifting power nor do they excel in speed of foot. departs coarse from ian the form. Occasionally wigs are sticking met with. " cannot be comis pared with anything more than a pretty German girl-" peasant The hair in its finer texture and tendency to form or even waves ringlets. Even the most stalwart-looking Maoris possess. on the average." says Hugo Zoller.1 86 THE HISTORY OF MANKIXD character is general " soft is features and pleasing demeanour. seems The development of hair on the face and body curly-haired persons. the proceeds frequent from bathing and powdering with lime. tinge. A notable corpulence of . towzled after the Papuan The colour of the hair ranges from black to chestnut brown. is straight-haired than in The bodily strength of the Polynesians is not very great to a . Arms and legs run rather to fat than to muscle. " only their stature which can be judged by a The handsomest woman of Samoa. (From a photograph in the Godeffroy Album less in Albinism to be rare.

Gilbert Islands. Long ago G. According to Finsch the Gilbert Islanders may be indicated as the strongest. The Polynesian has not the childish but at the same time he is not so reserved as the Malay nor so calculating as the Chinese.THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS is 187 The average weight of the men in the according to Finsch. one of the most powerful and stoutest of Polynesian women. he must have good bones. : The lighter skin of the aristocracy admits of exceptions here and there. about 1 2 stone. . The minima fall just below 5 feet. who live under conditions calculated " We did not find among them a single man who could to stunt them be called : tall." a swarthy man passed Still the darker complexions are not found exclusively in the lower classes." which are men Marshall Archipelago the natives of the more northerly islands. southern islands are slender men who grow old prematurely. If in surrender to the impulses of their nature . The more weakly type tends to prevail fishing. possibly the indolence which shrinks from the exertion of and limits itself to a vegetable diet. the maximum a little over 15. Chinese. Women of the Gilbert Islands and Marshall Islands. and lighter people of the upper classes are descended from Spaniards and tanning by the sun assuredly does not alone account for the darker tint of the lower classes. and 5 feet 3^ inches for a woman of Upolu. In stature the Polynesians hold a medium position. Ellis heard it said when " How dark he is. Forster said of the Easter Islanders. and this holds good not merely of their cleverness in finding lost objects. (Godeffroy Album. Japanese. Finsch's measurements give 5 feet 1 1 inches as the highest figure for a man of the Gilbert frequent as a result of indolence. The acuteness of their senses is considerable . inventive intelligence naivete of the negro . They are distinguished by the rapidity with which they multiply. while the social organisation. and produce food in greater abundance. or seeing small birds in covert. Islands is. An is native to them. supplying an abundant emigration. are of a taller and stronger stamp while the great majority of those in the In the less visited . by strangers. may have something to do with this. Racial differences are to some extent involved in the .

we shall find mention of their meeting with Wallis's expedition which they met in quite a differe nt manner.) . the Polynesians are of an untrustworthy changeable character. in many respects be fortunate. Savage. In re- had not ceived any lesson of this kind. they have in other directions given proof of no narrow intellectual endowment. for murder on series Hawaii. on the other hand the barriers of ances manifold and social ordinand although they attack Nature and each other with primitive implements and weapons. and Penrhyn groups and the history of New still Zealand records more. the most part maintain a but timid attitude thcv arc A man of Rotuma. the small the exterior such Paumotu. (Godeffroy Album . like children of disposition. By that time the white men had A Tongan. And we turn over the record of the dealings of the Tahitians with white men. to A whole in of treacherous attacks are known as have occurred islands. made themselves cases where they feared. the natives appeared as regular savages. (Godeffroy Album. the . an extremely happy Yet a century ago the still Tongans were if cannibals. by his overhis confidence. Polynesians are contradictions. envied. If all " natural " races display something contradictory in the proportion which their cultivation bears to their endowment. in truth a race of his To Cook and companions the Tahitians and Society Islanders appeared as gentle and agreeable to people. for The Microncsians . Without being savages after . the fashion of the Bushmen or Australians.iSS THE HISTORY OF MANKIND these are genuine tradition are rigid " natural " races. partly to Cook was himself blame. and experienced a bloody repulse.

. In order to carry through the part. An entertaining proof of the art of the Polynesians in fiction is afforded by the appearance of the sham king Finn on Cook's second . and almost defenceless against strangers.THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS frequently few in number confined to a solitary island. one hears plenty of quarrelsome talk and sees very little fighting. These is evil qualities are cloaked by a childish levity. of children at the death of their parents. The first Christians on Maui performed a wonderful feat when they built a church 1 00 feet in length carrying stone. they cannot Throughout Polynesia A man of Pelevv. Under great outward vivacity lies the dulness of the uncultured nature. The task of the criminal law materially lightened by their garrulity keep a secret. rendered essential service in promoting the cultivation of the sugar-cane. . . visit to the Friendly Islands in 1777. and a man of Yap in the Carolines. to suspect when he saw the impostor do obeisance to quite open to the requirements of an European sense. (Godeffroy Album. Twice the principal industrial life The Polynesians show themselves in the . and only began the real king. Even in serious warfare words play an important part. Even among Christian Polynesians one is struck by the indifference with which they meet a disgraceful death at the hand of the executioner and the tranquillity . many others had to take as much share in the farce as he himself and yet Cook was taken in for some days. particularly in blood-steeped New Zealand. and hauling timber with their hands. lime. even to save themselves from the scaffold. The sugar-plantations which form the chief wealth of Hawaii are no doubt at present chiefly in the hands of whites or half-breeds but King Kamehameha III. has been remarked. Human sacrifices and cannibalism must have left their traces in the disposition. and sand on their backs. Many words are accompanied by many falsehoods.

position. idle. just the valiant. It is a progress towards humanity to Generally too the Polynesians which full justice has not been done by all critics. muscular skinned inhabitants of fertile native of the poorer Tonga Islands is instructive. lightmore serviceable. The Tahiti. and the industrious. we only learned to know the people superficially. Levity and idleness have in some places allowed sexual irregularity to reach an incredible order to form a pitch of corruption in among on the upper classes . that Mission has itself forwarded material contributions for missionary purposes to other districts. Samoa. we should have Morally the Polynesians did not and found an Indian mythology in Polynesia. have possessed a church and a school in every village. to be sure. clever. profound difference between the dissolute. brought with him on his return from the whale-fisher) an old woman who used . with clergy and teachers of whom by far the greater part are natives. Siovedi. at . Hervey. will the section With life the first ray of light which of falls upon get a of Polynesia. who taught the invocation of the God of Heaven. and for the third rafter time they put it up again." Professing to converse with God and to work miracles. women hold. the contrary. If indeed it be too much Dressed skull. nothing loth. have shown a rare capacity for education-. For many years whole groups. also infanticide.i go THE HISTORY OF MANKIND gave way. 7 . It is. founded the " gimblet-religion. tion of a pure assume that a development in the direcmonotheism was making its way in their religion before the arrival of Christian influ- any rate. Thus in Upolu. we glimpse of a strong movement of great value in the history of civilization. visitors who exaggeration by Much of it no doubt arises from their general level of culture. progressive Polynesians who are decried by The Samoans and Tahitians are reckoned Europeans as avaricious and stubborn. cannibalism and traces of be dealt with in it. With a little more space and a little more stability. Is ? it not significant that the Tongans In escaped the corrupt aristocratic rule of Tahiti fair judgment as to the licentiousness ascribed to the that their excesses were described with much consider must Polynesians. quite apart from their faculty of imitating European dress-customs. the and especially Tonga. Also in Samoa. . laborious. contrary. in Samoa. a native. sober. Among the most curious phenomena are the independent offshoots from Christianity. sacrifices. (Godeffroy Collection). together with the opening-up the central regions the Pacific. The London Missionary on Society has for years no longer had occasion to send pecuniary aid to Samoa ences. while in New Zealand. such as Tonga. do not stand high and yet their abandonment of cannibalism and human sacrifice speaks a great deal for their self-education. a high Human on the of society. to from the Marshall Islands. recognise therein a powerful impulse towards the creation of a pantheon. At the same time these communities soon became self-supporting. a native of Savaii. Nowhere else have missions so soon attained to the point of sending out native teachers. we can. he enjoined a mutual confession of sins in cases of sickness and his divine service was rendered specially impressive by the discharge of firearms.

moon. the islands. talented Tupaia drew for Cook a kind of map on which numerous islands of . or the ladder whereby the souls of chiefs ascend to heaven. the creation of thoughtful minds. or the gleaming bowstring." and the Pleiads. This structure of ideas. the Polynesians found an inducement to observe the heavenly phenomena more keenly. Their conception of the world. the moon of movement and with a goddess dwelling in the earth. The moon is a woman. with an indwelling capacity for renewal. and stars. In the rainbow they see also the bow. And while the sun is on one side made fast to Hawaii. to the formation of which fancy has contributed more than understanding. on the other it is bound to the earth by its own beams. we find the creation of spiritual forces following immediately upon the emerging of Ru from the are in the region of abstractions. as a fixed island or floating in the sea. side of his mother Papa. was not adapted for wider extension. which made the world result from the embrace of heaven and earth. and to form cosmogonic imaginations. in their need of orientation by the aid of sun. at this Nowhere do we better confirmation of that stage mythology includes science. volcanic fire. clouds and rain with the goddess of the inner world. The stars were M . and therefore the universal mythology of Polynesia could not accommodate itself to the analysis of its simple cosmogony. or " great shark. As the population of heaven they are divided into two parts. When. . The shooting-stars are the means by which they send messages to their former creators. ' created by the ancestors of the present Polynesian race. the light. While the moon and youth in the spring of the water of life. The frequent migrations of the Polynesians from one island to another led The in course of time to the acquirement of a certain stock of knowledge. the sun else he would burn up everything. is yet based upon a mass of observations. namely the third. the germs with the air. But in the great simple images of the sea. who stumbled as he went about at night and was taken up by the moon with the branch of the Both sun and moon renew their tree to which he tried to hold. under the name of " the bowsprit of the canoe. the earth . .THE POLYXESIANS AND MICRONESIANS to " 191 touch In all " for diseases from behind a curtain. the moon by Maui. The man in the moon is Rona." enjoy special consideration. variations of Polynesian mythology an element find all of philosophising as in appears the fact in astonishing luxuriance. we Not till then is the material world created by the union of Tangaroa with the various forces We get the impression of natural science in embryo of Nature. into these abstract conceptions. alleging that Christ resided within her. with the goddess of the external world. From this twofold attachment also eclipses arise. between which the Milky Way. stars are in a heaven nearer the earth. when Tangaroa produces. shines only from the fifth Sun and moon once lived together and produced the dry land Bamboo flutes fror British of the earth." forms the boundary. the Society Islands. the rainbow. Among the constellations Orion with the Southern Cross and the neighbouring stars as " Tamarereti's Canoe. Museum.

Among the priests a kind of science had developed itself. and we stone age. and for this reason receives special veneration. there is cited at purificatory festivals are in the priests. the lays of the heroes. the more rational modes of treating the sick. On the memorial tablets they find the in important names tinguished the notches. be pretty correct. to facilitate counting. The traditional hymns which are rekeeping of the sacred. from the Marquesas. Hawaii. Besides the also a profane tradition. Pelew. and named three. in its capable. is may add. how much a without writing. As a rule the system is " is naturally that of division into fives and tens in but Ton-Fa. . Ule. which were actually discovered What the Polynesians knew rested on a great persistency of tradition. sound principles of which were smothered under the hocus-pocus of supernatural commerce. and the claws of a Squilla for puncturing pustules. When they become priests they recognise each other by secret passwords. the New Zealanders used notched sticks. Genealogies are taught at night to promising boys. The Polynesian language Lehn." On the other hand the head is as with us the seat of the human thinking faculty. only occasionally permanently or volcanic. and uses the term " bowels " to denote what we express by " heart. first Among place. a system which was also highly elaborated in Peru. and knew whether they were chalk on the deck drew of Raraka with chief The brother of the and the like. the myths which have become old fables. (Munich the has a cannibal " tinge. are historical tradition. The Tahitians tied strips of coco-palm leaf in bundles . and taught together by special persons. low or coral islands from of Wilkes's vessel all the islands of later. but not Intelligent fairly well informed about neigh- bouring islands the lofty or they distinguished the inhabited. Ethnographical Museum. Part of this is kept secret. . . forms " possesses numerals to denominate the thousands. star-lore. Their stock of culture shows of talented race. Mythology. they used. that four-reckoning" In the Marquesas and Hawaii a scale with forty as its peculiar unit. the depositaries curiously society. Paumotu that he knew. massage " has the Among medical apparatus we find bottle-gourds for administering injections. torical of which are often enough in the lowest ranks of To them are entrusted hiswives' memories. of tying knots in string. the position and size." indicates the limit of the numerable. which to be sure medical Dancing stilts. dis- by special ornamentation. and elsewhere. and a little medicine besides. The Tahitian places the seat of life and natural disposition in the belly. ashes.l 9'- THE HISTORY OF MANKIND The names were found people were to Polynesia were marked.

one-tenth real size (Christy Collection). The names of the months many cases are referable to agricul- and the phenomena of vegetable life. The names of the months and the first day of the year vary from one island to another. Bamboo dancing-stilts. from the Marquesas — O . from Easter Island— one-thirteenth real size (Berlin Museum of Ethnology). Paddles used at dances. and besides ture m 1. and the tenth reckoned twice over. 2. Forster In Tahiti there were fourteen of these. In New Zealand we find thirteen months.THE POLYNESIANS AND M1CR0NESIANS Time two in is 193 reckoned by lunar months. of which regarded as intercalary.

They especially which choruses alternate with individual chants. are put on the stage between pas seuls. traces two parts with Thus in a number of islands New Year's day falls reckoning six months only. and the Hawaii. Ball-games are very popular. ending in blows. or like when marching to war. amounting to a handsome tale of centuries. Samoa used to be played by whole villages. Cook's companion. common. the board has 238 squares. Bamboo flutes and shell trumpets are everywhere are regarded as sacred. sense for rhythm and even for rhyme. At length the waste of time and " visitors" reached such a pitch that the chiefs had to interfere. often consisting in the mimic representation of a quarrel." Of all the manifold European instruments the drum was the with two sticks. some measure a game of chance it is played. The Maoris. Among the dances are also included the war and favourite wrestling and boxing is contests. 1 In into One since of their games very like our draughts. to find it consists in hiding a stone in a piece of cloth. 1 [Mr. even the rudiment of a drama. dialogues. The weapon games.] . and at last even their own persons on one throw. they reckon by generations and at the southern winter solstice. On these occasions dancing-wands or dancing-stilts. is and trying Another by hitting with a stick is . describes a musical entertainment in are in use. Anderson. however cheerful may be the mood The Polynesians have a decided which inspires them rather are they solemn. Another pastime is racing between boys and Swimming in the surf with the help of a board or spar is also in girls. only instrument of which the Tongans would take any notice and this they Micronesian drums are distinguished for their thought inferior to their own. their wives and children. sing on every occasion at work. all their thrown as and players stake bones (after property. cost of entertaining the some hundreds on a and to last for weeks.i 94 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND remain of another system of chronology dividing the year into the disappearance and reappearance of the Pleiads. being given out. Particular drums are used in divine service. At the more important performances. But the character of their songs is not cheerful. even Polynesians have a great liking for games. Besides this. especially in Hawaii. from mythical times. twenty-seven in Mangarcva. varying according to the Another musician produced clear tones by length of the tube. a wheel-shaped stone (Maika). vertically on the ground in slow time muffled notes. their arm and leg their death). in this game the betting the important point. too. . In the Hawaiian far as possible . divided rows of fourteen. : . when Cook was there. monologues. and marked hour-glass shape. this reckoning goes back twenty-nine generations in Rarotonga. Stevenson mentions somewhere that cricket-matches in side. life of the dwellers in the fortunate . in rowing. Song and dance occupy a large part of the isles of the tropic zone. The rest sang a soft air. by . at their sports. amcebean songs. thus that. often finely carved. but of course starting . in . so much mellowed by the rougher tones of the simple instruments that no one could help recognising the power and pleasing melodiousOn other occasions hollow tree-stems are beaten like drums ness of the music. the girls took part in these. four or five These they steadily struck almost having bamboo-tubes closed at the lower end. Tonga as follows " Eighteen men sat in the ring of spectators. game called Lain. in dancing. but appears to be more complicated. striking with two sticks a long split bamboo which lay on the ground in front of him.


PATTERN OF POLYNESIAN TAPA. Vienna. (From Cook's collection in the etlmographical Museum. Leipzig.! .Printed by Ehe Bibliographischfis Institut.

teeth of men and sharks. Hawaii. and are. § 4. . but occurs nowhere with such frequency as on Mallicollo in the New Hebrides. their ornaments. On Easter Island. stuck in for ornament. DRESS. Living under a fortunate sky. a cleanly Unluckily they frequently destroy the effect of this virtue by excessive anointing of themselves with coco-palm oil or chewed coco -nut. and bits of greenstone. like the Italian morra. dexterity and pluck. as the Lastly the embellishment resulting from it must not be forgotten tattooer's song says . New at them. AND IMPLEMENTS OF POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS — Dress and ornament Tattooing Deformations of the body Feather ornaments Modes of wearing the hair Objects used for ornament Bark cloth Tapa Mats Weapons and implements Lack of iron Working in stone Manufacture of weapons from wood Spears Clubs Limits of diffusion of bow and — — — arrow — Slings — Industrial — — — — — — — — — activity. Artificial mutilations and embellishments of the person are widely spread. where the skull is squeezed extraordinarily flat. In Polynesia the men are in general more tattooed than the women but in some places both sexes are alike.THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS both sexes with of children . therefore. Samoa. with whom the Rarotongans were brought into the closest contact. 195 much also. Women with their newly-born infants. as in Micronesia. The special forms of tattooing intended to excite fear seem to have left off since the introduction of European modes of fighting. The stage of culture which the Polynesians have reached is very clearly expressed in their external appearance that is. feathers and flowers. The ears are bored. like Little boats are a frequent toy who their elders. the ear-lobes are dragged into flaps by heavy wooden plugs. and surrounded with water. games with the fingers. and the Paumotu group. : . is found in isolated instances in Tahiti. Deformation of the skull. and even people in mortal race. in their dress. The custom . their equipment. among all Polynesians. Flattening of the nose is practised in Tahiti and among the Yap Islanders and the nasal septum is often bored to allow of the insertion of flowers or feathers. of tattooing the face was not in use . The young Zealanders have a special predilection for flying kites. are fond of ball -play. sickness. Another game of theirs is to throw up a ball made of leaves bound together. will bathe. both Polynesians and Micronesians bathe often. WEAPONS. They prefer fresh water to salt for bathing. Tattooing nowhere reaches such perfection as in these regions. Another advantage claimed for tattooing is that it obliterates differences of age. and regard both as a good remedy against illness. are very common and the players are extremely clever . . it on a stick sharpened at both ends. and on Nukuor the women only are thus adorned. The Micronesians also bore the rim of the ear in various ways. and catch Besides these. both by flattening it behind and elongating it towards the vertex. particularly not in Rarotonga though universal among the Maoris.

On Nukuor the women live for three months secluded in the sacred house. Tattooed Maoris. who tokens. . In the Society and Paumotu Islands. . whilst the Erii or Ariki are distinguished by large circular markings over the whole body. but not everywhere.. Radack group the patient spends the previous night in the house of the chief. it based on the doctrine of the Atua or tutelary spirit in beast shape which was why the missionaries found it so hard to put an end to the practice. figures depicted are often those of sacred animals like snakes and lizards. (From a photograph in the possession of Herr Max Büchner. In the which extends only to a small portion of the lower part of the body. coarse. which proceeds from. some religious idea. In the Gilbert Islands a poor man who is tattooed enjoys more influence in the general council than a rich man prays for favourable . Here.. The In . On the man who cannot pay Make them crooked. as with other Polynesians. the Marquesas. Every line On the man be duly drawn. differences are made according to rank the common people being tattooed on the loins only. and It is regarded as a sacred profession. tattooing is no doubt founded upon. and splay. the Carolines. In the Micronesian region tattooing has become to a great extent a pure matter is Samoa of decoration. On Rotuma caste-distinctions are indicated by tattooing. .) is exercised by the priest to the accompaniment of prayers and hymns. and bathe in the sea before undergoing the operation.196 THE HISTORY OE MANKIND . who's rich and great Shape your figures fair and straight . whose surface is blank.

made of women had • painted their faces with ruddle. arms. The the operation. in time of mourning the skin of the face. Forster saw even tenderer portions of the frame sedu- The method is in this wise. By powdering with lime the tips are reddened. bone (human bone for choice). It is either worn unfastened and falling. while ordinary citizens show this ornament legs. was . 1 11 Tattooing instruments from the Friendly Islands one -third — rea l size. . painful. while at festivities it was usual to colour it with red and black 1 paint. and nose. In the Marshall Islands the right of tattooing the cheeks is reserved to the chiefs while on Mortlock Island differences of rank are shown in the decoration of the is . or iron. as applied to lips. course seems. and legs has to undergo cutting with sharp shells. mussel-shell. pointed with stone. Islands men and women wear the hair cut short and combed upwards in bristles. the Maoris use the soot of kat/ri-p'me wood. and elsewhere. The figure drawn where required then a little stick. With the imperfect cutting-tools at their disposal. is tapped with a wooden mallet so as to form a series of lously tattooed. in the Society Islands and their neighbourhood. or is cut off. punctures along the lines. (British Museum). . eyelids. The two sides of the right side receives the body are often unsymmetrical. some In the Friendly enjoined upon all women except those of the royal family. especially before the introduction of iron in Hervey Islands. is . which serves to drive it in. are literally dissolved in arabesques. and a little mallet made of the same wood and shaped like a paddle. rank not always thus expressed many all tattooed. and in this case the more elaborate treatment. we cover with bathing-drawers the effect produced and spotted cloth wrapped about them. Among the Maoris it took years before the body was ornamented up to the design conceived in the artist's fancy but with them the traits of the face exactly the region which being that of a striped . and is simple The latter accordingly.THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS Vet the chief's 197 chiefs are but slightly over their persons. dye of the turmeric others whitening them with cross-streaks of lime. the shaving of the head was no light . of made parts of the body the hair is extracted with tweezers though over large regions such Circumcision in a modified form is very common as Hawaii and New Zealand it is not practised. The tattooing tools consist little of an instrument something like a hard wood four shapes occur in Samoa the fiat blade of which terminates in a number of sharp teeth. while turmeric gives a golden gloss. Herewith we may reckon the fact that in accordance with the proverb " No wife for a hairy man. and is performed by the priests. This operation also is of a religious character. to have been also with the yellow . Thus when Cook visited Easter Island the — — hoe." every vestige In other of hair is removed from the face though it is otherwise in Micronesia. The mode of wearing the hair is suited to its stiff growth. The fashion of wearing the hair tied in a top-knot first may perhaps be an imitation : on the very day of Cook's visit a Tahitian chief copied his bag-wig. For colouring. is not universal. Besides this. The Samoans select for tattooino. as in the Marquesas.

tral statues often carry a similar adornment. as formerly in Hawaii. or are permitted night. manner of a brush while on Nukuor the headdress is formed of a long plate of wood. the Tropic-bird (Phaethon). in which coloured feathers were twined. long narrow of a everywhere almost consists head-ornament the with ten or twelve teeth. so ornaments extend back from the domain of secular fashion to that of religion. Birds are among is especially the case with that bird which in its red tail-feathers affords the article most sought for ornamental purposes among the Polynesians. which were bound on the forehead and even on the coco-nut fibre aprons of the dancing-girls. just as weak-sighted people wear them with A man of Ponape in the Carolines. decorated about the handle. and this . At one time no article of commerce was in such demand in the Society Islands.igS THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . The long hairpins serve also to allay the irritation of frequent insect-bites. But it was in Hawaii that featherthe sacred animals. This sort of thing. In the Marquesas and on Easter Island fcathcr-diadems were also worn. broadening towards the top. European hats are directly imitated. Other objects of wide distribution were the supple necklaces of twisted string. must no doubt be regarded as a dance -ornament or a reliThe ancesgious emblem. or out of the country. . Actual only at head-coverings are not usual. In the Carolines. and at times furnished with a rich feather-ornament. the On Island Mortlock head -ring is fibres covered the with after . wooden comb. On Fakaafo Islands. us. in the Godeffroy As with feather tattooing. however. The most valuable head-dresses were made of feathers. The feathers were stuck on to bananaleaves. curly hair Islanders is The of the Gilbert frizzed it up with a stick a till stands out in crown. (From a photograph Album. matter and there were few among the achievements of civilization which the In Micronesia Polynesians had cause to prize so highly as scissors and razors. in the Hale Tokelau saw boatmaterial men wearing eye -shades of closely-plaited bound on to their foreheads.

Knotted strings oi piindanusA&aS. or beans. black and white beads Breastplate of mother-of-pearl set in iron. fastened into a flexible whole by doubled threads passed through them. form the favourite gaud of the Gilbert and Marshall Islanders. Similar strings with closelyranged disks of shell. Both sexes among the Polynesians are graceful unknown. But the taste for colour. all strung on a thread of human On Pingelap hair. most various kind find employment for decorative purposes. bound close and evenly round the upper end with finely-plaited fibres are among the most beautiful productions of Tongan art. . Single teeth. are also hung round the neck. . in the absence of staring mineral pigments. play an important part in feminine adornment. snail-shells. birds carved from sperm-whales' teeth. and with sling of human hair— one-fourth made from shells. or coco-nut fibre serve not only for purposes of divination. always of a bright colour. was formerly much better developed than it is now that European traders have taken to dressing these people in their stuffs at so much nor is coquetry a yard. quite reminding one in their shape and colour of the headgear worn by Buddhist priests. red and yellow. real size. Helmet-shaped head-dresses were decorated with yellow feathers. are used as money and also occur as foot and arm ornaments. little polished disks of Conus shell. Or are we to see in this a kind of record of memoranda {Dili) such as the chiefs carry in Pelew ? To these superstition adds shells and bones of particular shape. A Polynesian with all his jewellery upon him gives the impression of being overlaid with varied hues. Combs made of the stalks of plants. . The feathers of Melithreptes Pacifica were luxuries which forty years ago were permitted only to the most distinguished people. which suits them charmingly. A shell. even in the nose. and from them hung a large mother-of-pearl shell. alternating with small brown snail-shells. In Hawaii the ornaments are either for the feet. On Sundays the Samoan women put on a long and ample chemiseWhen like garment. for the reckoning of time and many chiefs wear them for that purpose round their necks. thickly set with dogs' teeth. human teeth even millipedes are strung together for necklaces. . in the hair. (Christy Collection. In man}' colours the sea provides copious material. Pendants of birds' bones and ear-ornaments of albatross-skin were favourite modes of adornment with the New Zealanders. bits of red Spondylus shell are liked for necklaces elbow-rings of Conus and Nautilus shells are worn on Yap. . in the ears. In Tonga chains were made of long thin leg -bones. On Tongatabu the natives used as ornaments the iron nails which Cook had brought for trade-purposes one nail was the price of a hen. as on Ule. human bones. In Micronesia also garlands of fresh flowers. but. or else armlets all made of carved pieces of bone or tortoise-shell. a circular piece of mother-of-pearl or tortoiseshell. divided by smaller disks of a black nutshell. Flowers and tendrils are worn in tasteful style round the neck. of one size.THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS ornament reached its 199 greatest development and its highest value. Trifles of the its shells of .

Woman masks worn also a peculiar car-ornament. I.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND they go to church they add a tiny straw-hat. skirts of leaves so dry that as they move to the tune a rustling sound Red paint is also freely . stuck as much as possible on the side of the head. and arises. For dancing. 2. of the Paumotu Islands (From photograph in the Godeffroy Album). decked with flowers and ribbons of many colours. Woman arc of Ponape\ 3. Women . of the Society Islands (From photograph in the Dammara Album).

on the left in women. mat The inhabitislands the eastward clothed. were either quite naked or with an inadequate apron hanging from the girdle. Samoan lady with hair dressed high. employed is for the same purpose. In the Friendly Islands the dress was simpler. by a mantle which a fringe on leaves . a skirt made of finer stuff. and their mats form the largest and most valuable part of their property in some districts mats are a recognised form of currency. alternately red and white. Both sexes wore another cloth wound turban fashion round the head. bound close with a cord whence a mass of white cloth hung to the feet. Oll the contrary. A cloths as possible stands for a sign of a dense envelopment of the whole body in as many In the time of peaceful reception. About the hips was a pad of four layers of cloth.THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS employed. ( From the Godeffroy Album. and they carry paddle-shaped dancing-wands. in addition. the luxury of clothing acquires a symbolical significance. Cook and Forster the Tahitian dancing-girls wore a piece of brown stuff closely wrapped round the breast. What the axe of greenstone is as a . and. companied by the cape. tapa and gnatu. The : war-clothes there consist of three poncho-like garments put on one over another all the undermost a long white one. over that a red. the skirt of the men was twisted up in a great bunch behind often very short that of the women tied below the breast. . they have advanced far beyond the point of mere coverinoand gone in the direction of luxury. girt about the waist and falling to the feet the Tahitian women used to wear a cloth over their shoulders with an opening for the head in the middle. Similarly in Samoa and the neighbouring piece islands the dress of men and women of cotton consists of a cloth wound round the hips and reaching to the knee leaves are frequently . In wet weather the bark cloth often replaced of long broad in hang down solemn and of plaited ants of are festive occasions the natives put on a fine fibre. and outside a short brown one. In the Society Islands. and as a rule not ac. For this reason their bark stuffs. In many cases a skirt is worn. The Polynesians belonoto the batter-clad races. when by Forster. the men wearing in addition a flax belt from which hung the mere and battle-axe. scantily The first Easter seen Islanders. though some tribes on the middle island had flax sandals. . Head and feet remained as a rule uncovered. The dress of the New Zealanders consisted of skirt and mats these were fastened on the right shoulder in men. . one upon another.

rugs were made of. (From the Godeffroy Album. the skins of dogs and birds. trimmed with. From flax Besides this. pattern of these. is The Islands clothing of the Micronesians less copious. or alone they prepared twelve different mats. the mat is in the case of the women. was shown by the mats.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND production of male industry. other than tattooing. The only distinction of rank. is On Nukuor any clothing beyond the absolute requirements of decency allowed only at night and outside the . In the northern Pelew reef. the differences consisting in the preparation of the fibre and in the ornamentation. Every tribe had at one time some Man special of the Ruk Islands. we find men going quite naked.

(British Museum. On the Mortlock and 5 Ruk Islands broader to 25 strings were worn. so that among these on them. partly also red woollen yarn. made of sixty-four tortoiseshell plates. and the chains known as Milt. the dress of the women has been altered much more owing to the intercourse with white people. ear-ornaments. broad in the fibre and longer. the (British Museum. armlets. Besides this it was formerly the custom with both sexes to wear a belt supporting a band made of banana fibres gaily coloured which passed between the to the knee. over legs. with little disks of nutshell arranged According to Kubary's reckoning. from opercula of a rare tridacna shell. continue to wear the skirt under their shirts.) most highly-prized articles of clothing. islanders the girdle is among Bone comb from New Zealand — one-third real size. This product of Caroline industry was woven on a machine in which the weft was contrived by a laborious knotting together of various coloured threads. and breastbelt. not less than 12. While the men have often remained faithful to tradition. Here the list of a chiefs wardrobe consists of mantle. Equally valuable used to be the girdles made only to order by the people of Pelew. Sometimes Caroline Islanders who have become Europeanised. JttSk Among the inhabitants of Kushai this formed the only clothing. two necklaces. They wear coloured cotton pocket-handkerchiefs both round the waist and also The stuffs made of strips of palm leaf poncho-wise over breast and shoulders. on Ruk the boys do not obtain the mantle and therewith the privileges of male society until a later age than that at which the girls are clothed with the apron. a shirt A Caroline Islander of first the old style wears in the place made out of narrow strips of coco-palm leaves reaching almost which the men on festive occasions put a second of a pretty yellow colour. and bast have almost disappeared.THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS 203 The Mortlock and Ruk Islanders are at the other end of the scale with their poncho-like mantles woven of musa and hibiscus fibres and having the hole for the head bordered with shell ornament.) same threads. . and rings of nutshell ornament. On the other hand. while partly the Combs from Tonga — one-fourth real size.500 of these were required for a girdle of twenty strings. were the employed girdles of I for warp.

On the coral islands this abundant the Melanesians might be expected. Naturally. are perfect of their kind. utensils of the Polynesians are remarkably varied and we meet with a still more copious display of inventiveness and artistic ingenuity. teeth. bones.) But the level of culture among these races is such as to make us believe that if they had discovered the raw material they would have advanced to the use of the metals. wood. . the boats and hooks. Unlike the Australians and Bushmen. they found them compelled to make up for the want of metals by using stones. iron ware of all kinds . bones. With stone. Few of the Polynesian islands possess metallic ores. When Europeans first came into contact with Polynesians. The implements of navigation and fishery. but it is also true in most cases of the volcanic formations. The absence of iron is especially noticeable. iron was also converted to purposes of ornament the value of glass beads had already dropped considerably. (from the Godeffroy Album.204 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND The weapons and but among . and show evidence not only of cleverness but of the inventive faculty. and shells. ^^^v Man of the Ruk Islands. as soon as they get iron they know what to and as do with it. they have achieved all that was possible.

Coco and Sago Palms. .


Long. are in size and shape more like those of New Zealand. . . Even with the choicest though careful rounding and polishing are not unknown. especially hammers. adzes. or to a curve in the sides. iron blades were still always fixed in the lemon-wood handles as the stone had been but the old stone ones were kept. They made it available at first forms to which they had long been accustomed. Even in the very large and handsome axes from Hawaii the cutting is rough so far as the rows of string which fasten the head to the handle extend. . putting pieces of iron hoop into their axes in place of Tridacna shells. but retaining in other respects the customary form of the implement. The axes of New Guinea and the neighbouring islands are often not inferior to these in size. and stone arrowheads were never in in the . Those which Cook brought from Tahiti use. chisel-like stone blades are also found in this region while the large ornamental axes of the Hervey Islands have thin blades of basalt of a spade-shape. as shown in the cut on p. narrow. with the edge ground not in a curve. . In Polynesian and Melanesian stone-axes their not being perforated. The fitting of the axe was everywhere essentially similar. (British Museum. stone was the most valuable material. . resembling rather knives. 8 to 16 inches long in the blade.THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONE SIANS 207 remained the leading article of European trade. " knapped " from obsidian or lava. often somewhat curved. The Hawaiian axes. It was less so for spears. On Ponape. material and the most careful workmanship these axes do not go far beyond the simple wedge and thus we seldom find them ground either hollow in the neck for attachment. but are flattened off where they are laid against the helve. Obsidian axes from Easter Island — one-third real size. in the most secret corners of the house. For all heavy implements. we are struck at once by the fact of and by the rudimentary workmanship of the outline. 208. The simplest on the whole are the New Zealand axes or adzes often plain rectangles. but are more rounded being fastened not on but into the handle. But the rudest of all are the hatchets of the Easter Islanders. where we can date the end of the Stone Age about the beginning of the twenties of the present century. and axes. as sacred relics. but angular. very broad in the blade and short in the handle.

2. probably from New Zealand. 5. Adze with carved helve. 3. like a heel projecting consisted of a behind . then crosswise over the blade and the projection. Much devoted to the . the stone-axe. 4. 6. by means of a string which is first wound round care is the handle. which i. Hatchets from the Marquesas and Society Islands one-sixth real size. Axe from Hawaii Polynesian implements one-sixth real size. 6. 4. flat is attached to the front part. falls away at a slant. 3. British Museum.) : — — — — . Christy Collection 2. (1.2o8 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND wooden handle with an appendage above and two-edged underneath. 5. Pair of compasses from the Society Islands fourth real size. Obsidian onespear-head from Easter Island one-third real size.

thence (Christy Collection.THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS winding of this string. weapons of the Micronesians . . nesian axes the greater Of Micronumber have blades of shell. as on Ponape. polishing of the blade with sand or pumice is the task of the old men. never getting beyond shells. Purely wood weapons include the of of the sword Pelew Islanders. or sharks' teeth. but they are never so artistic as in chief Melanesia. Spears were equally the ters of bone. . were sometimes made of wood with the point hardened in the fire . spatula-shaped in the — one-eighth real size. in Yap more reed. the tail-spine of the sting-ray. 20 inches or rather c^V) Maori chiefs insignia and sceptres in length. a spear thrower bamboo is recorded from Pelew. and gradually tapering. the snout of the garfish. the handle not much smoothed. Thrusting -spears seem to have been formerly regarded by the PolyThey nesians as their chief weapon. chiefly from maculata and Terebra Tridacna gigas . 209 Hervey Islanders is notably by the though. nesians. These weapons serve : for thrusting at close quarters shorter spears sharpened at both ends were used for throwing of . a long time they . . some- times strengthened with stone blades. human bones. splin- For were twice the height of a man where casuarina wood was lacking coco-palm was Spears were given away with used. great reluctance they were wrought and adorned and ornamented with special care. they were armed with barbs made of sting -ray spines. overlooked their admirably adapted stone. Islands In the Marshall semicircular to the iron the adze with shell-blade was preferred The adze for hollowing out canoes. the broad back-bones of tortoises are also Curiously enough the Microused. except in the case of ornamental axes. or dagger of hard wood. and the pahu. handle. or sharks' teeth.

fifteenth real size (Munich Ethnographical Museum). . angular stone blades from 8 to is 1 6 inches long afforded ponderous hand weapons. " Paddles of honour " is a name given to paddle-shaped objects 6 feet long and . from the Gilbert Islands one . of the middle or and either cut off square at the end running out point. Next to the spear the chief weapon the club. the most beautifully exeformed the cuted type being the paddle shape. said to be from the Society Islands one-eighth real size (Christy Collection. or else laid over and over each other in simple cross bands. °i rishes and . Saw. ^tars an O Crescents Olteil appear as well as fi CT UreS gether. often brought into a fourcornered shape by the strong accentuation rib. flattened above. The ornaments consist of straight or zig-zag lines drawn close to- I. round in the handle. Spear set with sharks' teeth. sevenths real size (British Museum). ornamentation makes it an interesting production It of Polynesian art. a - — _ . in an elliptical The whole club from the handle to the point is covered with either in carving. 3. from Pelew one-third real size (Berlin Museum). or forms a of chequers divided by the side edges and the middle ribs. generally made from Its heavy iron -wood. . paddle-shaped. said to be used also as dagger. main strength of the Tongans. Beside . 4. tortoises. — Thev have a shank to by. of ray-spine. hang them up these richly carved clubs smooth ones are also found quite fiat.) Wooden dagger from New Zealand two2. and others of a simple mallet-shape with short handle. — — roughly indicated human form being nearly always present. which round passes spiral series one band. Quiver and arrow.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND carried in a sheath of vegetable fibres . with a ring below the blade. which appears to have become obsolete even in Cook's time.

or sculptured in a fashion which The Marquesas Islanders reminds one of elegantly chipped flint instruments. Saw are distinguished in the manufacture of these beautiful clubs paddle-shaped clubs.) 4. either carved in cross bands like the clubs. one-third real size (British Museum. Bone spear-head — — one-fifth real size (British Museum). tains like a fantastically the blade of their almost every production of their artistic dexterity. 3. But the most beautiful . conexecuted human countenance. 2. i.THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRO NESIANS more. said to be from Pelew real size (Christy Collection). Bow and arrow from the — of ray-spine. . Wooden swords from Pelew and Hawaii Friendly Islands one-third real size (Christy Collection).

