Edgemont Debate

File Title – 1

nib neg – mba

export-import bank pic 1nc barstow dl
[CP TEXT: United States federal government should expand the mandate of the Export-Import bank to include domestic transportation infrastructure investment through loans and loan guarantees and relax all other restrictions and mandates on the Export-Import Bank. United States federal government should implement reforms to increase efficiency and transparency of the Export-Import bank. United States federal government should not establish a transportation-only national infrastructure bank to substantially increase its transportation infrastructure investment through loans and loan guarantees.] We‟ll clarify. CP is competitive – „national infrastructure bank‟ is a term of art which refers to the creation of an independent entity
Matt Compton, November 2011 (Deputy Director of Online Content for the Office of Digital Strategy, White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2011/11/03/five-facts-aboutnational-infrastructure-bank >:) Today, the Senate is set to take up one idea that the President touted -- the

creation of a national infrastructure bank. Here's how it would work: 1) Congress new bank would identify transportation, energy, and water infrastructure projects that lack funding, offer a clear benefit for taxpayers, and are worth at least $100 million or $25 million for rural projects.
would appropriate an initial $10 billion in startup money to capitalize the bank. 2) The

Creation of an NIB under the ExIm bank solves faster and avoids backlash – our evidence is comparative
Ed Crooks and Michelle Quadt, April 20th, 2012 (vice president and in principal @ Booz Allen, ―Rethinking http://gov.aol.com/2012/04/20/rethinking-infrastructure-funding/ >:)

Infrastructure Funding,‖

Creating a NIB will not be easy. But much of the challenge can be mitigated by increasing funding for an existing program with a long-term vision of reforming the system, rather than setting up a new government agency which would be much more costly and less effective. Both the U.S. Ex port-Im port Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) have experience in infrastructure lending, internal project screening and approval processes and staff of investment professionals experienced in project finance and related due diligence. Both have a proven track record of being successful in leveraging private investment for large projects, albeit in emerging markets. Housing the NIB under one of th os e institutions could help jumpstart the U.S-focused infrastructure credit program in a shorter period of time and potentially with a better public reception than setting up a brand new agency.

1nc westminster lp
[CP TEXT: United States federal government should expand the mandate of the Export-Import bank to include domestic transportation infrastructure investment and relax all other restrictions and mandates on the Export-Import Bank. United States federal government should implement reforms to increase efficiency and transparency of the Export-Import bank. United States federal government should not substantially increase its transportation infrastructure investment in the United States through an infrastructure bank.] We‟ll clarify. CP is competitive – „infrastructure bank‟ is a term of art which refers to creation of an independent entity

the NIB would take several years to get started up. and that would provide grants as well as loans.I. Housing the NIB under one of th os e institutions could help jumpstart the U. given the current fiscal constraints. ―Rethinking http://gov. internal project screening and approval processes and staff of investment professionals experienced in project finance and related due diligence. Both the U..S. has been hesitant to cede control of choosing which projects to finance. Sufficiency – they might win that the plan solves case better than the CP but make them prove an impact to their solvency deficits Specificity – only our evidence speaks to the mechanism of the CP – their generic “independent bank key” arguments don‟t assume creating the bank under the Ex-Im Comparative evidence outweighs – only we read evidence which directly says that having Ex-Im do TI investments is comparatively better than the aff – outweighs the line-by-line since it‟s impossible to quantify impact defense and solvency deficits and whatnot. the president of the U. And Congress.S-focused infrastructure credit program in a shorter period of time and potentially with a better public reception than setting up a brand new agency. April 20th. or we can fold up. rather than setting up a new government agency which would be much more costly and less effective. like state governments. 2012 (vice president and in principal @ Booz Allen. and Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison. albeit in emerging markets.F. and compete.‖ To underscore the need for better infrastructure. the bank being proposed in the Senate would be able to spur investment from more types of private funds. urban affairs and the impact of the economic downturn on state and local governments for the New York Times. Likosky.nytimes. the president of the A. which means it can already make good investment decisions – furthermore.-C. Mr. Kerry said at a news conference in Washington.Edgemont Debate File Title – 2 Michael Cooper. But much of the challenge can be mitigated by increasing funding for an existing program with a long-term vision of reforming the system. the No. will undoubtedly support the measure.com/2011/03/16/us/politics/16infrastructure. even as their spending priorities have often been questioned. President Obama since his 2010 campaign. and provides the resources and funding necessary to give ExIm the capability to give out loans and grants This solves case best – the ExIm has a proven track record of being successful in leveraging private investment for large projects and previous experience in infrastructure lending. they could spur up to $640 billion worth of infrastructure spending over the next decade. 2nc top-level The plan mandates the creation of an independent government agency which can provide loans and grants to the private sector for development of transportation infrastructure – the CP expands the mandate of the United States Export-Import bank to include investments in domestic transportation infrastructure. The idea is to attract more infrastructure investment from the private sector: by creating an infrastructure bank with $10 billion now.‘ ‖ But the proposal may not have clear sailing. which means you should just defer to expert comparisons . Schumer of New York. Democrat of Massachusetts.‖ http://www. 3 Democrat. the New York Press Club and the Legislative Correspondents Association. Donohue. and create jobs for our people. Republican of Texas — would establish an independent bank to provide loans and loan guarantees for projects of regional or national significance. the Society of Silurians.html?_r=0 >:) The proposal — sponsored by Senator John Kerry.‖ Mr. the author of ―Obama‘s Bank: Financing a Durable New Deal. Senate officials said the outlook for such a program is dim. his work has been recognized by the Society of American Business Editors and Writers. graduated from Stuyvesant High School and Columbia College [he‘s a smarticle]. With a nod to the strange-bedfellows experience of having a labor leader as an ally. the main business lobby. ―He and I are going to take our show on the road as the new ‗Odd Couple. ― Group Wants New Bank to Finance Infrastructure.aol. Both have a proven track record of being successful in leveraging private investment for large projects.O. but housing it under the ExIm bank can jumpstart the infrastructure credit program in no time at all – that‟s Crooks and Quadt We‟ll make a couple of framing issues – Necessity vs. and back projects in a wider swath of the nation. and Charles E. and let everybody else win.L. Donohue said. two frequent rivals were on hand at the news conference: Richard Trumka.‖ Creation of an NIB under the ExIm bank solves faster and avoids backlash – our evidence is comparative Ed Crooks and Michelle Quadt. Ex port-Im port Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) have experience in infrastructure lending. and Thomas J. I don‘t believe anybody wants to do that. they say. March 15. While Senators Harry Reid of Nevada. With an expanded reach that includes water and energy projects. 2011 (national correspondent covering politics. His budget calls for establishing one — and gives it the catchier name I-Bank — that has called for establishing an infrastructure bank would work somewhat differently: it would create a $30 billion bank that would invest in transportation projects alone. I don‘t think that‘s America.com/2012/04/20/rethinking-infrastructure-funding/ >:) Infrastructure Funding. ―We can either build.‖ Creating a NIB will not be easy. said Michael B. Chamber of Commerce.S. ―We have a choice. the majority leader.

. and maintaining our dams and levees — creating jobs while rebuilding the country. and avoids politics – expanding the mandate solves Tanya Snyder. though government-owned.S. Even better. and Howard Schweitzer. it‟s just that we have no entity dedicated to making those investments in the first place – expanding the jurisdiction of ExIm to include transportation infrastructure investment and providing the funding and resources to re-task ExIm solves the aff – there‟s only a risk of our offense – don‟t allow new 1AR arguments about how an independent agency is key – we base block strategy off of 2AC coverage – it‟s also sandbagging and just a jerk move in general 2nc at: p/ cp (barstow dl) CP is competitive – Use of the term „national infrastructure bank‟ in the plan text means the permutation severs creation of an independent entity – that‟s COMPTON – indicates that all previous uses of the term „national infrastructure bank‟ in Congress have referred to a new bank. some say.org/2011/10/07/does-the-infrastructure-bank-of-our-dreams-already-exist/ >:) Last week.Edgemont Debate File Title – 3 ExIm solves – authorized and organized.S.Im port Bank could facilitate private-sector investment in projects such as repairing roads and bridges. taxpayer) protection — often a major stumbling block to public-private deals. For now. Photo: GSA Many of those pushing for an infrastructure bank say that publicprivate partnerships are part of the solution. which is our link argument – sure there might be aspects of a NIB that are popular with Republicans. This basic concept combines private capital with some form of public support to finance large projects.Im port Bank ‟s bread and butter.‖ There‘s not a lot of interest on Capitol Hill yet about this idea. depositing money into the Treasury. politicians that have been on the forefront of the bank idea would rather stick with their own idea (which they can then take credit for). 2011 (Capitol Hill editor. solves PPPs best.but some experts believe it could serve the same function as a national infrastructure bank. Some fear an I-bank will be too much like Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. ―A newly expanded Ex port. Put another way. not the expansion or reform of an old bank – the CP is distinct because it simply changes the mandates of the Export-Import bank. former vice president of the Export-Import Bank co-wrote an op-ed for the Washington Post saying that the Export-Import Bank was already authorized and organized to do exactly what an infrastructure bank is supposed to do: Is this what you had in mind. an already existing bank in the United States – prefer our definition since Compton‟s the Deputy Director of Online Content for the Office of Digital Strategy of the White House and he‟s citing Congressional intent . isn‘t that easier? The Ex-Im bank has a similar financial model to the Kerry-Hutchison Ibank proposal (which the president has adopted) and a similar governing structure – an independent. ― And there actually is a window to expand the mandate of the Ex-Im Bank if there is political support to do that. and a low risk to taxpayers. If making a few tweaks to an existing structure could yield the same benefits as a national infrastructure bank. but it could become the compromise that saves the whole I-bank concept. fiscal responsibility.‖ It‘s a compelling argument. Streetsblog. corporation. October 7th. I-bank proponents? It's the Export-Import Bank -. some would rather just stick with the TIFIA loan program. others want to encourage state infrastructure banks instead of a big national one.‖ said bank expert Scott Thomasson of the Progressive Policy Institute.e. the risk of a politics link only goes one way since we solve all their link turns – our argument is not that the CP‟s not perceived. ―Does the Elusive http://dc. former U. ALSO. ―The Ex-Im bank already has some of that staff in place and an established history of success. Mark Alderman of the Obama-Biden transition team. modernizing the energy grid. the Ex-Im Bank makes money for the U. it‟s that the CP eases Congressional concerns about big government. They go on to say. three Washington heavy-hitters brought a Infrastructure Bank Already Exist?‖ new contribution to the debate over a national infrastructure bank: They said we already have one. but the CP does those things without doing all the horrible stuff that Congress hates <line by line> 2nc – if they mess it up [_] 2AC reads zero evidence that says an independent government agency is critical to creation of an effective infrastructure bank – the fact that all their evidence says that US transportation infrastructure investments are horrible in the squo proves – it‟s not that a new government agency is necessary. especially in a political environment suspicious of Big Government. That is the Ex port.. especially in the face of skepticism about creating a new quasi-government entity. Senator Evan Bayh. the United States already has a bank that knows how to balance investor return with lender (i. not taking it.streetsblog.

