International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp.
Structural Soundness of Buildings
M. J. Monteiro N. J. Pathak
Student, M.E. (Structures), MIT College of Engg. Pune,-411038, firstname.lastname@example.org Professor, Dept. of Applied Mechanics, MIT College of Engg. Pune ,-411038, email@example.com ABSTRACT: This paper deals with methods of estimating the soundness of existing structures whose life has crossed the age of 30 years. As we know concrete is widely used as a construction material because of its high strength-cost ratio in many applications. Concrete constructions are generally expected to give trouble free service throughout its intended design life. However, these expectations are not realized in many constructions because of structural deficiency, material deterioration, unanticipated over loadings or physical damage and thus Civil structures like buildings, dams, bridges etc are subjected to continuous deterioration over the years. This extent of damage or deterioration greatly depends on the quality of work at the construction stage. The deterioration of buildings can be a result of various factors including fire damage, frost action, chemical attack, corrosion of steel etc during the life span of the structure. The investigation of soundness is thus essential for finding the present serviceability of the structure and its scope for future developments or for the change in its utilization. Such an investigation can be carried out using the following methods: a) Visual examination b) Non Destructive Testing c) Partial Destructive Testing. Soundness estimation becomes essential for buildings hit by an earthquake, a bomb blast or any other calamity. KEY WORDS: Concrete, soundness, deterioration, non destructive testing, structural audit. INTRODUCTION In India there are many old structures and some of them are of great importance. The strength of these old structures reduces in the due course of time because of its usage, input of poor quality construction materials, environmental conditions, improper practice or poor workmanship. Also several factors such as plastic deformation, interaction with the environment, initial design, construction flaws and natural disasters develop distress in the structure which may result in development of cracks, corrosion in reinforcement, leakage and seepage. The final soundness of a building can vary due to numerous reasons and thus, only proper precautions at the initial stage and good maintenance in the later life span of the structure can result in a technically sound building. To ensure if buildings are sound requires the active participation of building safety and fire prevention officials, architects, builders, engineers, and others in the construction industry, as well as property owners. Determining the root cause of the defect directly depends on the areas of the building that have been affected. Defects in the foundation, floor, or wall can be the direct result of soil issues, water issues, or even workmanship issues. Earthquakes, tropical cyclones, and other natural disasters can also damage the structure of the building and cause it to collapse. This paper deals with the study of the principal problems like the degree of deterioration of the structural members which is one of the governing factors for poor performance of the structure, their likely causes, and approaches to their remedies. If the further use of such deteriorated structures is continued it may endanger the lives of the occupants and the surrounding habitation. As demolition and re-construction of these structures maybe a very costly affair and strengthening the existing structure may be a favorable option. Faulty concrete
repair can worsen structural problems therefore remedial work should only be undertaken by an expert NEED TO EVALUATE SOUNDNESS OF EXISTING STRUCTURES It is generally carried out on existing structures for the following reasons, for: 1. Assessing the load carrying capacity of building. 2. Feasibility of change in occupancy. 3. Feasibility for construction of additional floors. 4. Assessment of earthquake resistance (As per revised codal provisions) in old structures. 5. Feasibility for structural modifications. 6. Feasibility for placing higher capacity equipments on building. 7. Assessment of structural soundness periodically. STRUCTURAL AUDIT OF BUILDINGS Structural Audit is essential as it refers to health check up of building. It’s basically for ensuring that the building and its premises are safe and under no risks. As a building gets older & older it shows signs of wear and tear due to ageing, use, misuse or overuse, exposure to the weathering/environment and structurally unplanned modifications and additions , which do affect the health of the building significantly. In the initial service life of any structure, there are no problems that are faced by the owner but as soon as one monsoon season passes after another the series of troubles never cease. Conducting Structural Audit Structural Audit is done by appointing an experienced and expert Consulting Structural Engineer registered with the Municipal Corporations or chartered Engineers. The owner shall give his brief of use or operation in the.