The Tahitians and the most closely allied tribes devoted much trouble to the polishing of their weapons. The axes of the Hervey Islanders with perforated handles. The ceremonial axes of Rarotonga and Tahiti may also have been originally to some extent in use. in They between the shape and paddle. after the Museum. and yet they must have been in use. . flutes. in the spirals and twists of which may always be detected eyes. also were converted for into tokens of rank among these the New Spears Zealand sceptres of honour were conspicuous length and vary staff decoration. They show how the whole life and action of Polynesia was imbued in a dignified manner with religious images. daggers. preserved owner's death as a memorial. pipes. dagger and baler from Hawaii. in a They end more or less compli- cated knob. are often way inferior in in no ornament- ation to these decorative objects. In the way of tools we set find in sharks' teeth a wooden handle serving Small weapons with sharks' teeth from Tonga. simplest being cylindrical staves with jagged longi- tudinal lines. and have been. and ceremonies. Axes.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND paddle -shaped clubs were certainly made by the the Hervey Islanders. worked handles. and gourd bottle from New Caledonia. (Vienna Museum. who ex- aggerated the delicate cell-carving of Tongans to the verge of the finikin. . were in obviously designed the first in- stance as insignia of rank. or the overelegant clubs of the Tongans. symbols. and can only exceptionally have been used in fighting. with their symbolically Hawaiian wicker-work helmet (Berlin — one-fourth real size. or even a human figure.

indicates a former acquaintance with the weapon. served to gratify the horrible passion for torture and were also employed grief. Bows and arrows were in Cook's time used only for hunting or in sport and now they hardly exist in Micronesia and Polynesia. In many from any care a ceremonial prouder and the Tahitian Among the weapons diverted attention armour and other means of protection battles had character. coarse and thick. but was necessary if only to weaken the moral effect of the sharks' teeth. The bow of the Friendly .THE POLYNESIANS AND MICRONESIANS for 213 graving tools. and with these teeth. It is as high as a man. In the Gilbert Islands. Next to the spear and the javelin the sling is the most frequent Micronesian weapon slings of plaited twine. and formed a special troop in the Tahitian army. bows are entirely absent Hawaiian group they appear to have been re-introduced only in the It is. and fitted with a strong string but its companion the quiver has quite disappeared. was regarded as the most terrible weapon. . by condirection. At favourable moments they would advance beyond the mass of the host. of string. which was only used to shoot rats. and the number of arrows is reduced to one. 210. Next to them come short throwing-clubs. Unfortunately we have no accurate description of equipment. throwing stones. . weapons of long range held no place in Polynesian strategy. beautifully made of polished firm wood. and let fly at the enemy with loud shouts. for pigeon-shooting. Closely plaited. particular acquired a peculiar style in the demanding both industry and dexterity. is yet a very fine weapon. and set with rays' spines. counterpart to this weapon-making skill is the armour. also wooden bows with teeth. polished or angular. is among Clever slingers were in high esteem. among Hawaiians this was an elegant helmet of feather -work parts of Polynesia the variety of offensive for defensive . and the object of weapons was to make a warrior seem more terrible. shown in the illustration on p. Small weapons of sharks' intended for the cutting up of prisoners. owing to the gradual cessation of hunting in these islands with few animals. or dagger. of their weapons with sharks' teeth. which were fastened on with strings of coco-nut fibre twisted with human hair. Islands. possesses a club from Yap. incorrect to say that. coco-nut the most dreaded weapons. and Easter Island. however. similar teeth at both ends for use in drawing circles. The Museum sistent made of the bones of the whale. in the self-lacerations practised by mourners in token of their Perhaps we should reckon among these the implement made file of the sting of a ray. consisting of the saw of the saw-fish. like those of Melanesia. progress in The population this of the Gilbert or Kingsmill Islands. this must have been painfully heavy to wear. The necessary manufacture of weapons. The Pelew natives use. A helmet made from the prickly skin of the Diodon or porcupine fish completed this original equipment. equally available as teeth reached a fine development in the Weapons of sharks' Society Islands and in Hawaii. The greatest value was attached to the head-dress. appears like a further development of the weapon found among the Malays. . are known in the Mortlock and Caroline Islands. as big as hen's eggs. In the Marquesas the sling made of in the and course of the present century. bows of mangrove wood with a string of fibre. One might The fitting suppose they were a powerful race living in a constant state of war. The Berlin kind of forked sword set made from a three-or-four-forked bough of casuarina. Paumotu. language twisted . . In New Zealand. fibre.

particular group. and came in great In numbers as slaves to Ceram and the Eastern part of the Malay Archipelago. at once come in the Fiji Islands across a plainly negroid race. Hair Resemblance to Negroes Alleged race of Dwarfs Relation of Papuas and Negritos Misunderstanding of the name Alfurs Character and mental qualities of the Melanesian population. probably that of some kind of whale it was 20 inches in diameter and beautifully polished. The name Alfuros or Alfurs has nothing to do with these . Upon this the lighter men were superimposed in a Here broad layer. Parkinson saw Gilbert Islanders ready for fight. though in an attenuated form. sqq. To attack the wearer of head adornment was reckoned a heroic action his fall often Another article of Tahitian uniform was a collar decided the engagement. starting from Ceram. who live in a state of warfare with the Malays who invade the coast districts. PACIFIC AND . with their ray-spined spear the tribes of the Austral a conspicuous .214 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Islands. which. often ground to a tooth-shape. and set with red abrus-beans. decked with feathers and shells. Among poorer races this breastplate seems to be replaced by a shell. which served as a breastplate. leading on the mainland to every possible degree of crossing. The Marquesan adornment of the same kind consists of pieces of a light cork-like wood. The inhabitants of the interior of the Philippines. flat In Tongatabu. The Aborigines of the Andamans are nearly akin. the Negritos. This dispersed and fragmentary occurrence of the dark element has suggested to many observers the view that we should see therein an earlier population of these and neighbouring regions. In the flat shell. have made their way among the straighthaired population. and some profess to point to traces of the race in the Mariannes and in Micronesia. tied into a half-ring. Qurtrefages found his so-called "Mincopie-Type "even in the Japanese skull. 20 feet long. Beyond the region defined as Melanesia. Forster found a large . but only stimulated the fighters. also we must guard against any cut-and-dried notions with respect to the relations of ever-shifting races. the traces of which to the eastward we have it is already mentioned (see 147 . The Papuas made forays against Asia.). did not advance. They themselves. with the hard dried skin of a ray wrapped round breast and belly under their coco-fibre armour. on their breasts. belong to this group. Remains of negroid tribes are also said to be known in the interior of Malacca and in India. but crisp or curly-haired. found in the interior of India and Ceylon. fastened with resin. we p. THE NEGROID RACES OF TPIE INDIAN OCEANS . of a fantastic shape. we may perhaps recognise a reduced form of § 5. In the Malay Archipelago it extends To one westward as far as Timor when we get to Lombok we find Malays. Skull . this way we may explain in some measure those races not woolly-haired. breastplate made of a round bone. may be with much probability assigned an extension to east and north formerly much wider. for which the continent of Southern Asia formed a bridge between the Indo-Pacific and the African domains of the Negro. —Traces Bodily build — — — — CROSSING the eastern boundary of Melanesia. which many Polynesians wear hanging this. and on the top of all as much cordage as could be got on. Distribution of an earlier more extensive distribution in the Indian Ocean Colour .

(15) Neck ornament. 16. To face page 214. (6 and 7) (4 and 5) Ear-pendants. Wooden fillet for the head. 13. Easter Island. . Nukuor. Ear-buttons of whale's tooth. (16) Necklace of shell-disks and whale's tooth. (10) Necklace. 14. (11) (9) Neck ornament. 14) Armlets of black wood and whale's tooth. Friendly Islands. 9. Marquesas. with limpet-shells.(i-3) Necklaces of shell and beans. 12. Society Islands. with dolphin's teeth. Hawaii . (13. (12) Ear-button made of a ray's vertebra. 11. (8) Necklace of tortoise-shell. 8 and 15. (1-7. 10. Hervey Islands.


everywhere as a primitive population. Fijians even. in the New Hebrides. (From a Photograph in the possession of Herr W. Andamans. Berlin. Malicollo. . Joost. measurement among the Kanjhars of South India is for men 5 feet 1 inch to the Veddahs of Ceylon 4 feet 9 inches to 4 feet 1 1 inches . . in which it was sought to find a distinction from the African Negro now it has been discovered that the hair is distributed pretty evenly over the scalp. the 5 feet 3 inches Paliars of Travancore about 5 feet 3 inches the Kardars of the Anamalai mountains from 5 feet 1 inch to 5 feet 5 inches. is the colour of many manifold admixtures of lighter elements are the cause of the frequency of various shading. In many tribes they form a decided majority. the neighbouring islands and 5 feet 8 inches. The dark crisp-haired population of negroid exterior in the Malayan Archipelago and New Guinea are said to be brachycephalic. wiry. perhaps. are often than the whites on the other hand. In the colour of the skin dark tints prevail without quite reaching the depth of much Negro Solomon colouring. as are the so-called Mincopies of the According to Krauser the Fijian skull is highly prognathous. The nearest to this. . . we may at least denote them as probably the older. without speaking of the dark races Papua-like and Negrito-like elements. At one time it was New Guinea girl. grew in tufts. Individual hairs are coarse. Islanders and New Britain.THE NEGROID RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND INDIAN OCEANS 215 Thus. is The average height of the Papuas of New Guinea and The . The resemblance to Negroes which predominates in the total of the phenomena taller . and of elliptical section and body the hair seems to be stronger than in Negroes.) face becomes long. especially in between 5 feet 5 inches the upper classes. In Western Fiji. on the The frequent occurrence of small individuals is a curious feature in the negroid population of the Indo-Malayan region. the dolichocephalic form of skull prevails. and only assumes the tufted appearance when it alleged that their hair . . for the Andaman Islanders the standard is from 4 feet 6 inches to 5 feet The for the Negritos the average is 5 feet. and are clearly distinguished from the others.

. and of finer character than elsewhere on Api they are lean. the forests. See his Die Negritos der Philippinen. widespread distribution we shall expect to find them dividing up Here we are justified in inquiring into the relation which they hold towards the Australians. . a mixed dark in race with these straight hair. (seldom woolly) or even straight hair curly race of the mountains. . — and departing from the Malayan race-type in geographical position than of any anthropological marks. Meyer. the New Hebrides unfold before us a real book of patterns. for the conditions under which the latter dwell are even less favourable to the production crossing. Tagals more inland and in the mountains. In the larger archipelagos the natives display various departures from the type which may be referred partly to Malayo-Polynesian Not to mention Fiji. bolder. and by . with patchwork of races. especially to the inhabitants of the Philippines. Con. On the Southern Islands the inhabitants are better developed than in the north on Tanna they are handsomer. Great confusion has arisen from the application type. beards besides this we have relationship of language. . 1 When the Spaniards came to the Philippines they found Malays on the coast. Even in maps of the sixteenth century there appear off the coast of New Guinea Islas Thus it is impossible de Mala Gente side by side with Islas de Hombres Blancos. of unalloyed characteristics. its .2i6 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . bad proportions. pronounced hairiness. and the chase respect more of their social and [Dr. who were driven back and decaying. and that Australia has probably been invaded by elements from New Guinea and Polynesia. partly to the influence of their surroundings. is constantly being insisted on 260 years ago Tasman expressed it by saying that they only differed from Kaffirs in having less woolly hair. an ill-nourished condition. It is not the case that the woolly-haired Australians are confined to the north or north-east there are many Australians who come nearer than the Papuas to the mixed Polynesian breed. recognisable by the greater abundance of hair on the face and body. and very tall on Erromango they are very short. that they are for the most part Album.] . of the name Negritos. differences and transitions called into existence by Polynesian immigration. to speak of a geographical division of these dark races into one group of eastern dolichocephalic Papuas and one of western brachycephalic Negritos. holds a totally different view. One view with regard to the • 1 Negritos TOY / may 11 be summarised 11 n statement . the most recent authority on the subject. Independently of the With their into sub-races. Jews. the Aetas. leanness of the arms and legs. ugly. Observers like Finsch and D'Albertis take every opportunity of rejecting the notion of a special Papuan race the prevailing type of the Melanesians is only a slight variation. We may admit the variety of the Australian race. are noticed as approximations to the Australian Besides this we find also physiognomies reminding us of Indians. or Europeans. Certain points of agreement are obvious dark skins. peculiarities in the features. with 1 • „J.) brown men.

Papuan who The Andamanese as their may form. countenances of the dark foe and even depicting them as apes. the important and talented race called Tamils belong to this group. (From Godeffroy Album. and Orang Semang in the race.THE NEGROID RACES OF THE PACIFIC AXD INDIAN OCEANS sidering the wide diffusion of Negroid elements. swarthier than the other inhabitants. pass typical Fijian lady. which draws a sharp and white deriding the flat and nose. the nose is small and straight the lips not strikingly prominent. exaggerations of tradition. and speaks of Melanesian them. and the interior of Great Nicobar. slim and tall. that. as black . 217 it is not astonishing if they have group of races they are found also in other regions in which both Malayoid and Negroid elements are included. of the Negritos. extending far to the north. The darker population in the east of the Malay Archipelago at least reminds us. more clearly. poetical The assumption we have here to do with a great racial struggle in former times has been strengthened less by the contrast between the combatant races. too. with woolly or crisp hair. the eyes are round. In India dark men are numerous. and set horizontally that . They were known as Harafara or Alfurs. Indeed. But if the distinctions between the tribes live who have been often. we meet with a race. the distinction is small between them .) The face has a bene. volent. and raise their level of culture. in a certain hybrid character. Some have thought fit to reckon the blended little race known as the Veddahs of Ceylon among the most degraded of the earth but the more evidence comes to hand. with crisp hair. ." men of pure blood among A claim to form a group by themselves is made also by the small races diverging in many respects from live in the the western part of this area of type. the clearer it becomes that they are not even so dark . living in the mountain districts of the interior. interior of Malacca little are de- scribed as men. as many Tamils . the effects of social and into the interior distinctions take precedence of distinction of political on the coast are even in small islands. as regards the face. In the Malay Peninsula the Negroid element reappears mingled in this socially inferior . diffusion. But thorough research has always tended to lighten the dark colour of this race. Maclay the compares them " with Negritos of the Philippines. On other islands of this region. mostly dark. The Orang Pango-ano. as found in Halmahera or Gilolo. gentle expression the forehead is arched . driven back and those who as great as those between Bushmen and Hottentots.

worship demons debasequite nevertheless ment distinct and anthropological degradation remain and if the Kaders. the Nairs. or that men and youths live separately in one great house. even the traces of cannibalism in the mountain tribes of Assam are A more important fact is that some of them have used stone weapons and utensils even to our own time. but they only serve as places refuge. and in the course of a century have from hunters and brigands become a peaceful people of more than a million souls. Some of the dark races of India have quite recently made advances which are still compatible with relics of their former savage forest life. (From Godeffroy Album. 1 tree 08). the example Veddahs shows us how much these random descrip- lipped tions can be depended on. who dwell farther to the south. and alloyed with Dravidian elements. If in the descriptions of it them has been again and again jungle. . some of these tribes file their teeth to a point. some communities migrating every fourteen years but they have become peaceable and have abandoned their human sacrifices. while others live in polyandry. dwell among social the branches. where iron now has the upper hand.2l8 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . but have adopted the plough. a great majority of races all not astonishing. are found in the whole region of the eastern Indian ocean. and observe the Tamil custom of inheritance through the mother. otherwise these famed people live in regular villages. no doubt carry on their agriculture still in a semi-nomadic fashion. need not Traces of these customs run through give them any lower a place in our eyes. eat pointed out that they live on products of the mice. .) dwarfs. the fact Even that mankind. and other mountain tribes of South things. and the highly-civilized Cingalese that their hair is not and that their language is an Indian dialect the Negro . and in connection with this we remember that traces of the Stone Age. Must we then perhaps look for the real negro element in the small crisp- haired men or black dwarfs who in are said to live in trees the Athrumalli mountains of South India? Jagor has dwellings of ill - drawn these (see p. probably recent. The Santals of Lower Bengal have not only learnt to till the ground. India are depicted as thickof the Fijian gentleman. beside some poor nomadic tribes. The Khonds. at all the woolly hair of full of Sanscrit words. The 46 million Dravidians of South India include.

Those who know the casual sit Fijians best depict them as the vainest of all men. The Melanesian is more impulsive. is Woman of the Anchorite's Islands. Hired assassins are employed. noisier. his Nor is there any lack of friends to keep a man Open violence duty with songs either lamenting or censuring. (From the that the plundering of a grave no uncoma Godeffroy Album. mon event. The frequency is of theft well known. Closely connected with pride is swagger. in addition to this.THE NEGROID RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND INDIAN OCEANS who may Aryans. essentially like injur}-. and with lamentations and a flood of language. In cases where he appears in less favourable light. t>2 219 reckoned as props of Indian civilization in the same sense as the and the Polynesian has often on the Negro side. shed tears without end. war will no man kill me that I may go to the shade of my father ? " All rush to the spot and find a man in the depths of yard two from a piece of bark cloth belonging Suicide is not uncomto them in common. If a Revenge may form the most important duty in life for a Melanesian. which is only to be smoked over the corpse of an enemy. the key to many contradictions is to be found in a pride which at one moment is elated. bundle of tobacco hangs from the gable. about with his head half-shaved. which one would suspect. H I grief because his friend has cut off a these hot-blooded natures have a capacity. be heard from the top of a jjj jj| War. often shown in the compilation of fantastic pedigrees. mind of . that a person few rags is to be got by it. is thinking of revenge. or the bloody clothes of a slain relation preserves the memory in is of an unatoned deed. chiefly directed against strangers. for clothing etiquette. Native plantations are to natives inviolable so powerful a motive is covetousness. themselves in hardly an im- penetrable The forms is of good manners are but yet it strictly observed. more frank. or not the only means of appeasing revenge. caught in the act of committing this crime gets burnt or buried alive. mon. and more violent than the Polynesian. scolding will and ! threatening The hill. The arts of diplomacy or thrive in this soil . him to keep see it. even when nothing more than It sometimes happens. allows a long twisted Sometimes a bunch of hair to hang down his back. can man is injured he puts up a stick or a stone where he If a man abstains from food or constantly in mind of the duty of revenge. A to air utterance in will cause a woman the cry " down the public place fill M jj| ! of a village. The man who goes keeps away from the dance it is a bad sign for his enemies. however. and at the next has a keen scent for anything difference between the Melanesian character It lies The been noted. . or. Their bodily resemblance is paralleled by a mental one.

who have come but little into contact " We may have many reasons for calling them savages but with civilization they live in a state of relative comfort and good fortune which one might almost denote as culture. People when they meet greet each other with words like. A dead man often takes his wives are throttled. very rich. " He is worth ten or more rings of diwarra" We have already contradicted the unfounded assumption that the Melanesians are an altogether weak.220 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND magical devices with sticks. well-to-do people. Our ethnographical museums possess an astounding wealth of works of art from certain favoured spots of which we need The New ." only name Astrolabe Bay and the little . leaves. The Banks Islanders use as a familiar greeting a sounding smack with the hand. . ward appearance is indistinguishable. kissing was originally unknown. Dull and barren stupidity does not characterise the mental endowment of the . and his mother often a whole generation with him Treacherous and bloodthirsty acts. but clever in trade. ." it is even regarded as good manners for the person who receives a present not to betray any feeling. such as have earned shares the same fate. a bad reputation for the Solomon Islanders in particular. : . are adopted. or reeds. The saying is. just as with us. Caledonia the people are poor and lazy. sponding to our " Thanks. . as Finsch tells us. backward-driven group of races and need here only recall a remark of D'Albertis concerning the inhabitants of Hall Sound in New Guinea." " Go on " rubbing of noses is only found among the Polynesians. may often be referred There is no abstract word correonly to expiation for some injustice suffered. " You are staying.) In Mallicollo and degrees of activity and prosperity are numerous. Though outD'Entrecasteaux Islands. Woman of the Anchorite's Islands. rich. there are poor people. (From the Godeffroy Album. On the other hand those of Fiji and New Britain are proud of possession and greedy for gain quite ready to beg of strangers.

3. regular poetic dialect. To their keen prac- eye the useful at Nature seems a storehouse of articles. where divine . and Apart from its didactic. whose performances do not remain unrewarded. In the Banks Islands New Ireland one-third (Godeffroy Collection." For modesty they employ the term by which they indicate the gentle half-tones of evening light. To reef the sail is to fold the wing. . Drum from Pigville in the SO-Called Drums from Amboyna Mabo o meise. of the spirit. where the white man is at a helpless tical standstill. twine. To only a few elect is it given to invent these and those allege that they are carried in their sleep to the spirit-world. Spatula for betel-lime from New Guinea one-half real size. where what they require moment is constantly is at hand.THE NEGROID RACES OF THE PACIFIC AND INDIAN OCEANS Melanesians. 221 German neither their " the Bismarck Islanders for education. Leipzig. implies . observers have drawn special attention to the capacity of In judging of their intellectual nature we the must their overlook senses " acuteness of nor inventive faculty. in the New Hebrides (after Codrington). Death is often referred to as " sleep. a name* name which both song and dance. their poetry and their art make free use of these in description picture. Fijian poetry finds istic its most characterexpression i. — almost every village has its poet or poetess. and denote ignorance by " the night . packing- materials. brief terms of phrase which betray keen tion observa- and wit rather than fancy." and fluids that have become set as " sleeping " they speak of dying as a sunset. Nature is less than might be expected when we look at their noble landscapes and If their feeling for their beautiful flowing seas. in New Guinea one-eighth real size (Christy Collection). Figurative language and by means words it everywhere in use of obsolete or borrowed the position has attained of a Musical instrument from real size. These savages find tools. — — 2. pro- verbial.

more than half of whom play wind instruments. irrelevant bit of the coarseness general public constitutes the chiefly which for main attraction of the poem. articles. a grotesque form nor are interpolations often lacking. Among the Tugcri a signal whistle is found. and gives a note different by an octave from that of the next. Williams. with several holes bored in it. There. on festive occasions. achieved like that licenses.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND beings teach them a song with the appropriate dance. This he by the use of omission of to obtain by arbitrary abbreviations and lengthenings. bands composed of twenty men perform. poet seeks is regular measure and every verse ending with the The ideal of the Fijian same vowel. and other poetical Seldom. and the same with the bull-roarer. to bring in some Carved coco-nut from New Guinea — one-half real size. A small drum. instrument ing tone . Melanesian music on the whole resembles Polynesian. From New a peculiar Ire- land we have is wooden from which a vibratextracted by drawing New Hebridean ornament (enlarged). too. the flat hand The alone it. Each of these drums is one size smaller than the next. The others beat large bamboo drums with a stick. The prevalence of the drum in all forms reminds us of Africa. As a rule one sings a verse and the chorus repeats it. and beaten with a stick. made from a bamboo with a slit in it. by the women. . however. reeds fastened twenty-three in a row. made from a small coco-nut. indeed superstition says that they die if they see it. quite (Christy Collection. The principle of the Melanesian drum is a bamboo cane or a hollow stem with a narrow slit on the thin edges of which it is beaten. The ballads are sung at night. announce their approach on occasions at which they is carried especially in order to are excluded. in consisting of eighteen verses ending the an. and straight flutes of bamboo some 3 feet long by 2\ inches thick. — . is a poem recorded all by Mr. The flute is forbidden to women. with the inevitable dances but so great is the love of the Melanesians for song that they sing at their field-work or when rowing or walking about. expletives. people of New Britain had pan-pipes varying in size and number of pipes Jews' harps of bamboo are also found in the Solomon Isles. Musical instruments are absent only from the smallest islands. from which they extract two or three tones with chords of thirds or fifths. In the historical and legendary to- ballads disposition wards takes exaggeration often .

166. the reappearance of which in the northern heaven betokens the return of spring. or jumping up and down but they also have mimic wardances. and to indicate the time of night. diversion of ghosts. in the Solomons. much the same knowledge is at their command In New Guinea the year divided by the changes of the to the labours monsoon of the months and longer periods are distinguished according . among men The darker Melanesians . At a human countenance to represent Sometimes the dancers consider themselves to be ghosts dancing is also a . The Melanesians are often spoken of as among the races who cannot count beyond five. Bit of etched design on a coco-nut. The indi- vidual movements consist of bowings and swayings. or engraved by the Fijians as well as the Tongans the shape of little figures among the ornamentation of their clubs. field but we find also a division according to the position of the Pleiads. often agree even in details funeral festivities they dance round a drum with with those of the Polynesians. the Bow- bender. § 6. executed by two ranks of men armed with spear and shield. three or but numerals for ten are found everywhere. We have already spoken of the navigation of these races on p. The clothing of the Melanesians seems to justify Peschel's law that clothing varies inversely as the darkness of their colour. in the picture-writing as scratched by the Caledonians on bamboo. Masks are worn at these. New in writing we know only traces. some groups as the Poly- of the Melanesians have nesians have. In the calculation of time and the observation of the heavens. Of DRESS AND WEAPONS OF THE MELANESIANS Clothing— Tattooing and painting — Dressing of the hair — Ornament — Great number and variety of weapons — Spears— Clubs— Stone clubs —Axes-— Bow and arrow— Smaller weapons — Defensive armour. A large number of constellations denoted as the Boat with its Outrigger. . serve to obtain bearings in navigation. from Babel (After Codrington. and if they are beast masks we get an idea very like .DRESS AÄD WEAPONS OF THE MELANESIANS The dances the departed. A kind of knotted cord-writing and similar aids to notation reckonings are also not absent here. in and New Britain the money extend to sums which would make us look for numbers higher than a hundred. that of the Dance of Death. the Bird. the Hunting Brothers.

richer and more of various. from the hips while between the legs the women wear One or two aprons of fibre from grass. so far is as they are Melanesians. also. clothing limited clothing is the rule. and the idea of what is becoming and respectable in clothpassing . recur everywhere. times round the loins in such a way that the ends hang down to the knee in front. ing the are is essentially concen- trated notions upon them. which may be called ing twice round the body that Fiji of the affords Polynesian colonies. variety hairdressing. Where more complete we are sure Polynesian and Malayan to find traces of influence. palm. and there are not lacking trustworthy reports of some who The Adamic costume are completely naked. however. We find men in Melanesia very scantily clad.224 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Their ornament is all the and the woolly hair especially brings with it a greater are in general less clad than the lighter Polynesians. The foundation a belt. The wrapping which passes be- tween the thighs is of such breadth and length that it extends to a couple of hundred The usual measure is of 12 feet. skill standing sharp contrast to their in weaving mats. West Melanesia. renders Here the tapa material a richer style of clothing possible. t it is wound several real size. But of modesty various. of the men in in the Banks Islands. Museum. of the Melanesian man's dress is either platted or made of bark. a broad bark girdle passOf a higher kind of dress. and lower behind. or pandanus These elements leaves. the best examples. though among these also. tapa is indeed . Head-dress like an eye-shade from (British New Guinea — one-fifth In to 20 feet. places them very low in the estimation of their neighbours. (Frankfort City on the Finsch coast wear Museum. extremely of The people Massilia Wigs of human hair worn in battle. from Vanna Levu.

found until cicatrised the Polynesians. as shown in the cut on p.DEESS AND WEAPONS OF THE MELANESIANS made in 22 S in the New Isles from the paper mulberry Instead of the printed from the sacred fig-tree. pattern. Hebrides and New Guinea Fiji warrior in a wig. Among the light-skinned Motus of New Guinea we among find tattooing in patterns recalling those of Micronesia. On the south coast of Guinea Miklouho-Maclay found even the shaven scalps of the women covered with tattooing. It has more affinity with the Australian type of wounds than with the Polynesian punctures. we here find the stuff streaked with colour and moistened with the tongue or teeth. (From the Godeffroy Album. it has been thought that the races may be distinguished according to their respective methods of tattooing. in the Solomon Islands (where the cicatrised Q . The tattooing in Melanesia is only in isolated instances of the artistic character the Southern Solomon . For example. Where there are indications of a mixture of Melanesians with Polynesians. and it is often not applied the age of maturity. 183. in the islands off the eastern New point of New Guinea.

conjunction with produced as a In cer- by means of localities shells. of West Melanesia kinds of tattooing are almost excluded. (Christy Collection. Nose-ornament. and arm-ring of boar's tusks. In tattooing. or at all events Among reduced to a minimum. from as also is that of blacking the New Guinea —one-eighth real size. been observed only in in Bougainville.point in recent times of its extension west- Finsch Harbour it is ward. afterwards the patients go there. among face this in Fiji red. whole or half of the face and the breast painted with red clay is a practice usually confined to men. . other mutilations of the body. and Fiji. and But rule tain here. we the other get distinct reports of circumcision only from New Caledonia. the southern New Hebrides. In Melanesia all hair is sedulously plucked out from the body. the body of It is and the the the corner finger. Men and women are often differently tattooed . the slaying in girls tattooing indicates that they have reached nubility the breast on one of tattooing the by announced things the of of a child is one side. performed with much festivity. Motus this is said to be a sign of mourning and body are painted in stripes of white.) body with a kind of earth which gives a lustre like black lead Old women also are occasionally seen blacked . the women being banished into the In forest until their boys' wounds are healed to . live The custom of cutting off joints of the finger in times of mourning or sickness is To go with the almost universal. which appears to have been the comparatively starting . and parts ticular — in them par- the lower part of thigh. mouth. tion. and the Southern : and New Ireland. the In warlike enterprises . and the has a religious suggesenjoined by Ndengei. breastplate. and black custom has been brought to a high point of art the not very cleanly Maclure Papuas are reported to smear their bodies with clay. in men. In Fiji the puncturing with the four or five-toothed instrument to is women. yellow. cicatrices appear in it. East and West Melanesia represent the extremes which limited to in the central parts are mingled. Isabel. also. too. while the treatment of the hair of the head with caustic lime is quite as general as in .226 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND has tattooing Islands).

the eye teeth of the dog are held in special esteem among the Melanesians but. or tastefully ornamented White parrot's feathers stuck on the top of the head are signs cones of bamboo. pigs' bones some 8 inches long are worn in the nose. white. is indispensable for a man of rank. ears. or white. whales' or cachalots' teeth turn up as the article of ornament or value that is most in demand. woven together with in elegant patterns. red. the symmetrical dyeing with shiny black. persons of eminence have private hair-curlers. as also in New Guinea down in the form of numerous thin strands or wisps. on the left arm. the Hattams of New Guinea wear a little cowl with coloured feathers woven in.DPESS AND WEAPONS OE THE MELANESIANS Polynesia. In Fiji. in Malicollo the hair is dressed in porcupine fashion. insignia of a chief . in others plaited into top-knots stuck together with gum. the elder go almost unadorned. head-dresses of various descriptions occur . as alleged. Polynesian influence is probably to be seen in Sikayana. while the man covers his entire breastplate with them. the employment of shells in ornament diminishes as we proceed eastward. flowers. Among the Tugeri. wound round with the bast of a kind of In the are occupied for hours artificial wigs are also prepared from the coloured fibres of plants. of rank creeper Fiji. In general. dark blue. black. yellow. at times carried even further. 227 In Fiji the crisp black hair is . Feather-ornament . who every da}. Open-work caps made of a piece of matting adorned with strips of dark bast are customary in New Ireland and New Hanover extensive . to A these great part of the wealth of these races consists of ornaments. nose. shells. but constantly adorned with feathers. the wife wears at most one or two in her ear. They occur often in entire necklaces. In Makira. and often coloured red. if. and Cook found among the naked New Hebrideans small caps of woven mat. in the Anchorite and Solomon Islands the hair is in some cases shaven.in the preparation of the wigs. of Trochus shell in New Guinea these serve the further purpose of receptacles for the cassowary-bone daggers. . woven eye-shades are found as in New Guinea. some 4 inches thick. or else reminds the while at times it hangs observer of a full-bottomed wig. nose and ear ornaments are not in use there. and since find employment a increase the production of them. from which a piece of cloth falls down at the back. The Papuas of Hood Bay wear a band of pearls at either end of a thread which is passed round the head. . In Fiji a or two lappets over the turban of white masi. too. up. and lips are bored to receive ornaments. have often been mentioned with eulogy. the rounded softness of the outlines. combs fibre made of the stiff reddish-brown stalks of a grass. trade tends amount of ornament falls to the men the younger women wear little. For instance. . The geometrical accuracy of individual details. wisps as thick as the quill of a pigeon's feather being . Ears. towzled and great pains are expended upon colouring it with charcoal or lime then it sometimes surrounds the head in a strong turban-like pad. The greatest medium of exchange. with one foot attached to the lobe of the ear. and also as share of the . they wear. as to some extent even in New Britain. Corresponding to these is the employment in New Britain and elsewhere of shell-money in the form of gigantic ear-pendants. Beside hairdressing. as a protection against the recoil of the bowstring. Rietmann saw a young flying-fox used as a lady's ear-ornament. Melanesians wear white arm-rings. They are laboriously ground out on sharp splinters of coral-rock. On the other hand. The Solomon Islanders wear spiral bands of a liana which comes from Buka. yellow. grey. .

A rosette of yellow and red cockatoo or parrotdisplays great Shell plaques for adorning the breast and forehead From the Solomon Islands one-third real size. pouches of varnished palm-leaf are made to preserve Astrolabe Bay. or chains similarly worn of porpoise's or dog's teeth. For example. Ulakua. as well as more costly kinds. a delicately-formed face in feather-mosaic will be seen forming the head of a hairpin. From them taste evolves every sort of combination. and have found their way into the heart of Africa. frequently smartened with shells. In New Guinea the work is on a larger scale. and Guadalcanar are plaited frontlets with large white shells. even human teeth. even when it consists of an entire bird of paradise on a stick. or made from teeth. fruits. on which is laid a piece of open work in tortoise-shell. berries. to which the high esteem in which they are held corresponds.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND luxuriance in New Hanover. these costly adornments. i. and much taste is shown in the combination of forms and colours with vegetable fibres and beads on sticks. (Christy Collection. Simple necklaces. They extend from Madagascar to Hawaii. . hung from the neck. is bound on the forehead. as is found at In Tagai. — : — 2. Favourite gauds in Simbo. and serves at once for ornament and for defence it often consists of a thin polished piece of Tridacna gigas. and loses in elegance. Among New Guinea ornaments boar's teeth play the most prominent part in . Among the Admiralty Islanders disks of shell appear in great numbers as breastplates. and so forth. Both in form and material these ornaments testify to great assiduity. the Admiralty Islands one-fourth real size. . From feathers. plaited from variegated straw or bast-fibres. are found. Choiseul.

as Strauch says when speaking of the Admiralty Islands. The Solomon arm-bands . On Florida. to which the greatest attention is devoted. The fundamental type remains a staff. below the point or in wrapping the shaft in the same region with whitish tapa or bat's hair a stick wound with string. again. mingled with human teeth. in the Admiralty Islands as aprons. New . Finger-rings of silver. are as various as the faces of the inhabitants. Curiously enough it is not the " business end " of the weapon. and near Port Sulphur we meet with spears decked with feathers and human bones like those of New Britain. In Melanesia. The modifications consist merely in the addition of a carved human head. while. tion from ornament to currency is not remote. As a rule the spears are slim and pliant but a broadening of the head. is a string of red. the most esteemed and most generally-used weapon is the spear. everywhere the same. Here. variety of form. and club are — however. on the single island of Api or Tasika in the New Hebrides. in addition to the in to form a secondary point. though the actual weapons — spear. pinchbeck. are highly esteemed. or cut shells often produce quite an elegant effect. and with a long show. the forms of which. Men has its are seldom seen in Melanesia without weapons. Plain but carefully-worked javelins. . frequent than in In New Ireland the brown polished carved kind are more Hanover. as our plate of Melanesian and Micronesian weapons and will Their neatness. chains consisting of twenty to twenty -five pieces of various coloured shells. But the most finished productions of the New Caledonian armourers belong equally to the spear-class. In these instances the transi. as found in New Caledonia. own patterns. reaching sometimts a length of 10 feet. or terminated with the bone of a cassowary or a man. the Solomon Islands show the most advanced development. where the spear is ornamented the head remains simple. . in New Britain round the hips. under various patterns. Of these spears there are two of larger size The butt is intended for throwing. and pointed at both ends. repeated as often as four times. and black shells seven yards long or so wife. especially in Fiji. The weapons of Melanesia unquestionably are some of the choicest productions of dexterity and taste found are. and actual number are an unexplained departure from the rule that. even with small shells or seeds strung on them. Every group of islands bow. but the shaft. in the Solomons. Islanders carry tobacco and other small articles in their plaited while in Nissan the people invariably carry their betel-lime in a small coco-nut or gourd fastened by a short string to the left little finger. it. again. or of little shells strung at regular distances on coco-nut fibre. the price of a At Finsch Harbour beads of small polished snail-shells are worn round gilt the neck. string attached to ray's spine is let it. sometimes provided with a hexagonal knob. occurs. It is . however. accompanied with perforation. is bound into this . Compared with these the neck-threads of plaited grass. wonderful. unequally distributed. a wind simple bast round and attach a tassel of vegetable fibre. ornamented with feathers. dogs' incisors. Besides spears . no weapons are carried. or else other weapons of more limited distribution occur. In New Britain they wooden point. They among utensils the lower races. are inconspicuous but the chains of human teeth. may be regarded as the simplest representatives of this weapon thongs of plaited tapa are used in the manipulation of them. On the whole. white.DXESS AND WEAPONS OF THE MELANESIANS 229 the northern parts of the island the naturally-curved tusks being the decorative objects most in demand. or brass have been introduced by traders. In the Solomons.

