Company Officer Flash Cards Ch.

F: Making the transition requires that new officer know the following elements: B:  Understand the importance of the position of company officer  Recognize the challenges, expectations and solutions created by the transition  Know the responsibilities of a company officer F: The Company Officer performs the following functions: B:  Provides leadership  Acts as a role model  Gives advice  Provides representation for members to the administration  Negotiates conflicts  Applies counseling or coaching when necessary The company officer may interact with the public by providing services such as the following:  Issuing burning permits  Inspecting facilities  Providing public fire and life-safety education  Investigating suspicious fires  Providing emergency care to victims of hazardous incidents Challenges that a new officer will encounter consist of learning and applying concepts such as the following:      Leadership Ethics Supervision Responsibility Authority

The difference between the two forms of supervision is: That station life is relationship-oriented while the emergency is taskedoriented and based on knowledge, skills, abilities of members of the unit To overcome personal challenges, the new officer must perform the following actions:  Commit to the responsibilities, duties, and requirements of the supervisory position- Learn about, be interested in and be dedicated to the position  Show loyalty to the organization- Show respect/loyalty to subordinates by listening to concerns, loyalty towards company personnel by giving them a voice to share concerns, ideas, etc.  Support all types of education & training: All supervisors perform: Stewards of the position, that they hold, Teachers of those they supervise, students of the positions to which they aspire  Guard conversations  Accept criticism graciously & accept praise, honors and advancement modestly  Lead by example  Praise in public; discipline in private To overcome challenges & expectations, a new company officer will have to consider the following solutions:  Communicate effectively  Apply appropriate supervisory techniques  Manage effectively  Project a command presence  Develop an appropriate leadership style.  Show respect for others  Be loyal to the company, organization & community  Be a positive & ethical role model at all times  Live by personal and professional code of ethics  Set high yet attainable standards  Value diversity in people/situations  Praise accomplishments

 Listen to others  Commit to education & training  Remain humble Have responsibilities to the following people or groups:  Organization  Public  Profession  Family  Themselves Company Officer Duties:  Human resources management  Community & government relations  Administration  Inspection & investigation  Emergency service delivery  Health & Safety Human Resources Management- COs must be able to perform the following duties involving HR Management  Provide effective supervision for both emergency & nonemergency activities  Assign tasks  Evaluate personnel performance  Provide company level training activities  Administer policies & procedures efficiently & equitably  Recommend actions when situations exceed their authority or ability  Act as a project manager in certain situations  Provide professional development opportunities for members  Initiate or assist with personnel transfers, pay, benefits paperwork bullshit  Evaluate personnel performance & ensure that employees perform to the best of their abilities

Community & Government Relations  A level I Fire Officer must be able to respond to citizen inquires & complaints in an efficient & courteous manner.Duties include:  Secure incident scene  Preserve evidence  Interview witnesses and emergency personnel  Notify a fire investigator when the situation warrants it During an act of terrorism/illegal drug lab the following actions:  Notify the law enforcement  Designate a crime scene  Maintain security  Conduct a preliminary investigation  Determine the point of origin/cause Emergency Service Delivery-Following duties in addition to normal stuff  Develop pre-incident plans for multiunit operations  Assign resources to effectively control incidents  Conduct post-incident analyses using information gathered from all responding units Health & Safety. The officer must be able to present public fire and life-safety educational programs for the benefit of the community Inspection & Investigation. requires the following actions:  Apply health & safety standards daily  Implement safety-related policies & procedures  Monitors personnel to ensure that safety guidelines are followed  Report all situations that involve job-related injuries or fatalities  Act as a role model by personally adhering to accepted health & safety practices .Ensuring the health & safety of all personnel is an essential responsibility & duty for all fire officers.