results in ―increase‖ of 50 megawatts or more in electric generating capacity of existing thermal power plant. White House. both of whom have tried to push through infrastructure bills in the past – Congressional intent is best White House flows neg Matt Compton. appropriate an initial $10 billion in startup money to capitalize the bank. an already existing bank in the United States – prefer our definition since it cites usage of the term by Kerry and Obama. That means the perm severs since they have to defend making net more investment – the CP does not increase investment.reference.App. and are worth at least $100 million or $25 million for rural projects. cross-apply their condo arguments GROUND – they can sever out of all our links – guts 1NC strategy – kills time allocation and skews ground in favor of the aff 2nc at: overburden (thomassen) . or bring into being on a firm or stable basis: to establish a That means the perm severs since the aff must defend bringing a bank into being. Energy Commission cannot ignore decreases in capacity caused by retirement or deactivation of other units at plant. West‘s Ann. the Senate is set to take up one idea that the President touted -. 1991. cross-apply their condo arguments GROUND – they can sever out of all our links – guts 1NC strategy – kills time allocation and skews ground in favor of the aff 2nc at: p/ cp (westminster lp) CP is competitive – Use of the term „infrastructure bank‟ in the plan text means the permutation severs creation of an independent entity – that‟s COOPER – all previous uses of the term „infrastructure bank‟ in Congress have referred to a new bank. and water infrastructure projects that lack funding. or improvement of equipment that refers to ―net increase‖ in power plant‘s total generating capacity. institute. p. i. v.2 Dist.295) Term ―increase.‖ as used in statute giving the Energy Commission modification jurisdiction over any alteration. http://www.whitehouse. offer a clear benefit for taxpayers. November 2011 (Deputy Director of Online Content for the Office of Digital Strategy. to university. rather it just changes the function of an old bank Severance is bad – MOVING TARGET – aff gets to continually reformat – we base 1NC strategy off of the plan text – it makes the aff conditional. 20a. replacement.Cal.com/browse/establish >:) es·tab·lish /ɪˈstæb lɪʃ/ Show Spelled verb (used with object) 1. build.e.Code § 25123. energy. in deciding whether there has been the requisite 50-megawatt increase as a result of new units being incorporated into a plant.Res. not the expansion or reform of an old bank – the CP is distinct because it simply changes the mandates of the Export-Import bank. creating a bank – the CP does not bring a new bank into being. 2) The INDEPENDENTLY – „increase‟ means net increase Words and Phrases. 5 (Cummulative Supplementary Pamphlet.Edgemont Debate File Title – 4 INDEPENDENTLY – „establish‟ means to bring into being on a stable basis Dictionary. http://dictionary. found. to establish a medical practice. Here's how it would work: 1) Congress would new bank would identify transportation.com no date (I love this website omguh. Cal.Pub. rather it redirects the current funding of the Ex-Im bank by mandating that it invest in domestic transportation infrastructure Severance is bad – MOVING TARGET – aff gets to continually reformat – we base 1NC strategy off of the plan text – it makes the aff conditional.gov/blog/2011/11/03/five-facts-aboutnational-infrastructure-bank >:) Today.the creation of a n ational infrastructure bank.

―Export-Import Bank: Obstacles and Options for Reform. Prioritize and Set Achievable Goals Another way to improve Ex-Im‘s efficacy at creating jobs would be to relax some of the myriad restrictions Congress has placed on it.S. The foreign content restrictions and Broaden Participation across Industries . allocating a significant portion of Ex-Im‘s capital to support their exports is probably not the most cost.‖ http://copublicstrategies. transportation. the Export-Import Bank only handles such projects internationally. it would be years before such a new bank would be fully operational. It also represents a recognition that using most of its funds to finance purchases from a single company simply may not be politically viable in the long run.‖ http://americanactionforum. ‖ So. industial machinery.31 This sensible. uncontroversial statement nevertheless reflects a major change from how the Bank currently operates. same place. President Obama calls for a national infrastructure bank to support private-sector investment in public projects to revitalize the economy.) wrote an opinion piece published on September 30 in The Washington Post on using the United States Export-Import Bank as the infrastructure bank called for in President Obama‘s Jobs Act. Similar considerations apply to the requirement that Ex-Im devote significant resources to supporting renewable energy investments. in the alternative. it does have the legal authorization to do stateside. 2012 (bipartisan government relations firm. 2011 (*Director of Economic Policy @ American Action Forum. economy as well as a key political constituency. quote. May 1st. It also represents a recognition that using most of its funds to finance purchases from a single company simply may not be politically viable in the long run. ―Mark insights/publications/We-already-have-the-infrastructure-bank-we-need >:) Cozen O'Connor Public Strategies principals Mark Alderman. Schweitzer and Bayh suggest adding domestic infrastructure projects to the Ex port-Im port Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank) mandate. “we should be cautious about assuming we can re-task a well established bureaucracy with an entirely new mission that requires different financing expertise and a different institutional culture” – the CP solves re-tasking by providing the necessary resources and financial expertise. Alderman. In the American Jobs Act. transportation . and they have no warrant as to why re-tasking ExIm would fail – only we read actual evidence that indicates expanding the mandate of ExIm would be an easy transition. uncontroversial statement nevertheless reflects a major change from how the Bank currently operates. however. **research analyst. while small businesses may constitute a pillar of the U. Broaden Participation across Industries 2nc at: jurisdiction CP solves – we expand the mandate of ExIm to include domestic transportation infrastructure investment ExIm has legal auth – jurisdiction is irrelevant Cozen O'Connor Public Strategies. Howard Schweitzer. Currently. For instance.Edgemont Debate File Title – 5 CP solves an overburdened ExIm – relaxing restrictions and mandates and implementing reforms to increase efficiency and transparency means the ExIm would be run far more smoothly and could easily accommodate transportation infrastructure investment This evidence says nothing – the only responsive part of the card says that. 2nc at: brannon and lowell Brannon and Lowell conclude neg – relaxing restrictions and implementing reforms can resolve all issues with ExIm and Elizabeth Lowell.S. along with former U. As the piece points out. Senator Evan Bayh (D-Ind.‖ http://americanactionforum.31 This sensible. energy production. August 16th. same place.pdf >:) Ike Brannon The Export Promotion Cabinet‘s plan already calls to increase exports by focus ing Ex-Im‟s efforts ― in industries where there is potential to support greater levels of exports‖ such as in medical technology. 2011 (*Director of Economic Policy @ American Action Forum.pdf >:) Ike Brannon The Export Promotion Cabinet‘s plan already calls to increase exports by focusing Ex-Im‘s efforts ―in industries where there is potential to support greater levels of exports‖ such as in medical technology. energy production.org/sites/default/files/Ex-Im%20Final%20Draft21.com/newsAlderman and Howard Schweitzer. industial machinery. and could easily fill the role of an NIB We control uniqueness – ExIm‟s focusing on transportation projects now – the transition is happening and Elizabeth Lowell.org/sites/default/files/Ex-Im%20Final%20Draft21. and the service sector. and the service sector.effective way to leverage the bank‘s capital. May 1st. ―even if the president‘s proposal were enacted tomorrow. ―Export-Import Bank: Obstacles and Options for Reform. and Evan Bayh write ‗We Already Have the Infrastructure Bank We Need‘ in the Washington Post. **research analyst.