12. New Guinea possesses both spears pointed with cassowary bone and simple sharpened shafts. Javelin with the same. fibres. There the heads are perforated. 9. and intended chiefly for fishing. 4-T2. for thrusting. 10 feet long or more the latter light.) Obsidian knives. and form the transition to the fish-spears with four or five heavy. the islanders have their spear- heads artistically carved from or the lower human arm-bones jaw of the toucan. Guinea and the neighbouring islands stand in respect of this . Unornamented points either spears like with saws. one-sixth of real size. wavy. barbs. in a word.230 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND ornamented with pieces of mother-of-pearl fixed in mastic. 2. than for the foe. onetenth. . Knife of mother-of-pearl shell. 3. to gratify the bearer's pride. quently they consist from end to end of fine wood. repre- sent hunting or fishing imple- ments rather than warlike weapons. 1-3. the Admiralty Islands : 1. toothed two or four-edged. nated — jagged. which exactly in the heaviest places is carved into a piece barely attached. 4-8. are Spears of this kind as intended more orna- mental weapons. lamiwrought Fre- into every sort of shape. (Christy Collection. attached roughly -worked to a shaft by means of rows Fiji plaited palm- Spears with opposite of barbs occur only in and the New Hebrides. facture of stone weapons. forked. In the Admiralty Islands the abundance of obsidian and bitumen affords the means a development in for the manu- Weapons from heads. The former are heavy warweapons. which in one direction supplements the general level at which the inhabitants of New Spears with obsidian Spear heads.n.

is and frequently weak also. and white.sticks. that they must be intended for some purposes other than fighting only. The throwing-thong of New Caledonia arises from the the in same idea. Hatzfeld the Venus Harbour. they find their greatest development in the east- ward in islands. of a copious layer of bitumen and string wound close with art. and is attached to the shaft by means. The bitumen bed which gradually lines either decorated in simple geometrical thins off towards the handle is with the spaces coloured black. On often we may notice appendages parts as which it. possess clubs. and yet wrought with such an expenditure of labour. They are often so heavy and shapeless. and from get New missile Guinea. no These weapons serve New Caledonian clubs. others with the paddle-shaped weapons of Tonga and Samoa. Guinea. we find throwing . . arrows and javelins. and in general they form the accompaniment of every expedition.ESS AND WEAPONS OF THE ÄIELANESIANS 231 reached an extraordinary perfection. Clubs are among most popular weapons . and ingenuity. and shells. Here. patience. Melanesia like the spears. the Islands. red. Certain parts of New Guinea. The head consists always of the choicest pieces of a granular striped basalt. spears have great care. may In be of use in hurling some of New Point.shaped opening. The shaft it just as always rough.DF. The clubs of celebrated warriors in Fiji used to have names of honour or pet names in their shapes some seem to be connected with the four-edged Tongan type. we or spears with long points of hard wood the shaft bone. and up Empress Augusta river. grew on the tree. . as Maclure Gulf. particularly Fiji and the Solomons. Hence their double position as insignia of rank and weapons. From New Caledonia to the Fiji New Hebrides. too. or set with little perforated with a diamond . lock and all point projecting from a is a another . (Vienna Museum. and a painted dance club (a) from the New for striking or for guarding Hebrides. A peculiar form is the imitation of a flint musket.

paddle blade. but sometimes. . even to the trade mark. a diskshaped stone is fitted near the upper end. even dry fern. namely a bludgeon merely taken from a knotty branch. . found in Peru besides these. in the Torres and Banks Islands. ornaments or a favourite plan is to jag the end in a star shape. and Besides so a new form arises with the blade as a rule narrower and rounder. and the handle bound. handle end. Iron was no doubt occasionally imported before the European epoch and in western New Guinea intercourse with the Malays has made it common. stone. They are often beautifully ground. a melancholy symbol of the decay of the old glory of The clubs in the Solomon Islands depart very little from the the Kanakas. while their stone axes have lost the handle. Clubs from the New Hebrides have a plaited sling. Another type has arisen through the bending of the blade whereby either the middle rib is thrown into strong prominence. persons the throwing-cords are fitted with reddish brown knots. the next in childish . bast in tasteful patterns . and have been degraded to the rank of pestles. ribbon. or a spike-like angle juts out from the vertex of the curve. clubs occur without a stone others have a threecornered sharp-cut head. . the helve itself is perforated. The handles are decorated with ornaments of every kind. a yard long. In a similar . and above this a bunch of red and yellow feathers. and Further decorations. so that they can be carried over the shoulder while in New Britain we find rings of fibre or plaiting which are said to be mementos of slain enemies. A is one in the shape of a bird's head. are of a modest character. especially ia West Melanesia. They are often fastened upon or into the helve by regular crossed layers of rush or string. This reminds us of the star-shaped stones with a hole through them .232 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND prickly fruit. or an opportunity is given for more delicate ornamentation by means of zig-zag lines. In New Guinea and New Britain we meet with a weapon like a " morning star. There are also round ones of black heavy polished wood. carvings of squatting idols. even by miserable shreds of cotton. pretty woven work of coloured striped peculiar club . In recent times it has been imitated by means of imported red wool. up to the present day. In New Caledonia the most frequent form of club is the simplest. It is interesting also to notice that even the natives who have only been for a few years in frequent contact with Europeans. half axe upon a sharpened staff. shell also occurs in a similar shape as a material for the blade in Santa Cruz and New Guinea. How quickly it takes hold we may learn from the fact that from New Guinea to Fiji. while in the fiat straight clubs the blade is polished smooth and sharpened at both edges. The Melanesian axes are not perforated. no article of trade is in such demand. which here replaces that used But in all an easily recognisable difference from in Mota to open bread-fruit. and remind us also in their shape of the Polynesian stone blades. with engraved ornamentation about the head and fiat ones made of an equally heavy browner wood cut into the shape of a spoon handle. This ultimately led to the reddish brown shaggy ornament as found also on spears. those of Fiji and Tonga is formed by the grip which thickens abruptly at the Together with this goes the splicing of the handle with string. imitate the iron axe in wood. or a sharper shoulder where this passes into the shaft. . . The first stage towards finishing lies in the making of a sharp edge round the knob." half club. In the case of the richest or most distinguished palm fibres. paddle form they have a projecting middle line resembling the rib of a leaf. such as ears at the sides of the a handle with a shoulder.


26. IO. 12. 28. Lances: New Britain. 9- Sword-club New Britain. Cap New Caledonia. New Ireland. 18. 30.25. handle covered with grass matting Solomon Islands* Admiralty IsObsidian javelin : : 24. 20. 13- Arrows Humboldt Bay. 15. Calabash for betel-lime : Admiralty Islands. (12 of bamboo. 17.6.) 7.) Mat with woven pattern Mortlock Island in the Carolines. : : : 21. that of the cassowary. : : : 29.) : lands. Mace used in dances: Bougainville. : : : .Mancatcher 5. Frontlet New Guinea. Obsidian lands. Paddle Solomon Islands. (The handle of 5 is made of bone. Prickly helmet : Kingsmill Islands. Breast ornament New Caledonia. Breast ornament : Humboldt Bay. 23. New Guinea. 4. Masks: 27. : : 22. II. Necklace of cachalot's teeth Fiji. : javelin : Admiralty Is- 14. (25 used as decoration of a temple. Jade axe New Caledonia. War mask New Caledonia. Chief 's spear New Caledonia. Lances New Hanover. Arrows Humboldt Bay. Club. probably : : Spear with point of cassowary bone New Guinea.WEAPONS AND UTENSILS FROM MELANESIA AND MICRONESIA.8. 19. 16.

WEAPONS AND UTENSILS FROI ELANESIA AND MICRONESIA.Printed "by the Bfbliosrra-pMsches Institut. . Leipzig'.


a greenish gray tongue -shaped. 3. I I Bow from Guinea — one-tenth the Solomon Islands (Berlin Museum). sometimes wider. Fijian style. In Isabel the blades of or are from and San Christoval 2^ to 8 inches colour. 2. Hebrides and the Solomons we have smaller wedge-shaped rounded stone hatchets.DAESS AND WEAPONS OF THE MELANESIANS way must shape for 233 have clubs arisen the musket In and the like. the Artistically pretty pat- terns are either stitched or woven axes into binding of the. tri/ 1 long. . arrows from North-west New Arrow-heads from the Solomon Islands (Godeffroy Collection. Leipzig). sometimes narrower. some axes the blade is set at an angle with a view to more convenient working when hewing" out the interior of the canoes. The tongue and oval shapes appear in an extreme form in Xew Caledonia. For the broad and angular quite circular i \ J £ f ! hatchets jade afforded i L 1 the material. Bow and real size (Christy Collection). tending in one place to the oval. axes are in the In Polynesian the but not so large. New with j ! 1 has ceremonial beautifully carved helves. Ireland Bows and arrows are frequent but With some gaps in its not universal. with a ground edge. in another to the triangular New shape.handles.

. to Buka. . often fluted. From this to fish-spears is a short step. In the Banks Islands ornamental Somewhat exceptional is a quiver of arrows serve as a medium of exchange. Arrows with a shell for head are used in Malayta to stun birds. is of bamboo or palm-wood firmly looped to the ornamental end." They are long bows with strong. and fastened in New Guinea with a pad of rattan. or teeth. put on so as artfully to indicate the knots in the reed. either simply sharpened to a point or else artistically carved into barbs of wood. in imitation of the spear-heads. the point frequently covered with a yellow wrapping. to prevent the string from slipping. but barbs are also met with in fish-arrows as many as four. and earthenware. to denote that it is poisoned. and . In Ugi and Biu near San Christoval arrows are used having rings of palm-leaf at the butt-end of the shaft. and in many cases the Deadly effects are also "poisoning" must be regarded only as a magical rite. ' of a reed. Port Sulphur. staves the string of vegetable material. The shaft is decorated with elegant hatched work. they are known. occur. the New Hebrides.234 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND distribution. and in some cast. little island of Nissan in the extreme coast of the group. however. ascribed to arrow-heads of human bone. In the New Hebrides especially they are highly developed. with a head of New Guinea — one-fourth real (Christy Collection. Poisoning of arrows is believed to bark and rattan -plait from New Guinea. The forms are like those of Eastern " Indonesia. it is said. The arrows of the Solomon Islanders of any. As a rule the arrow-head is smooth. the possession neighbours to north. together with pigs. while in New Guinea the Hattams smear their arrow-heads with a dark brown vegetable poison called umla . In the Admiralty Islands small arrow-like javelins are hurled with a thong. of the bow distinguishes the Melanesians from their and south yet without entitling us to speak of the bow as a characteristic of the Papuan race. We are reminded of the rattan pads in New Guinea bows. bone. The place where head and shaft join is bound with bast. One of the appliances of archery in the New Hebrides is a wooden hand-guard some 5 inches broad. A Melanesian bow of uncertain origin in the Vienna Museum is bound with bast at both ends. It is a curious instance of division of labour that all the beautifully wrought arrows of the Solomons are carried from the arrows. hard wood. and thence traded off for boats. which. from North-west size. are the are finest They made = Dagger of cassowary bone. . slightly bent. . in the Solomon Islands with resin. and no notch to take the string. this being made of twisted liana and strengthened in the middle with bark. must not be confused with the use of resin as a protective varnish for wooden arrows. the Banks and Loyalty Islands. In the New Hebrides cadaveric poisons and euphorbia juice are used. In New Ireland and New Caledonia bows and arrows are not in use but in New Britain. and orders for these articles are still given freely. the southern islands of the Solomon group. usually rattan. This is slipped over the wrist like a ring. parts are common. Experiments with poisoned arrows have often failed to produce any result.

. In New Hebrides. Shield from Teste in (Christy Collection. The Fijians have also short throwing-clubs.DRESS AND WEAPONS OF THE MELANESIANS protects the J 35 hand from the recoil of the bow-string. and hence easily emptied. originally nothing but pointed cudgels with a grip for the hand. are carried in a net bag. 2. like the induku of the Kaffirs. having a carved handle. one-tenth real size. knives and daggers were used in hand-to-hand fightThose from the ing. doubled in the middle to form a seat for the stone. used in New Caledonia. Carved dance-shield from east New Guinea — one-fifth real size. New Caledonia. either formed of broken-off spear-heads or poniards of bone. fastened at the i. The killing-clubs of Malayta are stronger weapons of the same kind. The sling is a simple cord. It is unknown in New Ireland and the Solomons while in Tanna the boys use slings where their elders employ bows and spears. Even before the age of iron.) New Guinea lower end by buttons. over a yard long. with a . The natives of New Britain. and same purpose while the braces and found on the Fly River. doubtless have the Islands are as much ornamental as progreaves of plaited bast in the Anchorite the plaited " braces tective. with a lump of pyrites at the lower end contained in a web of bast. deeply shouldered head. of a pointed oval shape. The . and Fiji. spiral liana bandages " covering half the forearm a foot long used in Buka. use New Caledonia and Niue the carefully wrought sling-stones. To this class belong the instruments like staves. the slings for missile purposes.

from Friedrich-W'ilhelm's Harbour. Wooden battle-shield from Astrolabe Bay. Wooden 5. Wooden shield. 4. bound with plaited rattan. 2. size. Carved shield from Hatzfeld Harbour. 3. with black and white pattern. One-twelfth real (Berlin Museum of Ethnoloffv.I. Motu-motu shield from Freshwater Bay. battle-shield from Tro- briand. .

The so-called daggers itself is made of ray- pointed like a dagger. . they presume be easily understood. 182. made of sharp splinters of bamboo stuck in the ground. and knife-blades conclusion in sheaths of palm-spathe. The ornamentation is original. The grip and guards for the hands at the back are made of strips of palm -leaf. frequent in New Guinea and the neighbourhood. shields Among the Solomon Islanders we first meet with elongated reed or are wholly absent. . and as may . Without a comparative survey of allied objects. partially explain this the existence of numerous insignia of rank. religion. In we may mention the caltrops. remind us of the masks coming from the same such whose region. New faces. 2 3 5 of a carved wooden shield from New Guinea. but have spread no further. used in Fiji and New Guinea. sometimes the reverse. while decorative patterns are woven in with black fibre. rare among races in this stage. it would often be impossible. with their large finely-ground stone blades. or swords. festivals. flat or hollow. There is all the flavour of the tropics in them. shown on p. we are reminded of the exuberant fancy of nature in shaping sea-monsters or creeping plants. Much feeling for form. In the ceremonial Ireland the stone blade completely disappears beneath the acceslizards. or rectangular. No and sories race possesses articles similar axes of . as shown in the cut on 230. are simple enough the thick end with the joint serves as grip. 237 their breadth at the point where the blade passes into the artistically engraved handle. weighing up to 22 lbs. shields of plaited woven together with fibre. birds. Ornament is . where specimens occur of great size. and beautifully decorated circular. the New Hebrides. In Fiji. even in the case of those which by reason of their curves or sharper indentations look like flaming swords or horrible instruments of torture. But when the passion for ornament assumes such dimensions as we see in the repre- sentation on p. The employment of defensive arms is limited. bamboo the reeds placed longitudinally and reminding us of Central Africa. is found in the shields of eastern New Guinea and the islands to the east. is owing to the hardness of the given by wrapping spear-heads p. together with the narrow Malayan kind from -Salawatti. and limited to very simple scratched work. Not uncommonly the handle rare. The poniards of bird-bone (mostly a cassowary's leg-bone). A finish. The narrow Moluccan shields with shell-trimming have been imported. New Hanover. weapons were the first things selected for this purpose. oval.DXESS AND WEAPONS OF THE MELANESIANS Admiralty Islands are conspicuous by stings are really files. bone. Guinea. much industry must have gone to the making of the decorative axes from the D'Entrecasteaux Islands. New Ireland. Cuirasses are found on the north and south coasts of New . a luxuriance of fancy in the case of weapons purpose is narrowly limited. paddles. made of wood or plaited. . An extraordinary development. to decide whether these weapons were evolved from clubs. the other being split and worked to a point. Social relations. being sometimes symmetrical. and pieces of mother-ofpearl often applied in regular figures. and the Admiralty Isles.

pottery has been known from early times. Museum. in which they keep their fishingtackle. and the Tonga group produces porous vessels. Cook found earthenware pots. bowls. (British Museum. goods has caused the greatest falling off. and great dishes. In Pelew every native is expert in the handling of his little axe but house and boat-building is carried out by masters in the craft. But the productions of Polynesia craftsmen hold a good position. betel. . In and expert Tonga and Samoa carpenters as artists. In Micronesia. now in the boat-builders and carvers. They know the trick of patiently adding to their dishes coat after coat of resinous lacquer till a durable skin is formed. This multifarious . and beautifully polished. AND FOOD Similarities IN OCEANIA its and coincidences in labour and implements of labour implements Food and stimulants. . and inlaid with mother-of-pearl flat plates and deep bowls are found in the very poorest abodes.23S THE HISTORY OF MANKIND §7 LABOUR. As good Wooden dexterity of the Micronesians dish from Hawaii. On Namoka. Their wooden ware consists of plates. are regarded the methods builders and whose productions were articles of trade. Berlin with pegs of hard . The people of Fakaafo carved cylindrical boxes out of single pieces of wood. The Easter Islanders are skilful at it. Thus in Hawaii there were roofers. 8 to 1 2 inches in diameter. The perfection of of labour led to the division of labour.) is the point where the introduction of European also testify to great handiness. made almost in life-size from the wood of the bread-fruit tree. DWELLINGS. and have little human figures in various attitudes as supporters. wood let in forming dots. which seemed to have been long in use. all painted a beautiful red. Cook notices the chiefs' ava-cxxps as the most remarkable pieces of carved work in " Owhyhee " they are perfectly round. too. and form a guild with sacerdotal rank. Armourers and net-makers sometimes also formed separate trades. kava. Quite a peculiar style of execution appears in a Hermes-shaped idol from Hawaii. It is quite a mistake to assert that the Polynesians have no pottery. tobacco — — Hunting and fishing —Agriculture and —Architecture and plan of villages wood-carvers the Micronesians surpass many of their kindred in the East Pacific Islands. with covers or even close-fitting lids.

three layers thick. are represented on our coloured plate. affording a substitute for tapa of many and various descriptions. known as tapa or guatu. weave a fabric from the fibres of a Musa and a Hibiscus. and drew lines on the stuff with a wooden comb. . while the ropes which their husbands make from coco-fibre are famous. or rather frames.LABOUR. Bast . until pieces a yard wide. after which it is beaten with the ribbed club on a wooden This beating enlivens a village in Tonga as threshing does in Europe. and Nukuor. are rectilinear. The looms. the bark and bast are separated from it. stimulated the Maoris to the weaving of mats. and in a few days. Others are annexed to it both at the side and square. 1 displaying a relatively good standard of taste. and carved with figures in relief. In half an hour the piece will have changed in shape from a strip almost to a : . Mats from Tongatabu. is stretched and smeared with a fluid at once adhesive and colouring. with the exception of a dotted one which seldom occurs. Some of the most remarkable patterns of Polynesian tapa from that portion of Cook's collection which is now at Vienna. AND FOOD IN OCEANIA '-39 Of the mode in which the bark-cloth. 1 [So to this day many Alpine valleys have their own pattern for home-spun and home-woven cloth. on which the pattern. . and a large number of the pieces separately over a semi-cylindrical wooden stamp. the end. The tints are black. recog- nised sometimes even in quite remote districts. is coloured more strongly in the parts which are thrown into relief by the inequalities of the bed. Mats from the Gilberts and Marshalls show a special pattern for each island. The Gilbert and Marshall Islanders are clever at weaving mats the inhabitants of Ponape sew their mats the women of Ponape understand basket-weaving. block. which grows from 6 to 10 feet high. The bast is then cleaned and macerated in water. For printing their kapa (as they call it) the Hawaiians used sticks broadened at the end. are produced. European influence has unluckily not improved them. The women of Micronesia. white. are like those of the Malays. DWELLINGS. . (Vienna Ethnographical Museum. and 20 to 25 yards long. in Ruk. Mortlock. On each a second and third layer is placed and the piece. From the Gilbert Islands come charming covered baskets and fans of different sorts. is prepared Mariner gives the following account A circular cut is made with a shell in the bark above the root of the tree the tree is broken off. when the stem is half-dry. The edges are snipped with shells. drawn are worked in coco-fibre. The long tough fibres of the PJwrmium tenax.] . and reddish brown the patterns.

A great variety is of straw at plaiting produced present in also Hawaii. For ornaments. human hair still wound round it.240 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Cook brought mats with borders of feathers woven in are made in Samoa. in One might the case of feathered Earthenware vessels from the Fiji Islands. is made of plaited reeds and string. some of the prettiest plaited work from the Tonga Islands pouches. which the king's insignia. The its coloured plate of Polynesian ornaments. too fine in comparison with their ugliness. was used for the same purpose. wooden large mats are designed with vessels covered with plaited work and the like with trimmings woven on. red feathered head shown in the wide skate's mouth full of teeth and goggle eyes. A strong wooden needle. Vienna Museum. A characadorned bast and stripes of dark-coloured : . (Cook a net of Collection. at same time one of the The fans of plaited bast also show pretty shapes . with — one-fourth real size. Tortoise- inches . with . valuable chains and girdles are of the coloured shells. composed opercula of certain The laborious putting pieces together of them from numerous is small a particularly favourite task. mother-of-pearl was the favourite material to work it makes a particularly vivid impression when it is employed in glittering natural beads. teristic Tongan object is is the fly whisk. Feather -weaving its reaches in highest pitch Hawaii. say that the idols hideous of the Sandwich Islands the work is much (Godeffroy Collection. shell is split into discs thin- of extraordinary while ness. they belong to the toilet of Polynesians of all ages. Interesting are the netting needles. The red feathers on the Greek-shaped helmets are from Depranis coccinea. or lies in broad plates on the breast. with an eye. Leipzig. into which thousands of little red and yellow feathers are so cleverly worked in tufts that they quite conceal the substratum. some 16 long. the yellow from MoJw fascicidatus. one of which exists in the collection Stone pestles from Hawaii Cook at Vienna.

we must mention the preparation of the turmeric powder. and hung up required for use. This art is absent in New Ireland and New Britain. Finsch mentions villages on Hall Sound in New Guinea. with a rubbing- With these bread-fruit. Melanesians is in some points behind. stock understands pottery and another does not. R . . flat 5 241 Among the household utensils of the to 8 inches high. development in the Solomon Islands the artistically beautiful spears of Fauro New Caledonia.LABOUR. are ground. . where one The industrial activity of the others in . wrapped in banana leaves. after which dye which priestess with has settled down in the water is surface and handles of various shapes. smooth and beautifully worked. public buildings. in many Weapons reach their highest advance of that of the Polynesians. Lastly. but only potsherds. AND FOOD IN OCEANIA Hawaiians are pestles called penu. but reaches its highest point in Fiji. DWELLINGS. parts of New Guinea. . have been spoken of with full justice. Carved spatulas for betel-lime from Dorey in New Guinea —two-sevenths real size. In the New Hebrides the potter's art must have died out This in Vate not one complete pot is now to be found. and bananas on a block having four feet and the upper side slightly hollowed. taro. and the Admiralty Islands hold in many respects a lower position while many From natives of the southern and central Pacific have no knowledge of pottery. In Nukuor the roots are ground by four to six women in special and utensils. to which is ascribed an importance amounting to sanctity as an embellishment for body. Primitive oil lamps are formed of conical bowls hollowed out in lava. baked into cakes in the huts till in coco-nut moulds. New Guinea to the Fiji Islands vessels are freely made of clay mixed with sand. they are then allowed to stand in water on the following -nuts and young coco three old soma nuts are offered by a morning three the prayer. clothing. made of basalt. On the north coast Bilibili does a thriving trade as the centre of this industry in Astrolabe Bay by exporting its manufactures. (Christy Collection collected.

Stamping sticks 4. bashes with pattern burnt in. i. 2. Straw plaiting. . Decoration for chiefs. probably a modern importation. one-fifth to one-sixth : . 3. tooth. Necklace of similar teeth from 9-12. 1-8. one-half real size. Oil lamps of lava. Beaters of kanila wood.Calabash-carrier of coco-nut fibre. 8. CalaUtensils from Hawaii (Arning Collection. Fiji. 7. 6. Berlin Museum) 5. 9-12. a sling of human hair with carved cachalot's for tapa. stoppered with conus shells.

or sleeping-mats. pandanus leaves and rushes. The decoration consists of impressed dotted or zig-zag lines and ribs. In . In New Guinea they merely beat soft the bast stripped off the india-rubber tree. An intelligent Fijian can tell you from which island a mat came. white. . common. May we see in this a case of migratory industrial tribes resembling the smiths of Africa ? Bark-cloth is prepared in all the Melanesian groups. and it is only the wives of fishermen and sailors who appear to devote themselves to it. Floor-mats are 5 to 8 yards in length. For the coarser mats coco-nut fibre employed for the finer. — . know the potter's wheel. The coarser kinds are used as floorcloths and hangings to the huts the finer as sails. Islands. and red. white Borders are worked on with designs in darker bands feathers and scraps of European stuffs are woven in. so that. sail-mats 100 and more. 183. but they burn their vessels cleverly in the open with dry grass and reeds. who have The highest points to which introduced the custom of cooking with hot stones. states to be trade marks. too. but Fiji produces pieces 150 yards long. the task of making pots is left to the women. by means of the blocks shown on p. tinctoria. nesians do not .LABOUR. New nor is Britain the it tapa is thicker. permits the designing of wonderfully The is art of plaiting is diligently practised. a girdle woven from strips of the bast of the wau-tree (a kind of hibiscus). One of the prettiest productions of the art is the women's liku. DWELLINGS. sometimes of. Here. from his observations in New Guinea. The use of a rule. and having also a common spout in the hollow handle also oval and spindle-shaped flasks with one opening. since it is an article : . With this they make vessels which are quite as symmetrically formed as on the wheel. a flat round stone. of trade. In New Guinea pots are painted black. and a thinner for covering one of the most valued sorts has a pleat running through the middle of each strip of plaiting. Sleeping-mats are of two kinds a thicker to lie on. the earthenware industry has developed are found in New Guinea and the Fiji The Melawhich are precisely the extreme points of its distribution. A shining glaze is given by rubbing them with resin while still hot. The wonderful wealth of forms is based not so much on recollection of the very similar South American shapes as on immediate imitation of Nature. with the fibres of a root that grows wild. Besides the paper mulberry. of stuff coloured in patterns. . as among almost all races. handles at the side are never are found some made of two or three found. as in stuff. The loom is unknown the woven stuffs from New Guinea found in our collections seem to be a Malay importation. and always . but painted. New Guinea. Pots the size of casks are used there to keep sago. the patterns are larger and more continuous throughout the from being drawn and not impressed. or for children. AND FOOD IN OCEANIA 243 retrogression has been set down to the immigrating Polynesians. and Artocarpus incisus. Among . and boat-shaped ones with two. The cooking vessels are simple but fish Ornamented covers are not unelegant urns. It is hard to say how far to the westward the Polynesian and Fijian method of preparing tapa extends. regular squares. and obviously more coarsely manufactured printed. which Finsch. The Fijian tools are a ring-shaped cushion (in New Guinea the upper part of an old pot). considerable size. F. which is cultivated. with figures of birds and the shapes have extraordinary variety. the following trees supply the bast Ficus prolixa. and four wooden mallets. the smaller drinking vessels fastened together. with separate spouts. .

of which we have seen specimens in the weapons. stands Wickerwork (basket. blades of grass. though the west can also (as seen in the cut on : p. In these simple artists there is a strong tendency to pass from imitation of Nature to conventionalised forms. All the larger groups have their own subjects. especially where. hardly any carved human figures are to be seen. the inferior kinds from the bast of the zvau-tree. rarely in as in Fiji and the this in New the Hebrides. very elegant woven articles of beside one from Fiji. so that imitation is this never very successful. Vienna Ethnographic Museum. One has only to look at a New Caledonia fan But in New Guinea. from Tongatabu. Comparison with New Caledonia shows how high East Melanesia stands in this art. ovals. with strongly distended . — all kinds are produced. Bags and fans. One may see which the nose appears as a line. etc. again. highest in East Melanesia. copied. too. In the Fiji Islands these are tastefully made up into balls. for instance. falling downwards and forwards from the projecting forehead. Individual districts are poor in this respect Banks Islands. are made either of palm baskets are admirably woven leaves strengthened at the edge and vandyked. and . 241) in the show remarkable work. spindles. one. The most wonderful fancy is shown in the appendages to houses and boats.244 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Soft mats arc made by plaiting the stalks of a fibrous plant into removing the woody portions by bending and beating. or woven from bast. Wood-carving again. pouches. the representations of the human form is so human face. (Cook Collection. and fly-whisk). But superior to all these are the string and the cables the best from coco-fibre.

" To the same branch of art we may carved wooden masks. and in Isabel we We may notice also one characteristic find really artistic engraved work. The flexible tortoiseshell was formerly the favourite material in south-eastern New Guinea and in the Torres Islands for masks with wild arabesques and appendages like trunks and combs. . In some New Guinea masks this evokes a reminiscence of Ganesa and his proboscis. are executed with firm. probably from Tongatabu. the top. insignia of chiefs. In Fiji this fancy is fused with the far better proportioned geometrical designs of Tonga. From New Ireland come examples of masks made by sawing off the face of a skull. being used even for hats now they have got to use tin masks in New Guinea. 252. and depressed parts are white. just as in Peru and with these are connected the ruddle-painted skulls of New Britain. Lines in relief are coloured black. a cross line sharply cut back. a vigorous style in masks are often . and fitted with wigs of real All these carvings and are carried at dances. as This religious sculpture shows a close affinity with idols from other an idol. in Kaiser Wilhelm's Land particularly. the general level red. where formerly. Still earlier. corresponding with that of the carved woodwork generally. These Polynesian fan and fly-whisks. dressed in feather clothing. AND FOOD IN OCEANIA ^45 and ending in the mouth. parts of the South Seas. In trade the activity of the Melanesians is by no means insignificant. in connection with which we may recall the resemblance : of the spear-heads to the knobstick of the of " Hervey Islanders refer the as shown in the plate Polynesian Clubs. nostrils. stimu- . as shown on p. indeed. In San Christoval figures are better drawn than anywhere else. DWELLINGS. strong cuts in palm wood. it was much more worked. hair trimmed round the lips with red beans. . (Cook Collection. used to prevail.LABOUR. production of Melanesian art the ever-recurring grotesque heads of the New The carved head with large nose and a kind of bishop's mitre on Caledonians. is a type which we find in a larger form by itself.

agate in a particular shape. First. In the Solomons. which when first visited by Europeans They rushed only too readily could have been introduced in no other manner. canoes full of natives eager for trade swarmed around them but in 1889 RearAdmiral Strauch found the bay almost empty. Sperm-whales' teeth. What is even more. Third. necklaces of dolphins' teeth. Similarly. a red stone. it may be which has caused the Fijians to establish mountain tribes. kaldoir. and Melanesia. In New Britain its purpose is served by disks of shell strung on fibre in the Banks Islands by the points of shells similarly strung in the northern New Hebrides by long narrow mats which are more valuable in proportion as they are older and more smoke-blackened. adelobber. and level market-places at suitable points of their coasts while the Fijian trading people of Levuka. the four others. of which. natives of Hood Bay came unarmed to meet Mac Far lane's schooner. circulate among the common people. and with almost a glassy lustre. In the Pelew Islands. Kubary gives a picture of a brack worth forty-five shillings a polished fourteenfillets . in former times. A valuable article of export from New Ireland are cuscus-teeth. in the Banks Islands. . . and Malaki have formed themselves upon the example But even in Central Melanesia there is a lively traffic. . or in some specimens. bits of glass or porcelain. Individual of the Tongans. hard enamel. It Second. — sided polyhedron. you can buy at most a handful . graded upon money.246 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND lated and instructed as it no doubt is by the trading of the Malays in New Guinea. All these peoples were acquainted with trade and barter among some of them iron was found. fine-grained. and I was the first white man that ever had one. in the shape of a bent prism with sides ground somewhat hollow. was preserved in the treasure-chest of the King of Korror. kalbukub or kalcbukub. The most valuable was made of terra-cotta. into commerce with white men." While these three kinds of money go only among the chiefs. For a bit of the last-named. . Kubary says " Only very few chiefs possess a single kalebukub. . value . the whole group did not contain more than three or four pieces. hard. in Semper's time. pangungaii or bungau. fragments of enamel. It was owing to this foreign trade that the and by that of the Tongans in Fiji. . kluk. In Micronesia the position of currency is taken by stones. consisting of fragments of white or green glass. whence this seems to radiate. in : olelongl. The people had nothing left to Money transactions play an important part. . perforated for and necklaces. . in the Solomons. too. When the Gazelle visited Blanche Bay in 1877. Codrington tells us that the Banks Islanders have organised a regular system of credit. for rank and dignity are exchange. . Mbotoni. Santa Cruz treasures red parrots' feathers the feathers round hens' eyes. seven sorts are distinguished. polished like brack. thus the pointed islands of the New Hebrides manufacture various weapons weapons of Tanna come from Immer. represent large capitals in Fiji just as do. or that the Papuas of Ansus have become honest brokers between the Malays and the This. and armlets formed from rings of shell. and beads. its or buried on account of Aibukit the wives of great men wear it on their necks. capital is represented also by the masses of tapa. Malayta builds canoes Bougainville mints shell-money Guadalcanar makes rings and wooden dishes. perhaps jasper. which are valued as ornaments. brack or barak. of which the Fijian chiefs are so proud that on festive occasions they will wind 200 yards and more of it round their persons. the red hair below the Accumulated ear of the flying-fox was used as money in the Loyalty Islands.

" concluded the narrator with a sly laugh. had to go. Pangungau. credit the people. out on the platform of the boat. to seek new countries. or a bundle of native cigarettes. himself and the swells too. Marks of rank are also a measure of property. Ngarutt. and so on till the But as he did not much-enduring Olelongl. Then Kluk was sent to fetch them both but he also stayed on the island and so it went on till Brack was deserted " So he went to fetch them both by his common people and by his nobles. who as the most important was lying stretched of which were the seven kinds of money." said the narrator stayed and took up their abode. Semper calls it " the Order of the Bone. the occupants : Wicker fans from the Gilbert or Marshall Islands (British Museum They had set out from their own They had floated about in the ocean for a long time without finding what they wanted. In the kluk class are found polished enamel beads. but he too liked the look of our town. island. With the exception of the most valuable. " that. This time Adelobber went off grumbling. and the smaller has to be smart and run about.new chief is expected to comply. and he. gave the Kalbukub he passed it on to Kaldoir he to Kluk. return. all serve equally for ornament. and sleep. DWELLINGS. Brack does nothing but eat. Pangungau. with which even. and the higher in rank always sends his inferior on errands and thus it is. and at last they came ashore here on Pelew.LABOUR. which are never brought out. very sharply graded large kluks outweigh inferior kalebukubs. Thus in Pelew wealthy persons wear as an armlet the kltlt. or atlas vertebra of the rare Halicore dugong. Brack. The purchase of the klilt is a political requirement. as lazy as his sovereign." The same writer heard a pretty story at Aibukit in Pelew Once upon a time a boat floated up. The different classes are not. just as with us men. too. did not return. however. . drink. " and so all seven himself. ." . AND FOOD IN OCEANIA M7 of bananas. who had no one to send. and work for order to . Since only the king can confer this. after a while Brack renewed his order. the big money sits quiet at home. Off the harbour. the production of a much higher ability than any with which we can now . . . to go ashore and have a look at the island. told the next in rank. . and so are perforated.

on board European vessels. of coarse work and various value. invest them with political influence. called fe. : . and so on. spondylus armlets. while in the case of others the difficulty of obtaining them. are is may be imagined when we Mortlock Islanders. Offences against chiefs can often only be expiated by the sacrifice of a piece of money which represents the whole wealth of a currency in Mortlock. losing with it the credit based upon it. like millstones. somewhat unwieldy. is made from various polished stones and pieces of shells twisted which can be strung into necklaces till wanted. coin come into use for commercial purposes then rolls of matting. and from a few dollars to 000 or more. the strung on a cord A further form of money. either in pieces of the same size or tapering towards the ends. off. The importance of these new coinages is not only economical their age and their rarity gives an almost sacred character to some. these stone coins very few find their way into usually remain the property of the whole commune This kind of money being private hands. of a pale in workmanship. drops several . bracelets of tortoise-shell. gau (clearly the same as the largest from £j to . to Pelew.243 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND In the Carolines we meet with a similar development of currency. diameter. These are found only among the chiefs. yellow granular limestone. and then the family. — — polished beads of coco-nut shell. and the power which they impart. the art of Oceania is as fond as were the ancient Americans -form money and neck ornaments for the Gilbert Islanders. from i foot to 2 yards Their value depends upon their to several tons. though they weave themselves. and weighing up Wooden bowl for food. Plaques of nutshells and seashells strung on long cords of coco-nut fibre. Since the working requires many hands. How necessary a currency know that the — family . Every year many people go in gangs.) bungau of Pelew). 1 . size. consists Here the of large pieces. ambnl. where they find the raw material. (Christy Collection. most frequent unit. from the Admiralty Islands— one-eighth real size. other forms of in the first place pearl-shells. or sar. import particular kinds of woven goods from the Ruk Islands. black and white alternately an arrangement of which. and the transport is expensive.£i 1.

the women with pouch-shaped nets and carved clubs to knock down dead wood from the trees. The in coinage also plays an important part a certain in the inter-tribal festivals. conditions are less gratifying. Every island of the Pelew group gives from time to time a ruk. life of the Melanesians gives the impression of a Melanesians from the moderate activity under favourable natural conditions. taro. used for betel-box. sago. (Christy Collection. Both sexes take part in labour. course of the day. next to religious and the standard of social position. from the Trobriand Islands one-third real size. which is eaten in common leave men trim the meat cleverly with their bamboo knives then most of them the village and betake themselves to the field the men armed with their spears. frogs. Carved gourd. and bread-fruit. there are other niks. — — In New Caledonia the efficiency exceeding that of the Polynesians. steps in the social ladder. kangaroo. AND FOOD IN OCEANIA J 49 tradition. but sleep for several hours in the men occupy themselves The women clean during the cool morning hours in making twine for their nets. iguanas. D'Albertis has drawn a picture which would be well festina lente. and cook the first meal. When their toilet completed the : — . consisting of bananas. fitted by the motto The natives as a rule get up is early. They have four meals a day.third real size. Bamboo 2. and even meat and fishes. But they also eat snakes. fetch water. the the huts. the basis of political influence Thus money is. Besides this mulbckcl.LABOUR. yams. In general the economic eastern parts. to put it briefly. DWELLINGS. the grubs of various insects. fresh-water tortoises. with . the indolence and poverty often reminding us of Australians. of allied islands bring to the government a fixed contribution native The visiting chiefs pay their host according to their rank. when serving on European plantations or on board ship. and lastly. Of the mode of life in New amount of Guinea. at which the representatives of number money. drinking horns from New Guinea one. show an i. in which only the small places of a district join with a view of showing friendship and good fellowship.

and that either in parallels It or freely interlacing. crescents. all could be .. The stone axe was the only implement for shaping posts and planks. the islanders recognised at once the advantage of j bamboo box from Western New size. the stone axe in the east but iron has created an equal . — three-fourths ron too i s (Christy Collection. the blades of which are divided by . spines of sea-urchins or rays. ellipses . efforts two straight coloured. or for felling and together with sharp shells it served for the execution of the Carved larger ornament. and engraved work was done with shells and rats' teeth fixed in hard wood shells. . which herein also show affinity. 111 of plain hoop iron to other.-^. trees. and the . ebe. % -io Carved - _— Guinea revolution - everywhere. The tools with which artistic work was done were. : smoothing was done with files from the skin of a ray and pieces of coral or pumice-stone. In element but is the curved into Papuan ornament the predominant line. or in the it has a decided carved shields.. It lines into four equal portions. served for boring. etc. both peoples have attained a similar point. It is attractive to trace out how and in what their productions show the typical differences that have their real among the Papuas roots in the spirit of the people. the shells of which they use for the most various purposes.^. figures. fr fi t sheet iron in the since it . In reference to will New Guinea. waves. in the east of the island world that it may claim the highest development. while ..250 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND great gusto. or rather in the spirit of the race.. and mallets In advantage over any attempts at copying Nature. The shell-axe was as a rule more frequent in the west. variously appears still more in the wooden moulds But it is for the decoration of earthenware vessels.— real were. Hugo Zöller says if : " You be guilty of no exaggeration art industry you speak of a " . individual groups of ornament are separated by zig-zags and straight lines. this New and again seen in Zealand resembles New Guinea most now towards geometrical arrangement are paddles. introduction of iron. also runs especially into spirals. The concentric curve is always recurring in the fantastic beaks of their ships. Skilled workmen as they -— . especially in the Tonga and Samoa groups. wooden dishes. but the ornament of the Melanesians is richer and fuller of fancy. .) form ut at rst h ey preferred . again. paddles. a fresh-water mollusc called therefore always carry about with them. before the exceedingly simple. and artistic Both Polynesians and Melanesians display tendency in their simplest articles of daily an use.

