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Lecturer:

Lars Andersen, MSc, PhD, Associate Professor

Department of Civil Engineering, Division of Structural Mechanics

A lb

Aalborg U

University,

i it S Sohngaardsholmsvej

h d h l j 57

57, DK

DK-9000

9000 A Aalborg

lb

Phone: 9940 8455 | E-mail: la@civil.aau.dk

www.wind.civil.aau.dk → Teaching Activities → Finite Element Design

Understand the basic concepts in Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

Use a FEA program (STAAD.Pro 2007)

Know

K the

th basic

b i tterms and

d algorithms

l ith b

behind

hi d th

the analysis

l i

Be able to analyse large complex structures

Come up with realistic dimensions of structural elements.

Contents of the lecture 2

ﻩWhat is Finite-Element Analysis (FEA)?

ﻩHistoric overview

ﻩWhy use FEA?

p and output

ﻩInput p from an FEA

ﻩHow does FEM work?

ﻩExample in STAAD.Pro

ﻩExercise: Learn to use STAAD.Pro (plane-frame problem)

Short Historic Overview of FEM 3

Approximately 40 years old

NASA developed NASTRAN in the 1960s

First College Course in FEM was offered in 1970

In the 1970s, FEM was limited to large corporations with

expensive mainframe computers

In the 1980s, “powerful” desktop computers made FEM an

indispensable engineering tool

In the 1990s, more complex elements are introduced,

optimization capabilities are integrated

integrated, and CAD programs are

used for modelling complex structures

g y the method was developed

Originally, p for the analysis

y of

stresses in structures – but today FEM is used to analyse heat

transfer, fluid flow, electric and magnetic fields etc.

Why use FEA? Simple Statically Determinate System 4

... approximated

i t db by statically

t ti ll d determinate

t i t system

t

Why use FEA? Simple Statically Indeterminate System 5

... approximated

i t db by statically

t ti ll iindeterminate

d t i t system

t

Why use FEA? Complex Structure 6

Why use FEA? Load combinations 7

Discrete Versus Continuous System 8

Prototype = reality

Input and Output from an FEA 9

Input:

ﻩDimensions

Di i off the

h structure

ﻩCross-section types (circular, rectangular, I-profile, ...)

ﻩMaterial properties (wood, steel, concrete, glass, ...)

ﻩSupports (fixed, free, moving, ...)

ﻩLoads (concentrated, line, surface, combinations)

Output:

ﻩDeformation components (translation, rotation)

ﻩSection force curves, reactions (shear, normal, moment)

ﻩStrains and stresses (shear, normal)

ﻩFulfilment of design criteria (Eurocode, ...)

ﻩEigenmodes (dynamic resonance risk, ...)

Eigenmodes/Eigenfrequencies 10

Eigenmodes/Eigenfrequencies 11

2000/2002

Eigenmodes/Eigenfrequencies 12

FEA Programs 13

ﻩABAQUS (www.simulia.com)

ﻩCOSMOSWorks (SolidWorks) (www.cosmosm.com)

ﻩFEMLAB (www.comsol.dk)

ﻩSTAAD.Pro (www.bentley.com)

ﻩANSYS Structural (www.ansys.com)

ﻩetc.

etc

How Does FEA work? Dividing the structure into elements 14

ﻩFrom the user input, a given structure is divided into small elements (finite elements)

(done partly by user and partly by program)

ﻩEach element is assigned material properties (done by user)

ﻩEach element’s

element s mechanical behaviour is defined by a set of differential equations

from the choice of element type and material properties (done by program)

How Does FEA work? Matrix Equations for the Elements are Found 15

arrangedd iinto

t a matrix

t i fformulation

l ti suitable

it bl ffor computer-

t

aided solutions (done by program)

How Does FEA work? Matrix Equation for the Global System is Assembled 16

equations

ti d

defined

fi d ffrom th

the placement

l t off th

the respective

ti

elements (done by program)

ﻩFrom this the global structural equation is obtained

(done by program)

How Does FEA work? Load and Boundary Conditions are Applied 17

(d

(done by user))

b

ﻩThe boundary conditions are incorporated into the system of

differential equations (done by program)

How Does FEA work? The Structural Matrix Equation is Solved 18

ﻩThe displacement (and rotations) of all nodes are found from solving

th system

the t off equations

ti (done

(d by program))

b

ﻩDisplacements at intermediate points are found from interpolation of

nodal values (done by program)

How Does FEA work? Stresses and Strains are found 19

ﻩStresses are found from a constitutive relation (done by program)

How Does FEA work? The design criteria are checked 20

ﻩThe structure is modified to fulfil criteria and a new analysis

is made (done by user)

Example – Analytical Solution 21

Structural system:

Analytical solution:

STAAD.Pro – Overview 22

Editor

Add beam

Mark beam

starting point of a beam

Menu S

Snap node

d

STAAD.Pro – Overview 23

General,

General D t b

Database

property,

support,

l d

load

STAAD.Pro – Overview 24

Analyse/print

All

STAAD.Pro – Script file 25

Node coordinates

Member definition

M t i ld

Material definition

fi iti

Section assignment

Material assignment

Support assignment

Load assignment

Analysis definition

STAAD.Pro – Analysis Analyze Mode 26

STAAD.Pro – Results 27

Double-click

section

displacement

Node displacement

Reactions

Section forces

Example – Numerical Result from STAAD.Pro 28

Analytical solution:

Today's Problem 29

Plane bridge

Determine

ete e tthe

epprofile

o e types from

o tthe

e de

deformation

o at o ccriteria

te a ((1/200

/ 00 o

of spa

span).

)

Change the supports and determine the profile types in the same manner.

Get familiar with the p

program.

g ((Use the menu Geometry/Split

y p Beam to

divide the vertical beam into 3 for easy applying the load)

Today's Problem 30

(F)ixed, (P)ined, (F)ixed (B)ut (direction) (Global deformation), local (x,y)-coordinates

(x,y) coordinates

+

FB P F IPE160 HE200B y-dir

di y-dir

di x-dir

di

(Fx,Mz) 139.2 mm 165.6 mm 33.8 mm

x=4.167 x=5.833 y=2.85+1.45

FB P F

(Fx,Mz)

F F F

P P P

50 mm 50 mm

50 mm

Maximum allowed deformation 1/200 of span = 50 mm

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