2011 (national correspondent covering politics. In such a world it would be able to create more jobs with less money while incurring fewer risks. companies access to its markets as a condition of receiving None of these issues can be ameliorated by Ex-Im. and world trade policies actually contribute to this uneven playing field. for instance. or we can fold up. they could spur up to $640 billion worth of infrastructure spending over the ne xt decade. Mr. Increase Efficiency and Transparency Ex-Im could clearly benefit from reform to its internal processes.” That would resolve all delay problems since the ExIm would be able to work much faster Irrelevant – make them prove an impact to this – that‟s the top of da flow – necessary vs. modernize and simplify its application process. Kerry said at a news conference in Washington. It would also operate in a world with more free trade agreements and more defined rules governing trade between nations. they say.L. while at the same time it largely closes its market to foreign products. CP is competitive – „infrastructure bank‟ is a term of art which refers to creation of an independent entity Michael Cooper. The idea is to attract more infrastructure investment from the private sector: by creating an infrastructure bank with $10 billion now. FINAL REFORM ISSUES The primary problem the Export-Import Bank seeks to address is the uneven playing field U.] We‟ll clarify. sufficient y‟all overseas private investment pic 1nc westminster lp [CP TEXT: United States federal government should expand the mandate of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation to include substantial domestic transportation infrastructure investments. Democrat of Massachusetts. companies with customers benefiting from Ex-Im financing would be slight. Chamber of Commerce. With a nod to the strange-bedfellows experience of having a labor leader as an ally. ― Group Wants New Bank to Finance Infrastructure.whitehouse. graduated from Stuyvesant High School and Columbia College [he‘s a smarticle]. the president of the U. and restructure its teams in a way so as to maximize accountability and efficiency.. Simply forcing China to allow U. the World Bank‘s Global Environment Facility has funded $421 million in projects to fight climate change in China. It would be able to easily and simply report its activities to Congress.S. ―He and I are going to take our show on the road as the new ‗Odd Couple. http://www. and extensively monitor companies receiving loan guarantees. For example.S. Donohue. and Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison.F.O.‖ http://www.‖ To underscore the need for better infrastructure. United States federal government should not substantially increase its transportation infrastructure investment in the United States through an infrastructure bank.html?_r=0 >:) The proposal — sponsored by Senator John Kerry. his work has been recognized by the Society of American Business Editors and Writers.S. two frequent rivals were on hand at the news conference: Richard Trumka. and Thomas J. and let everybody else win.com/2011/03/16/us/politics/16infrastructure. Being audited by a private entity may bring valuable perspective into how to achieve these goals.S.nytimes. provide up-to-date information on where its money goes.Im‘s job much easier. Also. quote. I don‘t believe anybody wants to do that. such aid would make Ex.‘ ‖ But . the president of the A.I.S. Republican of Texas — would establish an independent bank to provide loans and loan guarantees for projects of regional or national significance. flagged vessels make U. yet some U. the main business lobby. virtually none of which U. it should simplify its information technology systems. make its economic analysis procedure more transparent and consistent. and compete. 42). but they do represent a much better place for Congress to weigh in on trade issues than in micro-managing Ex-Im‘s funding decisions. The impositions placed on U.gov/sites/default/files/nei_report_9-16.‖ September 2010 (p. albeit likely concentrated in a relatively small number of industries dominated by larger corporations.5 billion a year from foreign governments for 31 ―Report to t he President on the National Export Initiative: The Export Promotion Cabinet‘s Plan for Doubling Exports in Five Years. A lean.32 2nc at: delay CP solves delay – the only warrant for delay is that ExIm would take a long time to invest since it would have to spend more time worrying about meeting political and Congressional requirements – the CP solves that by relaxing restrictions and mandates AND – the CP text literally says that we. “implement reforms to increase efficiency. businesses can compete for due to Chi na‘s mercantilist policies. ―We have a choice.Edgemont Debate File Title – 6 the mandate that companies receiving Ex-Im support use U. productive Ex-Im would do more diverse lending.S. the New York Press Club and the Legislative Correspondents Association. urban affairs and the impact of the economic downturn on state and local governments for the New York Times.-C. exports face in the global economy. March 15. companies less competitive when pursuing business abroad.pdf development aid. and cre ate jobs for our people.10_full.‖ Mr.S. I don‘t think that‘s America. ―We can either build. the Society of Silurians. Donohue said.S. China receives over $2.

internal project screening and approval processes and staff of investment professionals experienced in project finance and related due diligence. November 2011 (Deputy Director of Online Content for the Office of Digital Strategy. rather than setting up a new government agency which would be much more costly and less effective. Export-Import Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) have experience in infrastructure lending.‖ Creating a NIB will not be easy. albeit in emerging markets. internal project screening and approval processes and staff of investment professionals experienced in project finance and related due diligence. the bank being proposed in the Senate would be able to spur investment from more types of private funds. Likosky.com/2012/04/20/rethinking-infrastructure-funding/ >:) Infrastructure Funding. and are worth at least $100 million or $25 million for rural projects. Both the U.the creation of a national infrastructure bank. Housing the NIB under one of th os e institutions could help jumpstart the U.Sfocused infrastructure credit program in a shorter period of time and potentially with a better public reception than setting up a brand new agency.S. given the current fiscal constraints. His budget calls for establishing one — and gives it the catchier name I-Bank — that would work somewhat differently: it would create a $30 billion bank that would invest in transportation projects alone. While Senators Harry Reid of Nevada. said Michael B. and Charles E. April 20th. But much of the challenge can be mitigated by increasing funding for an existing program with a long-term vision of reforming the system.whitehouse. offer a clear benefit for taxpayers. 3 Democrat. Here's how it would work: 1) Congress new bank would identify transportation. the author of ―Obama‘s Bank: Financing a Durable New Deal. Both have a proven track record of being successful in leveraging private investment for large projects.aol. energy. like state governments. would appropriate an initial $10 billion in startup money to capitalize the bank.com/2012/04/20/rethinking-infrastructure-funding/ >:) Infrastructure Funding. albeit in emerging markets.Edgemont Debate which projects to finance. White House. the majority leader.aol. And Congress. and back projects in a wider swath of the nation. With an expanded reach that includes water and energy projects. even as their spending priorities have often been questioned.gov/blog/2011/11/03/five-facts-aboutnational-infrastructure-bank >:) Today. has been hesitant to cede control of choosing Obama has called for establishing an infrastructure bank since his 2010 campaign. The United States federal government should not create a transportation only national infrastructure bank in order to substantially increase its investment in transportation infrastructure. President File Title – 7 the proposal may not have clear sailing. the Senate is set to take up one idea that the President touted -. CP is competitive – „national infrastructure bank‟ is a term of art which refers to the creation of an independent entity Matt Compton. 2nc top-level .‖ Creation of an NIB under the OPIC solves faster and avoids backlash – our evidence is comparative Ed Crooks and Michelle Quadt. Export-Import Bank and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) have experience in infrastructure lending. Schumer of New York. 2012 (vice president and in principal @ Booz Allen. April 20th. will undoubtedly support the measure.] We‟ll clarify. Senate officials said the outlook for such a program is dim. the No. 2012 (vice president and in principal @ Booz Allen. Housing the NIB under one of th os e institutions could help jumpstart the U.‖ Creating a NIB will not be easy. But much of the challenge can be mitigated by increasing funding for an existing program with a long-term vision of reforming the system.S. Both have a proven track record of being successful in leveraging private investment for large projects. and water infrastructure projects that lack funding. ―Rethinking http://gov. rather than setting up a new government agency which would be much more costly and less effective. http://www. ―Rethinking http://gov. 1nc st marks bm [CP TEXT: United States federal government should expand the mandate of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation to include substantial domestic transportation infrastructure investments. and that would provide grants as well as loans. Both the U. 2) The Creation of an NIB under the OPIC solves faster and avoids political backlash – our evidence is comparative Ed Crooks and Michelle Quadt.Sfocused infrastructure credit program in a shorter period of time and potentially with a better public reception than setting up a brand new agency.

are structured as privately held. which is our link argument – sure there might be aspects of a NIB that are popular with Republicans. Sufficiency – they might win that the plan solves case better than the CP but make them prove an impact to their solvency deficits Specificity – only our evidence speaks to the mechanism of the CP – their generic “independent bank key” arguments don‟t assume creating the bank under the OPIC Comparative evidence outweighs – only we read evidence which directly says that having OPIC do TI investments is comparatively better than the aff – outweighs the line-by-line since it‟s impossible to quantify impact defense and solvency deficits and whatnot. it‟s that the CP eases Congressional concerns about big government.S. • The Rural Telephone Bank. ―National Infrastructure Bank: Overview and Current Legislation. Mallett.55 • Government-sponsored enterprises.56 Some of these entities were designed to be investor owned. Kosar.S. such as the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) and the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac). established in 1971 (7 U.C. which means you should just defer to expert comparisons ALSO. which means it can already make good investment decisions – furthermore.pdf >:) How might an infrastructure bank be structured? Congress has established numerous banking entities taking a wide range of institutional forms. but housing it under the OPIC can jumpstart the infrastructure credit program in no time at all – that‟s Crooks and Quadt We‟ll make a couple of framing issues – Necessity vs. for-profit corporations designed to serve a public purpose. but the CP does those things without doing all the horrible stuff that Congress hates <line by line> 2nc – if they mess it up [_] 2AC reads zero evidence that says an independent government agency is critical to creation of an effective infrastructure bank – the fact that all their evidence says that US transportation infrastructure investments are horrible in the squo proves – it‟s not that a new government agency is necessary.C. such as the Federal Home Loan Bank System and the Farm Credit System. . Treasury.Edgemont Debate File Title – 8 The plan mandates the creation of an independent government agency which can provide loans and grants to the private sector for development of transportation infrastructure – the CP expands the mandate of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation to include investments in domestic transportation infrastructure. The federal government capitalized the bank by purchasing its dividend-yielding A class stock. it‟s just that we have no entity dedicated to making those investments in the first place – expanding the jurisdiction of OPIC to include transportation infrastructure investment and providing the funding and resources to re-task OPIC solves the aff – there‟s only a risk of our offense – don‟t allow new 1AR arguments about how an independent agency is key – we base block strategy off of 2AC coverage – it‟s also sandbagging and just a jerk move in general 2nc solvency+ NIB should be housed under the OPIC y‟all William J. 2011 (*Specialist in Transportation Policy. and provides the resources and funding necessary to give OPIC the capability to give out loans and grants This solves case best – the OPIC has a proven track record of being successful in leveraging private investment for large projects and previous experience in infrastructure lending. was designed as a mixedownership corporation.S.fas. To cite four examples: • The National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility was established in 1978 through statute (12 U. while others. Congressional Research Service. 941) to provide credit to telecommunications companies in rural areas. ***Analyst in American National Government. **Specialist in Public Finance. The extent of direct federal involvement varies. 1751) and can borrow from the U. the NIB would take several years to get started up. It is managed by the board of the National Credit Union Administration (12 U. 1795) as a cooperative corporation that is owned by federal credit unions. December 14.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42115. Steven Maguire and Kevin R. Its purpose is narrow —to serve as a lender of last resort to credit unions needing liquidity due to unforeseen or unusual circumstances.‖ http://www.S. the risk of a politics link only goes one way since we solve all their link turns – our argument is not that the CP‟s not perceived.C. are owned cooperatively by their borrowers.