. Hawaii and Rapanui. . and hard wood. and fish-hooks were reckoned at least as important persons. and nets. The New Zealanders used to make nets 500 yards long. as length and breadth of the far as . and fitted with artificial baits Those used in the capture of sharks. as we have mentioned. Hooks of every size are manufactured from importance. requiring hundreds of hands to handle them. Property in these articles was so abundant that in the early times they were The strongest hooks frequently a medium of exchange against European goods. fishing-lines. In Hilo. and by Dutchmen. In New Guinea many villages mainly upon it. The most perfect implements that the Polynesians generally possess are employed in this work. the right of hunting them is reserved Meanwhile. is all over the region pursued with energy and diligence it takes a distinct place in the weekly division of labour. can say whether the total impossibility of finding game to provide an outlet for the desire to slay and torture. tortoiseshell. iron and the other metals had either never been known or had disappeared Schouten and Tasman never mention them. were composed of three pieces the body consisting of a semicircular finger-shaped piece of the bone of the cachalot or sperm-whale. (Berlin Museum. the influences of but of also the . spears. -v bracing effects the chase. set AND FOOD IN OCEANIA 251 and fixed just like their old stone axes. indeed. that the smith's art found a footing in pre-European times otherwise throughout the . Chisel have remained unknown. for ambition and active impulses. and to distribute the catch equally among all members of the tribe. It was only in the environs of Geelvink Bay. Fishing. hunting plays an important part. not only pastoral all life. . Who . ducks are cap- and shell auger. birds' bones. the flat under side of which was made of feathers or bright pieces of shell. In general the fish-hooks of the Melanesian isles are excellent even white men prefer them to the European steel hooks. which were visited by the Malays from Ternate. sea-shells. and in where certain birds of paradise are found. has been as responsible for the incessant wars and the cruelty of man towards man as the lack of larger animals' flesh has been an incentive to cannibalism ? The decay of projectile weapons must in any case be connected with this. on the other hand. a popular article of diet. fitted with baits. : . are as much as 20 inches long. and small birds are caught in Tahiti otherwise there is no hunting of any . increasing as it does westward. were sacred of ropes. but the manufacturers Boat-builders. tured by means of floating sticks.LABOUR. Owing subsist districts to the larger still number of land animals in Melanesia. from New Britain. district. in the Polynesians we have a branch of mankind to whom for the chiefs. The appearance of a shark puts whole villages into commotion in time of peace distinguished persons take the command of fishing expeditions just as in time of war they lead troops. and weighted with stones. It is only in New Caledonia and some parts of Western Melanesia that the fishing is limited to what can be done with arrows. In New Guinea the custom is to fish by detachments on fixed days. DWELLINGS.

serves to entice the sharks. when the is fairly on its back in boat. For the same purpose the Fijians make a kind of floating bownet from the long stems of climbing plants. nooses. such as sharks. D'Albertis In stormy saw skulls of turtles hung up in the temple of Tawan as offerings. and hand-nets which are held from a moving boat with the hilt .) the animal to the surface it . In Trobriand a kind of rattle of coco-nut shells half cut through — . an obtuse-angled. of purpose people are conspicuous dex- FisWng from terity and strength to dive at from the Solomon Islands-one-eighth real size the cri tical moment and drive (Christy Collection). which are thrown into deep water close outside the reef. this required i. with string — On its upper side the these tortoiseshell hook was fastened hold the point in the larger specimens being pierced for a string to the bait. in such a way as to form a semicircular fence and block the way of the into turtles returning from the land. For the shark-fishing. are used for stupefying the fish sleepy fishes. When tortoiseshell hooks became blunt or s ^ m m We broken they were able to do further service in necklaces. baler. . A great number of ceremonies and festivities are connected with the turtle-fishery. 2. In New Britain they employ also standing fish-traps made of plaited work. sinkers. The these animals nets are driven by is shouts. and war-spears. are said to be taken in Fiji with .palm leaves. sharp-pointed piece of bone. This is carried on by means of §§ weighted nets.252 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND inlaid with mother-of-pearl.like end dropped into the water. plaited through with coco . Vegetable poisons. large lumps of bait are used for the flying fish. 1-loats. especially one from a climbing glycine. to get work For but the main them on board. may mention here the simple but ingenious Tahitian arrangement for carrying fish a strong cord with a boar's tooth at each end. float New Caledonia (Vienna Museum. loud blasts of the shell trumpet announce the joyful intelligence.

sterna. The in Tahiti and . and man\.LABOUR. were found so tamed as to sit on men's shoulders. the dog is the only domestic animal of any size. They are pampered — — : ones are suckled by women. and on the south coast of in almost every Agriculture at least island on islands like same time not niggardly. being quite useless for hunting. None of the native birds have been regularly . where soil and climate are not too favourable. far domesticated. . and reserved exclusively for the upper classes. and fed by old women or. the first mention must be made of pigs. so that labour New Guinea cockatoos were kept But these have naturally no economic importance. literally stuffed with bread-fruit dough. is almost everywhere indigenous even on the most barren coral It is most highly developed a few coco-palms are cultivated. In New Guinea. In the matter of breeding animals.) a small one resembling the breed of the Negroes. (Munich Ethnographical Museum. is repaid but not allowed to flag. Next to the pig. but at the village. : the The common fowl is the most widely distributed Tonga they ran about wild in flocks while in Easter Island they were only domestic animal. after the fashion of capons. of all New in Zealand. New Britain the little A New breed is Zealand trawl-net. Tonga. AND FOOD IN OCEANIA 253 weather the Hawaiians put out in their little fishing boats to catch dolphins. and the Society Islands they were bred for meat. though in Easter Island the sea-swallows. DWELLINGS. Samoa. with no bark. The\' are slaughtered at high festivals. Wherever these occur they take a prominent position. In Tongatabu the islanders carried pigeons or parrots on sticks.a fisherman going too far in pursuit of the school the position of which is indicated by the birds in the air has been cast away and lost. The .

terraces with earth artificially banked . The men cultivate betel. taro. (Berlin Museum). and Solanum. and garden flowers. Shnrk-trap with wooden float. even beds laid out Even on Easter Island. of the chief article of food. the New Zcalandcrs cultivate. where fishing prevails. Cultivation is correspondingly dense. trees for giving all which is a sign that the shade. (Berlin Museum. . were found in cultivation unpro. Lowest of little all are poor islands like Easter Island or the smaller Paumotus. such as the Pelews. while in Tonga he walked in an avenue of four rows of coco-palms 2000 paces in length. is the the more find from Fiji. rocky Yet even there plantains. — — . G. and the inhabitants are more indolent. Smoked fish from Massilia in East New Guinea — one-sixth real size. tobacco. found an irrigation trench a foot deep around every plantain. sweet potatoes.patches in the finest condition. and turmeric. way their descriptions excited among their contemporaries the liveliest longing In Micronesia. and to set out the young plants the women have to keep the ground weeded. agriculture for for these fortunate islands. even kings' wives. while the women of all classes. favoured regions the rule. stand some- what lower. from the lowest to the highest. fenced fields. is carried on only in the larger production the islands. especially in the cultivation of taro. make it a point of honour to keep their taro . ductiveness exception. Forster cultivation of the soil has advanced far. The task of the men is only to attend to the artificial irrigation of the plantations. among crops originally introduced from the north. and take the plants up as required. one of the special advantages of Samoa to which Pritchard draws attention is that you come every mile or two upon a grove of coco-palms or bread-fruit and In this the first visitors to Tongatabu depicted it as one great garden. which are in low marshy places. Besides taro. with area and a scanty soil.254 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Society Islands and Samoa. more prodigally endowed by Nature. yams. taro. sugarcane. Here we slopes. up on steep and arrangements for irrigation. the sweet potato this with religious ceremonies and the bottle. diligently weeded and manured.

Bay in the north. up for in exemplary style. Among the western islands.LABOUR. yams. little huts are put temporary occupation. Clearing and fencing is done by all in sugar-cane. Berlin Museum. size. the by men in a long row armed with pointed sticks. for the sake of irrigation. Cuttle-fish baits from the Society Islands. (Christy Collection. Great part Yet even here in individual cases it stands hieh. . is on the whole less advanced.) In the south-east fields are among the Kerepunus. and frequently are arranged. gourd . on terraces one above another. the extensive plantations lie always in the neighbourhood of the habitations.) common. and the 255 and of native plants a fern with edible New Zealand flax (Jthormiutn tenax). Polynesian pots and implements (the two calabashes for betel-lime. AND FOOD IN OCEANIA rhizomes. two-fifths real size. etc. and then levelled by the women and planted with bananas.. in long strips. as well as in the Solomons. New Britain and the New Hebrides deserve the highest praise. In western of Melanesia agriculture is New Guinea uncultivated. from the Admiralty Islands) also a shell horn — one-fifth real . If the arable lands are far off. kept like gardens the soil being turned 1 lilted "1/" 1 . DWELLINGS. There. and on Astrolabe . (Christy Collection.

and every patch gets the full benefit of the irrigation. as . and in other islands. find. the nutritious bread-fruit of the east unknown. with the fruit of the pandanus. and . and the yakona plant. in Aurora. the ti).) After the yam. anai or masave. on the other hand. is the staff of life. but the normal sort is the Polynesian for which the soil is worked into a mortar-like consistency. the is the mentioned to be next root-crop stands second. most or malo. Mota (Banks Islands).THE HISTORY OF MANKIND On the steep slopes of Meralava. One kind is grown on dry ground. which little implies a serious deficiency in the food-supply of the people. from the Pelew Islands. the chief food of the low islands. As is in New In Guinea. field rises above field. without flowers . as the Paumotus. thirty varieties of it. . Codrington found sixty names for varieties of bread-fruit. Even on uninhabited islands it is sedulously tended and it forms. is archipelagos of the equatorial Pacific. the coco-palm is one of the most important plants. its In the New Hebrides and Banks In all the and aromatic herbs. so in New Caledonia. inlaid with shell. only. from the bark too. and eighty for yams. the of which nurseries whole of the paper-mulberry. from the chewed roots intoxicating drink kava is prepared. But the agriculture of the Fiji Islands takes a higher rank than even that of Polynesia. before receiving the young plants. which deeply trenched. are planted in great quantity. which are poor in vegetables. We of which the material called tapa Islands no single village is made. Sugar-cane. Here more than anywhere the taro or dah\ unquestionably the most nutritious of all Melanesian food-plants. (British Museum. Covered vessel in shape of a bird. In a few districts cor dy line terminalis or (Dracczna //-tree sweet root of the the Fijians have though fruit chief banana the is the Leper Island.

swallowed the stinking droppings when we were boiling down the fat of dog-fish. of the it is Melanesians possess no They boil their water in wooden earthenware vessels.' i a food supply. which is kept in dry cakes with a hole through them not do it for hunger. DWELLINGS. Cooking with hot stones was formerly more frequent. the days of Cook and Forster many Europeans have extolled meat steamed in indicates find this The most common method is a certain progress when we to lay the food between hot stones. Most birds are reckoned sacred. Contrary to our usual ideas of the diet of these tribes. in Tahiti only by women. coco and Kababo. the fat and blood of the pig are among the " No Greenlander was ever so sharp dainties served at the banquets of the chiefs. AND FOOD IN OCEANIA life '57 On how insecure a basis. the latter of a clay containing iron and magnesia. " they greedily set upon train-oil as our friends here. a valuable preserve. It resembling will sour . however. and Another vessel of the same material. is taken by vegetable products and the these races are wholly vegetarian. and the flour that By remains as a sediment is kneaded. . and still less any of metal. (British forms. but they do not use this for cooking. only vessels by dropping in red hot stones to make shells open more easily. Among articles of diet the chief place . and its great value as . and sweet potatoes. Among vegetable articles of food the chief is bread-fruit then faro. letting the dough ferment the Polyobtain pot. We have already mentioned the coco. the of these islanders rests is shown spoils of fishing.nut. washed to remove the acrid part. but has become unusual coco-nut milk is boiled in the fresh shells over that most of the many . roasted. food. sometimes leavened Fiji being the only part of Melanesia where the latter is usual. sprinkled Since with water. and great groups of Dietary laws forbid the eating of beasts or plants which are atuas of the tribe. Where pigs and dogs exist. these delicacies are reserved for the upper classes or for festive occasions. when pressed together. and after copious meals. Bread-fruit is sometimes eaten fresh-baked. Museum. . after heating. In regard to the fact They do a significant manner of preparing Polynesians and all these food-materials. slightly their nesians favourite porridge." says Cook. but for pleasure. Islands is In the smaller stock of Polynesian the entire vegetable food provided with dried by taro.LABOUR. yams. tion the Here we may men- people of eat great famous earth-eating habit of the New Guinea and New Caledonia The truth of it is that the former quantities of a greenish steatite. It way far above our roasts. The taro is . or pandanus -meal.palms. the whole covered with leaves and earth and so left to itself. the fire. the stones." Rats are eaten as a rule only by the common people. pandanus . of the Maoris by the only too frequent times of dearth. Simple roasting or broiling S at an open fire is . In Tahiti the sweet potato is eaten only so long as there is no ripe bread fruit. keep for a long time and baked yam will keep for a year.

is all devoured. . but being carried wrapped in banana leaves. girls and women lie in a circle round it. Cooking is the duty of the men in Pelew. In the kava carouses of the Arii in the Society Islands. all the excesses of intoxication were to be observed up to the point of homicide and murder. Yet there are islands where temperance prevails. serve as drinking-vessels. The drink is a dark grey dirty-looking brew of a by no means pleasant bitter taste. causing dimness of sight and weakness of memory. with occasional interruptions for dancing. break off small pieces of the dried kava root. implements the chief place is taken by the primitive and of about the length of a hay-fork. . heaving up at the word of command a huge clod of earth. cut slanting at one end like a pen. they till it of same . Polynesia. Special formalities are observed in eating yet worthy of the highest chiefs. and are drained with much enjoyment. To carve and distribute the meat is not held unonly known as a delicacy. In within the limits of these there is room for an unseemly degree of avidity. if In ordinary times they take two meals in the sit day but a great quantity of food at it. put them in their mouths. almost level with the ground. The art of salting season their complicated fish and meat dishes with sea-water. the With almost equal anxiety they avoid eating out has been provided. and brushwood have in many places previously been removed by means of a Some narrow paddle-shaped sharp-edged tool of hard wood. to be produced cooked at the next halt. and even in Melanesia it is partaken of in very varying amounts. The mode of preparing kava is as follows a shallow bowl of hard wood resting on three short feet is placed on the ground. Even at that time it was productive of great mischief. spit them into the bowl water is added. and that formerly the pieces were cut. The first the fermented juice from the chewed roots of Piper metliysticum. others carouse from gigantic bowls inlaid with mother-of-pearl. In many parts of Melanesia salt is pig-meat is said to be known in Hawaii. as in Tonga. . the drink is stirred. most places men and women must not eat together. of the women in the Mortlocks. which is strewn with fresh leaves The Polynesians use no salt. and at last the earth is. The men who break up the ground with these are followed by boys carrying sticks to break the loosened clods still smaller. The mode of calling together those who were to chew and those who were to enjoy the drink the songs which accompany the pressing out of the chewed root the prayers when the water was poured on agricultural stick. nor either partake of what . Some drink it like coffee. weeks later the roots are grubbed up with a kind of hoe. and the In Fiji it is said that this method of preparation comes from beverage is ready. men stand one behind another with a light pointed beam. Coco-nut shells. rubbed fine with the hands. hot food the open air. European travellers in Hawaii have been amazed to see a fowl tied up in a They eat in bundle with a hot stone. vessel with another. or. about 2 feet long. four-cornered cups made of plantain leaf. Europeans considered that the use of it had increased rapidly. when thoroughly chewed. which the workman uses in a stooping attitude. . and piled up in little mounds. sitting on the ground. play. . The only original stimulant used in the eastern islands is the kava or ava. the other has prepared.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND pronounced a method of dressing fit only for persons in a hurry or for slaves. if necessary. and. which they run into Weeds the ground. and so on. in which the Among the Motus of New Guinea six or seven seeds or cuttings are placed. : Among .

. but the The drink is not unknown in Micronesia it is. We can indicate New Guinea and its neighbourhood as the central point of both. Clay pipes have long been manufactured at various spots among the islands. of palm wine is made. now it is cultivated on all the larger groups of the Pacific Islands. and takes place only on festive occasions. further east it has been diffused in quite recent times by means of labourers who have emigrated •or been exported as far as Fiji. most original utensils. happily been less diffused in the smaller islands than in Australia and New Zealand. Kava drinkis as go westward. . the natives proThis fess to have smoked through a reed before the arrival of the Europeans. DWELLINGS. is distinctly asserted in regard to New Zealand. Betel extends as far as Tikopia. the song which celebrates the chiefs idea of sanctity as connected with this indulgence. obtained. is now drunk of hibiscus and wrung out. draught.LABOUR. Both travel in close conjunction. through the small opening of which the smoke is drawn from the bowl and swallowed this intoxicating practice is known as bau-bau. however. under the influence of the missions. tobacco having spread with extraordinary rapidity for instance. Daphne vidua. and A. where the people of Ponape even distilled a kind of brandy from palm wine. they form their mouths to a point. B. In Ponape ava. or kau. Towards the end of the eighties the limit of tobacco passed exactly through Normanby. was filled with the smoke from the leaves of a certain bush. In east and south-east New Guinea it is smoked with a piece of bamboo. the Loyalty Islands. the nut is held high. worship of the spirits who dispense health in being excluded. Meyer mentions as a peculiarity of theirs that. In Melanesia also the preparation by crushing is found. Trobriand. in a few years it has overrun the Admiralty Islands. New Caledonia. and then passed round the circle till it was emptied. The Papuas are great smokers. and the same mode of drinking is customary from other vessels to touch the nut with the mouth is considered unmannerly. Among many Polynesian races kava afforded the basis for poisonous drinks a popular poison among the Hawaiians was made by mixing with it the leaves of Tephrosia piscatoria. and in many places it already grows wild. like water. As kava came in from the eastward. and the juice allowed to flow into the mouth. women . and the common gourd Lagenaria. practice is not universal. finally. so that he could always hear when a Papua was smoking in his neighbourhood. In the Woodlark. in Thus . and a special place allotted to it. Coco-nut juice serves as the ordinary drink. the juice being drawn off by incisions in the unopened flower. a kind and Humboldt Bay. We find the same in Micronesia. . and draw in the air with a noise. That the consumption of spirituous drinks was originally almost or quite unknown. This reed has been mistakenly regarded as a weapon. is packed in strips chewing. In a few places. . At any rate this kind of pepper was probably introduced into some The people of New Guinea also drink kava Melanesian Islands from the east. Waigiu. AND FOOD IN OCEANIA first 259 and. and New Ireland. not by The mass. but is not yet found in the New Hebrides or in their . and therefore perhaps becomes less we of Polynesian ing origin. and Laughlan groups. which once was sacred. as Guadalcanar and New Georgia. but by crushing the roots. and the Maoris understood how to carve them of stone in the same artistic fashion as is shown only in the all point to an Vate kava is drunk Tanna it is drunk as in Polynesia. after damping. The plague of brandy imported from Europe has. so did tobacco and betel from the west. after puffing out the smoke through nose or mouth.

long and low. The ried ridge is car- by lofty poles. The houses of Oceania show Malay They are four-cornered and The long roof most frequently rectangular. . and the traces of red saliva speak of the existence of natives even in the desolate Finisterre mountains. and lime are used just as among the Malays. in Isabel.2ÖO THE HISTORY OF MANKIND the Banks and Torres Islands. especially Fiji. covered mats of banana The larger houses stand on stone foundations in the shape of raised plat- forms. pepper leaves. for instance. who among whom betel chewing rare. Betel nuts are given as pre. Wherever it occurs the teeth are black. and the extreme east of Melanesia. New Caledonian hut (Qu. In Polynesia. of palm -leaves. as. timbers. the houses fre- quently stand on mounds . or boughs. for these requisites in the while those of the Yap is Islanders belong to the west Micronesians. The western Melanesians all chew betel. It is curious that the words Admiralty Islands are very unlike the Malay names. of fixed between is In carefully built houses the roof rafters and formed sound with . Where it cannot be got. rest the eaves and upon or shorter posts. areca nut. and betel pepper is carried in long ornamented gourds with a small opening through which to introduce the long narrow spoon.leaf. the walls consisting of reeds mats them. sacred) after a model doorposts and roof-ornament supplied from originals in the Berlin Museum. they use an aromatic bark. remind us of those used in the Admiralty Islands. Betel boxes and spoons are among the most sedulously wrought utensils in New Guinea and its sents to guests neighbourhood. affinities. often resembles an inverted boat or an elongated bee -hive. rushes.

Guinea. rests upon a number of shorter posts. Often a veranda side is built where edifice the ' entrance on to the narrow is. . We find in New Guinea. and to the gives a touch of elegance whole even tent style. creating real huts. under this rectangular Besides those which are characterised by the long roof. where the average length . the height being proportioned to the owner's claims importance. where the huts are on posts forming an oblong of 1 3 to 3 3 feet by and in the 13 to 22 feet Solomons. of the family dwellings is 45 to 70 40. are side walls. the roof.tree class. while the roof. differ The whole just like a hay-rick. to some of the groups in the Torres Straits. is for is the same . The temples . of earth to AND FOOD IN OCEANIA 261 3 to 6 feet high. careful made The Roof ornaments and shoring-props from (Vienna Museum. In Samoan huts. of leaves laid close together. we find a second of which the ground-plan is mark the conical or even bee-hive roof. projecting Here the and supported on posts. from the huts only in size and internal fittings. made of round bent timbers thatched with sugar-cane or maize -leaves. Fijian buildings also to some ex- New Caledonia. DWELLINGS. and the thing often looks Admiralty Islands . however elegant length. In the Friendly Islands the plan departs curiously from the rectangular. the being filled up with blinds of plaited palm -leaf. to a circle or an oval. and its external This is indigenous especially to New New Caledonia. the section below the boat-shaped roof being intervals between them pentagonal Easter has the led . and the high. carried down grass to the ground.LABOCR. The Polynesian house shows no tendency to soar on high. feet. different character of the material to a variation is The boat -form roof. even when it is already some hundreds of feet long. In the is Melanesian retained with it Islands this form few exceptions. also to Fiji and the Solomons. made of thick layers of grass. evinces more fall work. and In the Island. about 3 feet woven in pretty patterns of dark and light bamboo. with a breadth of nearly roof. but grows only in Thus. maintained and the frame -work but the roof itself. is thatched with sago and coco-palm leaves. same in Hawaii the in style. An advance towards embellishment is seen in the fashion of planting a fiery-red dracaena near the huts.

mm Mats from Tongatabu. with an external tempera- 5 or so the interior is up to 8o° or go\ This no doubt one of the causes of their disorders. This simple type can be enriched by These adorn in the first place the main pillar. the The roof-tree carried over a porch. on dry land or in the water. went the greatest variation among them. In the less fire is genial districts they have winter houses lighted inside. till half underground. the house is built on piles. also the supporters of the porch. yet pile-building in Melanesian dwellings has been carried to an extent found nowhere else and even where it is not. sistence of the Polynesian house in less elevated forms explains the value attached to the roof. for besides the exhalations of humanity there are also tobacco-smoke and the odours of drying fish. but the house had firm wooden walls. Although as regards the form of the house it is immaterial in itself whether it stands on the ground or on piles.] shape . which is in human materially carvings. is light and Ruins of habitations are seen only where a stone foundation has not durable. as it often is.2Ö2 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND may be. Speaking of the village of Sowek on Geelvink Bay (of . The ground-plan was the same. Vienna. the general appearance nothing of architectural importance is arrived at . and often each individual piece of wood inside and out. (Cook Collection. — . Here and there in Polynesia stone buildings have been found which have been taken to be habitations. was and with roof or thatched coarse rushes grass. In Isabel. and the building. the gable. which faced eastwards. the New Zealanders' "national perfume. it forms a characteristic feature of life and scenery. They are called Tcitailii. When a Samoan village in time of war is fearing an attack. In Hawaii the boundaries enclosing the villages were marked by walls a yard high. and from the sea look like little forts. the neighbourhood of the huts is kept clean. with only a small door and narrow window in the front. Whether on dry ground or in the water. the The people take off their precious roofs and carry them to a place of safety. In winter a is and when the coals have is ceased to glow every opening ture of I closed air-tight. They exist also on other islands. seen in its extreme development. The caves in heaps of stones which are among the curiosities of Easter Island were perhaps places of refuge in case of war." On the other hand. roof of a New Caledonian house is richly adorned with bunches of leaves and Under the peculiar conditions of the Maoris the Polynesian style undershells. they had adopted Christianity together with European clothes and utensils but The pereven seventy years ago their chiefs were having stone houses built. even though erected with care and amid special rites. villages defended by palisades for the reception of fugitives have been laid out in the heights of mountains difficult of access. and in the palmy days of the Maoris a village would always give the impression of tidiness and comfort. . The Hawaiians were the last to give up their grass-huts long after been laid.

in which stones and spears are stored. and the Solomon Islands. with their sloping stays. DWELLINGS. just like those which science has reconstructed from the The yet neater huts in Humboldt Bay similarly rest on piles prehistoric period. New Guinea. known second hut is built. The roof rises to a height a yard out forms pyramid. which can be drawn up. to live in during the day. : . Ladders made from liana or bamboo. where some thirty houses stand on piles." of the water. The houses more a steep six or eight-sided of nearly 40 feet. adapted to hold New Guinea some twelve people. Raffray says " We have in fact a perfect pile-village. are attached to the branches of huge trees at a height of 80 to 100 feet. Where one is the expression of social conditions. looking as if every puff of wind must sweep them away. and and although on in the interior of New Guinea are likewise built on a similar plan dry land. House in the Arfak village of Memiwa. original type of architecture as shown in the cut. they are small. family inhabits the house. rise to a special architecture in as bako.LABOUR. but not to the shore. but are connected by bridges. and perfectly smooth. becoming larger in The size of the buildings . as in Polynesia. The stem below is stripped of all unnecessary branches. AND FOOD IN OCEANIA 263 which we give a coloured illustration). These airy dwellings are entered by means of slanting tree-stems with steps nicked in them. (After Raffray. present a highly They hang like eagles' nests. stand upon lofty piles which. on their thin swaying trestle-work. serve to climb into At the foot of each tree a these tree-huts. Constant hostilities have given Huts. attached by tree stems to each other.) some 50 feet in the air.

the capacious assembly and Hebrides standing a stage lower. painting. proportion as the family groups adhere to the old custom of a In Fiji. New Hanover size. and Mancape in the Gilberts. In are New Guinea called the village marea. New feet Ireland they are buildings of moderate 2 by 25 or 30 Stool from Dorey in New Guinea one-seventh real (Christy Collection. fine.264 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND common dwelling. in the Carolines on a stone foundation in Pelew on a platform upon which the polished floor immediately rests. can be closed with and a half in width. In contrast to the care with which and are foundation. the old customs had been much weakened by the prosperity of the aristocracy of chiefs even before the English annexation. the boat- houses. is two kinds of houses are — universally distinguished the family houses. no doubt because violent storms frequently take it off.) feet so. decorations. orna- mental bowls. guest-houses. has It on top of which a bundle of reeds. the New The chiefs' houses. plaited work. — size. and or the bais. in New Britain. Micronesia that the assembly or In Yap. (Vienna Museum. They : New Caledonian head-stools. like the doors and windows. where the on the roof of palm -leaves. Pelew. are carefully built and adorned with carved work. and in other respects. rectangular buildings. where the houses are veryLarge houses belonging to individuals are rare. club-houses are most conspicuous. The common hall has generally six similar openings the entire height of the wall. standing alone of beams. the high steep roof seems neglected. political and such are entrusted to consecrated artificers. walls treated. in jecting a little beyond the outer is walls. the architecture of the Solomon Islands comes nearest to that of Fiji. proeither side a kind of turret. floor. and 1 . . Verandahs contribute to the comfortable lieht screens of reed or bamboo. As regards size. Here the principle of pile-building is employed on dry land. . great houses building The great of is the a as houses matter. blais. specially notable. too. from a yard to a yard These. and skulls while large pots. . Even they are in the pile-villages found In in a reduced form. and here and there firearms form the most highlyvalued halls.

and pleasant char- (Godeffroy Collection. a sleeping place is divided off. Leipzig. bamboo There are no windows. cords of various which the rafters are bound. The floor is carpeted . Berlin. Gourd bottle from the D'Entrecasteaux Islands Yap —one-fourth real size. hanging down from colours with the roof. Less comfortable is the fitting up of Melanesian houses.buildings. 2. the smaller houses at pillars. acter to the interior of with mats near the central pillar is a central pillar is the place of honour This hollow where the domestic fire burns.LABOUR. character of the houses. DWELLINGS. lend a cheerful Carved and painted rafters from common halls (bais) in Ruk. often its AND FOOD IN OCEANIA 265 In the case of the club-houses of fibre. closely more rods the actual living rooms on either side of the corridor. 1. wives sleep. and where weapons head where the master of the house and his the better houses. the floor of which is formed by cross timbers hardly as thick as the arm and often half a yard apart. The carving on timbers and the reed panelling or the mat tapestry on the walls. one-third real size. In rendering a certain amount of dexterity necessary to step over the gaps. (Finsch Collection.) — Head-stool from and utensils hang in tasteful arrangement. since it is thought that ghosts laid form the floor. New Guinea they are often a porch of covered with hangings of leaf The low door has own. in particular of the pile. In the interior of the Polynesian huts apartments are arranged by means of to wall in woven work and matting stretched from wall least . .

Much : trouble is the exterior is expended in Micronesia in the adornment of the club-houses painted and inlaid with shells in the interior red ochre is used on the walls. perhaps upon the whole style. A master of patterns is a man in great demand. . we may get an idea of the amount of labour expended upon such a building. and comfort have attained where . Images of ancestors on the gable or at the side of a house call to mind how the whole house was consecrated from the foundation upwards. In Samoan huts at the present day a chest stands on the floor in which clothes and small Chiefs even had a chest of drawers. If one considers that a large house is fastened together only by cords that the boards. . bows. The relation between houses and ships exercises a remarkable influence upon the nature of the carved and painted ornaments. as in Tonga. have their appointed places. The principal decoration consists in winding the reeds with string also in the carving of the timbers and walls with hieroglyphics of mythical signification. art. often entirely concealed on the outside by the roof.266 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND do not come in through the doors but through openings in the roof. men and women sit pretty patterns. . furniture have been introduced elsewhere in the course of Europeanising. javelins. and similar articles of objects are kept. Where there are three layers of reeds horizontally. Solomon Islands. the Marshall and yard long. and the massive beams were hewn with shell axes and finely smoothed that the planks of the floor are even polished that the holes were made with sharks' teeth gimlets. The reed walls. water. often as much as 40 feet high. often saddle-shaped and woven with carefully-worked thatch. Among the house furniture of the Tongans. . and . sacks of matting. These works are eloquent witnesses of the height which craftsmanship. . indeed. In Tahiti there used to be regular stands for utensils. which reach far down. and the whole house is like a boat turned over and placed on props. also shelves. The walls of the house are made by preference from the planks of old vessels. and a long boat-shaped framework on which the dishes were placed at meals. of houses some twenty or favourable spot on the shore. this has become a regular stool. to the sea in former times it may have been . arrows. the floor is varnished with vegetable lacquer. as thick as the arm. In Fiji. some 6 inches wide. and bowed outwards. faces carved at either end. and with short legs. and then only on heights on the shore they are apt to be hidden behind a belt of forest. Boards covered with a mat form the bed. the headstool of hard lancewood is never absent the Samoans use as a support for their heads a piece of bamboo half a In Yap. Small monuments in the neighbourhood take the form of miniature houses. of the roofs. where fresh and salt water are at hand. and Tahiti. The artistic tendency shows itself also in house architecture by the picturesque forms given to the gables. and have estab- Even in the Christian churches upon large mats with their legs doubled under them. a billet serves. by preference at the A small number — thirty —form a village at a mouth of a river. . In Yap these stools have Samoa. The roof is shaped like a ship. The mode of life points. display on the inside lished themselves only in the huts of the chiefs. the age of stone still prevails. spears. Seats are of European introduction. and the crossings of the others are difficult utilised to the inner one lies produce these patterns. the hearth is of basket-work with a thick layer long thick pieces of bamboo with the joints perforated for holding of earth on it . Villages are rare further in the interior. and no doubt elsewhere.

are frequent broadening out in the neighbourhood of the club-houses into a paved place of assembly. and round the solitude of the superfluous fortifications on the hills and the stone pyramids which stand man-high in the stone circles of the Nan^as. and some female relation suckles the infant. . is solemnly buried. Among the Polynesian races. each dwelling stands separate. or under the shade of lofty trees. to make them brave while for girls. Similarly the ToJiungas of New Zealand. Perhaps the assemblages were once larger . is a rare exception. or of the gods the the or father First. the birth of a child . is in Fiji especially that we hear of well-laid roads and other public There a canal called Kelimoosu has been cut through the delta from Bau to the river Wainiki in order to shorten the passage for strategic purposes. This is performed in Samoa. and the one whose name is uttered as the child comes into the world is regarded as his tutelary deity. family Mother-right Militär}' belli for is accompanied by an invocation on part of husband while the woman's mother. private god. Paved roads in Yap they are a yard or two wide and paved with slabs of stone. . and in Espiritu Santo the village streets are to this day laid with flints and provided with conduits. after aspersion. New Caledonia shows remains of ancient aqueducts. and by every old house. watch the movements of the child. the husband's or mother's own Dedicatory rites have already taken place during pregnancy. Continence and purification are enjoined upon the husband also. As in New Zealand. It § 8. that she may be an industrious housewife. but the know nothing about them. In Fiji and the New Hebrides neither of the couple eats flesh-meat nor must the father. but if labour is protracted. A hut is built for the lying-in woman. in the case of boys. and select as its secret name that word of their invocation which coincides with them. and sprinkling with water. simpler customs prevail. the family deity one of her near relations. where children are purified and named eight days after birth. the Morioris of Chatham Island give the name amid hymns from the priests. flat stones are sunk into the ground as Life in these villages : very varied. with invocation of the tutelary god. for fear of making the baby ill . now a village of more than is 500 inhabitants . Here. At the moment of parturition the names of all the gods are recited in succession. A light breath of historic life sweeps with a gentle melancholy round these villages. upon a club. in Among the Melanesians.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA otherwise. is called to aid . one of the boards is used upon which In Fiji the cord the tapa is beaten. performs the duties of midwife. . often idyllic seats. surrounded by gardens and fields. works. THE FAMILY AND THE STATE state IN OCEANIA life The — Birth—Dedication— Education— Courtship and weddings — Position of women— Marriage — Tribal organisation— The — Classes and ranks—Aristocratic type of public —The prince and the nobles — Limitations of sovereign power — Court ceremonial — Warlike character Castes — organisation — Modes of fighting — Sieges — Sea-fights — Treaties — The Malo — Respect law Laws of taboo — Punishment of those who violate taboo — Removal of taboo. 267 Everywhere present inhabitants in the hills we find traces of deserted villages. order that the child may grow like it and flourish. for or fish after the birth. water being poured on at the same time and they further plant a ma/ieu-tree. After the birth. the chief ceremony is the cutting of the cord.

all children even are killed at birth. The birth of twins . (From a photograph in the Godeffroy Album. The couvade occurs San Christoval. If the child is a girl. it — has generally more prospect of being kept alive where inheritance goes in the line. a month distinctly in Chief's wife of Papua. and abortion is extensively practised. often merely on account of pique. Infanticide is widespread. and substitutes purchased.268 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND after the birth of his first child. female and where it will carry on the family succession. do any hard work. where " father-right " is the custom. Samoa.) the woman not caring to have children until the third but often also from vanity In some parts of the Solomons and the New Hebrides year of her marriage.