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can be finalized. issued by a structural engineer registered with BMC.678
M. they will have to shell out a fine of Rs 25.
Fig 2 Structurally damaged beam of apartment. compound wall. the part of implementing the various renovations and strengthening techniques suggested by the concerned authorities and the experts. External defects of building. One may.e. building and old data. 5. But as a building starts to age. Condition of safety is known hence further use. a spring controlled mass with a constant energy is made to hit concrete surface to rebound back. is measured on a graduated scale. it is mandatory that if the age of a building is 15 to 30 years. J. details of modifications/ additions etc. which is a measure of surface hardness. N. There are many buildings which have collapsed in the past killing many precious/innocent lives. Helps maintenance team / contractors to understand the exact nature of distress before undertaking the structural repairs. 677-680
. It will be binding on owners to carry out corrective repairs to the satisfaction of the commissioner. to the structural consultant A structural audit broadly consists of two types of surveys. 77 for co-operative housing societies. October 2011.
Structural Audit of Buildings. staircase. The extent of rebound. it start showing different signs of distress. A concrete with low strength and low stiffness will absorb more energy to yield in a lower rebound value (Table 1). Cost effective solutions can be worked out based on report. The external survey covers building faces. Monteiro. If they fail to do so within six months. Important remedial and preventive measures can be taken. 4. pp. projections etc) and ancillary structures (pump room. structural audit report can still be prepared based on the observations in the flats that were surveyed. 2. drawings. Advantages of Structural Audit 1. This measured value is designated as Rebound Number (a rebound index). It is necessary to take the required action in time so that the building is protected from severe damage at a later stage. however. the actual concern lies beyond the audit report i. The internal survey covers individually owned units such as apartments. If the number of such flats is small (say about 10%). water tanks etc).
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 3. For any corrective repairs suggested by the commissioner. 6. If found unsafe. Pathak
Fig 1. will have to be submitted within a year after a building completes 30 years. common areas (Fig 1) (stilts. sell etc. go for it even earlier if one suspects the condition of the building to be bad. the owner or occupants will be asked to submit the structural stability certificates again after a specific period suggested by him.A Norm According to the model bye-law no. a structural audit must be carried out once in five years and for buildings older than 30 years it should be carried out once in three years. Cause of Concern The cause of concern is not alone regarding.000. No 06 SPL. and craftsmanship. Volume 04. Easier to convince the owner/user to get cooperation for repairs if any. he has been given the authority to issue a notice to the owner to submit a structural stability certificate within 30 days from the date of notice. Statutory report available for submission to Corporation Factory Inspector etc. shops etc. Perhaps monsoon/ post monsoon is the best time to commission a structural audit since the seepage is more evident at that time. The certificate. (Fig 2) However. terrace. character. sometimes some units are locked or inaccessible. whether or not the audit is done. Old buildings may not reach the same standards as modern buildings in some respects but they make up for that by having qualities that many new buildings do not such as history. buy. RESIDUAL STRENGTH CALCULATION BY NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING Rebound Hammer Test When the plunger of rebound hammer is pressed against the surface of concrete. J.
and propagates through the concrete.0.0 km/s Concrete quality Very good to excellent Good to very good. The first waves to reach the receiving transducer are the longitudinal waves. The carbonation process is also called de-passivation. IS 13311 Part-1 explains the procedure and the interpretation of the test results. e. When the pulse (Table 2) generated is transmitted into the concrete from the transducer using a liquid coupling material such as grease or cellulose paste. No 06 SPL. October 2011.3. Electronic timing circuits enable the transit time T of the pulse to be measured.Structural Soundness Of Buildings
Table 1 Quality of Concrete from Rebound Values Comparative Hardness Average Rebound >40 30-40 20-30 <20 0 Quality of Concrete Very Good Good Fair Poor and/or delaminated Very Poor and/or delaminated
IS 13311 Part-2-1992 as well as BS: 6089-81 and BS: 1881: Part-202 explains the standard procedure for test and correlation between concrete cube crushing strength and rebound number. Carbonation penetrates below the exposed surface of concrete extremely slowly. in the atmosphere in the presence of moisture. (2)
where: v is the longitudinal pulse velocity (1).