and it offers loans.R. West‘s Ann. S. offer a clear benefit for taxpayers. loan and risk insurance. as is 2nc at: p/ cp CP is competitive – Use of the term „infrastructure bank‟ in the plan text means the permutation severs creation of an independent entity – that‟s COOPER – all previous uses of the term „infrastructure bank‟ in Congress have referred to a new bank.Edgemont Debate File Title – 9 and other classes of stock were sold to private investors. 20a. The Export-Import Bank. 402. OPIC was established in 1969. and other services to U. refers to ―net increase‖ in power plant‘s total generating capacity.295) Term ―increase. That means the perm severs since they have to defend making net more investment – the CP does not increase investment. and water infrastructure projects that lack funding. 936. which was chartered by Congress in 1791 (1 Stat. or improvement of equipment that results in ―increase‖ of 50 megawatts or more in electric generating capacity of exis ting thermal power plant. rather it redirects the current funding of the OPIC by mandating that it invest in domestic transportation infrastructure Severance is bad – MOVING TARGET – aff gets to continually reformat – we base 1NC strategy off of the plan text – it makes the aff conditional. and it supports its operations through commercial activities.Res. energy. and are worth at least $100 million or $25 million for rural projects.whitehouse. appropriate an initial $10 billion in startup money to capitalize the bank.S.App. The bank liquidated itself in 2007. v.S. both of whom have tried to push through infrastructure bills in the past – Congressional intent is best White House flows neg Matt Compton. Energy Commission cannot ignore decreases in capacity caused by retirement or deactivation of other units at plant. The bank‘s shares were owned by both the U.58 Like the Export-Import Bank. November 2011 (Deputy Director of Online Content for the Office of Digital Strategy. • Congress has established many lending institutions that are wholly owned government corporations. cross-apply their condo arguments GROUND – they can sever out of all our links – guts 1NC strategy – kills time allocation and skews ground in favor of the aff 2nc at: links to politics The plan‟s creation of an independent agency links – reforming an existing government bank avoids political battles Ed Crooks and Michelle Quadt.‖ Creating a NIB will not be easy.Pub. mentioned earlier in this the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC. Cal.the creation of a n ational infrastructure bank. and H. Here's how it would work: 1) Congress would new bank would identify transportation. all would establish infrastructure banks that are wholly government owned. White House. is an example. April 20th.com/2012/04/20/rethinking-infrastructure-funding/ >:) Infrastructure Funding. ―Rethinking http://gov. http://www. in deciding whether there has been the requisite 50-megawatt increase as a result of new units being incorporated into a plant. an already existing bank in the United States – prefer our definition since it cites usage of the term by Kerry and Obama. 5 (Cummulative Supplementary Pamphlet. OPIC serves a governmentally defined purposes. But much of the challenge can be mitigated by increasing funding for an existing program with a long-term vision of reforming the system. the Senate is set to take up one idea that the President touted -.Code § 25123. 652. p. replacement.57 The mixedownership structure was earlier used for the First Bank of the United States. 2012 (vice president and in principal @ Booz Allen.2 Dist.S.aol. not the expansion or reform of an old bank – the CP is distinct because it simply changes the mandates of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. investors operating in overseas markets.gov/blog/2011/11/03/five-facts-aboutnational-infrastructure-bank >:) Today. S. The three bills considered in this report. 2) The INDEPENDENTLY – „increase‟ means net increase Words and Phrases. 192 Section 3) to stabilize the currency and provide a safe depository for funds and a source of credit. rather than setting up a new government agency which would be much more costly and less effective.C. government and private shareholders. Congress likes da CP . 1991. 2191). 22 U.Cal.‖ as used in statute giving the Energy Commission modification jurisdiction over any alteration. report.

2011. An independent and professionally staffed infrastructure bank is the best response to the increasing need for expansion and better management of federal credit programs. A national infrastructure bank could create opportunities and capitalise on others. ―Closing the gap: Proposals for rebuilding US infra. jobs while they delay the reauthorization of the Export.E713.shearman. McDERMOTT. Kay Bailey Hutchison. ―In Support of the Export-Import Bank.‖ Congressional Record Volume 158.htm) Mr. http://www. Economic and Domestic Policy Director Progressive Policy Institute Testimony of Scott Thomasson Progressive Policy Institute October 12. has been named a leading lawyer in project finance by Chambers USA. . June 14th.expand the lending authority of the Export-Import Bank of the United States to $200 billion] We‟ll clarify. It is probably better to avoid big changes to a program that is currently functioning well. 2011 (*partner in the Project Development & Finance Group at Shearman & Sterling in New York. Reality: Both TIFIA and the Export-Import (―Ex-Im‖) Bank are well-run programs that are effective in achieving the specific missions they are charged with. Mr. Chambers Global and IFLR1000. and its mission and expertise would not necessarily be compatible with the Ex-Im Bank. Ex-Im is organizationally overburdened – only a completely external bank can solve Scott Thomasson 2011. TIFIA is already oversubscribed with only a handful of staff to process loan applications.pass legislature to authorize the Export-Import Bank of the United States for 10 years. and ex-im mandates pic 1nc berkeley prep dx [CP TEXT: United States federal government should – . There are structural similarities between AIFA and both TIFIA and Ex-Im that make the idea of transforming either program to act like an infrastructure bank very interesting on paper and perhaps worth exploring more. http://republicans. 5-7-2012.com/files/upload/PDF-061411-Closing-the-gap-Proposals-for-rebuilding-US-infra.house. we should be cautious about assuming we can re-task a well established bureaucracy with an entirely new mission that requires different financing expertise and a different institutional culture. ** partner in the Project Development & Finance Group at Shearman & Sterling in New York. Senators John Kerry. p. or AIFA[4][5]. This feature of the bank becomes even more important as the federal government moves toward financing larger. Throwing more money at the TIFIA program without an enhanced organizational structure will run the same risks of questionable underwriting decisions that the Solyndra critics allege of the DOE loan guarantee program. While the Export-Import Bank .gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2012-05-07/html/CREC-2012-05-07-pt1-PgE713-3. and Mark R. Expanding the lending authority and passing legislature to authorize Ex-Im for the next decade solves the second advantage McDermott. Extensions of Remarks.Import Bank. With respect to the idea that we can create an infrastructure bank within the Ex-Im Bank. be a national infrastructure bank.pdf >:) the President is not the only national leader pushing this type of proposal. IFLR 1000 and Guide to the World‘s Leading Project Finance Lawyers.gpo. Jim McDermott. the organization and governance of the infrastructure bank would be materially different from TIFIA. U. the BUILD Act. 12 (Hon. Chambers Latin America. Speaker. and . big-ticket projects that are beyond the scale of anything existing programs have taken on before. A properly structured national bank achieves this first and foremost by replacing politically driven decision making with a more transparent and merit-based evaluation process overseen by a bipartisan and expert board of directors. because we can si mply expand existing programs like TIFIA or the Export-Import Bank.transportation. offering loans and loan guarantees for deserving infrastructure projects. Some people familiar with the workings of the TIFIA program believe it will not be able to handle the additional workload that will accompany recent proposals to ―super -size‖ its budget authority. House of Representatives. all rights reserved. 2011.substantially increase transportation infrastructure loans in the United States commensurate with establishment of an independently governed National Infrastructure Bank sans incorporation into the Export-Import Bank of the United States. Warner have recently introduced a bill.S. that would create an American Infrastructure Financing Authority. has been named a leading lawyer in project finance by Chambers USA. The BUILD Act proposal contemplates an initial US$10 billion contribution by the Federal government with a goal of ultimately becoming a self funding bank in a manner similar to the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC).‖ http://www. United States House Of Representatives Committee On Transportation And Infrastructure: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Highways and Trans it ―National Infrastructure Bank: More Bureaucracy and Red Tape‖ October 12.S. AIFA would All content © Copyright 2011 Emap Limited. 1AC author. However. and instead to look to it as a model to be drawn upon and replicated instead of forcing a merger of two very different programs under the one roof.pdf Myth #7: We don‘t need a separate infrastructure bank. we have spent months in this House watching the Republicans create an unstable business environment and hurt U.gov/Media/file/TestimonyHighways/2011-10-12%20Thomasson.Edgemont Debate File Title – 10 Patricia Hammes and Robert Freedman. Number 63.