. In Hawaii. is God closer to man than is the Leper's Island. natural ties. though there If the children are is a disposition to look upon once allowed to live. Jlua. on behalf of the boy. to the father-house. that she may be industrious. . In Saa. Little children who are living after their parents' death are -adopted by others if they are older.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA is 269 not regarded as actually injurious. Noa. toy bows are offered. the child at weaning is brought from the mother-house. a . The most important epochs in life have their own religious consecration. and on always the case with us Christians. and thereby falls under the taboo to be presently mentioned. Tongan ladies. (From the Godeffroy Album. them as uncanny. The participation in this of relations on the father's side is a significant infraction of mother-right. as well as the laws of inheritance. them with due care. everything is done for Not only the parents but the relations make them presents. which in other respects is jealously guarded. week or ten days after birth. that he may be strong mat-fibres for the girl. are honestly observed in the traditional way.

and initiates him. who. whole course of life is different where girls are betrothed from their birth. The ceremonies at the initiation The of the nubile girls are simple. was favoured by the ease with which marriages could be dissolved. who arranges the marriage of his fictitious offspring. be said that in communities of lax morality the family. and the exaggerated view taken of the devolution of the father's position upon the son. the Ariis or EJiris of Tahiti. the youth leaves the parental hut and avoids his mother and sisters. On attaining puberty. stands naked by the riverWomen and side. In the Gilbert Islands the parents select the adoptive father or mother. in Samoa no more than a feast with presents. in a hut set apart for the purpose.27o THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Thereupon the mother sacrifices a pig to her family god. the father exercising all authority in his son's name. and privation. between whose soul and that of the next generation but one a closer affinity is deemed to exist. — father It is the adoptive means. at the bidding of these authorities. overwork. when the youth. and the greater mortality of the adult women by reason of too early child-bearing. however. when these are people of . rouses the first-born grandson from his sleep. the sexes has a profound effect upon family life and the increase of the race. tions cutting into and cutting up families contribute still more to cause estrangement between parents and children adoption especially. now ripe for his first campaign. hardening nature. calling upon Tu. can do. born under corrupt conjugal relations. It must. followed by a second aspersion. in a house of leaves. or sooner. the violence of the men. especially to the sons of Ariki or chiefs. In Melanesia circumcision usually takes place on the appearance of the beard. except at marriage festivities. in order " to cork up the secrets " Yet another consecration takes place After this the youth is fit for marriage. The grandfather. intrude themselves even before the child is born. the toia-toia. dwelling meantime The fasts are terminated by eating the pith of in the forest. produces no practical results. no woman may enter. sleeping in the common hall. and attended by customs of a A general fast is held in the family. for which reason those But the child must sometimes be felt -to be a burden Connecfreest of free people. which. later. adoption makes the descent of children more secure than the recognition of the The inequality of true children. even the custom for a girl to live in the bridegroom's family till she is full-grown. The proportion is often quite abnormal in Hawaii it reaches one woman to four or five men. . boys are not admitted. and in whose house In this way complete transpositions take place within the young couple live. and is sprinkled with water by the priests. recognise no children. and In Isabel it is are brought up from childhood in the house of their intended. while the father offers At the entrance upon manhood their ava and implores health for the new scion. this and henceforth takes precedence of him. : . The reasons that have been assigned for the smaller number of women are the murder of female infants. into the mysteries handed down from past times or the ToJmngas of the tribe teach the rudiments of the traditions to such as show themselves of capacity. . as we may we consider the frightful extension of It infanticide in pre-Christian times. consecration is repeated in more severe forms. In education the influence of the see family if is less than that of the village community or the tribe. ately after birth the first-born Immedidignity boy is invested with his father's name and While the boy is in his minority. and licentiousness.

shares the same fate. The courting is done on the young man's behalf by relations or friends. singing as they went. flowers well oiled. and the marriage sealed by a renewed exchange of presents. and the next five or six months a period of probation. where she passed some days in seclusion. . bride. on a snow-white mat. and New Ireland -that girls on reaching puberty are locked up for some months parents. by her friends playmates. At of the wedding an exchange of gifts takes place. offers when that time has arrived. weapons. and great was the applause which greeted chief and tribe if no stain could be shown on her character. who bring the symbolic presents to the house of the girl. husband's relatives. and dressed in their best mats. while the young women brought the wedding presents. These are in Samoa food. entrance being allowed only to old women. in New Britain heavy strings of money. in New Britain. public place of the village. since at the end of that period a second festive gathering was held. the settlement which often gives rise to some hard bargaining. pigs the bride mats and bark -cloth.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA In Fiji. carrying (From the Godeffroy Album. where sat the bridegroom awaiting her. In Samoa both tribes used to assemble for the wedding festivities in the . The price advanced by the father is repaid by the son and in the Solomons a widow is at the absolute disposal of her deceased . If the girl goes wrong she is severely punished. if he is caught. The ceremonies of courtship are conducted on the familiar lines. The bridegroom's friends then escorted the bride to her future home. in the event of her marriage-price not being refunded. any anticipation of his marital rights is jealously guarded against. carried on spears. followed The and Old Tongan woman. decision rests with the tribal chief. In Melanesia too this exchange but thinly concealed the purchase of wives. In the days when the chiefs still took a pride in the virtue of their daughters. a favourable disposition of courtship but as this form addressed to is not to the family but the final the tribe. the bridegroom some whales' teeth as a present. even put to death and her seducer. walked along a mat-strewn path to the middle. The bridegroom gives a boat. — in little huts of their own. signifies The acceptance of these . inquiry into this followed . The . 271 comes to the house of the and takes the long-engaged bride to be his wife. This first solemnity would seem to have been only provisional. A custom hard to explain is found in the Solomon Islands. Here. She took her place facing him. as in the Banks Islands.

A man frequently takes two wives. relations and solemn meal after which the young husband takes his In New Britain the wife home. however. Professor Büchner. capture can be made and the good by the occurs. he presents her with betel. even where there is no trace of compulsion bridegroom's and the a slight resistance on the bride's husband. no less than does other cases the more usual overplus of men. if his establish- ment like allows. and is expected to marry his brother's widows. in with her to the payment of an indemnity Fights of a " pretence " kind. there shall live with a kind of convention in cases of widowhood. The wedding revel with music and dancing is seldom forgotten. often the only ground of abstention from hasty Among the better-to-do classes of the more advanced stocks. . (From a photograph belonging to Princess Ruth of Hawaii. Peculiar family or- ganisations not uncommonly show is . When the wife is done away. reminding us of the limitations of permitted marriages caused by the veve or veita system to lately given rise to . The among the Naiabeis of New Guinea decides the point. hand. she him tobacco. Munich. In the Gilberts a man can demand the marriage. though exceptionally. cases occur. of marriage of inclination. couple are sprinkled with coconut milk. During the first night the sit must newly -married pair up together while the partake of a copious . In the New Hebrides. like the The acquisiFijians. part is regarded as good manners. the couple join hands sitting before an ancestral image. take place between the bride's and friends. Among poor tribes is the Motus. on Geelvink Bay.27: THE HISTORY OF MANKIND this is necessity of refunding divorces. monogamy is but divorce kind of " so easy that a successive polygamy " with she is laid aside or bartered sisters of his wife in overplus of women in arises. Thus at Dorey. various parts In of West Melanesia marriage is celebrated with ceremonies of a religious character. the nut being broken above their heads. still tion of wives by capture is case the woman content relations. that two widowers one widow the children belonging to both. on the other universal . Dearth of women has something similar in the villages of labourers in Fiji. and eat sago together under the exhortations and congratulations of their friends offers . for example. traces of polyandry. or more.

as the universal nudity. Generally speaking. goods. many Adultery is in islands punished (in with death. accompanied by the men beating time. and the mother T . . the chief maintains public women. Finsch says of New ^Britain " The : exemplary modesty and respectable demeanour of women and traveller coming from Micronesia pleasing in a specially . (From the Godeffroy Album women. But the re-marriage of the widower is opposed by all the female relations of the deceased wife at first sportively. both public and tain private. Husband and wife ate together. the position of the especially Women of Ponape' in the Carolines. Among the more needy tribes more laid upon the woman. and then in common : earnest." some Florida. morality stands many respects higher than in Micronesia. it So far as turns upon the distribution of labour. In Tonga almost all work. is higher than among many other races. by destroying his house. fell to the men the women only preparing tapa by way of entertainment among a circle of neighbours. custom relaxes every At Fiji Nanga festival in the women are the willing prizes of whoever a race . in the simpler conditions of Melanesia. They were not excluded from the discussion of public affairs. can catch them in and at the same time all taboos of articles of food are taken off. nothing of the kind is known. whose earnings go to him but elsewhere . or more fine. though is women take part in diving for shells. and crops. in the Polynesian region.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA be mentioned presently. but fishing is the men's affair . girls strikes the way and seems with In hardly compatible islands. seasons the But at ceran ancient tie. by using every possible form of annoyance to make the man keep at a distance. In New Ireland and New Britain widows are claimed as property by all the men. In Hawaii it was the same. even that of cooking. not even from councils of war they even went with the men to battle. in if he does marry again. . and with nomads she is the beast of burden. recent times) with a Jealousy is a great cause of contention. Both work together in the fields. Where labour itself is more highly valued its distribution between the sexes is fairer. In New Zealand the women held formerly a higher position.

right to levy taxes at festivals their common dwelling in the bais. at public worship. where she is regarded as the man's property and no more. man being allowed to interfere. so the eldest woman of this family is the queen of the women. and if it cannot be paid the culprit must fly the country. In the northern New Hebrides women seem freer than in the southern. In Pelew. which prevail in so many districts. In Micronesia their social position Here it is quite contrary to good manners for a hushas unmistakably risen. which Yet again the Maoris ascribed prophetic gifts to are of the nature of temples. When Europeans in Polynesia wish to secure the favour of native women the). Small reasons arc enough to undo it. " motherthough the children follow the mother. were possessed and prophesied. In this case the man is under the protection of the lady and her friends. Beside her stand a number of female chiefs. with whom she keeps an eye upon the good behaviour of the women. nor the boat-houses. But in Polynesia the notion that contact with her is defiling. participation in the wars. the father is still the head of the family. of which the men openly admit . — community —they have . Just as the chief of the men in Pelew must belong to the family whose seat is Ajdit. But even in the Melanesian Islands we meet with both not far apart. If these lack the So too the women are divided into leagues. excludes her from closer association with men In Tahiti men and women have at meals. ." is that loosening of the marriage-tie which has progressed to the point of decomposing society. while in Tonga there were priestesses who. including the that only the women understand the meaning. The men are strictly warned off the women's bathing-places exactly for which reason these spots are selected for lovers' rendezvous. This goes so far as to make the wife's position one of simple thraldom. and gives judgment without any Nothing in all this is where for . their separate priests in other islands the women have none.274 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND much obedience from is got as right " her children as the father. after drinking ava. the and on the death of the military king. towards giving a higher position to women. compulsorily if need be. No tic in the whole life of the Polynesians appears to be weaker than that of marriage. and at festivals. who will hand over their wives. In Melanesia the women may not enter the common houses of the men. A social organisation exists here for women corresponding to that of the men. nay. . the fine imposed is equal to that for homicide. and in some parts of New Guinea her position in the family is described as one of high esteem. valid . A great auxiliary to these tendencies. called Klobbergoll. and its undoing is taken very easily on both sides. Only altered in certain tribes destitution produced exceptions. The greatest insult that can be offered to a married man is any ill word of his wife and no one must mention the name of another man's wife in public. if the woman insulted belongs to the Ajdit stock. holds her tribunal. so even in higher matters but remains " at the door. Among duties are the management of the decorations at festivals. important attribute of the male unions. band to beat his wife or use insulting words to her in public." two views of the woman's position are in dispute and here too we find that the higher view is taken in some Polynesian groups. and even a life in the next world is not allowed to them on the part of the men. the oldest woman of the tribe. and running almost parallel with it. and his wedded wife does not belong to " his side of the house/' As in affairs of daily life. of labour. In Hawaii a kind of incipient polyandry arises by the addition to the dances. even to the widespread " mother-right.have first to make a present to the husbands.

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Thus in Tahiti women of easy which was also the name of ladies of the royal family. The stern law extends even to newly-born virtue could call themselves Tedua. it becomes corroded at the the family The more the system of men's clubs develops. is closer than the marriage-tie. In this matter the Negroes are much better. It arises in great part from the as possible. and aversion ? Other things. Towards a brother-in-law the relation is as in the case of a father-in-law is . and twins of opposite sexes T fall victims to it. — . What wonder if the domestic life of a Melanesian family is governed by mistrust. jealousy. family to tribal interests which the mode of courtship has already exemplified. tend to sap family life. Very often the main object of matrimony appears to be not at all the or. Leper Island and in Fiji brother and sister may not talk to each other. the weaker are family ties. and produces a deep influence on the life of these races. If one has walked on the shore. menaces. and often brother and sister. prohibitions. ramifies through families. Breaches of it are rarely committed and then severely punished. children. tribal organisation with its union of men. at best. but at all events in the higher classes political objects have to be considered.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA establishment of a " 277 cicisbeo. If a girl at ten or twelve years old has not found a husband. which is kept as low the wife keeps out of the way. more clearly the way in which the superior force of social organisation breaks through the barriers of Nature than the fact that the married women do not another proof of the subordination of object to maintain the girls of the bai. Until she can find some one to marry her a matter of simple agreement she can go from one bat to another. shows hut of her own built for her in the neighbourhood. the guardianship procreation of children. not only the constraint of of the wife. Owing to the twofold organisation of exogamic society in Jiapus or veves a whole list of restrictions. base. however. The man never utters the name of his his and avoids taking down objects that may happen to hang above ." known as Punah'ia. The tie by which all men and all women of two different " sides " are connected. has peculiar limitations. are careful not to tread in each other's footsteps. neither his name nor is that of sonIn or daughter-in-law ever uttered. The Polynesians are sociable. exogamy. The relation to the parents-in-law father-in-law. . External life. Often the opposed interests of the wives and and for this reason the paramour has a the irregular partners lead to quarrels Nothing. but it is pre-eminently a masculine society and domestic happiness is not unaffected by this. they keep out of each other's way. — — . One thing detrimental to marriage is the view that it is not seemly display the wife to the world as being in confidential relations with her husband. Women during preg- . Mother and son-in-law. to never allow themselves to be seen on the highway with their lawful wives. she goes as an armengol) or doxy. head or stepping over his legs. but mutual intercourse not forbidden. and herself avoids looking at her son-in-law intercourse is only permitted at a distance and with mutually averted faces. too. involving necessarily the exclusion of and even if the family exists beside it. If they meet casually. or some question of money. to a bai. is affected by this corrupting influence. but the husband's comfort Besides this. Men If a stranger stays in the house though with a paramour they have no objection. Alliances between people who are " of us " are as bad as incest. too. Even the number of children. The mother-in-law is avoided as much as possible. the other does not go there till the tide has obliterated the prints. and becomes the paramour of a man who keeps her. is not family but village or tribe life. — — .

practice of shutting off a tribal group by the exclusion or subordination of marriages cut of the tribe has no doubt political importance. similar to that of the hapu is not excluded. tutelary god.existing in one same hapu will be distriFly-whisk. who is as a bundle of reeds cultivates the land in intermarries. together "mother-right. and that is maternal love. for a wife to hate her husband. while the . all is subdivided into whanau the members claim relationship with profess to and bear a common name." The rights. Hapu signifies the womb. embracing all who came over in the same boat. . . which they derive from the most remote ancestor. Among the relations. and marriages between them are incestuous. as in the case of exogamy. to which they believe themselves to be in some way related. rarer for a husband to hate his wife. All who bear a common name regard themselves as blood-relations. or the two veve (mothers) into which the whole tribe is divided. adoption. they are based on a favourable societies a cleavage in the tribe. There is only one natural feeling which lives here as elsedeeper feeling. and thus it acquires political importance. to intermarriage within the hapus. veve. and these again into several subdivisions. where. infanticide. as we might say. and the East Melanesian it. Even this is flawed very soon in Fiji by the bad bringing-up of the boys the father teaches them to beat their mother. but has never had effect on the family. This tie is often the only one that holds. In Melanesia the term " one side of the house " signifies the same thing as hapu. Where the connected through the mother are able to keep themselves clearly distinct. mother.right. family arms most often animals or plants. rarest of all for a woman to hate the man by whom she has had a child before Superficial friendliness is common. oldest member represents its especially in the event of a partition or division of land.organisation parallel not run village with the village -divisions . a woman The tells them. polygamy. A man must always marry a wife from the other group. exists among the Maoris. hapus are found co. Not- withstanding that the hapu or families. (Christy Collection." and thus a deeper foundation. or. The name signifies " bone. and not be cowards enough to do what ." The children always belong to the mother's family the husband's nearest several or pah. figured in the sense of that which bears the family within its it Every hapu has .278 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . their chief. Here. nancy remain separate from their husbands The popular philosophy of Fiji says that it is usual have a ruinous effect. the exogamic groups possess cognisances. and often enough breaks down all barriers. does as a Owing with rule. and inherits by " common. The two families again branch off into four. as everywhere. In Fiji it is veita " root. by whom his own family is carried on. but few are conscious of any marriage. from the Society Islands — onebuted among various villages. are his sister's children." the hapu. Another division. Typical cases are the Maori //«/«-system.) iivi. sixth real size.

That similar relations may at any time come into existence is shown by the sudden cessation of all bananaplanting in Ulawu. assigned to the that elder sister or aunt. which often leads to chaotic comRelationships by the female side. Property and rank are conferred by the mother the king's successors are the male offspring of his sister. in the reigning family indeed higher than taken the by the brothers these. The right of the female line is valid in the succession . in order to avoid any two spheres of sovereignty. " resemblance " amoiF the both in their tattooing and in the ornamentation . the Xo it married princess could attain to this rank. children inherit their mother's home. to They wear tamanin or ponto. The husband can take nothing of his wife's property. Thus in Tonga. . whisks.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA Melanesians this 279 symbol is called it Inanimate objects also. failing (Christy Collection. Tuitonga. the chief may not marry any chief's daughter. first In Fiji succeeded. but the right of the male line has already tried here and there to acquire validity. The plications. in Pelew the king's wife . after an influential man had announced on his death -bed that he was going to turn into a banana. Fly-whisks (chiefs insignia). fuses . comes most clearly to view in the regulations as to property and inheritance. on which the pedigrees rest. while when he dies she only keeps what he has given to her. queen. and sons. Prohibitions in respect of what may be hunted or eaten are connected with them. said Polynesians atua. as were a transitory appearance on the surface of the unchangeable tribe. is never the women's but the women's titles Thus. nets. forbidden to marry in the same family are like those of the interlacing of the men attached to seniority. while in marrying she loses nothing but her name. for is Thus. or has even achieved it to a large extent. with the atua-system the alleged sons of the same mother may not injure each . signs. are among these have been granted by the gods and their protective power is honoured by solemn dances. in the chiefs' families a high rank was . of their weapons. from the Society Islands one-fifth real size. paddles. The if it sacrifice of the family. The brother of the deceased is the rightful heir.

the most powerful chief of Korror. . with the aid of pedigreesticks. Kubary the following extraordinary account : relations "The King of Molegojok. there are nobles who. In the Marquesas the untabooed class comprises all women with their male attendants. chiefs take their part in the Fly whisk chief). intermediaries in secret matters lands — one-eighth from Pelew real size. while the King of Korror comes from a Molegojok family both have to fight against their own homes. as in the Mortlocks. The remembrance goes far back. and had to be fed by the women. They fall into those which participate in the divine. 17-. however. . the King of Molegojok. the road from the chief to the noble is naturally as short as that from despotism to oligarchy. with which Aremclunguj. by reason of most thorough system of caste. are sisters' children. but also indeed a of the gift of the gods. Since. like. There are oligarchies. When the palace in Hawaii was dedicated none were admitted save those who were connected with the sovereign in the tenth or some less the tabooed class with . where the smaller government by performing inferior (insignia of a is- diplomatic envoys. so that the connection of the gods is never interrupted. where clever craftsmen from among the people are raised to the tabooed class as Tubunas. as in Tonga. as sharp as in the . a native of . It is other. in many cases property gives higher rank than birth. freemen. In East Melanesia the classes correspond with the Polynesian divisions. is the son of a native of Ngiwal while Karaj. In Micronesia the division of classes is equally into nobles. social intercourse displays itself in pleasing forms. i 1 -n • . a of a district.) the Ehri. The aristocratic principle is seldom carried to such an extreme as here. degree. Nobility carries practical advantages in the shape of state. In . and Iraklaj. in contradistinction to the immigrant nobles. with the priests.born and such ot r . the first minister of Angarard. In Tonga the native people. are the most influential. Outwardly. (British Museum. and yet in opposite existing in the Palau or Pelew Islands is Korror is at hereditary feud. where a stern psychology remains inexorable even beyond the grave.. Of the men of rank the greater number are connected by ties of relationship. their own order for the priesthood. the memory of which is preserved by professed genealogists. or slaves runs through all Polynesia. Rgogor. are regarded as having no immortal souls while the souls of nobles return from the next world and inspire those of Class-divisions among the taboo. and slaves.But in some cases a man can overstep these boundaries. and those which are wholly excluded from it. freemen.28o THE HISTORY OF MANKIND must not marry into each gives other's families. The first. The child of a chief belonging to < a low-class mother.. political camps. The boundary between these two classes is not everywhere alike. is put to death. as owners Where. high posts of services as f council." Polynesians are. rise to the position of little kings. the freemen the most numerous the two often coincide or break up again into definite classes. as well as singers and dancers in Rapa indeed all men were sacred. though the divisions into chiefs. population of 3 500 is divided into ten tribes and sixteen states.

It used to prevail even more extensively in Fiji where successful risings of slaves but in the even took place. Even in New Guinea every Motu village is distinguished for some one industry. society of this . carpenters. and the religious pretext In is often but often also threadbare. There are artists in even special villages of fighting-men. and limited by J a council In the popular tales. they must remain celibate and if they should have Even the first children. land — NewZea(Christy Collection. and New Hebrides members of the leagues called supwe or the Banks Islands Their suque hold quite the place of the chiefs.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA Fiji >8i tribes we find the distribution by businesses. here attains the highest rank in the suque. — in Tonga. Solomons we meet with it. With their secret their public festive gatherings. of elders. the poor orphan boy. Being warriors. others for pottery or coco-palm planting. slavery often absent . one for its for its women's dressmaking. . after due payment.) daughter. these must be killed. another In regard to the certain these districts there is shell orna- ments. rank or class. Thus in different ways a The best-known powerful bias to aristocracy makes itself felt. a partly political. they are and one of the most significant features in the life of these races. kind . accompanying a more vigorous development of chief's authority. m and at the ence which each one exercises same time the influis measured by his . existence of slavery in for room doubt. It has always been lightly assumed. physicians. must be sought in societies. it not the very nucleus of the state. the feeble political In the west. where structure does not allow of is warfare on a large scale. fishermen. importance is in inverse ratio to the strength of the constitution . Here there are individual fishermen. and so on distincessential the tion between them and the chiefs being all the less from the fact that in other islands the chiefship . as who earn" on a distinct trade sailors. embracing the greatest number of the freemen in the influence bond of common interests or the practice of a kind of freemasonry. The most despised of all classes arc the coolies. Their objects are of solid. potters. the seven grades and all were bound in a close of which were distinguished by their tattooing comradeship. or carpenters. Those at the top decide who shall. favoured by fortune. An essential part. especially the Melanesians. who formed a league traced back to the foundation of a god. partly economic kind. who elsewhere would marry the king's is often elective Paddies (chiefs insignia) from one -sixth real size. rise into another class who shall be excluded. A grand master presided over each of the twelve classes. Their lands are tended by slaves. hair. was the Ehri or Areoi of Tahiti.

In the Duk-duk of New Britain a secret society assumed the character of a " Vehme. etc. like an entailed property." and at last exercised a real reign of terror with its extortions and executions.282 THE HISTORY OF MANKIXD . This arrangement recurs in a similar form in Melanesia. Every race of Micronesia united societies. The Tae (Godeffroy Album. One union. in the nangas of Fiji are women admitted. while the souls of non-members remained hanging to the trees like flying-foxes. so . The Micronesian bats. never comprises more than from thirty-five to forty individuals prac- tically of the same age. Less indecency than rumour whispered seems to Women and children are excluded only have prevailed in these conventicles.. This is managed by the eldest each of whom is named after his place of abode. and inherited by the next eldest. their fifth or sixth year. however. a person women's union. some connection with inheritance in the female the Ralick Islands the ruling chiefs belong to one clan. Europeans found the league degenerated it went about example of low immorality. and the obligation to enter them with compulsory service. New Guinea and New . but formerly it was said to secure for its members a life in a beautiful place. Everywhere some kind of ghost business comes in it is even implied in the names. kema. so that an older If man an}' belongs to three or four bais. their sons to is reckoned both of freemen and bondmen. . like is a dramatic troupe. masquerades are said to represent ghosts. recognises one head as the common centre of all the widely-scattered members. veve. In the tamata of the Banks Islands what we may call a lively club-life has been developed. Formerly hard tests involving physical pain were attached to admission but now everything seems to have become much gentler and more cheerful. All boys must be entered in another the chief must marry into the clan of his sons. Among the nobles this takes the character of a retinue it and one line. There is also but they have no house of their own. may Thus occasionally recognise in in . one gets a rise in rank. stands the family. appear at These have the same time as phalansteries. The chiefs tutelary god is conceived to be attached to this house. an broken up into closely . Chief of in the Mortlocks. as is natural. been compared with regiments. . The suque became at last a social and public institution. attached to his name and title. and descent by the mother. The initiated learn nothing beyond dances and songs. and the strange noises that proceed from the strictly unapproachable holy places have a terrifying effect. Chief among the institutions which are independent of. and work counter to. We find its earliest forms in the West New Britain has : its Duk-duk . In Micronesia it the systems known as Jiapu. and how to mask themselves and how to behave. Caledonia something akin. with the object of organising labour. he to each must pay a sum of money belonging to the same.

or. that in 1888 King Tamasese found it necessary to put a stop to them. The former are accurately known. Polynesia the transforming forces of the political develop- ment in the direction of monarchy. even to the crude form existing among the Kenias of Florida. and which resulted in so much extravagance. who on the death In general. Melanesia offers the simplest conditions .) 1 [For an account of these ma. p. As Islands regards the distribution of property. so that land which the father has reclaimed is to be found all among the mother's hereditary domains. the parties of pleasure among friends and relations. Between common curious possession and private ownership lies the apportionment of real property. He says nothing about any prohibition on Tamasese's part. at all usual in Feather Sceptre from Hawaii. A Footnote to History. while social position is essentially determined by property in land. the yearly suspension of festivals. while to the last no clear title though in Fiji its alienation by the chiefs seems to have been felt as an infringement of the common rights of property. and that the rights to fruit trees and to the soil may be vested in different persons. Perhaps it extended only to the districts owning that puppet-monarch's authority. in elsewhere. or gardens. w small districts like the Gilbert Islands. 1 Ownership in the soil is respected within the close community of the village. fields. see Stevenson. ] . at which the sucking-pig plays an important part. Even before the inroads of Europeans the feeling for ownership had brought about distinctions thus in .71ga. But there are a number of institutions which tend to level the differences.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA 283 that it often receives more veneration than the chief himself. While he is alive he has another house built for his wife and children. by parcel. allowing into the higher grades of the secret societies. The soil is lands. here as of a member devour all his goods. as admission by purchase individual property from ours.la. parcel there is . the Pacific offer f^ a picture of great variety. The sale of land was not pre-European times. (Christy Collection. since after his death they have to make way for his eldest brother. and the husband's power of independent acquisition. have had their effect. 2. and that again more in the east and north than in the south. or the eldest son of some former head of the family. leading to insolvency. the laws of and inheritance are not very different for the encroachment of adoption. In view of the facts that the land of the " two sides " often lies mixed up in small plots of ground. which under " mother-right " devolves jointly. in all rights of property during the great Samoa. everywhere divided into villageand waste. but not always beyond its limits.

landowners Torro. indeed. become transferred to the chief. over to the chief a portion of his profits from the harvest. that they have passed beyond the limits of a . if in the Solomon Islands a subject omits to hand primitive. he commits a delinquency. The loss which a tribe undergoes by the transference of children born within it. The Bei. teeth. and not felt as oppressive. which took precedence of the problems of conveyance are often insoluble. with In all the inhabitants cases the entire as slaves entailing fresh obligations on the recipients. According as the husband lived with the wife's tribe. or of booty taken. or the wife with the husBut the maternal tribe always claims the child band's. landless varlets. In Fiji. valid here. is furnished by the fact that the sudden abolition of it through Christianity has been indicated as one cause of the decrease of the population. The laws of taboo (Japu. and under this law the the nephews of the male side inherited in preference children's property was several. in so partial a fashion. In Melanesia fallen. land. especially in Polynesia. the land never passes out of the tribe's ownership. Till quite recently he even received a quarter of all wages earned by his subjects. wounded man could claim a title to ground on which drops of his blood had Hunting and fishing grounds remained common property. or shells. each regarding We may common . forbids a distribution of the soil among families. the latter endeavours to supply by gifts of land. or else have to compulsory service two days out of seven. Almost everywhere in Polynesia. exclusively. even when they have married into another. the larger landowners generally exercise influence on the government. land for him. bound to the soil. and their property. in the event of the great development of a chiefs power. seldom many . . in Melanesia tambii) have developed. though distinguished neither by clothing nor way of life. Thus in Hawaii tribal rights of ownership have and his subjects either cultivate a portion of the offer him the first-fruits of every harvest. Only what a man has cleared and tilled with his own hand and the help of his children remains Claims to rent on the part of the chiefs do not seem his own and passes to them. only a usufruct through the family all others. or the fishery. . sons could enter as heirs upon property left by their father on condition of indemnifying his nephews by gifts of pigs. many relation of subjects to a prince became one of gifts on the side of the former only. to the mother's tribe. In Tonga also a similar system has grown up. prevent the tribal right from being administered by an individual. but it could not. that tribal property was inalienable. A proof that this dependence was patriarchal. whom The owners govern almost the lord can make into Torro by a grant of land. military services. seems to have been broken in this respect. even where there are nominal kings. Class and tribal organisation with the Polynesians a primitive state of things. the children followed. or render into the higher classes. They belonged to the land and the lower classes were treated as serfs. while in the case of nephews and others inheriting Among the Maoris the strict rule under mother-right it remained collective. The conditions of property among the the Maoris perhaps correspond most nearly to suppose that no individual possession was In other places a land as his own. of those who pertain to it.284 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND There is no private property in which cultivates its piece. new grants of land. led in the event of a success to . while in the Gilberts the population is divided into Tokker. But at the present day. But since the children generally marry in the same tribe. people who are allowed to enjoy the usufruct of the land and Bei. If he left only daughters.

at one time that which . graph. nevertheless possible to enfranchise by which has been tabooed. not in the same that degree. though. another the used by others position to taboo . classes of It is sacred boundary. is due to the further reason that everything must not connected with the tutelary deity of a tribe in animal form the atua time as . The soul-eating of the gods. and therefore tabooed. to lay a taboo on certain produce every landowner can in this way protect his own piece of ground from persons lower in rank or even such fishing -places as are reckoned private property. We have here before us a conception which has grown out from the religious sphere. the forces of taboo are also at the disposal of men who are possessed of the godit like spirit.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA hamper all free movement as much as does caste among the Only the law of taboo does not merely divide mankind by impassable gaps. the political and social imcertain ceremonies that portance of the notion of taboo disguises religious nucleus. . is in a the property of others. in consequence of this. with the exception of men. as well as in Hawaii. selfishness not without its effect. and almost all women were excluded from We may easily see among these races who bring the divine and the human into extremely close relations. indeed. Everything upon which the power of the taboo is conceived as ipso facto resting belongs to the first. the operations of taboo. at the enigmatic process of digestion. a method of expressing wonder this. originally a divine force. Besides the gods. To the second belongs whatever is taboo-free. But in addition to this. King Lunalilo all must penetrate intimately the idea earthly conditions . — — be touched by those that belonged to the religious tribe. the use of which in the art of government early secured it an extension into the political domain. as appears. or always reserved for these. which is no less subtle than unscrupulous. and Indian races. under fear of a bad harvest. when great festivities were celebrated with immoderate extravagance. of Hawaii. The fact that taboo is so frequently laid upon articles of food. it simply cuts the entire world in two. it was the custom. If. Every one else it. person cannot be conveyer of taboo. in . since it is the property of the gods and of privileged men. and thus also to set men free from it. and noa or common. that in unhistoric might of only for social minds become established that taboo was in reality invented and political objects. until such time as the chief removes the taboo from the fields. Everything on earth. In Tonga. It works beneficently if. lastly. falls into the two moa or sacred. Thus. property is secured . ) (From a photo- so intimately. In any case it is very easy to be misled. and that so sharply that the whole excluded portion of mankind was constantly in danger of missing the religious ban. the crop is tabooed with a view of preventing famine. belongs to a noble. plays is equally a part in and. easily By means at taboo personal he. this exists its none the less. and so allowed to be used by all men. taboo can be transferred by mere external contact.

. in the later times of religious corruption. beaches. laid a taboo on a mountain near Honolulu. which were tambu.286 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Un- the western islands. doubtedly. taboo misused for the selfish objects of priests and chiefs. roads. there were forests. because he quartz crystals diamonds. who more than anyone found there for else profited by this power in 1 to serve his political ends. was shamelessly Thus once upon a time Samoan warrior in fo/a-clothing. When Hawaii 840 . (From the Godeffroy Album) King Kamehameha took the I.

THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA tabooed for 287 the space of five years all the herds of oxen which were being unmercifully decimated. Let us just imagine how. influence cannot have been so was limited itself to the kings now it has been spread over its all the business of life. which the priests and chiefs well understood how to turn to political account. Even where the custom has become remote from religious origin. Desecra- The penalties. women in child-bed on account of the child. . from the Marquesas (Christy Collection. the strongest trespasses against taboo obviously lay in the religious direction. If in any village a strong taboo prevailed. for persons of rank there are means of averting . taboo spread as a burdensome and threatening epidemic. and main cause of serious conflicts. consequences. new-born children because they belonged to the gods. too. Whoever had taken up a dead man might not touch food before might sleep with his feet turned looking at a corpse involved taboo. when a man of rank fell ill. the whole district of which he was the head was declared taboo by the priests.) —two-thirds real size. taboo became a measure of government. since divinity Formerly its . In Tahiti nobody Ear-button and war-amulet of whale tooth. owing to the tattooing of some lads. Universal silence must reign. from the and secular centres of these races. the priests had therein lay a spiritual made atonement for him by reciting the hymn of creation. The old faith is falling to pieces while it still stood unbroken Polynesian religion often demanded what was impossible. tions of temples were the greatest sins. Taboo enters into the life of the lower classes in so burdensome a fashion as to produce a universal oppression. In Tahiti. and corpses because the soul hovered round them. indeed. no boat might sail. no food be cooked. in New Zealand the mere Sick people were tabooed because the illness was caused by an atua. The old sacred taboo becomes a police regulation. Thus breaches of taboo could easily be committed by inexperienced Europeans. no fire lighted. the penalties for breach of taboo have retained a religious character. towards the mawai . the whole village was tabooed. Thus. extensive. In New Zealand it could even be incurred by the naming of any article belonging to a person of rank. fall mostly upon the lower classes and the ill women .