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. it undergoes multiple reflections at the boundaries of the different material phases within the concrete. calcium carbonate.g.
where. which include both longitudinal and shear waves. t is the time for carbonation (2). d is the concrete cover. c) Presence of reinforcing steel d) Moisture content of the concrete. T is the time taken by the pulse to traverse that length. k is the permeability.0 km/s 3.5-4.0 km/s 3. which are converted into an electrical signal by a second transducer. Longitudinal pulse velocity (in km/s or m/s) is given by: (1)
Fig 3. Volume 04. slight porosity may exist Satisfactory but loss of integrity is suspected Poor and loss of integrity exist
CARBONATION DEPTH MEASUREMENT TEST Carbonation of concrete occurs when the carbon dioxide. A complex system of stress waves develops. reacts with hydrated cement minerals to produce carbonates. pp.5 km/s <3. Table 2 General Guidelines for Concrete Quality based on UPV Pulse Velocity >4. L is the path length. Ultra-sonic Pulse Velocity
The pulse velocity in concrete may be influenced by: a) Path length b) Lateral dimensions of the specimen tested. 677-680
. Ultra Sonic Pulse Velocity Test Ultrasonic scanning is a recognized non-destructive evaluation test to qualitatively assess the homogeneity and integrity of concrete.
C. 2. October 2011. Alkali Aggregate Reaction and Corrosion should be avoided at the construction stage itself. J. parallel and square and sometimes with embedded pieces of reinforcement. and the average taken.
Problems like Sulphate Attack. at right angle and then tested in compression in a moist condition as per BS 1881: Part 4: 1970 or ASTM C 42-77. a more direct assessment on strength can be made by core sampling and testing. The cores are visually described and photographed.”  International Atomic Energy Agency. capped with molten sulphur to make its ends plane.Handbook on Repair and Rehabilitation of R. Pathak for helping me complete my paper.  Nondestructive Test Methods for Evaluation of Concrete in Structures. On freshly extracted cores the core is sprayed with phenolphthalein solution. In this manner. Implementing the various renovations and strengthening techniques suggested by the concerned authorities and the experts should be done at the earliest.dard: 456: 2000. usually with its ends being uneven.Plain and Reinforced Concrete – Code of Practice (Fourth Revision). J. presence of steel etc. Structures. The solution is then made up to 100 cc by adding distilled water. N. 677-680
.Rebound Hammer. Monteiro.2R-98. giving specific attention to compaction. Core Sampling and Testing While rebound hammer. The core should then be soaked in water.  Indian Standard: 13311:1992 (Part 2) NDT methods of Test.680
M.C.  Indian Standard: 516: 1959.ACI 228. 3. Vienna (2002).  SP: 16-“Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS: 456. Pathak
General Procedure for Carbonation Depth Measurement The 1% phenolthalein solution is made by dissolving 1gm of phenolthalein in 90 cc of ethanol. which is the backbone of any building.  Indian Standard: 13311:1992 (Part 1) NDT methods of Test.
4. Durgesh Rai (2004) IITK GSDMA Guide lines for Seismic Evaluation and Strengthening of Existing Buildings. pp. Cores are usually cut by means of a rotary cutting tool with diamond bits.1978. Non-destructive testing should be carried out for buildings found deteriorated and damaged over time.  Dr. a cylindrical specimen is obtained. parallel.  Indian Stan. distribution of aggregate. 5. the depth of the uncoloured layer (the carbonated layer) from the external surface is measured to the nearest mm at 4 or 8 positions.”
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. J. One has to make sure the waterproofing system is in place. Pullout and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests give indirect evidence of concrete quality. REFERENCES  Cpwd . No 06 SPL. It is advisable to monitor the building health periodically by taking a professional opinion.“Method of test for strength of concrete.Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity. Leakage weakens your RCC frame. Volume 04. CONCLUSIONS: 1. N. Guidebook on Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete Structures.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am really grateful to our college institution and our faculty members and my guide Mrs.