Bases theory on average working believing work is natural . guiding. overseeing or controlling the activities & behavior of employees who are assigned to a particular supervisor Managing  Act of controlling. monitoring or directing a project. among others the following:  Basic Leadership style.The behavioral theory of leadership was developed in the 1940s & includes several styles & theories. and administering through the use of personal behavioral traits of personality characteristics that motivate employees to the successful completion of an organizational goals Behavioral Leadership.Includes charismatic. discipline or persuasion Leading  Act of controlling. leadership is essential for:  Using resources efficiently  Ensuring a safe and healthy environment  Preventing interpersonal disputes that can weaken a unit’s effeteness Supervising  Act of directing.Bases theory on that average worker disliking work  Theory Y.Includes autocratic. directing. conducting.Chapter 2 In nonemergency operations and during daily work activities. including.Believes that no single best style exists  Contemporary leadership styles. situation or organization through the use of authority.Includes job-centered and employee-centered models  Contingency leadership theory. democratic & laissezfaire categories  Two-Dimensional leadership styles. transformational & symbolic theories  Theory X. program.

Factors that affect the success or failure of a particular leadership style includes answers to the following questions: o How good is the relationship between the leader & subordinates? . The leader leaves employees to make all the decisions & does not supervise them at all. Theory Z. This style is appropriate for emergency operations but lacks effectiveness in daily operations Democratic:  The leader includes employees in decision making-process & allows them to work with the least amount if supervision necessary.Bases theory on involved workers performing without supervision Autocratic:  The leader tells subordinates what to do and how to do it with little or no input from them. Appropriate for routine station or community task…however if it is the dominate leadership style used it can lead to loss of respect from followers & has potential for a challenge from a strong informal leader…never use on the fireground. Application of this theory requires that the situation be matched to the leadership style. This is the dominant leadership style used. Two-Dimensional Leadership Style  It is represented by a four-quadrant chart that compares the degree of job structure to the degree of employee consideration (also referred to as job-centered and employee centered) Contingency Leadership Theory  Develop in the 1950s & is based on the belief that there is no single best leadership style. it may result in significant challenges from subordinates. This style is appropriate for both day-to day & special emergency ops such as Haz-Mat or tech rescue where knowledge is more important than rank Laissez-faire  Means allow to do.

 Because of the their inherent dislike of work. Theory X Leader believes:  The average worker is inherently lazy. True transformational leadership is a rare quality. Leaders have strong personalities. This leader works to involve followers in the change process challenge them to attain their full potential. and it is sometimes difficult to separate the personality of the leader from that of the organization. Transformational Contemporary Leadership Style  Depends on continuous learning. dislikes work and will avoid it whenever possible. Transactional Contemporary Leadership Style  Involves an exchange between a leader and followers in which followers perform tasks effectively in exchange for rewards provided by the leader. Leadership starts at the top of the org and extends downward to the 1st line supervisor. innovation and change within the organization. most workers must be coerced into performing adequately by threats of punishment  The average workers prefers to be closely supervised & shuns responsibility because of a general lack of ambition .o Is the task structured or unstructured? o Is the leader working form a position of strong or weak power? Charismatic Contemporary Leadership Style  Inspires follower loyalty and creates enthusiastic vision that others work to attain. and create follower satisfaction and growth while still meeting organizational goals. Employees & subordinates have full faith in leadership. It is a style that can be used by 1st line supervisors & middle –level managers who have authority or ability to provide rewards Symbolic Contemporary Leadership Style  Bases theory on a strong organizational culture that holds common values and beliefs..

Difficult to change old patterns . but with proper leadership. Theory X leaders are theoretically more concerned with production or the results of labor & believe that they must constantly push their workers to perform because workers are not self motivated Theory Y Leader believes:  The average worker does NOT inherently dislike work.. One problem w/ Theory Z leadership is resistance to change. planning. in fact workers feel work can be natural as play or rest  Workers will perform adequately with self-direction & selfcontrol without coercion  Workers will support org objectives if they associate those objectives with their personal goals  The average worker leans not only to accept responsibility but in fact. Spend great deal of time together resulting in brotherhood. teamwork. ingenuity & imagination is ever harnessed. also learns to seek responsibility  Only a small part of the workers intelligence. etc. workers will excel  Y leaders are theoretically more concerned with people & believe that workers will be motivated to produce because it is human nature unless they are stiffed by management Theory Z Leader believes:  Involved workers are the key to increased productivity & that each worker can perform autonomously because workers are trustworthy  Leadership style that focuses on the people  Employees remaining with the company for life  Close relationship between work & social life  Workers goals to produce economic success nurtures togetherness  Participative approach to decision making Theory Z:  In place in fire service because operations involve personal commitment.