Christianity. are tabooed which explains why in even the more thicklypeopled islands many Warrior of the Solomon Islands. and with a powerful priestly class. uninhabited tracts are found. in the European sense. and captured in war were very useful. since having passed out of the authority of their tribal own tutelary spirit. since otherwise would spread by contagion until all the it free-will and action unconof a stifled. effects. new they were incapable of violating a taboo. its has been willing to and obedient hearts. because they looked for them and many first rose to greatness by means of the In Xew Zealand presents received from Europeans and the respect paid by them. Thus the names of dead chiefs. here and there the inconvenience was Taboo-free persons were required to feed those under taboo. indelible. we seldom meet with Europeans found them kings. . and tions are life interwoven of genera- with the to come. large burial- places. the spots where they have died. instructed by his father or grandfather in the sacred He comprised in himself traditions. . make use of taboo to enforce it requirement of humble by reason of mother-right. the arikiy or divine chief. too. There must also be some means of removing a taboo. of are its Many indeed. caste. In the society of the small islands. strained people various was The removal involves ceremonies. (From the Godeffroy Album. even when they are no longer understood. cloven as is and secret societies. such as Kamehameha I. stood high above secular chiefs and priests.288 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Variations of detail indicate that mitigated by a tacit understanding. and the not come under one.

the spiritual power or . and the places for burials. and what is tabooed by them is sacred. (From the Godeffroy Album. could put on and take off taboo. if field- On the other hand. When a powerful chief in the New Hebrides has his son brought up as a Christian. mana of the priest. too. Similarly the elders are the priests. it is taken for granted that the spiritual force which would qualify him for the succession vanishes. Practical experience has taught white men that in New Britain and New Ireland general not hereditary In . Thus. or decide the time for operations. the mediators between the living and the dead. he were not ariki as well. U . element in this conception exercises a great power over people's minds. hereditary chiefship is only recognised respect of his The mystical where it is believed that there has been a transmission of the mana. while the chiefs dignity is merely nominal. depended on his personal authority if he again were not also ariki.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA the power of both. was only obeyed in and the relation to the gods. some other islands. too. the elders have the paramount influence. So again in the Solomon Islands the dignity of a chief is in but the bravest man is elected to the post by the elders. vni)ia of the chief. Fijian warrior.

or. or little groups of communes. a splitting of the kingship between the chiefs also point to their military character. . as in Thus beside the head of the state another figure often towers up. while the In the neighbouring Gilberts the preponderking appeared dependent on them. and military as is its character.29o THE HISTORY OF MAXKIXD even the greatness of power which they wish to see the chiefs possess in the and the same in Xew Guinea. a peace-king with shadowy power and a war. The constitution of Kamehameha III. In the Ruk group. were divided into official districts. An element which is often overlooked among the state institutions of the Oceanians is the small size of their territories. and in Kamehameha's monarchical constitution they held a modest position as the " assembly of chiefs. the commander of the great ship. under which the villages tributary to one chief. the dignity of the chief It was especially so in Fiji. Here again the aristocratic principle corrects the patriarchal. we find little communes. — .king was sure to follow. wherever warlike conditions prevailed. allied in blood. is with religion. undergone a development in the direction of aristocracy in Hawaii. the aJia-alii of Hawaii. and governed . by chiefs of lower rank. They deliberate often for days together with many ceremonies and lengthy speeches. interests of order is hardly to be artificially created On the other hand. On the lowest stage of the formation of states. especially when war threatens. military organisation. if they do not spring from a family of the rank of chiefs. with European politics. A representative intermediary between king and people appears in some form even-where the fono of Samoa. . in point of rank. it is less the actual conditions of power than traditions. The appellations of Often they appear merely as doughty warriors who. which vegetate under their own village chiefs or elders. they speak of thirty-nine tribes and seventy-three states. and political intrigues. whether the war-chief In Samoa the chiefship has Radack." with different ranks of taboo. . They recur in Hawaii as Alii. is traditional from old times only one larger archipelago formed a single state. A certain order of the lands. ordained that the heir to the crown should be nominated by king and chiefs acting together. In the largest part of Xew Guinea. personal relations. and thus the high pitch which despotism has reached rests more upon the pressure of class and caste than upon the overpowering will of a single man. From this the transition to modern constitutionalism or its imitation was not difficult. Saturated as this life have been adopted into one on account of their courage. which since 1876 have come into contact monarchy. only in this way could it permeate all conditions of life. In any case the effects were far less upon the privileged than upon those who had no rights the oppressed and thence also came the sadly rapid decay of this society. Failing this the chiefs were to do what was necessary in conjunction with the representatives of the people. and how often did that fall to pieces ? . the electoral chiefs always came to the front. Special assemblies are called together by the chief or his representative on important occasions. even these dignitaries are lacking social and family relations embracing also political. . in that of In the Samoan party-fights. where we have a completely grew in importance. and every village on the whole forming a state of itself. ance of landowners has created a sort of plutocracy. Since there is no room for the development of a power founded upon extensive possession in land and people. which decide matters in the island groups. Its profound effects can only be explained in this way . It has a strong tendency to assume the character of a secret society. show it in various stages of development.

an interregnum as a change from the preceding and subsequent hard times of compulsion is wont to loosen all political ^ restraints . any one who steps on a chiefs shadow incurs death. food. to bare their The high position of the prince of ceremonies. successor. never possessed a single state of any importance. it is a legalised anarchy. so that others have to feed them. 1 ["For the real noble a whole private dialect is set apart. In the Solomon Islands. he takes when entering upon his dignities a name by way of title. A chief cannot when sitting. External In Hawaii insignia are reserved for him in the first place. time. or his house be entered by any one uninvited. 291 New Guinea and New Zealand. a special court-language was used around the prince. As in the case of class organisation. the king could only be addressed 13 „Q and replied through a special orator. 1 In Micronesia. The heralds of princes are inviolable even in war. is expressed in a number him on a level with the gods. or at least a severe pecuniary penalty. this name denotes nothing else than god anything recalling former names is sedulously avoided. shoulders or strip altogether . in the feather. for bamboo." — Stevenson. From of comes the practice among Fijian chiefs. for blood. which bestows her gifts with equal freedom on rich and poor. fly-whisks. the King of Korror was deposed for his avarice. which had to remain unknown to the people. In Kasaie. a bamboo knife. A Footnote to History. and an oven are taboo in his presence. B ^ O U . He was greeted by having his hands and feet smelt in Hawaii. Passers-by had to throw themselves in the dust. Ü£ £ P £. and other things. putting «J . strangers might see the king putting his hand to the paddle in his own canoe. or utilises the Thus in Kubary's advantages of his office to his own profit. shell trumpets.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA The very largest islands. The common names for an axe. the sacred hair. and the meanest man could speak These are the humanising effects of nature freely with him. who by reason of their right of touching come within taboo. In Tahiti.mantles and necklaces of whales' teeth Admiralty Islands double chains of shells in the Solomons arm-rings of shell.2 o <U . but the chiefs also in regard to their superiors. ~\ . a pig. ffi-o eat or drink out of the dish of another. the parallel to the Polynesian exaggeration of taboo. . nor may his vessels be used by others. Not only have the commons to observe all this in regard to the chiefs. since the name of a chief may not be uttered. Samoa also had its court language. otherwise the chiefs changed it. . and of the small scale on which everything was constructed. But traces of an anarchical time emerge even more strongly Before the nomination of a than those of the patriarchal. so also in the governis ment. Polynesia. too. keeping court barbers. there a patriarchal air. The people are very sensitive on the point whether the king takes trouble. entrails.

trade enriched the chief. this office was entrusted to an important element of the court. the opposite came about money penalties became universal. an earthly episode in the lives of these sons of the gods. in-chief. In later times. For private injuries in the Solomon Islands. in order that if both chiefs. he gives him his staff and whisk in as credentials minister. should fall together in battle. discovered means of averting. But besides this. court ceremonies. Occasionally. severe. which found expression also in Thus it when European political ideas began to make their way into Hawaii. In their fundamental character they were formerly — breaches of divine ordinances. This post is also . the feather girdle and are guarded In Nukahiva the chief accompanied by his fire-lighter. from the fact that the king used to have a monopoly of the only two sources of wealth the manufacture of coin and trade. every man exacts the best . otherwise. or bundles of leaves tied to branches. . the custody of the legends might be safe in the hands of those who were compelled to stay at home. as being foolish people. and destiny holds them fast they return only as souls the threads of their existence are attached on high. The value attached to genealogy made the custodians of tradition In New Zealand. officials. effect. without any definite intention to that occurred that even strange. A prime where things are on a small scale. will probably be the commanderforms a necessary supplement to the sacred sovereign. the penalties are extraordinarily and ordeals of every kind play the chief part in judicial proceedings. as in Hawaii. held by a priest. The exuberant development of trade and finance. was all the more closely allied with politics. the evil consequences which must have resulted from this system. Breaches of law are rare. some measure. Originally. who. New laws are announced to the people with a flourish of the war trumpet a prohibition to enter upon land. his brothers stand nearest to him. There. Here. attains an altitude which to him. as on the west coast of Africa. and to the ? other nobles in a ratio diminishing according to their rank of taboo. when he entrusts a commission to a son. . an offence against the laws involved a certain dishonour boys and old men were not punished. the constitutional notion of a leading and by responsible minister was not wholly is To the king's suite belong also the fillet keepers of the regalia. especially in East Melanesia and Micronesia. In Tahiti. . is The king. . he could not enter any house belonging to a subject. They come from heaven. is signified by spears stuck in the ground. however. or to pluck fruit. then if the same grade of holiness was ascribed to the kings as to gods. Kamehameha compelled the chiefs of the subject islands to live near his palace.292 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND obscure practices are no doubt connected with the chiefs position as priests. hump-backed men. at least touch. does the first chief in Erromango receive a stone with a round hole in it ? does the consecration of the chief in Anaiteum consist in being drawn round a newly felled tree with his crown on ? The whole existence of nobles and princes on this earth is often regarded as something only transitory. father and son. as the bearer dangerous to himself. since otherwise it would be forfeited In Tahiti he had himself carried over land which he was too sacred to The South Sea races have. For this reason. royalty assumed a character with two aspects. What wonder to Bolotu Many Why Why . the king's messenger carries a green bough. and formed the chief sources of revenue for the king and the chiefs. and raised him to a far higher power than he would otherwise have acquired. Of all those around the king. and go about with him.

Therewith naturally the general prosperity suffers. as a necessity. as the articles included in the commission. whereas in Europe we at least allow ourselves the time which elapses between one comet and another. very red thread. Intercourse between one tribe and another is conducted through inviolable heralds. On these occasions the chief gives knotted cords of rattan and reeds. The number of weapons in use is difficult to harmonise with the gentle character belonging to most Polynesian tribes. recurs in the Hervey Islands. signify war and death. leaflets New is Guinea. but if the relatives intervene. The Fijian cannot be described as fundamentally warlike by nature. then the stem and the halves handed to the parties in token of peace. The very narrowness of the space contributed to develop such conditions the smaller the states the more embittered and unconciliatory their politics. these customs are very like those of the Polynesians. and is the simple consequence of their numerous independent lordships. the strife is in by the payment In New Caledonia. and in former times perhaps were still more so. after long speeches many and ferocious gestures." At parting they say simply. adorned with flowers. The intercourse of daily life is strictly formal in Pelew. . — as many . So again does the reception of friends. together with the Polynesian rubbing of noses. of a coco-palm leaf are partly taken off. White and green. As with the Malays and other races. the halved. These also act as trade intermediaries on 'Change. and made to jump into the sea. is regarded as a warlike prognostic. one of her husband's relations. . yet the entire archipelago is seldom free from war. Yet the predominance of militarism is not everywhere merely apparent. in colours or feathers. In Polynesia some races are more warlike than others the Maoris might be called the Zulus or Apaches of Polynesia. it is mugul to ask anybody " what is your name ? " though a greeting may quite well take the form " who are you ? " The standing question by way of opening a conversation is. Tahitians. . for the allies have not only to be fed. not only that of natives but also of foreign settlers. and Gilbert Islanders.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA penalty he can with his 293 own fist . form alliances for other objects those of the Fijians are very expensive. old women for choice. A phenomenon no more unusual than the cackling of hens by night. are signs of In peace black and red. War. custom is more powerful than morality. In all circumstances. in streamers or boughs. The military renown of the small Paumotu Islands was such that Tahitian chiefs fetched mercenaries thence. cases appeased. with words recited sing-song fashion in chorus. . through the whole life of Marquesans." In general. An inexhaustible source of hostilities is an accusation on the part of one family group that another has done despite or injury to their dead breach of promise of marriage is another. . that only the equivalent for taboo can dispute supremacy with it. an adulteress is strangled by one of her own and of a fine. the word mugul. It lies in their circumstances and usages." is so all-powerful. so that it has always been the effort of the missionaries to bring about a union of the different Individual tribes . that is. " no news ? " or " give your news. Persons convicted of magic are painted black. passes like a red. while the length of the reeds indicates their importance. " I'm off. Thus the ancient form of greeting among the Pelew Islanders. of rubbing your face with the hand or foot of the person to be greeted. but they have a full right to give their orders as lords throughout the territory of their friends. " bad form. It is optimism to take for morality the indignation shown by Micronesian girls at trifling violations of custom.

adultery. In the Society Islands and "eating on foot". murder. In just the same way people fighting on land wear some sign by which they may be recognised. districts. But in their opinion every war has sufficient ground battle is to them the best solution of a mass of contested questions. small causes are evoke a tendency in one or the other direction. boats which belong together are indicated by some common sign a bundle of palm leaves. the tendency to small states had sealed the ruin of Polynesia long before the people had thought about European culture and the one of the impediments which has compelled the roots we need only think of the way in which the New Zealanders have split up. founded a special army the name of which was military character." Wars of succession are also recorded. most frequently of all. it has been in vain . a strip of tapa. so that the dissolution of personal relations indebted for their vitality to the half monarchical. since the guidance of the war-canoes can only be entrusted to practised hands. That among the causes of war women have their place can be all the more understood from the fact that a fundamental rule is " Once a chief's wife always his wife. annexation of land. elsewhere. As a chronic evil it became converted into a settled institution. or red. Violations of the rights of property. The Navigator's Islands testify that envy of the success of a peacefully working tribe may contribute its fair share to the kindling of ever new wars. fishing and hunting in disputed districts lead to wars. as observed by Semper. akvays ready for battle. In sea encounters.294 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND But it. since it secures a special authority in times of peace and a conspicuous share in all festive enjoyments. and their final arbiter is the god of war. It is in the nature of these people neither to break wholly with each other nor to unite frankly. adopt a The very frequency of naval wars gives rise to a certain organisation. . To the frequency of wars conduced also the standing organisations of the Kamehameha I. or dress their hair in some peculiar way. The post in the vanguard is highly esteemed as a post of honour. What prevails is neither open war nor undoubted peace sufficient to with each other . to which further importance is given by the manner in which social ties are excess of Herein lies of Polynesian culture to spread laterally instead of vertically . a further ground of quarrels is to be found in the complicated feudal relations. in Fiji men who like tribes. relax the political relation of states to each other. Lastly. witchcraft. and within their limits it often proceeds in a fairly harmless manner. personal insults and blood feuds. must also. half oligocratic constitution. a warrior caste existed as a permanent suite to the chiefs. wear a shell round the neck or the arm. On all the great islands there are specially waron the north coast of New Guinea the Mansuari. white. that is. and these are changed every two or three They paint particular days in order to avoid ruses on the part of the enemy. In every district may be found a village whose inhabitants possess the right in war time of opening the battle. and. In Polynesia war is conducted with formalities no less strict than those which govern peaceful intercourse. or a picture of an animal on the same material. figures upon their bodies in black. Whole generations labour to wash away spots on the honour of their forefathers. Connected with this is the fact that in kingdoms so small as these all personal relations are thought more of than would be the case in larger states. — — . while to nourish the sentiment of revenge is one of a chief's first duties. still more do violations of taboo. marriages between persons belonging to hostile tribes. celibate life.

Printed "by the Bibliographisches Institut. . Leipzig AN AUSTRALIAN FAMILY-PARTY FROM NEW SOUTH WALES.


easy to understand why is bullet-proof houses of stone are supplanting huts of : wood and nothing about which the gods are so keen as war nor is anything an occasion of larger sacrifices. Old women. shouting their songs in quick time. the rule that when one village has finished with the head. The head chief travels through friendly districts with a head which his warriors have secured. smeared with ochre. Then the most renowned warriors advanced. and other But the country pays no taxes." The command was allotted to the boldest fighter. Among the Maoris the priests had to decide whether or not the war will be victorious. kindled by the discourse. executes the war-dance. Head-hunting is common in New Guinea. and with glowing words extol the greatness and the fame of the tribe. as. In other cases food was cooked for the gods and the fighting-men then the troops started. the firmer is the confidence. partly the symbol of warfare. The excitement rose to the point of fury. and receives That is the use of the war-dance. and dash into the war-dance. Temples half buried weeds are tidied up or rebuilt. who cut off the head with a bamboo knife and so too in the Malay Archipelago. straw. among the Tugeris. with their meres raised aloft. It can never is killed. jumped on one leg to one side. then on the other leg to the other side.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA Head-stealing is 295 partly the object. another has a turn with it. In this they would expend a good deal of bodily strength. for example. and the expenses must be met somehow. Before coming to blows with men. But. There necessary to come to an understanding with the gods. the favour of the gods. smear their bodies with charcoal and the sacred red-ochre. . followed by slaves and women. and challenged the foe it is in . He would spring forward in the front of the line. would fling off their mats. war It is therefore degenerates into an incessant devastation of and plantations. as in fields the Marshalls. ruks. Thus. and cunning on one side is met by precaution and indefatigable vigilance on the other. . where things are on a smaller scale. in order is to prevent too great a drain of money in any one direction. Sticks were stuck in the earth. the muz's. the valour of their forefathers but while enumerating the injuries which had yet to be avenged. . for the essential to the provision of means for meeting state- expenditure. This kind of warfare is recognised by the Micronesians as a chief institution of their political further reason that it is life. objection to the employment of treachery. The warriors. brandish their weapons. degenerate into aimless murder and it is rarely that more than one man Both sides know quite well what is taking place. who had to attend to transport and commissariat. for the performance a fee proportionate to the size of the country. and if they remained upright it denoted a loss. all He has considerable outgoings at his accession. danced in front of the lines. and then leaping off both feet into the air. leapt up suddenly at the word of command. with the view of kindling the passion of battle in their hearts they crouched down in rows one behind another. . and the war was deferred. . Unluckily. and must defray those of festivities. All warriors were " taboo. A woman will do and there is no . he would avoid bringing into prominence the dangers of the moment. though by a somewhat unusual method. Among the Motus he only who has killed a man may wear the half-skull of a horn-bill in his hair. who was also expected to be adept in the kind of eloquence calculated to rouse the courage of the warriors immediately before the fight. The head chief pays with his own money. the very usual object of keeping money in circulation is attained. adorn their hair with feathers. The greater the sacrifice.

For naked aborigines a thorn hedge makes an almost impenetrable rampart. advantages in the ground. but a war of this kind often ends without bloodshed. his back once turned.) enemy's dead aside as an offering to the gods. with their dislike of danger and preference for attacking only when they have a manifest advantage. and marked with their The Maoris used to examine especispears the spots where warriors had fallen. may your those Savaii pigs. and. intimidation. from Easter Island — one-half real size. added strength to the defence. available also as an instrument of i torture. eaters of Manono. they had fallen in the moment of ally if they had had Then they placed one of the wounded they carried away. and a series of single combats would The event would be decided by the fall or the victory of some one great ensue. Gunpowder has changed the style of fighting. thefr fists clenched if so. stratagem. even red hot stones to set fire to the woodwork. The chief entrance was flanked by walls in the form of bastions and the gate formed of sliding timbers. hunger. When the wind was favourable they challenged the enemy by flying banners and dragon-like things of many colours in his direction. every man ran for his life. tongues be torn out and burnt. muddy ditches as well. Berlin Museum. such as Pritchard heard in Samoa. Their own victory. . in the case of fortified villages or pahs in the plain. Traces of an international law. and laid the heads of the others at the The wounded were tortured and clubbed to death. Spears were thrown and stones slung from side to side. but the besieging party seldom arrived at assaults in the open. The to rally the fugitives victors returned from the pursuit to the field of battle. which has in view the chief's feet. Sacrificial knife. to to be killed ? " — ! . Within the fortress a sentry was posted in an elevated position the sign of danger or of a threatening attack was given by drums. Treachery. It was seldom possible warrior and the consequent retreat or advance of his side. : . palisades.29 6 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND " You bananawith opprobrious language. let Moso twist your necks knock down " Fry that " " is the man-eating gun " Atua-king. were the principal means to which they resorted. Clever utilisation of natural. that dirty herd who pretend to be men ? " Finally the two sides would dash furiously upon each other. The islanders." Where is the Savaii pig ! — Here who wants — Here ! — " is my club. " " You coco-nut eaters of Aana. took very readily to fighting at a distance and promiscuous shooting from ambushes all day long. before the siege began. The art of taking cover developed more rapidly than that of attacking. . ramparts faced with stone and loop-holed. In Fiji they fought around fortresses made of wooden palisades the women and children having been removed. who shall die by my spear " Where are they. to a place of safety.

This hangs together with the over-population of island areas. Human sacrifices were universal in Polynesia before the time of Europeans. Oceanians can only be understood human life. and cannibalism was extensively practised. — swimming crew. while human sacrifice is intimately connected with the festivals of the dead. The objection of the Polynesians to action in the open is marked also in the The famous war little use which they make of their boats in actual sea fighting. 297 may be recognised in the fact that so long as fight their patience holds out both sides spare the adversaries' fruit trees. to carry on his fields his t j wile and else from lower jaw set as an armNew Guinea. Even Fiji has its legend of the chief's leap. and the victim deposited in Tangafeatures in the existence of the Many when we realize the small value attached to - — — . and aquatic engagements The method was to only took place when hostile war-canoes met accidentally. we find no trace of any idea that it is more honourable to win open than by means of cunning and ruse. after some time passed in the temple. with signs or children. The selection of the victim depended in some places upon the priests. and either side sends herald some old man related to both and gifted is with eloquence. or tribes to a gradual ruining of him by extortion. In 1848 the whole population of Western Upolu removed to the eastern part of the island. roa's. Both are closely bound up with religion and war. The Samoan r -L • • went so • far as to system. and accordingly there are no limits to the artifices which may be employed in war. As everywhere. The gods to whom men were sacrificed were various. but it leads also to depopulation. (Christy ) collection and ravage and houses. Thus men or portions of men for example eyes. which were regarded as pleasing to the gods were buried in the foundations of temples while at the building of war-canoes human sacrifices were absolutely necessary. As soon as the lust of take steps towards peace. is The intelligence that peace desired as conveyed by neutrals. and throws a sanguinary gleam over all their social life. a fugitive chief is said to have thrown himself in desperation from a rock in the island of Wakaia. canoes served mainly for transporting the warriors. The rage of the victors often spares neither women nor children. . and in this respect the greatest atrocities have been committed. . but the principal were Tangaroa and Oro the killing was done in Oro's temple. not unfrequently compelled the flames of revolt to break out afresh. The periods of hostilities are con- cluded by carouses. Treaties of peace are in reality only armistices. the armies side. who. which slaythevanquished when he approached rr 1 • Human rmsf. Whole have been known to migrate in order to escape oppression of this kind. known as malo.1 submission. the largest number of human victims was furnished by prisoners of war and slaves. In certain sacred functions the priest required it. and has contributed powerfully to the formation of colonies. On in the other hand.THE FAMILY AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA mitigation of even this kind of war. came to the people . which rendered it easy to club to death the helpless battle is appeased on either and the accurately kept debit and credit account shows that winnings and losses are balanced. though deep is down in all hearts a secret wish of beginning again at a seasonable still moment active. upset the opponents' canoe.

enemy were fixed on spears. It disappeared and came up again. The Hawaiian and Tahitian groups.298 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND whom the deity desired. raw after them the whole company fell to upon the hideous meal. neighbouring tribes who. When we find the traditions unanimously affirming that cannibalism was not practised among the earlier generations of immigrants. and their wars were always wars of revenge. and the Paumotus. . and. fail to see the frequent the use of as human adorn or oil spears and in helmets. We are led to the same while those of the . and eyes were removed. This trait deserves to be remarked as distinguishing their cannibalism from that which has assumed either a more everyday character. declared themselves friends of the victors. But throughout Polynesia there exist both objects and legends in which of undisguised cannibalism are noticed in places so far apart as traces survive of a time when it extended more widely. and eyes of one of the fallen. then followed his sons or nearest relatives. and with these the warriors executed a dance to the chanting of the priest. Strong men's bones are available as talismans. the Palliser Islands. For every chief who had fallen the life of one of his slaves was required. . Returning home. or one distinctively religious. by the fact of accepting and consuming the present. the troop bore the heads of its slain chiefs as sacred relics. Well-ascertained centres New Zealand. which in many islands led undoubtedly to overcrowding. by the cutting magical skulls off of the victim's to make arm -rings and a cannibal significance of potency. and dig two rows of cooking pits. The very form of the lineaments was often still recognisable. were free from it during the time of the more frequent visits of Europeans towards the end of the last century. and indicated the victim The Maoris used and after a battle to collect the bodies of the foe. according to Forster. furnished with a jagged bit of human bone. The business was concluded by the tedious task of mummifying the chiefs' heads. Others fixed eyes of bright stones in the skulls and in New Britain these were on great occasions worn as masks by the younger men. cut off scalp right ear for the gods. tongue. necklets in When we find that in the Marquesas cannibal feasts were preceded hair. fish-hooks were. conclusion by considering its geographical distribution. while the heads of the enemy were stuck on the palisades surrounding the village. Scalp locks were fastened to reeds. we cannot hair to . and derided. Some tribes in the neighbourhood of the East Cape are said to have mummified even entire bodies. . tattooing and hair preserved. or of human bones and of drinking-vessels the Hawaiian custom putting eye of a human victim in the used to anoint the king. showing that there was always a favourable soil for it somewhere. Then followed the ceremony of taking off the taboo from the victorious force. the Society Islands. . we may no doubt imagine it to be one of those phenomena which correspond with a certain retrogression in the public life of the community. Tonga. the Marquesas. for a period. On these occasions What remained over was packed in hampers and sent to gluttony was the rule. smoked. brought about by internal quarrels but further. Among the Maoris cannibalism was undoubtedly always connected with revenge. The people also had necklaces of human teeth and in . in one of which the cooking was done for the When the meal was dressed the chief first swallowed the brain and gods only. that they might acquire the spirit of their former owners. that it came in with the increase of the population. These were boiled. In New Zealand. and dried in the air brain.

This conception might easily pass into that of eating the body with the soul and therewith human sacrifices. stay of cannibalism. In the Solomons prisoners were even sold for cannibal purposes. until she at length reached a point. often in In many places it has.THE TAMIL Y AND THE STATE IN OCEANIA 299 Hawaii a bone hung round the neck by a string of human hair counted as a high distinction. and eat the eyes and pieces from the cheeks. . a very extensive degree. and. for various reasons. through Polynesian mythology. Brown the missionary was told in New Britain that When we they retained the custom with the view of intimidating their enemies. Elsewhere human flesh is in such request that even the remains of a relative who has died a natural death will serve for a repast. . and at every feast in honour of a newly-captured head cannibalism blazes up afresh. . One receives the impression that life in those parts is always passed under the foreboding of being sacrificed. The Hattams. but members of certain particular tribes who were condemned to deliver one of their number for a cannibal feast. corresponding to the number of her infanticides. disappeared. Thus Saa caught it from San Christoval. Among most Melanesian tribes cannibalism is a settled institution. form in Oceania also a mainnotion of the gods eating souls runs all The In Aitulaki a god was called Terongo. among whom it is a custom to decorate their dwelling-houses with the heads of dead persons. just as when a captured foe is burnt alive. special terms for burying alive. Florida from somewhere to the westward. at which she was permitted to let her children live in future. The natives in justifying the practice frequently approximated to . owing to its association with skull worship. Fortunately there were cases enough where natural maternal feeling got the better of convention. Yet even these go back to mythology and declare that men are fishes and therefore eatable. find a human skull with the back smashed in. but indolence still more so. the man-eater. and strangling. A craving for flesh meat can seldom be assigned as a cause most readily perhaps among the indigent natives of New Caledonia. we may safely infer cannibalism and such are found in quantities on D'Entrecasteaux. with subsequent consumption of the corpse or portions of it. to eat not only prisoners of war. cannibalism received a divine justification. Williams the missionary asserts that every time in a mother murdered a child sprung from a misalliance. desecrate the graves of their neighbours in a shameful way. she advanced a step rank. Cannibalism has also been maintained where it would otherwise have disappeared. In not a few districts of this favoured region necessity was the motive for infanticide. stabbing with a splinter In Tahiti some mothers had . the only gleam of light in the blackness of this crime was the strict adherence to the law that a child had escaped death if it had lived for even a short interval of time. Human sacrifices. Souls of people who died suddenly were devoured by the god. perhaps Savo. the brains having been swallowed through the opening. Infanticide was a recognised institution in Polynesia in pre-Christian times. killed ten children The language has formed of bamboo. The Torres Islanders bake the heads which they have captured. Tangaroa caught souls with a net or a noose and ate them up. The Fijians used long wooden forks. in the uncertainty of the boundary between divine and human. as in Teste between the visits of Moresby in 1872 and Finsch in 1885. Cannibalism often merely expresses hatred and rage against a slain enemy. We find also examples of a recent extension of the bad habit by a sort of infection.

the Kasingl and Kalit of the Pelew. We must not. plants. universality of the office Priests and chiefs Consecration of priests The priests' functions Temples and places of sacrifice various kinds of sacred places Graves as places of veneration Temples Lack of genuine idols Embodiments of gods The Tii Stone images Feather-idols Graves and funeral customs . had a soul or was capable of having one. deified man. so it is also to the implements of every kind of handicraft. — . and thus the often wife to four § 9.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND The dislike of bringing up more girls Malthusian principles. In this way the tutelary spirits who are extraordinarily important in the practical service of the gods. the horizon Tii as a variation of time Tane. Atua in Polynesia indicates the spiritual in the widest sense. soul. But spirits. the land. by the incantations of delirious ecstasy. fishery. the Melanesia. called "spirit" in Tahiti. Ani. Thus this system led to the primitive pantheism which found its most characteristic stamp in the conception universal in Oceania of the Atua. Milu. the firmament. Moso. stay of the soul near the body and about the grave Various forms of interment — Atua. the air. and can be transferred to almost everything. in The word is consciously used in a generic sense just as mana is Codrington says it is a power or influence which is in a certain sense supernatural. is the broad foundation of among Polynesians and Melanesians alike everything. UNIVERSAL animation. whether disembodied souls or supramundane beings. Oru. It has no fixed connection with anything. the talk of children in their sleep. goddess of Gods of Olympus and Hades. The words spirit and soul indicate generally any expression of is life. shadow. and stones. and Cosmogany and mythology views of Nature Beginnings of metaphysics Legend of Papa and stones Kaka Separation of Heaven and Earth Rangi-Ru and Maui Maui as deity and animating principle of earthquake. possess it and can impart it. just as a future life in Bolotu is assigned to the souls of men. Kalit. daily occupations Animation of beasts. Pele Hero-gods Meru. conceive this animation as exclusively of an ennobling kind. — — . Maru the moon Priest-kings Priests . ghost. and the like Creation of gods Hero-worship Oromatna Gods of the sea. recurs in the Ani or Han of Ponape. The other world can become practically effective for the living. and accordingly. Mattet. or Hotua. of a god into an earthly object. fire. god of the sky Hina. or by the entry. were boys. beasts. The squeaking of rats. an equally prevailing cause. War. or deriving benefit from it. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — : . Akua. whether temporary or permanent. Their inspiration is desired because they bring to knowledge that which they have acquired in their intercourse with the gods of Bolotu. RELIGION IN OCEANIA Universal animation the conception otAiua. or the religion endowment of all things with a soul. tua apparently : standing here in the sense of the other world it is God. — — Skull-worship — Sacrifices to the dead — Burying all — — — — — — — alive. If they do not come willingly it is sought to constrain them by prayers and sacrifices. spirit. But by the system of embodying tutelary spirits. . and The Polynesian atua in the last resort. souls are consciously imported into objects. plants. came into existence. than necessary was and sailing. even to the utensils. however. Hikuleo. . but expresses itself in any kind of force or superiority which man may possess. god of the sun. All the religious rites of the Melanesians consist in obtaining mana. either through the mediation of departed souls which wander between heaven and earth. and sun-— Hawaiian and Maori Mauis Wakea Tangaroa the Polynesian Zeus. the priesthood. regarded as forms of activity to which it paid to bring up disproportion of the sexes was so great that one woman was or five men.

are attributed to magic. images of departed They prayed relations. not go far away. or to the arranged A full assurance that they hear. on the other hand. . as was the case form — the greater part of Melanesia. The origin of divine dragged about by evil spirits. since even in life the former were inhabited by higher powers. the divine worship of particular personalities is easily developed from the cult of souls in general. easily seized and of course death. the stars are designated simply as the As these take their way upward in the darkness they are souls of the departed. or the evil influence of the Atai or Tamate. and the Kurnai see in the Australian warbler and the azurine the creators of the sexes. deities distinguished between original Ancestral image [Korvar) from New Guinea — one-fourth with living relations to raise them to (British Museum. the dead man's wife calls upon a bird. and the other which had never been in human were kept distinct. illnesses. him as — in which flies ever farther to its its adoptive parent. Vui. For this reason the destiny of the souls of chiefs and priests which have quitted the earth is materially higher than that of the lower classes. . recaptured. the It is name of the departing. who are the souls of the dead. while freed from the bodily husk. believed that immediately after death the soul can be In a Gilbert Island dirge. man when in danger invokes the spirits of his father and grandfather in and deified beings. loud and impressively. A certain gradation is imported into this troop of spirits and souls by the distinctions of rank which prevailed among their former earthly tabernacles. divine honours whenever they should die. At first it does which ends in various ways. (caratix) is reverenced as the god of war. and by a combination of forces can often be recalled to which end the relations round the death-bed of Kusaie. and are invoked in case of danger. according to its rank and deserts.RELIGION IN OCEANIA 301 This spirit worship which is directed towards creatures regarded as animated. and these will have a yet more powerful effect when Since the souls of chiefs go to the stars. The Fijians. and home Wherever the two classes of spirits those which had been souls. real size. . The Vui of the New Hebrides dwell in a region called Panoi. others wait upon or within the earth. accordingly. and as such very distinct from the No sooner has the soul left the body than it enters upon its wandering. That the animating element is also understood by Kalit appears from the fact that a Kalit is assigned to dead objects Semper was asked by the Pelew Islanders about the Kalit that ticked in his watch. An lit and the Van's of Tobi. call out. They stand All serious in relation with deified ancestors. appears in many places to have deThus in the Mortlocks the bastard mackerel generated into pure beast worship. The souls of old chiefs are deified after their and invoked by name with sacrifices.

Tabuarik. such as the stone terraces of Waieo hair have the effect of amulets. The idea is extended also to such animals as appear frequently in dwellings lizards.302 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND honours in many cases falls almost within the recollection of living people.) as vapour. Even in the legends of the great creating gods we find indications of the notion that they have been men or can become so again. is They give gifts to honest men and feed the poor their presence betrayed by a tender sound like the song of Places where they like to resort are rongo that is sacred. in Mota in the nopitu is the name both for Ghosts a ghost and the nature one possessed by a ghost. in the Marquesas. or other indefinite form. were referred to gods. as if they were tabooed. Tamatoa. He must enter the rongo place alone. has no form to be seen. for one reason or another. (From a photograph in the Godeffroy Album. has no because itself is like soul. The ghost is estimated according to the object in which he dwells. the chief of Raiatea. and whoever understands this estimate is counted able to mediate for other men with the good spirits. A Banks Islander of the older : generation explained a vui to " It Codrington as follows lives. — . and a descent is from the height of deity Spirits an idea that constantly recurs. or smoke. on which occasion the face of his wife may be seen flashing through the clouds. is supernaturally powerful with mana. while Banks Islands good spirits of of elves or children. And even though they are themselves invisible. Now he appears sometimes as Hai. souls appear which never were on a higher level. gnomes . knows things which are secret with- out seeing. and offer sacrifice . trees. are known as nopitu vui. con- ceive even a ghost as entirely formless. and owls particular parts of a stream can also. was reverenced as a deity even in his lifetime. All stones. sometimes he lives was formerly a chief. above the clouds and thunders. this connection with something corporeal affords a platform upon which they can be treated corporeally. a soul. of this sort also pass into for men ." They cannot. be rongo. and men who had produced such things Deification of heroic men was often quite a were raised to the rank of gods. matter of notoriety. Warriors reverence as a war-god the ghost of some champion whose bones and Great works. and thus many assert some that they have seen a ghost A Fiji Islander. however. snakes. the most respected god of the Gilbert Islanders. has more intelligence than a man. and animals found in such places are equally rongo. thinks.

Another famous sea-god is Hiro. who are nothing but localised ruled p. When the sun or the moon is eclipsed. spirits or souls. though he can provide the suppliant with ways and means to do it. no spiritual beings in striking aspect of such superabundNature remains unprovided for. some offended deity Hervey Islands —one-fourth real size (Christy Collection). seeing that since the general conversion are never to Christianity there such terrible storms as formerly. who are often worshipped in the form of birds. The sea alone is by some twenty of them (see woodcut on Some of them employ the large blue 39). But if prayer is made to a Vui to bring sickness or other evil upon an enemy. Stick calendar of the Ngati Ranki tribe in New Zealand (British Museum). Sacred drum with carving. . from the The upper regions of the air are also peopled with higher beings. With a similar intenin Anaiteum the roads which led from the sacred groves to the shore might never be blocked by hedges. They dwell not far from the rock that bears the earth and any neglect of their worship they punish with storms and tempests. . originally a bold and ingenious native of Raiatea. and building little banks in order to make it easier for tion them to climb up. are fed . enticing them ashore with toys laid on the bank. All the heavenly bodies were looked upon as gods. and thus thousands of naturegods come into existence. since he is a good spirit. 303 as he does this he prays and lays the sacrifice upon a stone which is believed to be connected with the spirit. islanders believe that in old times evil spirits had power over the winds. Chief among the gods of the air. With ance. Sharks on fish and pigs till they acquire the habit of approaching the shore at certain times and the natives could assure you that they came at the bidding of the priest. They were invoked to raise hurricanes when a hostile fleet was fitting out. who joined the ancient band of gods so recently that until the fall of paganism his skull was on view in Opoa. Even at this day many shark as their instrument of vengeance. he never brings about the trouble himself. brother and sister. At one festival the Fijians used to call the water babies. are two children of Tangaroa. 2.RELIGION IN OCEANIA there .

for both are treated . quadrupeds. believing that the soul of an Fairies that inhabit the mountains become visible ancestor had appeared to him. and Papatu weather and cloud)in Giants with fiery eyes live on solitary islands. So. and transgressions. offered with the words " Here is a bit of the pig say nothing about it. the In Hawaii are haunted places where desert volcanic island Manua near Raiatea. . has swallowed again. another in the dog. in the history of the objects. the lord of heaven and if he demands the death of a man. special duties gods and of their dealing with men. on their privy raids. A man would eat freely of what was regarded as the incarnation of the god of another man. going on board. good Hiro. till . ghosts go in procession to the sound of the pipe.304 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND it . In this fashion legendary figures multiply and are gradually impersonified as brothers and sisters. a canoe is sent to fetch him." * Beside the function of acting as the outward shell of guardian spirits. or working at sea. death. 1 8th. The chiefs think it no shame to invoke Hiro. Thus many members of the heavenly crowd suggest that they are the creations of the hieroglyphic languages of the priests. they received their souls from the height of heaven. In Tonga. another in the lizard. and superstition has little trouble in discovering the most probable connection between cause and effect. which turn out most prosperously on the 17th. The talking tree is found near the habitation of Ikuleo. carpenters. cloud is the offspring of Rangi. to animated life." The tendency to multiply parallel conceptions makes the number of the gods increase. another in the owl. have patterns peculiar to . [' Turner's Samoa. the Toa-tree grew up to heaven for that purpose. Legend reduced the heavenly were allotted. But when a pig is stolen. and every kind of living thing. Prognostications surround the whole of life with a dense network of inevitable consequences. spiritual beings preside over individual occupations. another in the turtle. Thus the subjection of Tahiti to a French Protectorate was foretold by a crack in the post supporting the palace gate. and so on through every class of sea-fishes. Even games particular crimes : . and causing to generate there the very thing which he had eaten. too. and are often essentially the same. birds. another in the shark. It is difficult to separate the guardian spirits of individuals from those of the alike. are under the tutelage of five or six gods and not less. needs of a foreboding spiritually-minded imagination. Penrhyn who wept at seeing a falling star. This tree takes the souls and when men grew as shoots from the world-tree. . and whoever hears them dies. and 19th nights of the month. he often is put off with a piece of the tail. they represent whole families. including even several mollusks. and he is induced They see gods or souls in meteors by abundant gifts to set the orb free and Lamont mentions the case of a . but the incarnation for the god was of his own god he would consider it death to injure or to eat supposed to avenge the guilt by taking up his abode in that person's body. The totem system comes in here. We hear much of the tree of . boy in . " One Samoan saw his god in the eel. Special gods send the migratory fish inshore at stated times special gods are invoked by fishermen when they are making nets. Anuku. until it produced tribe . by whose topmost branches the gods left heaven when descending to earth. house and boat builders. like the wide' plain. agriculturists. the sky. Lastly. as protector of robbers.] . meeting as this does the their craft.