org/sites/default/files/ExIm%20Final%20Draft21. the Republicans of the them are growing right now. the Republicans have us sitting on our hands and unilaterally disarming. the impetus to reduce administrative burdens lead to rolling back credit policies for managing fraud and credit risk.Import Bank for a few years. Ex-Im receives criticism both for insufficient and overly burdensome procedures. and cope with limited staff resources. 27 However. my bill would also truly expand the Export-Import Bank's lending authorities. such as Ex-Im‘s mission to provide credit too risky for the private sector in over 160 countries with varying business and legal systems.‖ 28 In short. will create the stability businesses and their workers need. 26 In particular.Import Bank does. doubling it to $200 Billion. define performance standards and metrics. forensic accountant specialising in criminal defence. Ex-Im‘s Medium Term Loan Program has been a primary target for fraud schemes. and the bank‘s own limited resources to conduct thorough due diligence and pursue defrauders. and the lending authority should be big enough so that it will actually keep up with our exports into the foreseeable future. along with the longer extension. ―Export-Import Bank: Obstacles and Options for Reform. This higher authority. the disincentive for private sector participants to conduct thorough due diligence given the government‘s guarantee. Over 50 countries have export-import banks and all Edgemont Debate supports hundreds of thousands of American jobs every year at no cost and no risk to the taxpayer. I could fill this chamber with the bipartisan. We also have a real lack of understanding in the Congress and in the Public of what this Export. through 2021. For example. Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales. ensure reasonable assurance of repayment. We now have a compromise that does not extend the Bank for as long as it needs to be or for as much as it needs to be long-term. Ex-Im has faced a number of fraud cases. testified in front of Congress that there were two significant fraud cases related to the program that While every bank faces the risk of fraud. which can guide the misrepresentation of financial statements.‖ due in part to its ―stringent underwriting procedures. enhance its due diligence process in the face of an increasing number of applications. The acting Inspector General. cooperate with other agencies The 2010 Advisory Committee notes other problems related to Ex-Im‘s organizational structure. its public disclosure of underwriting standards. and Indian. Osvaldo Luis Gratacós. burdening its trading activity by diverting profits to his own pocket. a variety of factors make this risk even more acute for the ExportImport Bank. Ike Brannon and Elizabeth Lowell.‖ Ex-Im‘s managerial challenges seem to be typical of government bureaucracy.sooperarticles.‖ http://americanactionforum. Net benefit – increasing Congressional mandates on Ex-Im makes preventing fraud impossible. non-partisan. so that it eventually fails. and European competitors are getting. expert studies telling us for decades that we here in the United States don't do a good job promoting our exports. ensure uniform procedures for delegated authority. inadequate monitoring tools. It is a mistake to think fraud is only a problem for businesses. 25 / Ex-Im procedures have been inadequate to mitigate its increased risk of fraud in a number of cases. / Fraud. number of exporting businesses in my district need the same kind of support from their government that all of their Chinese. When a director runs a company fraudulently. / The OIG has also linked the fraud cases with conflicting directives faced by the bank: to take loans too risky for the private sector. Certified Fraud Examiner and has a Masters Degree in Fraud Management. 29 Fraud harms the entire economy by increasing unemployment. simplify the application process as well as Ex-Im‘s messaging to small businesses. 2010.com/law-articles/criminal-law-articles/would-increased-fraud-awareness-reduce-economic-impact-fraud-754662. such as the need to update its inefficient and ineffective IT platform. In his testimony before the House Committee on Financial Services in September. is virtually no risk. The Export-Import Bank makes money for the taxpayer. My bill uses the same bipartisan framework that exists today and would authorize it for 10. due both to the risk inherent in being a government lender and a lack of adequate risk evaluation procedures. and reduce administrative burdens. While they are competing and running faster. They provide jobs and wealth for many people. and lack of compliance functions‖ contributed to Ex-Im‘s losses in the MediumTerm Loan Program. they result from the challenges of processing a large number of applications efficiently and transparently while attempting to follow a variety of congressional directives. Ex-Im faces a number of managerial challenges associated with its ongoing attempts to increase the participation of small businesses. 5-1-2011. the 2010 Ex-Im Advisory Committee commented that ―Ex-Im‘s internal processing procedures continue to be a source of frustration for exporters and lenders. The OIG identifies Ex-Im‘s loan guarantee program and export credit insurance programs as ―particularly susceptible to fraud schemes. barstow dl .html Businesses keep society and the economy running. 12-22-2011. it is not just the creditors and suppliers that lose out but many others as well. especially with respect to mitigating fraud risk and achieving targets for small business participation.‖ 23 It elaborates that criminals tend to exploit these programs by submitting false financial statements or false documentation concerning exports. Mark Jenner.pdf Satisfying a variety of different mandates has presented significant managerial challenges for Ex-Im. the port in my district and the huge The current deal that's being worked on only reauthorizes the Export. Building on this bipartisan framework.File Title – 11 have been stuck between their radical teaparty ideology of pure free-markets on one side and the Republican Majority's relationship with Delta Airlines on the other. / Other Management Issues. 24 / that an ―improper implementation of due diligence and underwriting practices. ―Would Increased Fraud Awareness Reduce The Economic Impact Of Fraud?‖ http://www. which ―does not establish accountability with a single individual within operating groups. Acting IG Gratacós noted cost Ex-IM $200 million. such as the Small Business Administration and the Department of Commerce. My constituents. When a business fails the employees lose their jobs and often may have difficulty finding new employment. Ex-Im is caught in a thicket of procedural challenges that it shows no ability to overcome.

Or government can borrow money. rarely) to an outbreak of violence . valuations and trade processing across all asset classes in order to enhance transparency. It doesn't make us any wealthier. Bush increased at more than twice the rate of increase under President Clinton during the 1990s.Edgemont Debate File Title – 12 1nc econ Economic downswings don’t cause war – 93 empirical examples Miller 2K (Morris Miller. ―Poverty as a cause of wars?‖ p . former Executive Director and Senior Economist at the World Bank. making today's dollars worth less than yesterday's.S. Spending under Mr.300 employees. ( or. manufacturing sector is showing signs of regaining momentum as the year comes to a close. Aside from spending on the stimulus itself . not more economic activity. 25. We're already seeing the impact of a less-valuable dollar in items ranging from gold and silver to cotton and gasoline. Its client base includes the most significant institutional participants in the financial market place.. Winter 2000. that it is some dramatic event or sequence of such events leading to the exacerbation of poverty that. the country was in the second year of the worst economic downturn since the 1930s. how did the U. Result? Unemployment has barely budged. federal spending topped $3. How can this be happening when so many people in government assure us that government spending spurs the economy? Because it's not true. foreign trade gains as well as increased production should help to boost economic growth in the fourth quarter. Iss. ―Such a steady run of improved growth of production is a good indication of a turning point in the economy as a whole . managing editor of Budget & Tax News. courtesy of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. ―Companies reported that demand showed further signs of picking up in the domestic market.not much else has been stimulated. As high prices for essentials such as food and energy work their way through the economy.8 trillion.4 trillion.S.bore no relationship to the collapse of regimes .. They did their part to supposedly prevent .) ―The U.. And let us not forget state and local governments. The nonsensical idea that government should spend more in economic downturns stems from "Keynesianism.‖ pg. It provides cover to people who believe in expansive.the actual price tag soon climbed from $787 billion to $821 billion . For government to pour money into the economy. housing prices continue to fall in many markets and more mortgages slip into foreclosure. And by 2009. ―Two years of epic stimulus failures: Keynesian spending creates nothing but a wealth of debt. interventionist government. and it gives government more power. especially as it is feeding through to higher employment. while at the same time seeing new signs of life in export markets. consultant on internati onal development issues. adjunct professor in the University of Ottawa‘s Faculty of Administration. total federal spending was $1. Manufacturing PMI. economy ever decline in the first place? When George W. economy. which is simply taking money now and promising to pay it back later with money that will come from taxpayers who are around when "later" arrives. When he left office eight years later in January 2009. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews. there would not appear to be any merit in this hypothesis. The manufacturing sector has been acting as a drag on the official payroll numbers in recent months. The company provides independent data. Keynesianism claims government can spur demand for goods by spending money to make up for what private businesses and consumers are not spending. The severity of economic crisis . but this situation looks to be changing as firms take on increasing numbers of workers in line with fuller order books. all of which are at or near record prices. global financial information services company with over 2. March 11th. ―With exports rising for the second month. It's like moving money from the left pocket to the right pocket. But if government spending can boost an economy. Bush became president.‖ pdf . economist. To hand out money. consumers will have less money to spend on everything else. In the cases of dictatorships and semidemocracies. in turn.S. What it really stimulates is more government. reduce risk and improve operational efficiency. According to a study undertaken by Minxin Pei and Ariel Adesnik of the C arnegie E ndowment for I nternational P eace.especially when . even when .. it must take money out of the economy in the first place. ―Markit Flash U.. Vol.the economy is slowing or contracting. as some scholars do. and for good reason. Nearly a trillion dollars have been poured into the U. if need be. Government borrowing reduces the amount of money available for private businesses and individuals to borrow.‖ Stimulus worsens the economy – empirically proven Steve Stanek. in democratic states ." which is all the rage in government policy circles today. government must first take money from taxpayers.. 4. Manufacturing jobs are growing – that is the key turning point for the economy Markit 12/14 (Leading. leads to this deplorable denouement. This exogenous factor might act as a catalyst for a violent reaction on the part of the people or on the part of the political leadership who would then possibly be tempted to seek a diversion by finding or.as measured in terms of inflation and negative growth . l/n >:) We've just passed the second anniversary of "economic stimulus" under President Obama. with the rate of growth picking up for the third month in a row. 2011 (research fellow at the Heartland Institute. the ruling elites responded to crises by increasing repression (thereby using one form of violence to abort another). which leads to price inflation. Do wars spring from a popular reaction to a sudden economic crisis that exacerbates poverty and growing disparities in wealth and incomes? Perhaps one could argue. This provides an excuse to grow government. suggesting output is now growing at an annualised rate of around 4% compared to the contraction seen back in October. After studying ninety-three episodes of economic crisis in twenty-two countries in Latin America and Asia in the years since the Second World War they concluded that:19 Much of the conventional wisdom about the political impact of economic crises may be wrong .S. Proquest) The question may be reformulated. Producers reported the largest monthly increase in output since April. fabricating an enemy and setting in train the process leading to war. The federal government also can create money. a decade many Democrats now clamoring for even more government spending point to as years of strong economic growth.