Theory Z Weakness:  The leader us expected to alter the situation to meet the style rather than letting the style to meet the situations.or incorporate new ways of doing things. The leader actions begins from autocratic end of the continuum and continues as follows:  Makes the decision & announces it without discussion or employee involvement (Tell) – Emergency-scene ops  Makes the decision & then sells it to employees based on why it is the orgs best interest (Sell)  Presents ideas to members & invites their questions (Consult)  Presents a tentative decision to members that is subject to change (Consult)  Presents the problems to member. Theory Z fails if workers do not exhibit the total unity & commitment to the organization & each other that is required to be continuously successful Leadership-Continuum Theory  Used to determine which leadership style ranging from autocratic to democratic should be applied to the situation (not utilizing laissez-faire) Can be applied to fire service for correct situation Leadership-Continuum Theory Weaknesses  Requires the leader to be a good judge if situations and people in order to select the appropriate style of leadership  Assumes that leader has all the information necessary to make a decision or to act  Assumes that there are no other external political or social forces than can effect the situation  Oversimplifies a complex situation by making it into a twodimensional situation When Leadership-Continuum Theory is applied it can become 2/3 of the balanced leadership continuum. asks for suggestions & then makes the decision based on the best recommendation (Consult) . However these can be overcame through training.

excellence.Leader asks for suggestions from subordinates o Achievement-oriented. composed of situational factors. Principle-Centered Leadership  Theory states that the leader uses these values to guide internal/external personal relations. The leader determines which of the following four leadership styles best applies to the situation: o Directive. skills and good work habits Level 2 leader:  Contributing team member. faith Level 1 Leader:  Highly capable individual. Defines the limits on a decision & asks members to make the decision (Share)  Sets limitations & allows members to make all decisions without interface (Share) Path-Goal Theory  Based on employers perception of the unit’s goals & objectives. Person who makes productive contributions through talent. loyalty. It suggests that there are certain core ethical values on which individuals base decisions & their own lives. respect. make decisions. Contributes individual capabilities to achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others in group setting Level 3 leader: . create policy and determine success… Such as integrity.Leader shows concern for subordinates o Participative.Leader gives specific guidance to subordinates o Supportive. knowledge.Leader establishes high goals and expects high performance from subordinates Principle-Centered Leadership  Focuses on the use of basic values or principles to lead an organization.

Telling:  Uses autocratic approach Selling:  Uses refined autocratic approach that involves convincing members that the task is appropriate & justified Delegating:  Uses limits set by leader & allows members to determine how task will be accomplished The most basic of leadership traits can be summarized in five concepts:  Sees opportunities that others do not  Identifies challenges early  Communicates effectively . The maturity of an employee (follower readiness) is base on the following two elements:  First the ability (determined by knowledge. Commitment & motivation determine the willingness level. Competent Manager: Person who organizes people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives Level 4 leader:  Effective leader: Person who catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a cleat & compelling vision. skills & experience) of the employee to perform the task  Second the willingness of the employee to perform the task. stimulating higher performance standards Level 5 leader:  Executive: Person who builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility & professional willpower.

leaders ask what & why  Managers focus on the system. leaders challenge the status quo . company or unit. Communicates  Involves not only being able express ideas but clearly but also being able to listen to interpret feedback from others who are either internal or external to the org. leaders focus on people  Managers ensure that things are done right. service area. leaders ensure that the right things are done  Managers maintain. Plans for success  Involves generating plans. Plans for success  Builds trust with others Sees opportunities:  Involves having a vision that views situations from all angles while still understanding that tradition can provide direction Identifies challenges:  Involves recognizing potential problematic situations ranging from personality conflicts to political intrigue that may confront the workgroup. implementing them. leaders develop  Managers rely on control. leaders have a long term perspective  Managers accept the status quo. & profession Difference between managers & leaders:  Managers administer. leaders inspire trust  Managers have short-term perspective. evaluating their effectiveness Building trust  Creates an environment of mutual trust not only within the org but also within the community. leaders innovate  Managers ask how & when.