. from which a it man made grow till uncle Inaporari. are . In is no -tree planted near temples. his pursuers. sacred trees are reverenced for example. jjjjj Among the the god of land Tahiti. over it and cause In the New . and so sacred. as in Pelew or.) ensure sucin order to cast a shade Hebrides the pandanus receives special reverence. At sacred dances the neophytes appear shrouded in bunches of pandanus. Thus Maui learned from . too. Magic dolls with to . from made of human bone. In Micronesia. the Kalit descend on to their tops. and any coco-palm which its forks. Quat.. inferior the gods before he produced men. A bush that grows before the king's house Korror passes for the last scion of a plant brought from a submerged spirit X .. In Melanesia. leaves are buried near a house in illness.RELIGION IN OCEANIA growth to a tree 305 Banks his Islands. and dwelt originally within the earth.the fig-tree with spreading roots. certain — Collection. the is wood for good canoes. the noro-trees in which the lives of his brethren and himself were imprisoned. in Bygor. are confined in trees. rubbed leaves cess . embodied in great forest trees. by knocking on them. the Fijians venerate trees by throwing leaves on the spot where the last evening Besides shadow of which lies. looked into heaven. but Vate. climbed up it to escape Souls of gods. the vesi-tree. whose children are the birds and the sea. since the it. votive bunches of hair. Maoris trees represent Tane. and tortoise skull. too. the created begotten. Am who is in created the names of the chiefs. Weapons . how to recognise in the lower world. because the In Pelew. (Christy a temple in the Admiralty Islands one-fifth real size. Tangaroa. and crowned with garlands of the same. god of lives in From the jagged the aitoself- splinters tree. as in the the divine being. little The good soul-deities of the Veli sing from hollow trees. coco-palms standing in enclosures. are regarded as seats for the gods.

the most distinguished in fable. One who knows Fiji. the most frequent subject of is sculpture. New Year's sacrifices are offered under an old Mawairi-trce. lizard. in which he taking a child from its mother's body with his ripping beak. living company with human Besides these. Among animals. bringing . day. lizards are involved in a special cycle of legends. and in Tahiti the heron and in the otatare-birA. Men were formed by the snipe man. bird from a by while it was the cockatoo as sacred a bad omen if the tarata -bird flew over a column of warriors on the march. embarked slew enter it. we find The subject. born of the sun. In the rest of Melanesia. and only the priests might pig's head was found in fabulous animals. that by plucking one wing only you could cover the whole legs. or Hiro. of creation the in a legend of during the process scratching Tangaroa. Giants from Tahiti in rafts to fight the man-eating pig in Eiva . In the Hamburg Museum the pig is is a carving.3°6 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . Various other birds were also . on the land and occurs in Fiji and Here. and also Birds appear in the Mani-legend as bearers and guardians of fire or the lark. says: priate " If you would sketch an approof the old Fijian religion. next to is the zvaran the buceros. elsewhere in Melanesia. their In Nukahiva a stone image of a bones. ised the fire all living Red feathers symbol- which the Creator places beings. while hard by a cock with fine feathers is crowing to wake the sleeper. in the form of tailed gods. . The owl caused absolute terror. The seeds of useful plants are brought to earth the by down The New Zealander regarded the gardens of the moon. hornbill or rhinoceros bird. Pigs were the most costly victims for styes.) Great white shells adorned and so numerous were his beautiful feathers. the herald of sunlight. select a fine emblem is you must which pandanus. at once oceanic and amphibious. beneath sleeping coiled up a mighty snake. sacrifice. of an animal with a serpent or eel-shaped extremity reaching to the sea. land and at Tapituca in the Gilberts. as in Australia. bird. (Munich Museum. of father its by earth to sent who was A Samoan legend makes the souls of men in bird shape be brought up worms. mountain-top as with a cloud. as in the souls of the chiefs lying in prayer before Siuleo. Ancestral images from Easter Island — one-tenth real his size. same birds. sacred in Polynesia as the bringers of fire and souls ." the harbinger of This god. the bird of the sunis the the sons of of the same for destroying which Ndengeh aroused the wrath of the gods to such a fathers pitch that he sent a great deluge on the earth.



them into close connection with the divine figure which strikes its roots deeply, In Fiji he lived in a cave, and when he was driven thence the god of earthquake. lizard which he kept in a cage as a plaything remained giant incantations the by With it the legend connected an behind till it was killed by the chief Tara. On a campaign lizard, on the river Waitio. a great earthwork built in the form of appear in the form of like to The Atuas a green lizard is counted a bad omen. bring and illness and Lizards creep through the openings of the body lizards. headache. Tare was also so among the Maoris the lizard god Mokotiti causes

Among the Melanesians, snakes were, of all spoken of as dwelling in a lizard. animals, the most revered, and some places in Fiji were actually famous for snake worship. On the other hand, the Hattams of New Guinea preferred the snake to Among the temple idols of the Papuas in Waigu, all other animals for food. Idols, shark below and man above, were set up on the crocodile also is found.
Skulls of those valuable houses in the Solomon Islands, to avert evil influences. From Easter Island we have food animals, the turtles, were kept in the temples. and in Florida large eels are favourite fish-headed idols, as shown on p. 50

places of residence for the souls of the dead.

we must

refer to

the widely-spread cult of stones.



and cloven rocks of the coast gave rise to legends of all sorts, which in many cases sound Rocky wastes are shown as like an echo of those which we know in the west. the battlefields of contending gods, or the places where, overtaken by daylight in the task of creating islands, they were obliged to leave the materials lying about. Gods were made the constructors of the great stone figures on Easter Island. Herewith, in islands where stone idols abound, legends were connected as in Tokelau, where the first man sprang from stone, and manufactured a woman out of sand, inserting a rib or as in Tonga Levu, where a " dolmen " built by Tangaroa indicates the direction in which the gods travelled to Vavau and Hapai. In the Gilberts, sacrifices are offered on one stone in a stone circle, this Fishermen worship upright being wreathed with the innermost leaf of a palm. "Rain-stones" are stones, and idols may be made only of a particular sort of rock. Some saw put in the fire when it rains too much, but wetted in time of drought. Stone idols, in stones the petrified remains of fish left behind by the great flood. wrapped with cloth, are venerated in Micronesia, many of them being brought from a distance. In a stone of this kind dwells Tuitokelau, who is revered as a Circumcision god. In Mota, little stones are a remedy for evil of every kind. may, in Xew Guinea, be performed only with freshly-manufactured stone knives though a bamboo splinter is allowed in cases of necessity. In the Pelews,
hardly any sacred place


holy stone.






Kubary found an idol of black volcanic rock. Small ancestor-images of stone were placed by the fishermen on their nets for luck. In Fiji, cliffs are the birthplace of the good Ndengeh in Pelew, the last remains of submerged spirit;

whence the giant forefathers of the present population, the Kalits, came into the land. Magic treasures often lie under them or, as below a reef in Korror, the kossol-root, which, laid on the prow of a canoe, of itself guides the voyage to its end.



also paid to the sea

In is highly esteemed. blows with a consecrated axe on the tree from which a canoe

tion or shipbuilding


everything connected with


as naviga-


the priest



to be built,


3 oS


may not be felled or worked except it death of the spiritual chief of the tribe.

the three months elapsing after the

The people


Ponape hold

a peculiar

which all boats built in the previous year are dedicated to the gods. The paddle that marks a grave represents the noblest activity of the man, as the and not corpses only, but persons dangerously ill or spindle that of the woman In Mortlock the highest honour is paid decrepit from age, are exposed in boats. to the god of the sea, by the conveyance to him of those who have fallen in battle, while those who have died naturally are buried in the ground. Under the breath of the universal tendency to animism which penetrated through mankind and Nature, gods and idols sprang up in crowds, and bore the Oceanian mind into a labyrinth of supra-terrestrial and sub-terrestrial conceptions. A racial feature appears in this luxuriant formative impulse. It is not by chance that Polynesia and Madagascar have a great extent of theogony in common, in the form of an extremely polytheistic mythology in one region, of exuberant

fetishism in the other.




but a small fraction of these


soared to

the heights of divine honours, while the great mass remained attached to the

yet the total was large.


made by

the missionaries in Raiatea contains
certain ones rose out of the

nearly a hundred

names of gods.
tribe lived.



depended on how the

In a more distinct order,


the world of


see a reflection of the stability of tradition.


are found in the east


the Polynesians,


in general more gods and ghosts among the


and Micronesians
sent forth

the west.





Polynesia, they were in the thick of a brisk process of god-manufacture


found a more secure footing, partly in the more firmly crystallised cosmogonic legends, partly in a system of hierarchies and relationships, which naively spiritualised conditions prevailing on Where the tendency to discuss genealogical traditions on fine evenings earth. in places of public resort prevailed, as in New Zealand, time brought about organised methods of recording (see woodcut on p. 303). In such cases theology gains a firmer consistency than in districts where life is lax, and traditions and the priesthood have no organs. The highest gods were bound together by a common origin from Chaos or Po, anterior to all existence these were called the offspring of Night. Then demigods and heroes, as well as even men of high birth, made their way into the circle, with the result of obscuring Polynesian mythology. These late-promoted were often just the most considered in the realm of gods, even though they might be locally limited. On the other hand, to one only belongs, in the highest measure, a profounder connection with cosmogony this is Tangaroa, who is revered even in remoter islands, as Taaroa and Kanaloa. A Raiatean legend gives a grand picture of his all-pervading power how at first, concealed in an egg-shaped shell, he hovered around in the dark space of air, until weary of the monotonous movement, he stretched forth his hands and rose upright, and all became light around him. He looked down to the sand on the sea-shore, and said " Come up hither." The sand replied " I cannot fly to thee in the sky." Then he said to the rocks " Come up hither to me." They answered " We are rooted in the ground, and cannot leap on high to thee." So the god came down to them, flung off his shell, and added it to the mass of the earth, which became greater thereby. From the sherds of the shell were made the islands. Then he formed men out
their excited fancy,
; ;
: : :

new blooms,



of his back, and


turned himself into a boat.

As he rowed


the storm, space



with his blood, which gave

colour to the sea, and, spreading from the

At last his skeleton, as it became an abode for all gods, and at the same time the model for the temple and Tangaroa became the sky. In other traditions he appears as the Polynesian Neptune and he was also worshipped as the guardian of those who went to sea in dug-out canoes. Lastly, as the giver of the model for the temple, he was the patron of artists. It is indeed obvious enough for a maritime people to make the god of the sea the father and the first of the gods. While it is under his supreme sway that
sea to the


the morning and evening glows.

lay on the ground with the backbone uppermost,


creation develops from plants through reptiles to men, these last were finished

by the god Naio, and brought nearer

to the gods themselves.

This Naio,


arranges the revolution of the sun and the fixity of the earth, leads ultimately






this addition of subsidiary or assistant gods,

Tangaroa's position as time went on got obliterated. He was called the Uncreated, the Survivor from the age of Night, and hymned as follows

Taaroa like the seed-ground, Taaroa, rocks' foundation, Taaroa, like the sea-sand,

Taaroa, widest spreading, Taaroa, light forth-breaking,

Taaroa all around us, Taaroa down beneath



rules within us,

Taaroa, lord of wisdom.

was publicly worshipped were but few. With his wife, by he had a son and a daughter, who in their turn had two sons, he is the first to emerge from Chaos and embracing the rocky soil he begat land and sea. But when the forerunners of the day the dark -blue and light-blue sky came to him, begging a soul for the earth, he bade his son Raitubu to carry out his will. He, by merely looking at heaven and earth, produced all that is in earth, sky, and sea. In Tangaroa's gigantic creative force, which allows good and evil to proceed from it indiscriminately, the root of his transformation to an evil principle may already be seen. In Tonga he eclipses the sun, and meets us in Hawaii as the evil spirit among the four chief deities. In Fiji, tagaloa means the odour of a
places where he





In connection with Tangaroa another divine figure represents the man-forming
side of his creation


traditions record Tii as the father of the



with his wife as the mother of mankind.
their children

Sprung from

the alliance of a descendant

of Tangaroa's with the sand of the shore, he himself formed his


one of were the patriarchs of the human race. In Opoa, two Tiis the land, one of the sea are said to have taken human bodies, and to have peopled the islands, hitherto inhabited by gods only. But some held that Tii and Tangaroa were one and the same being, like the sun by day and by night. Some again asserted of each alike that he was the first man who, living on after his death, was called by the name whence also the spirits of the departed had received this appellation. This legend looks like an extension of the notion, which is spread all over Polynesia, of Tangaroa the creator he and his wife were made to have inhabited and peopled all the islands in succession. Tii is in more ways a benefactor of the human race, by raising the heaven above the earth, by Thereby he mutilating the earthquake god, by bringing fire, and creating man. is closely linked with Maui and consistently with this we meet him in the Society Isles as god of light, sprung from the sun and moon.






mythology develop from cosmogony, and here too




The impulse towards existence mainly to a dim impulse towards knowledge. an arrangement of the conceptions of the next world has contributed something
Thus the eternal mirror of Lords of heaven and hell were needed. casts upon the deep shining sky, and upon the anthropomorphic impulse wide horizon of its island home, magnified and distorted human figures as bearers of the creative and destructive And they who there act and suffer forces of nature. gigantically are genuine Polynesians all the while. Efforts after dominion and power, jealous claims to honour and possession, inexorable vengeance for neglect, are common to all not one is adorned with moral pre-eminence, surpassing wisdom, or spontaneous goodness crimes of every sort find example and encouragement in the spiritworld. Thus even the highest beings are drawn down to earth by the polytheism which makes them in the likeness Only in the beginnings of creation is the impulse of men. to express in an image some inkling of the origin and interdependence of beings preserved. Creation begins in profound metaphysical depths. Here mythology goes near to bring forth science. Poetry and legend struggle to explain the riddle of the world, but in vain. Yet it is a brilliant testimony to the intellectual ability of the Polynesians. If their development in other domains had kept pace with it, they would have been a race of high distinction but at bottom the limitations of a life confined to the islands The very recur everywhere within their wide sea-horizon. beginning of cosmogony followed the course of natural the central point of the world came into development existence by land being cast up from the primeval bottom, and later -discovered islands were fished up by heroes. Moreover, the whole is permeated by the view that the r^_primitive forces of Nature, from which, personified as gods, the world of phenomena has come forth, are always striving, in pursuance of a process of development which is originally included in them, to swallow it up again. Although the existence of the gods had a beginning, so they hold in Tonga. Earth, heaven, Idol from New Zealand it knows no end — one - half real size. all things, are of themselves divine and therefore Po, (Christy Collection. Po was in labour the Night, is placed at the beginning. for ten nights, and on the tenth appeared Kaka, father of Rangi and Papa, from whom sprang Tane, with his eight brothers. The nights had special names, to Similarly, among the Maoris, which the priests gave a profound interpretation.








commences with the night. After untold periods desire awakes, then Thought follows upon the first pulse of life, or the first breath drawn Then springs up the wish, and upon thought, mental activity.
longing, then feeling.

directed to the sacred mystery or great riddle of

procreative power of love


life. Later, from the material developed the clinging to existence, permeated by a

joyous sense of pleasure.
Lastly, Aiea, the universe, floats in space, divided


the difference of sex into Rangi and Papa,

Heaven and Earth


by and individual

now begin. Bastian asks in reference to this towering structure of " Did some disguised Anaximander or Pythagoras wander this way ? " thought In every phrase, as we may say, are found resemblances with Asiatic or American There is no need to refer to the Egyptian Ru and Buto, sun and cosmogonies. every cosmogonic idea of the Oceanians has relatives east and west of the night


Ocean. Papa, the Earth, and Rangi, the sky, lay in close contact with each other. From the attempts of poetry to explain their separation, and the consequent vaulting of heaven, sprang the whole legend of the gods, taking one form in Tahiti, another in Tonga, yet another in Samoa. A more localised variation
brings us from

Ru-Rongo, the god of heaven,

to Tangaroa.

Papa, the earth, represents the sky, or the

light, in

contrast to her.

Kaka, brother to In Hawaii

he appears as Wakea, and Papa's husband, who, in conjunction with her gives Diving into birth to many generations of gods, notably the series of the Mams. and after he had the depths of the sea, he united himself with the sea-goddess

returned to land, the Jlloa-birds begotten of this union lighted on his shoulders.

Metaphysical interpretations of what preceded the creation of earth are only among Polynesians of a large community, where a regular priestly

order rendered a strict tradition possible

as in




the lore was handed on only

Hawaii, the Society Islands, or by the mixed society of the

secret leagues, the history of creation

remains wholly in the region of fable or doubt the outlines show faintly through, and some names recur but in details the conception has changed. It is with an interest born of old acquaintance that we find carpenters and artists in Mortlock worshipping the zenith under the name Lageilang as their most special patron-god by his nature he must be Rangi. Still more familiar, as we go east, is the notion of the sky as found in the Gilberts, according to which it was a spherical shell lying close His sister, in the to the earth, which a hero helped the gods to push higher. form of a cuttle-fish, supported him. Brother and sister appear otherwise, in the as in the process of creation, as representing the male and female principles Mariannes, the Carolines, Pelews, and elsewhere. The character of the Melanesian variations on Polynesian legends of the gods What is that of a jocose, almost anecdotic lowering of them to humbler spheres. but grandeur, is myth in Polynesia here becomes fairy-tale, losing thereby in




gaining in










correspond to the Kalits of Micronesia, are no giants, but helpful gnomes and their chief, Marawa, still shows treasures hidden in clefts of the rocks to poor people who confide in him. Sportive turns are in accordance with the cheerful nature of these curly-haired folk. In the New Hebrides they say of the creator,
that he

But this annoyed the first made men go on all fours, and pigs upright. and reptiles, and they called a meeting, at which the lizard was foremost in demanding a change, while the wagtail strongly opposed. The lizard forced his way through, crawled up a coco-palm, and jumped down on the back of a pig, making it drop on to its fore-legs. Since then pigs go on all fours, men upright. But the value of these traditions is quite misunderstood, if, as for obvious reasons the missionaries are apt to do, we see in these spirits, who at bottom are



cosmogonic figures, only the heroes of fairy tales. The Polynesian legend of the fishing up of the land from the depths of the sea takes the following form in Yap Mathikethik went out fishing with his two elder brothers. First, he hooked up crops of all sorts, and taro ; then the island of Fais. His hook is kept by the and since, if it were destroyed, Fais also would disappear, the inhabitants priests
: ;








'\ i"


''&;[$fmßt-: ^M

S^ -




carved in



real size.

(London Missionary

Society's Collection.

of that island are in constant subjection to the menaces of the




can a great piece of cosmogonic imagery sink to the level of trick and superstition. The connection of creative activity with sun and moon, still so clear in Polynesia, has become in Micronesia quite legendary. In Pelew they relate how

man and his wife, tired of staying in that island, went to the stone in Eymelijk whence they sprung, and called on the moon. It approached, and they climbed on to a serpent's neck, and so reached the moon, where they may now be seen. Other sun and moon notions take a similarly odd form. When the moon wanes,
sorcerers are eating



The sun

shines at night in another country.

Once upon a time



Pelew, seeing the sun setting, leaped hastily into

a canoe.


they got to the denges-txee, and the sun asked what visit him and he told them to let their canoe The islanders did so, and found themselves in a strange country, in a well-built house, where the sun entertained thern. The viands served in the dishes were tiny in size, but got no smaller with eating. At length the people prepared to depart but as their canoe had floated away, the

They went on

The people said, to they wanted. drift, and plunge down after him.



sun took a thick bamboo-cane, an article hitherto



Pelew, and shut

Ngarginkl the men arrived there safely, and became the four highest chiefs. But the bamboo floated away to Ngareko-basango, where there are thickets of bamboo to this day, but none on Peleliu. In remembrance of their deed, however, the people of Ngarginkl are allowed to fetch bamboos from thence. The birth of the creator from stone or from the earth is the starting-point of Fijian and New Hebridean cosmogony. Ndengeh's priests point out a rock, which rises from a river at the foot of the hill which he inhabits, and say it is his father. The interpretation is to be found in the connection between father Heaven and mother Earth. Thus among the Banks Islanders the supreme god, Qat, emerges from a stone, which was his mother and then with the help of his companion, Marawa, creates the rest of the world. Marawa is invoked with Oat in all emergencies, and may easily be recognised as the legendary Maui of New Zealand and Hawaii. Qat was doomed to be slain, but succeeded in climbing a nutmeg-tree. He had hardly reached the top when, by the arts of his hostile brothers, the tree grew higher and higher, and became of such circumference that Oat could not have got down again, had not Marawa, seeing his friend's difficulty, blown to earth a thread, or a hair from his head. Here we have the sun and the tree of heaven is the same as that by way of whose top, in another story, the whole group of Tongaros saved themselves from a hostile spirit. 1 Islands where volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are common must be just the places for myths to weave themselves in abundance about the force of the hidden fire. To this a life-generating effect was ascribed in the Marquesas and corresponding veneration was paid to Maui as creator of the world. After Nukahiva was raised up from the nether world by divine force, a woman gave





bade the bamboo






birth to the sea as well as to the

germs of beasts and plants



who were

enclosed in caverns, were ejected by a volcanic explosion.

men and The

fusion of fire below

and above the earth into a

god of earthquake,


the theogonic position mobile nature of fire, of heat, opens an immeasurable Hawaiian Prometheus, who fetches fire from the sun, is

not far


so lofty

the ever-varying and
to fancy.

god as well
that has


in Raiatea, the creator of the




Maui, the in Samoa the earthquakethe Marquesas, of everything


So, too, a reason for his lofty position


by the separation

which the Maoris make between Ru, their god of earthquakes, and volcanic fire, and the fire-god, Manika, who dwells in all living things. Here Maui is the fire-bringer and the animator. Around him is spun a network of legends of Promethean and Titanic character. The word maui means " broken," " beaten " when Maui fetched the fire, one of his arms was struck or twisted off by the earthquake-god, Tati. His brothers, This occurs in the most various versions. multiplied Mauis, appeared in a twofold form, as demigods and inhabitants of


[The Tongaros are Qat's brothers.



occasionally a spider.]



But the fire-bringing was Maui's performance, of which legend specially After he had obtained the fire by means of red-feathered birds, he completed his Promethean career by overcoming his father Kane, whom evil spirits had set at enmity with him, and Kane's brother, Kanaloa, in a riddleguessing contest, attacking them, and vanquishing a whole host of spirits besides. Kane and Kanaloa fled from the temple and went aloft but Maui, as he was about to follow, suddenly felt himself struck in the breast by a missile. Thereupon he lost all his supernatural power, and soon after died of sickness like a What, a sheaf of universally current thoughts and images have we mortal man. In the Society Islands Maui is brought otherwise into connection with here the sun. He is there made to be the priest, who, wishing to finish divine service, In Hawaii, when the sun had taken refuge caught the hurrying sun by its rays. brought it back, and cut off one of its legs to make it move slower in Tahiti, he mother's washing. Lastly, we even find him as a god akin to and dry his Proserpine, for whose return from the underworld prayers were offered every year at the harvest-festival in Nukahiva. Fire was everywhere brought to earth against the wish of the gods. In Ulea a god who has been pushed out of heaven obtains it by threats from an old woman, Mafuike, and brings it to Fakaafo, where till then the food had been eaten raw. Since then fire, as being sacred to the god of day, may only be lighted at night for fishing purposes or at confinements. In Tokelau and Pelew the legends commemorate the making of fire by rubbing two pieces of wood. To this series of great Polynesian gods belongs Tane or Kane, who stands in the closest relationship with Rongo, Rangi, or Ru, the heaven, or bearer of heaven. After earth and heaven were sundered, Tane adorned the heaven with stars, and set up the deformed among his children on earth as trees. He appears thus as assistant and finisher in the work of creation. Another legend represents him as the maker of the first man, or of the beings who preceded. A yet more essential function in the Maori legend is that in fulfilment of which he discharges the important duty of separating his parents, Rangi (heaven) and Papa (earth), and raising the former aloft. When after this he went up to heaven to seek a wife, he found that there was only one woman there, and his father Rangi advised him to go back to his mother. From her hip he formed his wife Hine, on whom he begat a daughter. Recognising her father in Tane, this daughter fled, ashamed, to his brother, and in her anger with Tane transformed herself into the Titaness Hineanitepo (night), while Tane remained on earth. While Tane was searching everywhere for his daughter, he found his brother Rehua, the all-quickening fire, in the tenth or highest heaven. This visit to the fire seems to connect Tane with the Promethean Titan Maui, especially as he also sought the water of life two features as a protection against Maru, and is reckoned the father of birds which he has in common also with Tangaroa. In Tahiti, Rehua was a real stargod, the star of the New Year, who produced the Twins as well as the Pleiads, and is considered lord of the year. The morning star, the guide of shipmen, is the son of Heaven, while the evening star was designated as the son of the Sun, falling stars as Atuas, and the Twins as sons of men, who in their fear of being

loved to treat.






their escape to heaven.

their tangled structure of mythologic notions, yet forming a world of themselves, arc the Polynesian conceptions of a hereafter a


bound up with


somewhat ennobled


on earth, and yet much nearer to the It is only the lord of the underworld who comes into the same line of reverence with them. He is Ikuleo, or Hikuleo, Maui's younger brother, lord of Bolotu, the nobles' heaven, and god and guide of Near his palace bubbles up the fountain of the water of life, which their souls. awakes the souls of departed princes to renewed youth, quickens the dead, heals the sick. Or he dwells in a cave on Bolotu, unable to go further from it than the Here he carouses with length of his own tail, which has grown into the ground. his wives and children, compelling the souls of chiefs and Matabulns to wait on A thirst after souls is one of his chief characteristics, but an emigration him. led by Tangaroa's sons carried off some of his subjects, and he endeavoured accordingly, by summoning the ghosts of chiefs, to attract them back from Tonga. He had a special fancy for the first-born of the noblest families and once such a mortality took place among these that Hikuleo had to be chained up in the earth by Maui, and in heaven by Tangaroa. He appears in Samoa, as Siuleo, of the fighting men, whom he leads to victory if he is disposed to the head at sacrifices their favourably. In Hawaii we know him as Milu and Wakea, accept From the legends told here of him and his two aspects of the same ideal. attendant shades we may form a sort of mosaic picture of the Polynesian Hades and Paradise. Milu's kingdom in the lower world will last for ever, and has existed from the beginning but persons apparently dead have brought back intelligence of it, as the Hawaiian legend related on p. 41. It is level and fertile, everything grows of itself there. In Milu's palace court are also fairly light facilities for enjoyment of every kind. The best-looking women who arrive are Another selected by Milu for himself, and are then tabooed to the other Akuas. ruler of the underworld is Wakea his kingdom was founded later than Milu's. Each kingdom is tabooed, and no one can go from one to the other. Before Wakea became a god, he was a sovereign on earth Milu was also a man, but not so good. Down below Wakea rules over the higher souls, Milu over the lower. Departed souls are borne away in the direction of the setting sun, to Kane's islands. There they either leap from a rock into the sea, or disappear through place in Oahu, near the West Cape, has been said to a hole in the ground. be the spot probably with a reminiscence of the similarly situated sacred spot in Pelew. But the souls do not come at once into the next world they wander some time on the frontier, and if they are only apparently dead can return to the upper world. For this reason the recently departed soul is an object of fear, In since its semi-corporeal apparition is enough to frighten one into madness. Milu's kingdom the souls amuse themselves with noisy games in Wakea's a solemn peace reigns. The place where the wicked are tormented, which is represented as the night of the everlasting death, and as a dark deep place at the back of the heaven where the stars are hung, may well have been imported from some foreign school of thought. In Hawaii, legends of a fire-goddess, Pele, belonging to the nether world, were called forth by the mighty scale of the volcanic phenomena, and grew into a cycle of myths in harmony with the Hades-legends. Superficial observers,
of the

present world than to that of the gods.










regarding her as the most powerful of

all the gods, ascribed to her not only the but also the Hawaiian deluge. When Pele started upon her journey Hawaii, which in those days was a monstrous desert waste, with the same



mountains as now, but with no fresh water, even no sea, her parents gave her While she was sailing to Hawaii, the flood rose till only the highest mountain-tops were visible but the sea shortly went down again
the sea to carry her boat.





present level.

Pele, with



brethren, the



steam, the lightning, the thunderer, the
eyes, the sky-splitter (a sister),


the boat-smasher with fiery
to the mountains.

and the


In the

roar of the lava-waves the


hears their voices.

Pele often changed her

driven out by the sea-god Moana, she now dwells in Kilauea, the only quarters volcano of the group that is at present active. Even after the conversion of the islanders to Christianity the crater of Kilauea long remained under strict taboo.

Even in the most recent times strangers have noticed their native guides, with bared heads, throwing into the lake of fire little offerings like glass beads, coral, shells, etc., with the salutation Aloha Pele ! while the hair-like threads of glass, " Pele's hair," which are found only in the crater of Kilauea, may serve as a

memento of the once mighty goddess. The fancy of the Melanesians did not
decoration of their Elysian fields

soar to such grand achievements in the



furnished the road thither with


The Fijian name Mbulu points to the Tongan Bolotu and various obstacles. and even the Hawaiian ball-game is reproduced in New Caledonia as a game The first thing on played with oranges by the souls at the bottom of the sea. the road to Hades is a city through all the houses of which the souls roam, for Then they have to pass in front which reason the doors all open the same way. Those who are of a giant, who tries to get them all with his great stone axe. wounded have to haunt the mountains as ghosts for ever those who escape the giant, after being acquitted by Ndengei, get permission to enjoy the odour of the human sacrifices. Souls of unmarried men come off worst. Nangga-Nangga lies in wait for them, and as soon as he has caught them, heaves them up in both hands and throws them down upon a rock, where they are broken in two. For this cause it was usual among the tribes in Fiji to strangle widows, because the If the wife god regards male ghosts, who come without women, as bachelors. is the first to die, the husband cuts off his beard, and lays it under the left armpit

of the corpse as proof of his existence.
the next world



who guards
In the

the entrance to

met with elsewhere



Hades of the Vate

Islanders Salatau tries to hit those



it is




in Fiji,

enter on the head with a club. No under the name of Samujal or Suma, and


The souls of lies in wait for souls to eat them with his brothers. These go to the upper people succumb, those of nobles get to Mbulu. part of a mountain, and find at the top of a precipice a father and a son with a paddle in their hands. If they question them, they are thrown over, and have to reach

the next world by swimming.


the paddle,


the souls have to


after all


The meaning
it is

of the ferryman of souls has been forgotten
souls' places


not so

where the

of embarkation


to the north-west,

believed that the rustle of the west wind can be heard


and where way from
river to

Galongalo, the place of the swimming.

After the death of their king the three


of the tribe

go with cloths


hands to the bank of the

escort the soul.

There they

aloud for the ferryman, and wait

they see

an extra large wave roll in upon the shore, the token of the invisible canoe. Then Immediately they turn away their faces, and cry " Go on board, lord."



they hasten thence with all speed, for no living eye may look on the embarkation. The corpse is buried in the usual way. Souls which are excluded from the next world, either perish or come back

wander restlessly about the earth, like those who were wounded in the fight The same fate awaits those who cannot hit the tree of mentioned above. Takivelajawa with the whale-tooth that is buried with them for the purpose, and according to Fijian legend, untattooed women also, and avaricious people. This dangerous way of souls is moreover divided into stations, at each of which the In the belief of the Solomon Islanders, the avaricious, mursoul dies once again. derers, and other sinners undergo a purification by being turned into ugly reptiles, snakes, toads, and the like. Similar traces of dim notions about future rewards and punishments are to be found everywhere. But it was certainly no original conception of the Fijians that souls have to come before Ndengei's



Usually souls go with the sun into the ocean, to reach the next world at his rising on the following day. This is why the promontories whence they venture their leap into the darkness, lie on the west of the islands. Where two souls were distinguished in every man and every object, as was

among the Fijians, namely the shadow and the reflection, it is the dark one only that goes to the lower world, while that which is compared to a reflection remains about the grave in this way the return of the dead in dreams is explained. Another conception sets a limit to the soul even in the next world, since it makes annihilation follow upon the highest stage of the life in Mbulu. But this annihilation is personified, and in another tradition assumes the character of the chief of the souls in Mbulu, who is thus probably conceived as a soul-eating Others, however, make the souls remain in their place until the earth has god. been destroyed by fire and renewed. The Melanesian doctrine of ghosts and gods is in its main features very like the Polynesian. It is not too much to say that the foundation of Melanesian mythology is woven of Polynesian threads only peculiar features are woven in, and often rest upon a weakening-down of threads and colours already in existence. Considering the great variety of gods in the oceanic regions, little importance can be assigned to the pre-eminence of any one. Name and dignity of the supreme god change from one island to another. It is only in the tales of the creation and of the nether world that more stability is to be observed. In Fiji the recognised chief of all gods and men is Dengeh, Tengei, or Ndengei. He is said to have at first moved about freely, but then in the form of a snake to have grown into the earth with his ringed tail. In that he resembles the Tongan lord
the case
; ;

of the place of spirits and Dianua the lord of spirits in New Caledonia. Since then he has become the god of earthquakes, storms, and the seasons. They say that whenever Ndengei shakes himself fertilising rain will fall, delicious fruits hang

on the trees, and the yam fields yield an excellent crop. But Ndengei is also a god of wrath who declares himself in terrible fashion. He punishes and chastens his people, now by destroying the crops, now by floods he could indeed easily wipe out mankind from the earth, for since he has lived in the bowels of the earth he has been tormented with so insatiable hunger that he would like to take in and swallow the whole w orld. The gods in Fiji fall into different classes
; T

according to the degree of their relationship to Ndengei.


in Polynesia,


son. Mautu ( = Maui) is beside him as assistant. from clay. reminding one their mechanical dexterity with eight arms. from whose union the remaining heavenly In the Banks Island. are mentioned as Ndengei's children. In Fakaafo. " — called the bread fruit " . Qat forms a being and earthly beings come into existence. The two ferrymen of souls also. unless he was immediately connected with the gods by a fall due to sin. He made the first human pair from the eggs of the snipe. Kitu . created mankind.3i8 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND speak of the divine family assistant in creation. Among in them crude are symbolisations of properties or endowments. Irakaderngel and Ejluajngadassakor. his son developed them further till they were capable of reproduction. by weaving supple twigs. is and daughter. having proceeded from stone. ) else they are simply the successors of the gods themselves. he producing the men. or Sacred place in Dorey. (After Raffray. wisdom with eight eyes. and suddenly becomes aware by its smile that he has Where Ndengei appears as the creator of men. foundation. his distant relations subordinate tribal gods. while the creator let his be seen freely. Mautu-Maui. the creation of man took place from inanimate stone. New Guinea. and Rokomutu. born from his elbow. I vi. while the men go . In Pelew the divine couple. Ndengei's and " the son of the supreme god. Since then all women wear a skirt of pandanus leaves. Men were made of stones or earth by the creator god and his attendants. she the women. The modest creatrix hesitated to show her work. and enclosed one of his own ribs in her body. the first man. and from them all other men sprang. and of them a woman always appears first and then a man. made the arms and legs of his consort. Waluwakatini with eighty stomachs." Ndengei has several sons besides who receive prayers on his account his grandfather. children are territorial gods. his son produced a woman. also. In Micronesia. for whom the legend of creation and the deluge offer the more obvious luxuriance of India .

and the enraged father himself struck off the head of the youngest. stamping in his anger. he broke the crystal covering of heaven. prayed that the flood might descend and annihilate his foes. and Tawahaki climbed up after her by a cobweb. Meru appears . giants in body and strength. and passes into the war god Meso. feeling lonely in their empty house. In New Zealand Maru sends the rain and earthquakes also. and worshipped with and in these. . The condescension of female dwellers in heaven to earth-born heroes recurs in another form in many Polynesian legends. and soon by the charm of their beauty kindled a bloody quarrel. This was hurled into the sea and became a tortoise an animal which. made ready to set off and satisfy their curiosity by a nearer look at the folks below on the earth. are remarkable in Samoa. for as the creating couple kept laying their creations pair by pair together on one side. The inhabitants of Ascension consider that the stone monuments of their islands were referred built by these. the hero. In conclusion. been torn to pieces by the infuriated rivals. . let us draw attention to one of the host of heroes. Huanaki and Fao swam from Tonga to Niue. In New Zealand the image of Tiki. he is nevertheless human in his origin. who again reminds us of the Tahitian Oro. We meet with earth-stampers also in Tonga. After the birth of a child But she fled back to heaven. His variations. . having been healed of his wounds by his wife Hirepiripiri. also. and in revenge he called forth a flood or. as the god of thunder and lightning. But the goddess of the wind overthrew the plantations if she was not duly honoured. it befell that many did not suit each other and disagreed. and the flood burst out. the lord of heaven. or Tane. and worshipped in the South Island as god of war to whom the slain are offered as sacrifices. another was prayed to at the irrigation of the fields. his brothers-in-law wounded him. although the character of a hero stamped upon him. The fearful uproar was heard in Bolotu. From among is the gods of the second rank the god of war most frequently takes his place beside the highest and the oldest. and rich in capacities which are lacking to the men of to-day. chiefs are forbidden to eat. clearly . since that. patriarch of the Maoris. The first created beings were moreover pure Kalits. There were propitious and mischievous gods in Tonga one was worshipped at the time of planting and the time of harvest. 319 The want of mental harmony prevailing between the two sexes is also back to this early time. Tu. . Although in later times he was worshipped in the place of Maui as the finisher of creation. and by a second stamp called forth the plants from which the first human pair sprang. terrifying the gods in their assembly-hall and But the Langi hastened with all speed to punish the disturbers of the peace. Just then the sons of the prince were gathered at a festive kava-dr'mk'mg when the goddesses drew near. as one tradition has it. In the other legend. in the wild hurly-burly. eldest daughter had already. The daughters of Langi. Next to him the gods of the field and the harvest had the chief practical importance. he is recognised in the red planet Mars. Since that time Tawahaki has been propitiated at funerals as the conductor who brings the souls of dead chiefs from earth to heaven.RELIGION IN OCEANIA naked. A mighty figure meets us in Tawahaki. was venerated at the time of harvest. whose acts were so illustrious that a daughter of heaven was willing to be his wife. stamped on the island to make it rise higher. Some of their attributes could be transferred to Tangaroa. the first man. or Moso.