"DIVERT. sees Frederick W. Federal Reserve staff members rely on FedEx and the nearly six million packages it delivers every day for real-time data that helps set interest rate policy.000 pounds of cargo. and the economy boomed .newgeography. Hence. The recent birth of that small fleet. and FedEx's regular nightly flights from Atlanta to the company's Memphis hub were overbooked with packages. But despite all attempted remedies. But with little notice. More formally.74 trillion in 2000 to $2. 2005 [David. Record government spending did nothing to stop the recession. Efficient operation of the economy and our school systems requires that people go to work. Think of it as the FedEx economy. NIB can‟t solve congestion or job growth – small scope of projects Orski 11-[Ken. from Cairo to São Paulo. and more flexible than public transit. low-slung room here at headquarters. the bulk of which will be reconstruction of existing toll-free Interstate highways. One is that most Americans reside in low-density settlements that public transit cannot serve effectively. Instead. activity slows for a few weeks. The company's around-the-world flights . unemployment fell [falling] to less than 4 percent.Edgemont Debate File Title – 13 an economic slowdown by expanding their spending by more than $1 trillion . faster.9 percent of America‘s daily commuters using private vehicles. our basic mobility problem is this: the road system does not have enough capacity to handle peak-hour loads without forcing people to wait in line for limited road space. With 87. DKP] If the proposed entity is to be a true bank – as proposed in a recent bill sponsored by Senators John Kerry (D-MA) and Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX) and endorsed by the AFL-CIO and the U. at a multimillion-dollar price tag. Mr. Greenspan uses the company's vast reach to check in on the economy. before using code to order the plane to land in Atlanta. around the world. critics argue. In the U nited S tates. ending the Great Depression. Econ‟s resilient – innovations solve Leonhardt. the Federal Reserve chairman. more convenient in trip timing.the opposite of what many government economists said would happen.83 trillion in 2008 . Greenspan uses. for two reasons. 2004 (Senior Fellow @ Brookings. Traffic congestion is not essentially a problem. There. the vast majority of people wanting to move during rush hours use private vehicles . The way to end this recession is for government to cut spending. When one of them strikes.‖ 8/30/2011. No impact to failing transportation infrastructure – congestion‟s inevitable ―Why Traffic Congestion Is Here to Stay… and Will Get Worse. More government spending will do nothing to end it. shrink the deficit. quite like FedEx. It had been a busy day for Georgia businesses. Smith. When Alan Greenspan. thanks in part to the adjustments that businesses have made. from Los Angeles to Tokyo. and another refutation of Keynesianism. go to school.pdf >:) Anthony Downs. soaring oil prices and rising interest rates . for better and worse. for most people private vehicles are more comfortable.net/access/25/Access%2025%20-%2004%20-%20Traffic%20Congestion%20is%20Here%20to%20Stay. the Bank could finance only income-generating facilities such as toll roads and bridges.from $1. those reactions have also created a new feature of the business cycle: the micro-recession. Second.The nearly empty Airbus 310 was coasting through the Alabama night sky when a message flashed in the cockpit. a part-owner of the team whose stadium suite abuts the one Mr.com/content/002408-infrastructure-bank-losing-favorwith-white-house. more private. Chamber of Commerce– its scope would be confined to projects that can repay interest and principal on their loans with a dedicated stream of revenue — in other words. scholar in public policy and public administration. federal spending plummeted from 40 percent of the economy to less than 15 percent (it's about 25 percent today). FedEx's chief executive.S. This problem marks every major metropolitan area in the world. bringing goods from . a true Infrastructure Bank would be of limited help in creating jobs and reviving the economy. October 1st. but growth has picked up each time." it said. By all estimates. stop using taxpayer money to bail out politically connected businesses and industries. and of residents‘ habits that cause them to overload roads and transit systems every day.but the economy keeps chugging along at an annual growth rate of roughly 3 percent. you say? It did no such thing. ―Waiting in line‖ is the definition of congestion.wars. a system that constantly recalibrates itself to cope with surprises. as household incomes rise. It has been able to do so with the help of technology that allows businesses to react ever more quickly to changes. Ah.‖ http://www. The United States has endured an almost biblical series of calamities in recent years .K. ―Infrastructure Bank: Losing Favor with the White House. Peak-hour traffic congestion is a result of the way modern societies operate .uctc. financial scandals. October 8.fuller coming from Asia than going to it . explains a lot about how the nation's economy has become so much more resilient. It‘s the solution to our basic mobility problem. and reduce regulations that make investing for the future more difficult. EVERYONE HATES TRAFFIC CONGESTION. 'We still O. hurricanes. Smith. sometimes in just certain sectors or regions. during halftime of Washington Redskins games. New Geography. National Bureau of Economic Research.are the shipping lanes of the global economy. more and more people shift from less expensive public modes to privately owned cars and trucks. It has happened much more often in the last few years than in earlier expansions. and asked for help from the five empty FedEx jets that roam over the United States every night. it keeps getting worse. and millions wanting to move at the same times of day. such projects will constitute only a small fraction of the overall inventory of transportation improvements needed to be financed in the years ahead. end corporate welfare. but what about World War II spending. its cargo door opened up to a group of waiting FedEx employees who began filling it with 17. as companies adjust to a dip in demand. New York Times. So the local crew made a call to a sprawling. We cannot alter that basic requirement without crippling our economy and society. Keynesian economists in the 1940s warned the end of war spending and return of millions of soldiers would result in an economy every bit as bad as or worse than we had during the Depression. No company embodies this change. Therefore. Business Cycle Data] MEMPHIS .when the financial crisis began. where people hunch over computer screens showing weather maps and flight plans.?' " said Mr. Why don‘t they do something about it? The answer: because rising traffic congestion is an inescapable condition in all large and growing metropolitan areas across the world. "He always asks. which is that too many people want to move at the same times each d ay. The pilot banked the jet to the east and a half-hour later it was on the ground. and run errands during about the same hours so they can interact with each other. http://www.

2002). project managers and planners ‗lie with numbers‘. Number 3. local developers and land owners. (2003). a large FedEx shipping center can sometimes seem void of human beings. Both types of accountability may be effective tools to curb misrepresentation in project management and to promote a culture which acknowledges and deals effectively with risk. seemingly rational forecasts that underestimate costs and overestimate benefits have long been an established formula for project approval as we saw above. Economists. as Wachs (1989) are busy not with getting forecasts and business cases right and following the PMI Code of Ethics but with getting projects funded and built. ‗is sometimes the one who can cloak advocacy in the guise of scientific or technical rationality. pp. Data cooking creates economic disasters – the worst projects are approved. And the projects that look best on paper are the projects with the largest cost underestimates and benefit overestimates . The challenge is to change the power relations that govern forecasting and project development. local politicians. Professor of Major Programme Management at Oxford University's Saïd Business School and is Founding Director of the University's BT Centre for Major Programme Management. Greenspan argued in a recent speech. N. Forecasting is here mainly another kind of rent-seeking behaviour. And revenue at the express-shipping division has grown almost 30 percent since 2002. 2006.‘ Such advocacy would stand in direct opposition to PMI‘s ruling that project managers should which is remarkably underexplored in the literature (Flyvbjerg. new technologies and global shipping lanes are also big reasons that job growth has been so disappointing during this expansion and that the gains from recent economic growth have gone mainly to highly skilled white-collar workers. He was previously Professor of Planning at Aalborg University. for example. costs. have helped lead to the business cycle's new hiccups. the Oxford-based Major Projects Association.344–367. local MPs. "The impressive performance of the U. but recessions really do seem to happen less often. Smith calls them "minirecessions. although the situation may be changing with the initiatives to curb bias set out in HM Treasury (2003) and UK Department for Transport (2006)." Data cooking turn – public investment is manipulated by project managers who cook the data to win project approval – exaggerates aff benefits and causes massive cost overruns Flyvbjerg. One might add that many projects do not proceed that probably should. i. two basic types of accountability define liberal democracies: (i) public -sector accountability through transparency and public control. and (ii) private-sector accountability via competition and the market mechanism. Number 3. . In this situation. ―Survival of the unfittest: why the worst infrastructure gets built—and what we can do about it. as is common with major infrastructure projects. 1990) found similar results for transit planning in the USA. the greater its ability to self-correct after inevitable. „10 – [Bent. engineers. 1996). local officials. but so far they have had little success in achieving such realism.‖ Oxford Review of Economic Policy. because it may sound to many like an unlikely state of affairs.J. 5) that project managers should ‗provide accurate information in a timely manner‘ and they must ‗not engage in or condone behaviour that is designed to deceive others‘. It is not the best projects that get implemented. resulting in a make-believe world of The consequence is. From the late 1960's through the early 80's. p. including two of the deepest in decades." Of course. despite shocks that in the past would have surely produced marked economic contraction. has aptly put it. some say. 477). ―Survival of the unfittest: why the worst infrastructure gets built—and what we can do about it. which left millions of people out of work. pp. whereas biased forecasts may be effective in competing for funds and securing the go-ahead for a project. FedEx technology helps Procter & Gamble managers send more Crest to Wal-Mart whenever somebody buys a tube. Taken together. "The more flexible an economy. and consultants all stand to benefit from a project that looks favourable on paper and they have little incentive actively to avoid bias in estimates of benefits. organs.combined with financial innovations that allow companies to hedge their bets and. The number of part-time workers has grown. especially where large amounts of taxpayers‘ money are at stake and for projects with significant social and environmental impacts.‖ Oxford Review of Economic Policy. Local authorities. 2009. pp. 2006. but the projects that look best on paper. other things being equal. Wachs (1986. accurate forecasts may be counterproductive. and necessary infrastructure loses out – this turns the case Flyvbjerg. but what others can do to impose on project managers the checks and balances that would give managers the incentive to stop producing biased forecasts and begin to work according to their Code of Ethics. Better forecasting techniques and appeals to ethics will not do here.e the survival of the unfittest . „10 – [Bent. had they not lost out to projects with ‗better‘ misrepresentation (Flyvbjerg et misrepresentation which makes it extremely difficult to decide which projects deserve undertaking and which do not. economy over the past couple of decades. planners. like asking workers to put in more hours one week and fewer the next. National bodies. In Woodbridge. Mr. Denmark and Chair of Infrastructure Policy and Planning at Delft University of Technology.. On the dark side. results in an inverted Darwinism. All File Title – 14 Chinese factories to American shelves in just days. the question is not so much what project managers can do to reduce inaccuracy and risk in forecasting.‘ says Wachs (1989. The business cycle has certainly not been eliminated. and the managers can this . And accurate forecasts are often not an effective means for achieving this objective. Volume 25. organizational change with a focus on transparency and accountability is necessary . p. They ‗make decisions and take actions based on the best interests of society‘ (PMI. He was previously Professor of Planning at Aalborg University. as even one of the industry‘s own too many projects proceed that should not. Oxford Journals Online] In sum. The Netherlands. 4. Both studies falsify the notion that in situations with high political and organizational pressure the underestimation of costs and overestimation of benefits is caused by non -intentional technical error or optimism bias. Across the economy. may have an interest in more realistic appraisals. while the full-time work force has declined slightly. Nevertheless. local labour unions. and risks. Professor of Major Programme Management at Oxford University's Saïd Business School and is Founding Director of the University's BT Centre for Major Programme Management. the deregulation of pivotal transportation industries ." Mr.has helped mute the economy's swings. with benefits emphasized and costs and risks de-emphasized.. the UK study shows that strong interests and strong incentives exist at the project-approval stage to present projects as favourably as possible—that is. Indeed. The Netherlands. the economy endured four [recessions] of them. Both studies support the view that in such situations promoters and forecasters intentionally use the following formula in order to secure approval and funding for their projects: underestimated costs + overestimated benefits = funding Using this formula. often unanticipated disturbances. the UK and US studies both account well for existing data on cost underestimation and benefit overestimation . ‗The most effective planner. Denmark and Chair of Infrastructure Policy and Planning at Delft University of Technology. offers the clearest evidence of the benefits of increased market flexibility. After all. There have been only two recessions in the last two decades.Edgemont Debate then watch the replacement move through the supply chain from their computer screens. As argued in Flyvbjerg et al. quick reactions.344–367. Bu t there is a dark side to their work. and thus ‗showing the project at its best‘ as one interviewee said above. acknowledges.S. and others involved in major infrastructure provision have similar codes of conduct. as some dreamers suggested during the 1990's boom. Oxford Journals Online] This situation may need some explication. It is even stated in the Project Management Institute (PMI)‘s Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct (PMI. 2009. it may be agreed that project managers and other professionals involved in major infrastructure provision ought to be interested in being accurate and unbiased in their work. 2). Volume 25. such as certain parts of the Department fo r Transport and the Ministry of Finance who fund and oversee projects. that al.