Example Hazmat or tech rescue guy where the formal leader will accede to the person w/ knowledge. Legitimate Power . Expert Power:  Power is based on one’s person perception that another’s knowledge & expertise can help in the first person’s endeavors. leaders have an eye on the horizon  Managers are the classic good soldier. even if that person does not have the most authority. which is one’s perception that they have power because of a relationship with someone who does have power. termination. Leaders who have or perceived to have this power can use it to motivate their subordinates to be more productive Examples: Raise/bonus. Perceived power increases in indirect relation to the amount of rewards an employee sees a leader or supervisor controlling. Another form of ID Power is referent or personal power. Identification Power  Power is derived from someone’s desire to identify with & emulate others. suspension. This power will not be required if the officers is respected & trusted to make the right decisions. the one with the most knowledge has the most power. Examples: Verbal or written reprimand for substandard work performance. In any given situation. Managers have an eye on the bottom line. trust/respect Coercive Power:  Power is based on subordinates’ perceptions of leaders authority to punish. Ex: Celebrities selling shit. Knowledge is power. leaders are their own people  Managers are copies. promotion. leaders are originals Reward Power:  Power is based on one’s person’s perception of another ability to grant rewards.

Make the decision 6. it is necessary to have the following 6 personality attributes:  Self-confidence  Trustworthiness  Consistency  Responsibility  Acceptance  Expertise Along with the personality characteristics needed for command presence leaders can take the following eight steps to create a command presence 1. Know the strategy & tactics required to resolve the situation 4. Evaluate the decision Chapter 3 Supervision Supervision: . Know what resources are available to apply to the situation 3. Power is derived because of the organizational structure of the department/org (also called org authority or position power) Those who rely on their legitimate power or position power alone are not likely to be successful Legitimate Power is derived from three sources:  Shared values  Acceptance of a social structure  Sanction of a legitimizing agent To achieve command presence. Implement the decision 8. Know what the situation is 2. Take responsibility for the decision 7. Listen to all points of view 5.

or controlling the activities & behavior of employees who are assigned to a particular supervisor Managing  Act if controlling. directing. administering through the use od personal behavioral traits or personality characteristics that motivate employees to the successful completion of an orgs goals Following:  Act of being a team player while working toward a common goal Span of Control  Generally the best span of control consists of 3 to 7 subordinates with 5 being the preferred number As a 1st level supervisor. a company officer has the following basic challenges that are common to most supervisory positions:  Establishing priorities  Anticipating problems  Establishing & communicating goals & objectives . Includes the processes of directing. or directing a project. guiding. program. monitoring. situation or org through use of authority. Supervising:  Act of directing. discipline or persuasion Leading:  Act of controlling. and orgs. situations. Level II Fire Officers are often assigned management duties of administering a function such as public fire and life safety education or logistics in a small dept or managing an incident scene involving multiple units or agencies. conducting. programs. overseeing and controlling the activities of other individuals and is basic to the successful completion of duties assigned to the Level I Fire Officer Management:  Refers to the administration and control of projects. overseeing.

Application of efficient organizational skills  Included in this category are the completion of reports & records. team development & management techniques  Creating job interest within a unit by motivating group members through dedication. positive attitude. commitment and perseverance The company officer should recognize that activities can be categorized into three levels of priority:  Emergency response  Preparation for emergency response  Organizational duties Mental preparation for emergency response:  Be mentally & emotionally prepared to respond to any type of situation Direct preparation for emergency response:  Include training. station maintenance and other admin duties of the officer Supervisors can involve employees in the process of establishing goals and objectives in one of the following three methods:  Simply require the employee accomplish a specific task  Delegate tasks  Use democratic leadership principles Forming:  Employees are uncertain of their roles in the group in this initial stage. . This phase is critical within the team-development process & one in which a co officer can have a significant effect. tools. obtaining PEP. drilling as a team the apparatus. pre-incident planning etc. They are not certain that can trust or work with the other members. Involving employees in the process of establishing goals & objectives  Creating an effective team from the unit by fostering a positive environment through the use of sound leadership.