looking For once upon a time into a clear brook. a war with Tangaroa arose. and were condemned to die as the penalty. for when Ndengei. But even in the serpent form the worship was not permanent. brought up to the surface. one day burnt his great store of pearl-shells. Ndengei. and became its priest. was astonished to see how ugly he was. of a reptile So too the demigods are evidence of a corrupter age. A Deluge-legend recurs in many places. Fiji is also the Melanesian Neptune and his relations to Tangaroa and Maui. had lain down to sleep in and as the the cavern of Raki-Raki. and then men began to die. We are reminded also of the required in compensation for the stolen provisions. " I remain an ugly this cause he assumed the form of a serpent. . and one of them. while he himself took refuge in the mountains. he was only visited by his old servant Uto worshippers grew more and more lukewarm. Then a serpent answered " I will be thy god. which became dissatisfied with the old gods. as in Tonga. where they became the patron gods of such as build canoes and for this reason ship carpenters hold an almost sacred position. Banks Islands threw her skin. The old woman called . To the fall of man corresponds a period of general decadence and degradation among the gods. The Ndengei of deity originates the flood. he generally came with empty hands. occasion he flooded the whole country. once godlike. In Yate they relate how the inhabitants. ." said he. In the Pelews the Deluse-lesrend is told as follows. On another in the usual . deserts Erromango for ever. the yam. of the nature of a throwing-back. Then he let the sea in from the north over all the low country and drowned the invader. When the sovereigns of the sea and producers of floods. and he went down to the sea cried and repeated his cry." The chief was ready to recognise the serpent. recurs in varying forms all over the world. but unconnected so far as appears Sometimes the supreme with other mythologic conceptions of the same kind. man. Fall. An old woman way. But as her jecting bush. through a hole. was dwelling on the seashore. death came into no. Formerly an old man merely stripped off his old but in the Solomon and skin and appeared again in a new and rejuvenated form . agree with this. the old skin had to be looked for. having created men. every one will fear and obey me. a cock with beautiful feathers. and put on again. The purer and higher worship of a lord fell to that fear took the place of heroic courage and wisdom." The preference shown for a beast-idol probably is due to a later growth. In Fiji they relate how Ndengei. but it caught and hung in a proWith her youth renewed the mother returned home. with the end of his serpent-body petrified into the foundations of the earth. because his twin sons had killed his favourite bird. and sought others. sometimes heroes open the way for it. when the god Nobu. . The sons of the first man had been turned into animals. : . in those days a great chief. He lastly banished the twins to the Reva district. became mortal. In Lifu. whether or Since then every one has died.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND The legend of the Fall. " If. by which men. in which the transformation of the chief god into bestial shape plays so important a part that one may see therein a justification of the apparently senseless worship of beasts. their lives being of the earth. into the water. the rat. In Fiji a chief betook himself one day to the mountains. a yam-root from the plantations of an old gentleman residing at the centre This was planted. the world with the islanders' best fruit. all men became mortal in the following manner. and " Who will be my god ? " No voice replied. children declined to recognise her. during the absence of Nugerain. I shall be despised but if I am a serpent.

entered the house of a god at its among the heavenly beings. and thus the priesthood that of the chiefs. in a chief's house. The old woman did as she was advised. for a great flood was coming. is endowed. She drifted lifeless against a rock. . as everywhere. with the exception of Milath. the body was tree. trees where the gods are wont at times to stay. and then the water flooded all the dry land only the raft with old Milath remained afloat. Once on a time the people there had killed one of the seven Kalits. and advised her accordingly This she was to keep in readiness attached by a to make herself a raft of bamboo. and thus even historical migrations of the The old slain . Thence arose the statement. in the country of Xgareksbukt in Ejrraj. dedication for the first time unattended. legends of migraindeed causes one when he turns round. who brought forth the four great lands. woman gave them food. the priests serve the great gods of the nation. the chiefs are themselves to the village A certain character of Dei gratia extends even headmen. and that she bore to the men who had taken part in the search those five children from whom the population of the Pelew Islands is descended. even at night. The Banks Islanders tell a somewhat similar tale. due to misunderstanding. whose movements the priests interpret as omens. first-fruits to Whoever would not bring the the chief of his village was overtaken by disasters. Pacific races connect themselves therewith. at an advanced age. for the chief Y . Ndengei Here. Then the friends in their wrath decided to destroy the whole land. The service of the gods is not exclusively the priests' affair . tions are mixed up with the floods. and at family feasts the eldest offers the ava-bow\ to the gods of But the child is dedicated at birth to the communal god whom serves. or Their posterity are regarded as similarly always hereditary in a family standing over hereditary priests. But presently the cable of liana proved too short." since they men with a special kind of soul. These are priests are in Tonga distinguished by the name " set apart. more sacred than matters connected with the gods temples. The searchers explained that they were the friends of the missing man. She invited them in in friendly fashion. and her hair got entangled in the boughs of a According to some. but they occupy a pre-eminent position in consideration of their holding intercourse with the highest attending to their sanctuaries and sacrifices. that private persons served their gods in person. fire at the time of the the household. has been transferred to Christian churches. long cable of lianas to an anchor in front of her house. and Milath was carried away by the flood and drowned. changed into a stone. and is Nothing . In Tahiti the custom by which the king. and asked what they wanted. animals. sacrifices. He appears in the form of an animal. feasts. idols. but also imparted the sad news that he had been by the people of her country. as the most sacred member of the community. chiefs through the priests. and whatever is used thereat. lived. being themselves chiefs or closely attached to the chiefs. which is still to be seen but others say that it was revivified by a Kalit woman who took her form. and shortly before the full moon put much victuals on board and sleep there. where she was found by her friends. and his friends in their course through Pelew came to Milath's house. Otherwise these floods are not always of the nature of judgments. To this family-god the father of the household prays before the . to the Even' man's immediate worship was paid evening meal the priest god of his family.RELIGION IN OCEANIA 321 Milath. In Samoa the fire may due not go out. Lastly. and the like.

are talismans. and in some respects above. . The Maori their enemy by putting a stone for a heart into his image. A man's go back to the very highest gods. had social The position of the priests was different in different groups. astrologers Hawaii. among the Maoris) and their long staff." was applied in New Zealand to any person conspicuous for achievements in any line. . nails. Love charm. while a verse is sung. the Polynesian Selene. . In Tonga. or tabooed. even if the chiefship had been transferred to another and boasted of being sprung from an older branch of the common family tree. In Mare a tuft of a priest's hair. the ariki or chiefs. the most important parts of which received consecration to the priesthood. were instructed in magic Great value was set upon knowledge in the priests. preserved. once priest. in leaves and laid in the way. All the toJiungas in a New Zealand tribe regarded the most learned as Tino Tohunga. None but the ariki knew the sacred songs. and so in on. Their name Tohunga. react on him is so as If a to cause illness or even death. finger and toe-nails in New Caledonia his finger-nails in Tonga bone figures in human form in Samoa tapa which has been worn by renowned ancestors. slowly burnt in a certain mixture. Hawaii is never allowed to go far away.. as for instance the Kahunas of Hawaii. literally " interpreter of tokens. formed among the Maoris the top of the social structure. . Boat-builders. Relics of dead persons afforded the most important means of magic. his eyebrows. Where there were no bards. and form a source of great influence. is The his helper. and venerated in the most various ways. schoolmaster. country the sons of Hina. even when they were only honoured servants. They retained the power of laying on taboo. or ariki. priestly privileges .THE HISTORY OF MANKIND shared the taxes with the Ait us. and he lived with by their mothers. Priest-kings. Outwardly they were distinguished by their tattooing (of wavy lines on the forehead. village to assist by their prayers In time of war high chiefs remain in the but on serious occasions the priest is taken into the battle to curse the enemy. which is prepared. If a any small portion of another man. . . the prince. hair. The place where he sat had to be avoided. whether canoe-building or spear-making he was a learned man. eruptions. ranking with. In other cases. . bones. (Christy Collection. and to touch his hand was a capital offence. as servants of Tangaroa. and his family god In Hawaii one member priest is at least of a chief's family possessed by the souls of Beside this inspiration a great deal of valuable traditional knowledge belong to him. . the priests were the guardians of historical tradition. the dead. he can by art-magic exercise power over him. etc. those who were permanently inspired were priests only. the eldest niece of the Tuitonga was a priest-princess. wrapped . from New Guinea — piece of a dead man's bone one-fifth real size. and in Oahu a chief was a'. as in the Marquesas. the highest of all. priest can succeed in getting possession of . fisher- . the person for whom Beside In the the magic priests kill is meant will be visited with boils. so the good and ill of their fellow-men For this reason the chief's pocket-handkerchief carrier in is in the priest's hands. But the most highlyvalued article is the skull. the priests there were sorcerers in latter New Zealand. They did not go to war. but left that duty to a selected chief of their kindred.

Many obtain great influence through intercourse with sacred animals. or from their own oracular implements. made the symbols of thunder and lightning with his stone axe. also. - i-iii 1 • strings tied together Before the forecast is propitious if the sticks fall up hill. weather-maker. according to the number of the friendly and hostile tribes. and priests as distinct from sorcerers. has ancestors in whom others believe.:""'. have a priest-chief.) fied to be priest. In quite small tribes. the consecrated tauiras had to fast. or the privileges of the priests. If he m ™agic — one-half real size. In New . They possess houses in a number of districts. who prophesied amid convulsions. the priest took his place. Nukuor. each inhabited by a woman who is permanently dedicated to them.'. and maker of wooden bowls. is doctor. Invisible Kalits pass for oracles by a fraud. from the barking of dogs.'. and throwing at them with a bunch of who r::::'. the person undertakes the management of worship. soul's is a mirror of the future. . whereby the priests keep the power of interlived in celibacy. and The consecration of the priest took place with great ceremonies. In order to maintain . Disputes about the sanctity. and sorcerer. In Hawaii. he is doubly quah(Berlin Museum. the priest in had to offer sacrifices no small number. have very often occasioned splits in the tribe and migrations. The priests draw omens from the sky. He must ••have the faculty of going into an ecstatic state. the taboo-system contributes here also to the creation of limits. Yap. in order to Among the Maoris. but the chief priest of the tribe marry fering in every relation of eldest life.. by way of calling upon the god of the sky for aid. the atuas or o-odprophets were at the head of the tabooed ranks next to them came hereditär}. while in larger communities he has beside him a priest. so that it may be propagated more easily The from one generation to another. death received sacrifices as atuas . etc. who uttered the curses. Before a war. and other Micronesian islands. the tokunas who offered sacrifices in accordance the oulious or juoas. for holding objects of use priest turns for inspiration first to his ancestors. spirit Nightly visions are interpreted as the for this reason dreams serve to prescribe tribal decrees. In Hawaii. at the back of which are the priests. and lived apart from the rest with the priests. and after their like . the crowing of cocks. precedence of the prince. Besides this. when prophesying. any undertaking. Lastly. Migrations of idols carried by the priests form an interesting part of the Polynesian migration legend. and in his conjuration the Article employed in Meianesian rites. or rise higher. assistants of the sacrificing priest with tradition the toas or . and is divided into verses. Every chant has its rhythm. Other songs have an expiatory effect. Among the Marquesans. mata. . or vision.RELIGION IN OCEANIA 323 man. the Maori priest prophesies by putting up carved sticks on a sand-heap. round the temple.chiefs then the tuas. journeys into the land . Tradition is preserved in the family. leaders in war and lastly the natikahas. . the priest. the tohungas had to keep up the succession. the Maori used to deliver magic sentences.

and utter a curse over it. :I . or New a class of priests specially occu- medical practice. Dances and songs are indispensable parts of dresses %i*{ •. about the patient's illness to this end the priest. in honour of fortunate head hunters. On these occasions it is usual to pa int the legs and all the upper part of the body New Ireland — one-eighth real size. Semper heard of loose dances practised by the women of Pelew. must not be disturbed by noisy movement or shouting. Com- mune and Where larger tribe were no prouder of their god than is of his tried and tested priest.3^4 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND Zealand. and the water must not tremble in the vessel while the priest looks on him. adinquiries to the deity. but a good part ot the veneration ol the gods (Berlin Museum. cannot be cured by the priest are described as coming from forefathers. the priest's duty consists in discovering the criminal by secret means. The Human figure of shells ami hermitcrabs. doctor as well Zealand. Most ordeals also are in the hands of the priest Hawaii. it was said on moonlight nights. . Dances are held to the accompaniment of songs recited by girls. . . the other on priests The secret science of the was im. One of their chief to get some information from the deity . sitting near the sick man after conjurations. or the operation consists only of harmonious movements of the arms and legs. the candidates stood under a covering of in boughs with one foot land. . there must be neither talking nor noise. and even be fatal to the priest.) consists in silence. . and receives his Sicknesses which answer in a shrieking voice. the water. in honour of a female deity. Gods who possess no temple. but he was kept in the dark on the subject. the priest . In this either they use dancing staves. especially at the feast of the breadfruit gathering. . • : ' divine service. used as a tempie-pmament in . things are on a small scale. In the administration of justice.**'' . In this way they endeavour to find those who have caused perplexing cases of death by magic arts. . as is Hawaii. the suspected person must hold his in hands over water. Tonga. there pied with duties is but where in men are assembled in numbers. . where there was a kind of school of the priests. parted to their disciples by the head of the records this law demanded extraordinary in attention. A spoil single wrong word conjurations might everything. When Rongala descends upon the island of Fais. They look for him in the water if they cannot catch sight of him they make fire by rubbing. r r red.

In those times. and even sacred trees. The level top was often paved. In Micronesia. the whole world is animate. while the priest. the sacred places are graves. called Marae. and with a summit crowned by an upright stone. on mountain tops. Places are sacred only by reason of the spirits that are dwelling in them where the conditions were simple. Fetishes of this kind Ualan. was the locality for sacred transactions The soul-worship. Large octagonal stone buildings with steps were rare. or in cellar-like excavations filled with bones in .RELIGION IN OCEANIA inhabitants draw near to the forest only places are of 325 in festal garments and softly. no new burial place was made. but these Since. the Kalits dwell in octagonal wooden huts. Sacred one must not always expect buildings. . were. . . but regarded them rather as only temporarily embodied in arbitrarily selected things. Semper even saw Kalits dwelling in simple huts. and also images of the gods. More usually rectangular mounds of earth were erected. On it stood altars resembling high platforms. person. — . and Amalau. one inside adoration. There were single houses for the priests. and were devoted only to the most illustrious while in more recent times they seemed to have ceased. The nearest approach to temples are the common meeting-houses. through whom the spirit speaks to men. It is just the same in Fiji. which was surrounded on the other three sides with a wall or a hedge. frequently coinciding with burial places. their floors carefully laid with small pebbles . and solitary places in forests on the shore. A far-reaching influence was produced on the life of these races by the fact that they made no special images of their gods. which spirits like to visit. but here the old fashion is giving way to modern times. consist of stone buildings like dolmens formerly used for graves they are octagonal near Metalanim in Ponape. enclosures and buildings of On wood and stone. some of which were also usually fastened to the surrounding walls. uttered in a low tone with a whispering Prayers movement of the lips were. as with us. but the interment took place in the sanctuary of an ancestor. the images of the chief gods were not in the temples. and out. gave rise to places of adoration. and one or more many kinds . spots where the skull and other remains of ancestors are preserved. ascended by a stair. In the Pelew Islands. here. made like three boxes. serve as places of Mausolea of this kind in the interior of Rotuma. one of the longer sides. where in course of time the cult of other spirits could also find a footing. however. inside of which a small partition of boards is set up. . In the Solomon Islands these are called sacred houses the name " devil's house " is naturally the offspring of European fancy but they are never used exclusively for religious purposes. the sanctity attaching to a place mounted up. pretty shrines stood upon it. Places devoted exclusively to the adoration of the gods as a rule existed more in the eastern group of islands. another. there are similar buildings Other sacred stone erections take the form of a small step pyramid. again. these covered the grave. only on solemn occasions they were brought from the priests' house into the temple by sacred bearers who were not allowed to carry on any other occupation. the priest's house. not absolutely necessary for intercourse with the gods. and all Nature may be regarded as a temple. in which the fire might never go every grave is holy of itself. two or three high steps led to the level top. 10 to 14 feet in height. customary in all these places there was a right of asylum. in caves. Among the Melanesians. too. surrounded at the bottom with a low wall. . at the death of any eminent also were originally only places of burial. lives outside.

Along the roads in Hawaii stones wrapped in grass are pointed out as local gods. Also the capability of affording protection passed in both cases from the place to the priest who served it. and the priest could The choice of objects was quite arbitrary. which they then crossed against the pursuers. or a twig of banana tied up with coco-nut fibre. and only if this could not be obtained that of CalopJiyllum. to which legends have become attached even in comparatively recent times. or Stones were employed very frequently. Ficus. This development converts the domestic ancestral figure into a public institution. standing with its arms supported on an ornamental trellis (as in the cut on p. We must not see an " idol " in every carved image for figure-carving is an art. Idols were set up in spots where immediate help was expected from them. These figures of souls conventionalised can The idols from Dorey in New Guinea. and similarly in Tonga a chief's burial place was holy ground. and herein temple and grave coincide. but only the sacred wood of the tree Casuarina the worship of idols and speech addressed to invisible beings. sand and of the rock are the nearest approach to our idea of an idol. and giant stone figures Cordia. Where sacrifice the souls of ancestors held the front place as objects of veneration. If a Papua has died. supposed to represent an ancestral married couple. to and prayer were devoted them . and frequently with the blocks of stone similarly sexual parts indicated in an exaggerated degree worked. the sacred alae bird) lay no doubt originally at the root of the representation. To this class belong also the gods' footprints in stone. and on mountain-paths sacrifices were offered before upright stones to avert a fall. . holding a closer relation to mythologic and historical conceptions than does that of shapeIn the west we are obviously much nearer to the origin of less lumps of wood. asylum might be sought near the grave of the kings. even imposing statues. directed and in Hawaii customary language drew a contrast between The idols were only when the god had taken up his abode in them. . In the far-famed Hawaii feather idols. carried on con amove and with great ability. sets it up in the house. . In Tonga the patron god of a tribe was symbolised by a folded mat with red feathers in New Zealand red feathers were strewn about to ensure fertility. his son makes an idol of him. and calls upon it in difficulties when the sculptor himself dies. by a simple process. The temple precinct was a recognised asylum wherever social relations were at all advanced. as on Easter Island. But as a matter of fact. his son carves a figure. In the Duke of York Island (New Lauenburg) have been found double idols. roughly worked wood-blocks with a human countenance recognisable at a pinch. In the Solomon Islands crude carvings of this kind support the roof of the assembly hall. spirits of the — . obtain this by prayer and sacrifice. The priests allowed fugitives to pass under their staves. In the stone figures we may possibly assume the survivals of a former cult. these figures. In Ranai an asylum was formed diagonally across the island.326 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND up to heaven. these are often less revered than some perfectly arbitrary figure a bit of wood bound round with string. it might be matting or wood. Near Taupa in New Zealand a chief left his footstep on a rock and the prints of a chief who had been slain by Kamehameha were pointed out to Birgham. inches high. In Hawaii. 301). and throws away the now useless grandfather. represent unquestionably a sexless being. elsewhere spirits were the objects of . 6 to 8 easily pass into regular idols. the idea of the mythological bird (for instance. reverenced cquisctifolia. . .

nor can be propitiated by sacrifices. In funeral customs the main underlying thought reason is the sacredness of the corpse the by neighbourhood of the soul. with regard to Fijian prayers. or aunt was strangled when a child died. in New Zealand the priests sing over the body to assist the passage of the soul upwards at least to the eighth heaven and on the assumption that the soul must be invited. or seen by moonlight as white phantoms. custom of sending wives and servants to Museum. In this way a mother. and if a grasshopper or an ant came to the call. that petitions to the prejudice of an enemy as a rule balanced those for the suppliant's own profit. by prayer or magic to leave the corpse. pleasing to They even were held the god. and were even imparted for payment to the ignorant. But this only holds good for the relatives strangers have no All scruple about injuring a dead body. reason. are most easily carried out For this in the neighbourhood of the body. if not compelled. of which the meaning had often been long forgotten. they stroke this with a whisk. well composed and often very long. accompany the dead into eternity.RELIGION IN OCEANIA T-7 these. These wandering souls may be heard in the rustle of the leaves and the surge of the waves. in case it stood in need thereof. of living people are often hindered by putting on a mask. from (Berlin Torres Straits — one-sixth real size. but which had always passed by inheritance. The deeper meaning of the widespread Child-mummy on the bier used for burial. . Fison notices. that the infant soul might not be ^ . it was deemed that the end had been attained. lay in the wish to give the departed soul an escort. even after its departure. But prayers of themselves reckoned as oblations traditional forms. were distinguished from short invocations. which would cut off the soul's return. roam about the houses at night as ghosts. Visits paid by souls of . Souls which neither remain united with the deity. the — productions of the moment. and replaced the sacrifice. or to send at least one soul as protection. Old age often obtained reverence from a wish to be on good terms with the soul which was soon to depart. dealings with the soul. and shake it. Souls of persons who had died at a distance were enticed by spreading a white cloth. Intercessory hymns. grandmother. which has been taken up to the gods.

In New . the sacred offices. take place on the road to Hades. often in a chest or little boat. When this is over. The men remained for twenty days in lightly constructed huts near the house of mourning. baskets of coco-palm leaves. Provision also had to be made It for seen. All these proceedings are is man accompanied by In carousals. beside him. after which laid drums for three days. clad in torn mats and wearing chaplets of the leaves of the z)?-tree. At the actual interment the relations. There is an immediate relation between the dignity of the soul of a dead The lower classes seem often to have person and the treatment of his body. In other islands soft it is hung up in mats between the branches of it trees until the symmetrically with other Children's bodies are merely hung up in skeletons in a cave on the seashore. and at least portions of it. the dead body laid in a mat. and the skull set up among the family. On the Maclay coast of New Guinea the corpse has usually to be dried before the fire in the hut. Food was put . is . made valuable possession with it. so that no trace of the grave is left. both occupied in w ent again to the shore.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND the fights which. In Mangaia the In some districts it is said to have been usual to burn them. in . wrapped a cave or in the ground in a house. and poured white sand therein. and its most Then all. are prepared for permanent conservation. fetched black and white pebbles in newly-made baskets. opened. in a sitting posture. Tonga the corpses of eminent persons were washed. and watched by women. and buried it there in its clothes. went to the shore. the grave is dug in front of the house. especially the skull. as we have only after several days. which times. and a the grave is little hut built over the grave. with the knees drawn up. custom obtained of wrapping the dead in white stuff and throwing them into one in a in cloth. notables were buried in the marais. carried the body into its house. care perhaps unwilling to take. the twentieth day. all r On richly-clothed messengers. women within. it is of the possibility of a periodic return. the corpse taken out and smeared on the elbows and knees with red ochre. the road into the next world. crouching posture. and the little sepulchral house is gradually pulled to pieces. the were buried. Burial within the hut is customary in Fiji. and the head pressed down between the legs. and the hands passed under Funeral feasts were held. that the mourning begins its object being even to this day to start the spirit upon unprotected. basket under the roof. at hand . the invitations to which were carried by the knees. In Hawaii a common man buried his dead taken little trouble about their dead. After a time flesh. when it may be assumed that the soul of the corpse has been turned into a spirit. In Tahiti the entrails were removed and the cavity filled with cloths dipped The body was then kept till it fell to pieces. loudly singing. In view is taken to renew the noise at stated In the west the body is kept Great variety prevails in modes of interment. while the widow smears herself with the decaying the dead Then put by again. In the Marquesas. with which they filled the upper part of the grave. and paved the sepulchral house therewith. and as long as possible above all the lower jaw. sometimes Zealand the slaves were thinly covered with earth or in many cases thrown to the dogs or cast into the sea. ornamented and oiled. when the bones in essential oils. Among the Motus of Port Moresby the only sign of mourning is the incessant beating of is parts have decayed away.

since the Papuas did not hesitate. certain small outer islands were variations found. B. Great differences also occur within the pelagos. and was not unknown in New Zealand. it the head drops off the body the skull is then cleaned. sea to Solomon group the corpse is thrown into the in Anaiteum it is only the land in the west Before they are thrown into the sea In female corpses are clothed with their girdles. In Falefa chiefs were preserved in upon a double canoe. where burial customs most resembled those of Tahiti. and a trench is dug underneath to receive the flesh which is sliced off by the . the family heiau as objects of divine honours. other islands the bodies are wrapped mats and taken into the mangrove thickets. as is also done with the skull of a beloved This cult of skulls is also found elsewhere in Micronesia. husband carries child. Meyer was enabled to acquire many human skulls by barter. Isolated cases of the disposal of the body by launching it out to sea in a canoe were obviously a variation of the custom of placing a conveyance at a hut or in a cave laid and put away the disposal Islands a of the soul for its widow until sleeps under the journey into the other world. tied in a bundle. and males have the face painted. painted red. the dead are laid upon a high stage. . In the Gilbert same mat with the corpse of her deceased . chests among " the boughs of a tree. where they are exposed to the air until the head can be easily separated from the m trunk. In Yap the the neighbourhood of the sea. the remains of the dead being allowed to stand in chests otherwise they were interred. and she about with her constantly. much narrower . In Mulgrave the dead were laid out upon stones covered with coco-palm leaves and afterwards buried in the family vault. and yet these Papuas in West New Guinea always avoided handling the but on mountain-tops. and exposed to view for a certain time in the temple or the dead-house. children and young people lying down. place." with carved faces. But in the higher classes the corpse was generally mummified. to plunder their relatives' graves yet they could not at first make up their minds to hand over the lower jaw. part distributed among friends. For the purposes of embalm- ment the entrails were removed. A kind of embalming also took place in Hawaii. dead are never buried in mountains never anywhere position with knees drawn combination of land and skulls. cleaned. the entrance to the nether world being different for persons of high degree and for the common herd. the inhabitants of the Adults were placed in a sitting A curious up. Thus reverence for human remains has its limits. limits of other archi- On some islands in the swim away to the beautiful body of the supreme chief that is interred. The head is then prepared and the rest buried in the common burying- In San Cristoval and other places. There people's own houses often served as graves.RELIGION IN OCEANIA 329 of two deep holes. Islands the and passes into " taboo which stood round like sentinels. Children's bodies were also hung up in . according to their rank in society. laid —wooden — the posts. In the Gambier mummies were in out wrapped in mats and cloth tied up with mountain caverns. and sunk in the sea. In Hawaii the flesh was carefully separated from the bones and burnt while of the bones themselves part were deposited in . Owing to this A. Indispensable articles were the kehui " word means Only strings in forbidden. sea burial is found in Kusaie where the bones after burial are dug up. Where interment is usual the skull is often separated from the body. after exhausting their own store of slain enemies' heads.

On these occasions they. is regarded there as a great kindness in comparison with the club. While in Tanna the corpse is laid in a boat-shaped coffin. If a chief in the Solomon Islands dies his wives are strangled in their sleep it would be a shame for them and an insult to the dead man's memory if they were to marry men of lower rank. The buried. and so in New Ireland. and at the death of the high priest it was usual to The Tahiti women used as soon as they were cut off a joint of the little finger. In the last-named island trees in the neighbourhood of the graves are cut in a peculiar fashion. Duke of York's Island. which afterwards when old people are consumed at the to be buried alive. from her branded their temples. when the king's mother died the chiefs descended and mutilations. In Vate. their arm. while the others went with their clothes torn and sprinkled made of the neighbours who came to lament had a sham fight with the with dust. stifle practice of burying alive infanticide. in New Caledonia Here ornaments are put with the paddle and spear arc set up on the graves. the chief mourner wore clothing invoked the soul of the departed. teeth in a wooden handle with which to wound themselves married to fix sharks' when mourning for their husbands. . but if not the whole skull at any rate the lower jaw is preserved as a relic.33° THE HISTORY OF MANKIND . is and accompanies the soul into In the Fiji Islands it is also customary to strangle. shroud. . it was extensively used as a and sick people sought of their own free will to be In the case of new-born children a fire was lighted over the grave to the soul. a pig feast is tied to . and a hut or pyramidal framework covered with leaves is erected over the trench graves of . and the in order the due performance of the common lamentathe departed to household of Funeral fights were also held in Mangaia. and Vate. but old means of is widely extended. mourners skull and finger-bones are taken away as heirlooms. and the cord the next world. body. The same end is frequently allotted to the wives or nearest relations of an ordinary man even in death he must be surrounded by those who In Anaiteum the women are said to wear the ominous cord round love him. with their friends. The outward indications of the grief of the mourners go as far as self-injuries In Tonga. where all the friends of the tion. In Tahiti also. their necks from their wedding day. children are strewn with flowers. deceased went about the island in strange clothing to attack the ghosts of other districts.


) . (From a photograph.South Australian Native Women.

that seldom have any water in them. numerous indeed but forming collectively only a reminds us of South Africa. ency of Asia. Those sides of the divisions of the earth which look out into vacancy were historically dead until a few centuries ago oceanic navigation brought to them trade and colonisation from afar. which can do no harm. The Barcoo. Even if Australia has more peninsulas than America and Africa. east towards the islands. the moderate elevations of West Australia rise near the coast. A great Similarly. population. without navigation. flowing along with a slight gradient and endless windings. and reaching its maximum height of 1600 to 2000 feet in a distance of 50 or 60 recognisable relation with other parts of the earth. Australia. has received a larger Pacific crowded with small surface of land. The characteristics of its desert shores are sand hills between the lakes and on their banks. forming the south-eastern border of the great mass of land belonging to the " old world. — what little intercourse it had in the . is capable of watering a full third of the But the South interior with its tributaries. Australia may be regarded as the most south-easterly portion of the old world. Its situa- open on three us to doubt that in so far as Australia has any it can only be with Asia and pre-European days. the inhabitants would. its coasts in compensation form the most desert portions of the land. forbids —vacant coasts. we shall have to direct our inquiries towards Asia. Australia. There is only one river system of considerable import- . Its position share than tion. the island world. especially With great probability as regards its human from an ethnographic point of view. stony flats resembling the sea-shore and soil impregnated with salt. heavy tropical rains overflow their banks widely. Rivers of similar fall flow down the slope. all point to this." looks south towards uninhabited regions. and This justifies the immigration of certain plants and animals. towards which it bears its waters. the only marked watershed from the North to the South Cape. be confined to their quarter of the earth. and often in the geographical miles. Along the east coast runs a chain of mountains. as a dependIf Ave consider the question of distances. but with even primitive navigation they could reach Asia and more immediately the eastern parts of Their civilization will therefore have an isolated character the Malay archipelago. part of the north and north-west is a plain sloping up gently from the sea. but where there are deep-lying connections with the outside world. us in claiming Australia as part of the old world.B. all the others of that culture-stunting gift sides. Australian lake region. with absolute certainty in respect to our modern culture. the most insular of all the quarters of the globe.— THE § AUSTRALIANS AUSTRALIA io. does not rise very far above the level of the sea.

and how owing promising collections of water dry up with extraordinary rapidity. In the west and interior. The most The change- The rapid change from . that of the Murray. is We shall see how and of the natives insecure. bound up with these to this dependence. able direction of the streams. western slope of the mountain range from In the north mmwm Eucalyptus Forest in South Australia. where there is more rain. and north-west.334 THE HISTORY OF MANKIND ance. is transitory watercourses their entire life. filled life by rain during a small part of the year. watercourses are numerous. the sources of which occupy the whole region on the New South Wales to Queensland. makes the habitability of wide districts. a matter of uncertainty. water-holes closely the springs. (From the account of the voyage of the " Novara"). They are merely creeks and watercourses on the maps. but none in reality. even in the larger river beds. if no permanent precautions are taken for damming up superfluous water in the wet season. we find no doubt plenty of but there is no stream.

. Even the lakes are subject to this. . which gradually passes into desert as barren rock appears.AUSTRALIA 335 wet to dry causes wide tracts to become barren and desert. the grass thins away into isolated tufts. without being able to find any way through it. or as the ground becomes impregnated with salt. Thus there remains in the north and south a considerable quantity of sufficiently fertile land. If Africa was limited to the region north of a line drawn from we should have in the northern hemisphere the counterpart of the climatic conditions of Australia. the most ruinous droughts. Australia is poor in forests trees when growing in masses have here the character less of forest than of grove. and to call Australia desert is going too far the effect of drought is confined mostly to the plateau formation. and perfectly sweet water is a rarity. the rainy time extends over the greater part of the year. As we go inland from the well-cultivated coast. like that of the Mediterranean prevails. is always more considerable than that of our heaths. the fields and pastures of the flourishing colonies of South Australia." says one of the missionaries from Hermansburg. Leichhardt. with sharply-defined dry and wet seasons. a climate Cape Yerd to Cape Guardafui. understanding it in the Australian sense for what at home we call bad water. and the maintenance of old lakes or creation of new ones has become one of the most prominent necessities in the cultivation of Australia. The ordinary height of these bushy steppes. even in the most favoured districts where lofty forests rise on the banks of permanent streams. nay months. "that is. with trees rising out of them here and there. while in the north we have the rainy season of summer coming in when the sun is overhead. cannot prevent the fundamentally dry quality of the trade-wind climate from prevailing over the West Australian The climate of landscapes. which cover many The forest square miles. The flora. " Good water. is the scrub the region covered with inpenetrable bushes where the surface is covered thick with a tangle of ericacece and proteacece. the inland scrub is its curse. On the south coast. by limiting the vegetation. we find in Tasmania rain at all seasons as in Central Europe. though considerably richer than in Europe." The abundance of salt. are only too often visited by Between 30 and 18 . in the neighbourhood of the Equator. and upon these the most extensive and most important branch of Australian industry is maintained. it is often unfavourably distributed. in its most inhospitable form. and New South Wales. of is predominantly dry the moist breezes which blow from other zones upon the north and south-east portions. But even where the total amount of water which reaches the earth is not absolutely small. South latitude lies a band of desert plateau corresponding with the Sahara. passes here for good. In the south-east and the north prairies of a considerable extent are found. Australia . Drymarks of the Australian flora. savannah has been extolled as the blessing of the country. wandered round the scrub for weeks. Stewart. As the country becomes dryer. overgrown with of the landscape in this region expresses dryness. Wide districts are impregnated with salt. The very appearance . speaking of the lower Barcoo. ness and stiffness are the distinguishing . Another steppe. Victoria. entire continent. The wooded grass country is a possession of Australia no less beautiful than useful. The Australian steppe. is more uniform and less expressive. While in New Guinea. produces in the interior landscapes which resemble barren coasts salt lakes with islands consisting of sand dunes are among the characteristic features . and takes the form of steppe. Sturt.

which are pounded. Festuca irritans. but has the advantage over Sahara in its desert suffers more limited extent. and several fruits. and the eucalyptus gum has not adduces ferns. yet these hardly accessible plains must be for a long time. and notoriously were for the aborigines at any time. or rocky plains. we find not merely an alterna- tion of rock plateaus plains. and intercourse. orchids. the steppe thins Where away and dries dunes. and eaten mixed with an indigenous bean. cabbage palm. and others four kinds of gum or resin. a great hindrance to movement and to the production of food. but above all whole nations. affords a friendly and homelike picture of fields of ripe corn as far as the eye can reach. we can call it rather a great steppe country than a waste. seven fungi. peoples of various race and speech. the shoots of the mangrove. The wealth from the . villages. become an We do not yet know all its articles it some of them are things of which we should never have believed make use. several fruits among them a sago palm. but in reality belongs to the most desolate and dangerous regions. herds. The North-west Australians know how to deprive the sago fruit and the orchid bulbs of their poison. If then in estimating the capacity of Australia for standing sharp and stiff. fermented. roads. dioscor'ecc. . is appearin ance the seldom so hopeless as deserts is great . and lastly the flowers of the Banksia with abundance of honey. culture. Of vegetable food-stuffs. uninhabitable regions and groups of oases. In the north the list is larger. . for the grass-like stalks are dry and contain no nourishment. of the old world it hardly to be . being materially enriched by others sago palm. anywhere Its denuded lesser of is vegetation. lofty and sandy mountains and deep depressions. the roots of nympfaza.1 of Australia in food products must not be judged fact that no single in- (a is ilia Dru m mondii of food. but possible to digenous plant has object of agriculture. trade. its up to a desert among sand salt. the grain-bearing marsiliacece. counterpart Kalahari found in the the Sahara is but there incomparably barer.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND the spinifex. It is true that the root of the so-called Australian yam is small. towns. for a typJia^ . The Australian from the most tedious monotony. Grey South Australia alone twenty-one different roots. .

not badly proportioned in themselves. on account of the swiftness of those animals. and that a greater agreement than we find anywhere else in an equally limited area. the thick lips. Muscular . and often hips are not too fine. depends not so much upon their flora as upon the So again. reached the agricultural stage. legs. are the broad grassy plains in the north and north-east. gourd. to a certain extent even in language. declare that the mammals single domestic or useful animal. in customs. the fauna which the plants which take .PHYSICAL AND MENTAL CHARACTER OF THE AUSTRALIANS much nourishment . have been extremely difficult for the Australians. the nutrition. 337 and we must also admit that Australia is remarkably poor in away something of their natural poverty from other steppe countries. § 11. the prognathous jaws. and birds' eggs are eagerly sought. The poverty of the continent in animals has played an important part in the exploration of Australia. especially kangaroos. It is said that they are men of medium stature. snaring must have been rendered difficult by the nocturnal habits of by far the larger proportion of mammals. In their cast of features may cheek-bones. the fiat nose. the light brown or reddish tint of the skin . was in all probability imported tame. conspicuous mark is formed by the insertion of the nose. what is called a hybrid physiognomy. Kangaroo and emu hunting must. Significant also is the rarity of fish and other eatable aquatic animals caused by the deficiency of water. but lean owing to bad be recognised an intermediate stage We are between Negroes and Malays. such as the various species of cucumber. prominent reminded of the Malay by the straight rather than woolly hair. so deeply depressed In that a line drawn from one eye to the other describes only a slight curve. the fauna of Australia has not produced a degree of their civilization. still abound. which is the only which would be first in demand are too wild Australian mammal accessible to taming. But with the poverty of vegetation. — — — — — — — — — — THE prominent characteristic of this continent is the agreement in degree of culture. and the But the fact that the Australians of themselves never various bulbous plants. . The only parts where the larger mammals. build they are slim rather than squat almost all over the continent it is only in well-nourished individuals that arms. of the Negro by the A prominent eyebrows. PHYSICAL AND MENTAL CHARACTER OF THE AUSTRALIANS Uniformity of bodily characteristics throughout Australia Mental distinctions Malay and Negroid forms Woolly and straight hair Big and little men Languages Character and mental peculiarities Courage Writing Language of signs Rock-drawings Effect of nomadism Instances of its extent. But physically too the Australians have seemed to many modern anthropologists to be so little separated that the descriptions which these have given would hold good from the Murray to the York peninsula. in manner of life. Those who know. and afterwards ran wild. The Europeans to eat oysters the West Australians eat four or five kinds of snakes. some poisonous. equipped as they were with inferior weapons and besides this. will live in a wild state is poorly represented here. since no expedition has been able to depend for subsistence upon hunting. Z . and three kinds of lizards. and melon. the dingo. The grub of a beetle which lives in the grass palm is also much fancied. South Australians first learnt from .

peculiarities are to be referred to the influence of the conditions as of their some have been indicated by the most unprejudiced observers marks of hybridism. one quite yellow and the other black all over. the depression of the root of the nose. are difficult Whenever the question of the unity of the Queensland girl. anatomists have noticed as characteristic anything but universal it is absent in more than half of Topinard's list of skulls. With differences such as these. postures flight of a so that the most curious and apparently laborious are often adopted when taken resting. Australian skulls would seem to require classification rather than unification. but what do these tell us ? The Australian head is one of the smallest.THE HISTORY OF MANKIND development is not as a rule strong. to bring into any consistency. while others. but in no way nul