unsuccessfully -. The government rarely receives good value for the dollars it spends. presidential campaign) for that sudden spike in an almost twodecade long struggle between Georgia and its two breakaway regions. mixing it up with pirates off Somalia's coast).A. Our new Africa Command. the usual military exercises with allies across Asia.S. By increasing the budget deficit. projects in reality. holds a B. hasn't led us to anything beyond advising and training local forces. and three quarters of the chronic struggles began in the last century.aprodex. Besides the recent Russia-Georgia dust-up. However. attempted prevention. They have been designed like that. Riedl. Economic growth is based on the growth of labor productivity and labor supply.. the only two potential state-on-state wars (North v. Brian M. increasing the economy's productivity rate--which often requires the application of new technology and resources-. ensuing conflict and wars -. in the sense that they are the very projects that will encounter most problems during construction and operations in terms of the largest cost overruns.Edgemont Debate File Title – 15 But the larger the cost underestimate on paper.com/article/SB10001424052748703481004574646551469288292. in Public Affairs from Princeton University. and risks of non-viability.a process wholly unrelated to global economic trends. in Economics and Political Science from the University of Wisconsin and an M. the blogosphere was ablaze with all sorts of scary predictions of. the greater the cost overrun in practice. as disasters waiting to happen . It‟s their burden to prove fantastic historical uniqueness.A. benefit shortfalls. for example.com/the-new-rules--security-remains-stable-amidfinancial-crisis-398-bl. Hermann Fellow in Federal Budgetary Affairs at The Heritage Foundation. insurgencies.‖ http://online. 8/25/‟09 (Thomas P.is the talk of the day. and liberation-themed terrorist movements.‖ Aprodex. or unfittest. we see a most familiar picture: the usual mix of civil conflicts.[13] In fact.a rerun of the Great Depression leading to world war. the usual counter-drug efforts in Latin America. and that marks the key point in which growth and job creation will continue – firms are taking on more and more workers – that will spill over to revive expert markets and increase production . and method of recovery. Iran) are both tied to one side acquiring a nuclear weapon capacity -. Zero conflicts happening today over multiple databases can be attributed to economic downturn. Everywhere else we find serious instability we pretty much let it burn. ‟10 [1/09/10. large stimulus bills often reduce long-term productivity by transferring resources from the more productive private sector to the less productive government. Ninety-three crises have included every permutation of cause. None of the more than three-dozen ongoing conflicts listed by GlobalSecurity. South Korea. the greater the benefit shortfall. ―Why Government Spending Does Not Stimulate Economic Growth: Answering the Critics. the last new entry (civil conflict between Hamas and Fatah in the Palestine) predates the economic crisis by a year. Now. contributing editor/online columnist for Esquire. then. Grover M. both up and down. http://ww w. ―The New Rules: Security Remains Stable Amid Financial Crisis. Therefore the projects that have been made to look best on paper in this manner become the worst. Certainly. occasionally pressing the Chinese -. both leading up to and following the onset of the economic crisis: e. which can be affected by how governments directly and indirectly influence the use of an economy's resources. the Russia-Georgia conflict last August was specifically timed. Barnett. it's globalization's first truly worldwide recession has had virtually no impact whatsoever on the international security landscape. Ditto for the 15 low-intensity conflicts listed by Wikipedia (where the latest entry is the Mexican "drug war" begun in 2006).html?mod=WSJ_latestheadlines] Government spending can affect long-term economic growth. as it were. And with the United States effectively tied down by its two ongoing major interventions (Iraq and Afghanistan-bleeding-into-Pakistan). However. Asset Protection Index. our involvement elsewhere around the planet has been quite modest. Israel v. Looking over the various databases . but by interesting to look back over the past year and realize how most accounts the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics was the most important external trigger (followed by the U.wsj.to do something. Indeed. 2nc miller xt NO IMPACT to growth collapse – that‟s MILLER – Ninety-three empirical examples prove it doesn‟t cause war – empiricism outweighs theory – it‟s definitionally a reflection of reality – their authors are speculating in a vacuum The current recession is not unique. 2nc jobs growing Manufacturing jobs are growing and solve both advantages – that‟s MARKIT – Newest predictions report from last month shows that manufacturing jobs are up. large stimulus bills eventually contribute to higher interest rates while dropping even more debt on future generations.can take many years or even decades to materialize. stimulus bills provide politicians with the political justification to grant tax dollars to favored constituencies. It is not short-term stimulus.surprisingly led by China and emerging markets -. and commentary regarding. And the larger the overestimate of benefits.M.aspx) When the global financial crisis struck roughly a year ago.g. senior managing director of Enterra Solutions LLC. as global economic news brightens and recovery -. Stimulus bad – government spending decreases private investment which is the only way to create growth Riedl.org can be clearly attributed to the global recession.

but still difficult to monetize. then an Infrastructure Bank is likely to create more jobs in Asia than in the United States. unless overhauled and revolutionized soon. The answer must be: most probably the US – but only if it can clean up its act. ―Where the jobs went‖. May 17 2010 ―Panel on Challenges of Applying Benefit/Cost Analysis: A Modal Perspective‖ http://tti. It was the institutions distribute political power equally in society and constrain how that power can be exercised.-based production uncompetitive and not only put American workers out of jobs but exert downward pressure on wages generally while eroding critical investments in equipment and human skills. The travel forecasts can be used to estimate reductions in vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and reductions in emissions. not China – if America can shape up. municipal. .pdf NCHO Environmental benefits are easier to measure. Until our economists and officials begin to wrestle with the need for the United States not only to stimulate its economy but to do so in ways that will lay the basis for America to increase its wealth-producing capacity and pay its way. and federal tax revenues. While environmental impacts can be measured. Despite all of the challenges that they are facing.S. No one in California took a look at even the whole state picture. and thus more conducive to innovation.S.csmonitor. let alone the national picture. April 19th. So the right question to ask is not who will be the military leader of the next century.com/Commentary/Global-Viewpoint/2012/0419/World-sDaron Acemoglu next-technology-leader-will-be-US-not-China-if-America-can-shape-up >:) But what matters for global leadership is innovation. Outsourcing turn – the plan causes it which tanks the economy and strengthens Chinese competitiveness PRESTOWITZ 2011 . Ecology Turn – the NIB‟s cost-benefit analysis model can‟t take environmental impacts into account Rich Steinman. have long promoted. OPINION: 3 reasons why China isn't overtaking the US The odds favor the US not only because it is technologically more advanced and innovative than China at the moment.com/posts/2011/07/11/where_the_jobs_went) The idea of stimulus incorporated in the standard economic models is that it will create demand for goods and services produced in America and thereby drive investment in new factories and jobs to produce more of those goods and services. But what they didn't consider was that those subsidies tend to make U. they will be an impediment to innovation.foreignpolicy.S.‖ http://www. steel so that even the initially projected savings are unlikely to be realized). and even more difficult to estimate the value of those changes. government has any responsibility for evaluating the net impact of these kinds of deals or for reducing the leakage of stimulus spending abroad and maximizing the domestic production impact of government spending. which encourage innovation and US institutions are broadly inclusive. to determine whether buying a bridge in China was really going to be a net gain for the state (as it turns out. They tend to underpin inclusive economic institutions. but demand that results in domestic production and that does not increase domestic or international debt. no one at the federal level of the U.‘ ―World's next technology leader will be US. but who will be the technological leader. and greater stimulus to create demand for things we largely import does not drive new investment or creation of new jobs in America. Inclusive political military and diplomatic leadership. It's a good idea and one that I. in the past two years the price of Chinese steel has risen much faster than that of U. They do so also because innovation ultimately depends on a country‘s institutions. 2012 (co-authors of ‗Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power. But if the decision of the state of California to have the main structural elements of the Oakland Bay Bridge made in China is a harbinger of things to come. just this past weekend President Obama called for creation of an Infrastructure Bank that would enable a dramatic ratcheting up of U. It only increases our debt.edu/group/tec/files/2011/09/benefit-cost10-proceedings. Building infrastructure like bridges is a time-honored way of creating demand in the economy that creates jobs. It is more difficult to turn these estimates into improvements in air quality. Even worse. along with others.Edgemont Debate File Title – 16 1nc competitiveness US competitiveness is inevitable and James A. which is not only the key driver of per capita income growth but also ultimately the main determinant of US that proved after Pearl Harbor how a prosperous economy can rapidly increase its military power and preparedness when push comes to shove. placing a dollar value on them is not easy. they are likely to find themselves in a continuous state of shock. and Poverty. Think about this in the wake of the recent New York Times article reporting on the new Oakland Bay Bridge being made in and imported from China. July 11.president of the Economic Strategy Institute and writes on the global economy for FP (Clyde. investment in critical infrastructure.S. investment and provide a level playing field so that the talents of a broad cross-section of society can be best deployed. and contributing to the shrinkage of the national educational base. its political institutions are extractive. Prosperity. Despite all of the resources that China is pouring into science and technology at the moment. with an income per capita more than six times that of China. Indeed. The difficulty is that we do not want to stimulate a lot more construction or finance (those were the bubbles that collapsed after all). No doubt former Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and his cabinet thought they would save about $400 million on steel by buying the bridge in China because Chinese steel production has been heavily subsidized and China's government manages its yuan to be artificially undervalued versus the dollar. Robinson. reducing state. Federal Transit Administration.tamu. http://prestowitz. and as such. What is needed is not just demand in the American economy.