Includes acknowledgment of the group’s accomplishments & participation of individual members. the group is a true team w/ leadership shared by all its members: Factorso The CO officer must monitor progress in this area because team develop certain behaviors & attitudes that can work to destroy team concept o It is critical for leaders to insist that team members act & treat each others as equals o Involving all team members in team activities to the level that can be expected is critical to team growth Adjourning:  Final stage is planned (and sometimes unplanned) termination of the group task. Diversity crap is handed out Storming:  Conflict may result at this stage as members jockey for informal leadership or attempt to exert their own individual influence over the group. Debrief. Most critical aspect of successful team development is to reduce the amount of time the group spends in the storming phase Norming:  The group establishes its own set of norms& values that each member accepts and adheres to. The members become closer more cohesive Performing:  The supervisor works to maintain team spirit as the group moves toward accomplishing its objectives.The leadership style is directive by outlining the process & establishing the group structure. At this point. what is expectations of them/the leader . The leader is supportive in this stage and actively listens to members & provides explanations for decisions. A company officer can create an effective team by adhering to the following principles:  Tell each of the members how they fit into the team.

State that all solutions will be considered but the best one will be adopted. explain deviations from the plan  Work w/ individual team members to make suggestions  Encourage team members to be open and honest  Allow team to establish measurements for success (within the policies & procedures of the org)  Take advantage of the existing diversity of team members. Have frequent planning meetings w/ the team to determine progress. it is important for the company officer to begin with small attainable projects. etc. Identify the problem or decision that must be made. behavioral or career problems that are adversely affecting performance Mentoring:  Process used to prepare capable individuals for advancement within the org through the direction of a positive role model If members of a unit have not experienced the empowerment process. The solution must be attainable 2. Explain the reality that outside forces may prevent the adoption of some results. Coaching: . Funding.  Be sensitive to diverse nature of the team  Understand that team members have other concerns & obligations Coaching:  Informal process of giving motivational direction. The following steps can be used: 1. positive reinforcement. and constructive feedback to employees in order to maintain & improve their performances & ensure successful performances Counseling:  Formal process that involves activities that assist participants in identify and resolving personal. 3.

Counseling Four Step Method 1. Counseling:  Formal process that involves activities that assist participants in identifying & resolving personal.  Set a clear & positive example for subordinates  Define expectations  Receive assignments and complete a task or objective efficiently & effectively  Promote & maintain health & safety policies within the workplace  Develop an environment of cooperation and teamwork  Develop & maintain the company as an integral part of the org  Promote skills development. or career problems that are adversely affecting performance. Gain a commitment for change 4. Describe the current performance 2. skills maintenance and skills improvement in employees  Maintain discipline and ensure that policies and procedures are adhered to at all times  Establish the perimeter of behavior  Ensure that activities are directed toward org goals  Promote the pursuit of educational & professional opportunities  Promote credentialing & certification as opportunities to enhance an individuals professionalism  Establish & communicate the plan for task completion to employees  Ensure that the schedule is realistic w/ attainable objectives . direct & frequent. Informal process of giving motivational direction positive reinforcement and constructive feedback to employees in order to maintain & improve their performance. Describe the desired performance 3. behavioral. Must be positive immediate. Follow up the commitment All supervisors have specific major responsibilities to an org regardless of its type.

rules. How will the decision affect the unit or org? 4.  Risk: Decisions will have probably consequences.Problems are based if the following three considerations:  Whether decisions are generic (programmed) or exceptional (non-programmed): o Generic: Decisions that are routine or recurring are usually made based on existing standards. procedures of the org o Exceptional: Decisions that involve a nonrecurring. nonroutine. Organize employees to work as a team and an objectives or goal in focus  Delegate the appropriate of responsibility & authority to employees  Evaluate the quality & completion of the task Chapter 4 Decision making-Basic Assessment 4 Questions 1. unique & significant situation  Conditions to which decisions are subject  Choice of decision-making models used to solve the problem The conditions that affect decisions are classified as follows:  Certainty: Decisions know results & require specific resources. although there is the possibility of unknown outcomes. Generic decisions usually involve certainty. Exceptional decisions will have risk . Is the decision within the authority of the company officer? 2. Is there sufficient information available about the situation or problem to make an informed decision? 3. Is the problem worth the effort? Decision-Making Models. regs.

policy. But must be dealt with by a response that is peculiar to or customized for that problem Generic problem definition:  Requires more data to determine the specific problem. Exceptional problem classification:  One that may only occur once. Uncertainly: Decisions have completely unknown consequences. etc. Generic problem classification:  One that is recurring and may even be the symptom of a larger problem. Two generally accepted decision-making models taught in business management courses:  Rational model  Bounded Rationality Model Rational or classic model:  The leader gathers information and makes the decision based on the best possible alternative to the situation. This type of decision model is usually applied to generic (programmed) decisions that have certain outcomes. This type of decision model is usually applied to the exceptional (non-programmed) decisions that have the potential for high risk or uncertain outcomes Bounded Rationality Model:  Allows the leader to select the decision that will satisfy the minimal requirements of the situation. It can usually be solved through the application of a rule. which may have an underlying major problem and note a trend such as injuries while lifting heavy shit Exceptional problem definition: . usually because of a lack of information. Exceptional decisions will have both risk and uncertainty.

Trends will not usually play a part in defining this type of problem. Requires that information related to the specific event be gathered quickly. The individual does not have the self-confidence necessary to make a decision & is afraid of being criticized for the final decision Psychological (Internal) Barrier Indecisiveness  Means that events will overtake the need for the decision. For example. Psychological (Internal) Barrier Distrust . Examples spills. Too much ego can lead to overconfidence that cause individuals to ignore the advice of others. emergency situations. dictators usually succumb to bad decisions – making because of an inflated ego.  Lack of self-esteem leads to indecisiveness. Barriers two main types:  Psychological (Internal) Barriers  Organizational culture (external) Psychological (Internal) Barriers:  Internal barriers are the result of psychological conflicts within the individual. these barriers are described as followso Fear o Ego or self-esteem o Indecisiveness o Distrust o Antagonism o Jealousy o Unethical motives Psychological (Internal) Barrier Fear:  Becomes one of the main personal barriers to making a decision Psychological (Internal) Barrier Ego or Self-Esteem  Prevents effective decision making.

recent. enhanced self-image. Causes lack of trust in one’s own ability to make a correct decision and in others to provide accurate information to implement a decision Psychological (Internal) Barrier Antagonism  Means that active opposition to a decision by other causes the decision-maker to compromise even though the compromise might not be the best solution to the problem. Depending on the . Lack of management/membership support. or sufficient. sufficient or timely information. Organization (External) Barriers  External barriers that exist outside the individual may be created by how a situation is organized. Lack of resources. These barriers are described as follows: Lack of data. Lack of commitment. Organization (External) Barrier Lack of accurate analysis  Leads to an unacceptable decision even if data is accurate. Lack of accurate analysis. Every effort must be made to look at the total picture of the incident or problem based on all available information to determine the correct relationship of the various parts Organization (External) Barrier Lack of Management/membership support:  Dooms decisions to failure from the start/ Lack of support (such as in the area of allocation of resources) will simply result in a good intention that does not become an action. Psychological (Internal) Barrier Jealousy  Causes an individual to act irrationally and block the suggestions of others Psychological (Internal) Barrier Unethical motives  Involves personal gain. and personal protection at the expense of others. lack of capacity Organization (External) Barrier Lack of Data:  Includes the lack of accurate.

they fail to accurately communicate their private desires & beliefs to one another  Because members fail to communicate. Organization (External) Barrier Lack of Commitment:  Leads to ineffective decisions. the group makes decisions that are counterproductive/may be unethical  The process then frustrates the members  The cycle continues to repeat itself unless it is corrected through accurate communication Chapter 5 Common Law (aka Case Law):  Is that body of law that is based on tradition. usage and decisions of the judicial courts within a particular country.issue or initiative. society or culture. building support can start from the bottom up or top down. Judicial . custom. The personal commitment of the decision-maker and those affected by the decision are required in order to have effective decisions. Organization (External) Barrier Lack of Capacity:  Lacks the authority or ability to make a decision in some cases Abilene Paradox:  The Abilene Paradox (a popular theory developed by some asshole from personal experience) explains why members of a group may go along with a decision even when they believe it to be a bad one rather than dissent against the group Symptoms of the Abilene Paradox (AKA inability to manage agreement):  Group members agree individually in private about the problem  Also agree individually in private about the actions that are requires to solve the problem  However. Consists of laws that were developed by judicial decisions rather than legislative action (statutory law).