Until and unless these groups gain a greater voice within their own political system. AND Daryl G. Tonn. the danger is that in particular instances it may prove no more than a placebo . containing the gathering backlash will require considerable leadership. ―Futures Sustainability‖. China succeeds in reducing the nuclear element to as to address the real danger of being a target of a nuclear strike. Futures v. attack. retired Major General of the People‘s Liberation Army. but these interests affect policy only to the extent they wield political clout.irchina. ―The Rise of U. Ecosystems are composed of countless species that are mutually dependent upon each other for nutrients directly as food or as by-products of earth-life (e. Beijing. that of retaliation against a nuclear attack. its posture. If the biodiversity of an ecosystem is substantially compromised.asp?id=403 First.S. On the contrary.‖Does Globalization Bring War or Peace?‖. Russian economic liberalization without political liberalization is unlikely to pay the strong cooperative dividends many expect. The People's Liberation Army currently possesses no modern SSBNs or long-range bombers. avoiding a possible nuclear arms race. September 25. http://www. http://www. Much will come down to the relative political influence of export-oriented American policymakers should beware claims of globalization's axiomatic pacifying effects. And thanks to the insistence of this policy based on NFU. Nuclear Primacy. the natural coalitional constituency for committed global activist policy will erode. which have been highly visible and have stood the test of time. But even so.. given such sectors' consistent history elsewhere of urging state use of threats and force to secure these interests. public support for internationalism and global engagement will face severe challenges. sectors heavily reliant on foreign direct investment and easy access to the vast Western market versus the political power of their sectoral opposites: uncompetitive state-owned enterprises. This claim is not merely rhetoric that cannot be verified. Its naval arm used to have two ballistic missile submarines. but one sank. making Russia's deepening ties to the global economy a would-be weapon rather than an avenue of restraint. 9.R. energy and mineral complexes with important holdings in the global periphery. which had such poor capabilities that it never left Chinese waters. ln The first principle is the most important because earth-life is needed to support earth-life. as some Western pundits accused. Urban Planning Prof @ Tennessee. Associate Professor of Government at Dartmouth. Faced with U.S. the minimum in its relations with other nuclear nations. Actions to bolster the former groups at the expense of the latter would be effort well spent. From the very beginning of acquiring a nuclear capability. At home. China war won‟t go nuclear – no first use Pan Zhenqiang. pending complete nuclear disarmament. As more sectors undergo structural transformation.org/en/news/view.PhD candidate in the Department of Political Science and a member of the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. where he earlier served as Director of the Institute. their extremely large destructive capabilities render nuclear weapons the only truly inhumane weapon of mass destruction and are of little other use to China. export-oriented. 6 (Keir A.S. Indeed. Unlike all the other nuclear weapon states. Professor of International Relations at the Institute for Strategic Studies. and Press. No 2. In many of the states whose behavior we most wish to alter. National Defence Un iversity of the People‘s Liberation Army of China. NJ) China's nuclear arsenal is even more vulnerable to a U. and a Chinese military that increasingly has become a de facto multi-sectoral economic-industrial conglomerate. to ensure the survival of earthlife into the distant future the earth's biodiversity must be protected. and the other. reliant on global markets -. China had no alternative to developing its own nuclear capability so Beijing vowed that having a nuclear capability would only serve this single purpose. Vol 85.alternet. Quasi-democratic Russia is a state whose principal exposure to global markets lies in oil. as carbon dioxide and oxygen). Georgetown University (P. China has a limited strategic nuclear arsenal. we seem to think of economic interdependence as a panacea. why should Beijing change it? Economic nationalism is inevitable GOLDSTONE „7 . such sectors -. China‟s nuke arsenal sucks – they can‟t use it even if they wanted to Lieber. If enough ecosystems collapse worldwide. China will prove perhaps the ultimate test of the Pax Mercatoria. a commodity whose considerable strategic coercive power the Putin regime freely invokes.‖ 2005. and contributing to the global strategic stability at large. Beijing announced that it would never be the first to use nuclear weapons under any conditions.Edgemont Debate File Title – 17 Every ecological loss reduces Earth‟s sustainability – makes long-term extinction inevitable Bruce E. size and operational doctrine. it also pledged unconditionally not to use nuclear weapons against any non-nuclear weapon states. then the cascading impact on global nutrient cycles could lead to catastrophic species extinction. Assistant professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Notre D ame.g. first strike could succeed whether it was launched as a surprise or in the midst of a crisis during a Chinese alert. nuclear blackmail in the 1950s. no. If this policy serves well its core security interests. is no longer operational. then the entire system could collapse due to destructive negative nutrient cycle feedback effects. China has never intended to use its nuclear capability to make up for the inefficiency of conventional capabilities vis-à-vis other world powers nor has China an interest in joining a nuclear arms race with other nuclear states. It is in this sense that China is NOT a nuclear weapon state in the Western sense. for example..‖ Foreign Affairs. Trade can indeed be a palliative. ―China Insistence on No -First-Use of Nuclear Weapons. Thus. The increasing international Chinese presence in the oil and raw materials extraction sectors would seem to bode ill.lack a privileged place at the political table.org/audits/62848/?page=entire) Trade creates vested interests in peace. however.internationalist. attempts to rely on the presumed constraining effects of global trade carry substantially greater risk than commonly thought. China's medium-range bomber force is similarly . A U. China‘s nuclear rationale has determined the defensive nature of its nuclear force. The oil sector has effectively merged with the state. November 2007. He is a nonresident research fellow at the Center for Peace and Security Studies.S. A few examples tell much. as even advanced sectors feel the competitive pressures of globalization. NFU highlights China‘s philosophical belief that nuclear weapons can only be used to serve one purpose. 39. too often.

It appears that China would have no warning at all of a U.File Title – 18 and vulnerable to attack. knowledgeable investors and even other experienced states.com/docview/897899921?accountid=11091> ―National Infras tructure Bank Would create More Red Tape & Federal Bureaucracy‖. <http://proxy. rather than through the creation of new government corporations and additional bureaucracy. questioned the logic of creating a National Infrastructure Bank. why not propose that these existing channels be improved and/or expedited? "If spending is thought to be deficient. "It is much more likely that efficiencies will be gained through regulatory reforms and red tape reductions.S. "the concept that a new 'government corporation' and Federal Authority will somehow enhance the ability to finance infrastructure seems untimely and entirely unnecessary. Creating a National Infrastructure Bank would duplicate existing programmatic authority. article quotes experts. These are not ready to launch on warning: their warheads are kept in storage and the missiles themselves are unfueled. China's entire intercontinental nuclear arsenal consists of 18 stationary single-warhead ICBMs. "If current levels of credit availability for existing federal transportation credit programs are deemed to be insufficient by some. the bureaucracy is already in place to finance public infrastructure projects and an additional federal layer in the form of a new 'government corporation' will add no value. Senior Research Fellow with the Heritage Foundation. States can choose to work with the existing federal bureaucracy or seek the assistance of private financial institutions. According to unclassified U. Especially when considering that many of the proclaimed new ideas encompassed by the Authority already appear to closely parallel the provisions of other existing federal financing programs. grow the government and add more federal layers to a process already too bogged down in red tape. which corrodes the missiles after 24 hours.) The lack of an advanced early warning system adds to the vulnerability of the ICBMs." said Ridley.proquest. Fueling them is estimated to take two hours.library. why not simply provide more grants through the existing mechanism rather than going through the costly and complicated process of setting up and operating a new federal transportation entity. "Quite simply.S. wouldn't there be better uses for this money than a redundant bureaucracy?" . 2011 (Federal Information and News Dispatch Inc. submarine-launched missile attack or a strike using hundreds of stealthy nuclear-armed cruise missiles. "In addition to recognizing the apparent federal duplications of the proposed National Infrastructure Bank. . which President Obama's budget estimates would cost upwards of $270 million to create and staff? "In this era of fiscal austerity and yawning budget deficits. government assessments. Ron Utt. Oct 12 2011. RR) Today's witnesses concurred that infrastructure proposals should focus on reducing the size of the federal bureaucracy and streamlining the project approval process. Edgemont Debate unimpressive: the bombers are obsolete Bureaucracy guts solvency FIND. (China's ICBMs use liquid fuel. Oklahoma Department of Transportation Secretary Gary Ridley testified that.edu/login?url=http://search. most States already have or can easily obtain the expertise necessary to facilitate infrastructure banks and other innovative transportation financing methodologies.georgetown. a Federal Research Group.

Edgemont Debate File Title – 19 .

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