They are established by legislative actions and constitutions.decisions are to subject to changes in society & views of individual members of the judiciary. Substantive Law:  Deals with actual issues by establishing principles. The laws include the following information. hunting regs. . education etc. defining duties and obligations. among other things: o Where to file a case o What may be filed o When filings may be made o How the case will be handled Common Law:  Bases laws in the US (including fed. Although common law was traditional or customary much of it became statutory law through adoption & codification by various legislatures Statutory Law:  Pertains to laws enacted by legislative bodies of government Statutory Law US Federal Level:  Created the US Fire Administration (USFA). marriage laws. creating. recreation. voting laws. laws governing the formation of special districts for fire protection sanitation. state & local law) on English common law…spread by British colonizers. OSHA. defining the limitations of rights within a society. These are established by legislative & government agencies & constitutions Examples: o Tort: Duty of care provided to another party o Contract: Offers & the acceptance of offers Procedural Law:  Defines the judiciary rules or mechanisms used to enforce substantive laws. EPA. motor vehicle laws. Equal Opportunity Commission (EEOC) & IRS Statutory Law State Level:  Created tax codes. health and safety laws.

Statutory Law Local level:  Created ordinances that adopt a particular edition of a building or fire code. usually on the form of monetary damages. Criminal law:  Means by which society protects itself. if penalties are sometimes monetary (fines). Substantive criminal law defines the act & punishment for various crimes. from other individuals. EEOC & others are empowered to create & enforce admin laws to fulfill their missions Criminal Law:  Protects society as a whole from wrongful actions (aka penal law) Established by legislative action at all levels of gov & are in the tradition of common & civil laws. require business licenses & adopt emergency services orgs annual budget Administrative Law:  Pertains to laws created by government agencies and used to enforce & implement statutory law. Criminal law deals w/ the rights/responsibilities of individuals toward society. Title 29 (Labor) o Agencies such as EPA. and civil law deals primarily w/ private rights & responsibilities. They define the extent of the powers & responsibilities held by administrative agencies in performing their assigned responsibilities. establish speed limits on local roads. corporations or the gov. Criminal actions (prosecutions) are brought by the gov (representing the people) against an individual or group. Examples: o OSHA regsin the Code of Fed Regs. . loss of freedom (jail) or both. the power that these enforcement agencies wield can be significant. Civil Law:  Means by which individuals seek redress. The standard of proof is a balance of probabilities or a preponderance of evidence. Civil Law:  Defines relationships between individuals or groups & helps resolve disputes between parties. as exemplified by the IRS & OSHA. Obviously.

the standard of care for which an EMT would be responsible is the standard that is reasonable. Tort Liability. prudent and careful Misfeasance:  Wrongful actions. and legal authority to act but performs the act incorrectly Nonfeasance:  Omission of performance when some act should have been completed…would occur if a company officer failed to order the overhaul of a structure even though all indicators suggested that a re-ignition was possible.The following elements must exist for a valid tort case:  The defendant must owe a legal duty to the plaintiff  There must be a breach of duty. When a potentially hazardous condition exists.Tort Liability:  A tort is a civil wrong or injury. The main purpose of a tort action is to seek payment for property damaged or destroyed. particularly when resources are not available to correct all such conditions:  Gravity of harm posed by the condition . that is the defendant must have failed to perform or properly perform the duty  The breach of duty must be proximate cause (one that in a naturally continuous sequence produces the injury or damage and without which injury or damage would not have occurred) of the accident or injury that resulted  The plaintiff must have suffered damages as a result Negligence Liability:  Negligence-breach of a legal the major issue in most tort liability cases. Therefore. When a person possesses a greater amount of expertise than others. the reasonableness of action takes into account the following factors. or lost income. ability. personal injuries. the person legal duty is then proportionally greater. occurs when a individual has the knowledge.

    Likelihood of harm Availability of a method and/or equipment to correct the situation Usefulness of the condition for other purposes Burden of removing the condition Many items of information may be brought into court to aid in establishing the prevailing standard of care.  Some of the strongest types of evidence are national consensus from the NFPA. Research publications  Opinions of expert witnesses The current status of governmental immunity in various states us one of the following:  Doctrine of immunity still in force  Limited liability by means of a tort claim act: o Suits instituted as prescribed by stature o Suits brought before a special tribune o Suits authorized only within prescribed limits  Legislative claims boards. ANSI & the org’s own guidelines and polices. A reasonable & prudent person would be expected to follow these guidelines.Approves valid claims made by citizens against the state  Abandonment of immunity. Sources of information that may help establishing the standard of care include the following:  Agency directives & policies  Directives of a superior agency (legal mandates)  Guidelines & policies of other agencies (locally accepted policies)  Guidelines & standards developed by professional orgs such as NFPA  Professional texts & journals (such from NFPA)  Professional texts & manuals (such as IFSTA manuals)  Professional journals.Remedy left to the courts as if the state was a private citizen .

reasonable accommodation means the following:  Existing barriers to access must be removed  Barriers many not be included in new construction  Auxiliary aids must be provided for people w/ vision. etc. Adverse Impact  Occurs when an employer uses a test (screening device) that initially is not intended to discriminate but adversely affects members of one protected classes more than other applicants or employees. gender. Quid pro quo  This form consists of any overt. however the employment regulations only apply to orgs with ______ or more fulltime employees  15 . there have been four primary areas of employment discrimination:  Disparate training  Adverse impact  Sexual harassment  Reasonable accommodation Disparate training:  Aka “differential treatment” simply means treating an applicant or employee differently than those of another race.Historically. unwanted or unwelcome sexual behavior or advances toward a worker who has the power to reward or punish the worker In those businesses and gov buildings in the US where the laws apply. religion. speech or hearing impairments or with any other physical or mental impairment hat limits activity ADA states employers cannot not discriminate against qualified applicants because of their disabilities.

descriptions. behavior or attitude  Informative.Give the audience definitions.Use a strong argument based on reliable data in order to creates a change in belief. the most effective improvements involve the following elements:  Understanding the other person’s view  Taking responsibility for personal thoughts and feelings of others  Respecting the thoughts & feelings of others  Being accurate & clear when speaking  Focusing on the other person  Controlling emotions when interacting with others Chapter 7 The following speeches are three accepted types of formal speeches:  Remember Acronym “PIE”  Persuasive.While not part of the Civil Rights Act Fair Labor Standards Act regs are very important to all company officers in career and combination orgs with ____ or more employees  5 Chapter 6 There are five general purposes for interpersonal communications:  Learn  Relate  Influence  Play  Help To improve communication skills. explanations or information that teach a topic .

Satisfaction 3. steps that result in successful reports are as follows: 1. Need 2. Entertainment. Explain how the information that the report is based upon was gathered 3. Make an immediate statement of purpose 2. Anticipate any objection or questions that might arise 6.Use of humorous stories or anecdotes Persuasive Speech:  May be the most difficult to develop and at the same time the most important type of speech an officer can give. It is intended to cause change by describing a problem and supply solution 3 Main Ideas of Persuasive Speech 1. Satisfaction 4. Need 3. Provide a written copy of the report to the audience . Visualization 5. Action The informative speech is the type used most often by company officer to perform the following duties:  Provide status reports  Describe events  Give project updates  Provide unit-level training  Educate the public and media Generally. Present possible solutions to the situation 4. Attention 2. Tell the specific benefits for and effects on the audience 5. Visualization Sequence of Persuasive Speech 1.

Place the information at the end  Complexity.Move form simple ideas to more complex  Specificity. the material in the speech may further organized by using one of the following strategies:  Primacy. Select the topic 2.The steps of the speech preparation are as follows: 1.Move from specific to general or vice-versa  Soft-to-hard evidence. Deliver the speech 8.Move from opinions or inferences to facts & statistics The actual delivery of speech can take following four forms:  Extemporaneous delivery. Gather supporting evidence 6. Generate the main idea 4. Organize the speech 7. Determine the purpose 3. Develop the central idea 5. Evaluate the speech The speech can be organized into one of the following five basic formats:  Chronological  Spatial  Casual  Problem/solution Once a speech format is selected.Relying on notes/outlines “preferred”  Memorizing the text  Impromptu delivery  Reading the text Chapter 8 Documents are written for specific purposes: .Place the most important information at the beginning  Recency.

 75 to 125 Some common transitions used at the end of a paragraph to indicate summation include the following:  After all. all in all. in the final analysis. in any event. in brief. in summary. in conclusion. which is long enough for a topic sentence and four or five supporting sentences.    Educate Persuade Inform Enlighten First step in any writing process determine:  Audience  Scope.subject or topic & how broad or narrow the coverage is  Purpose.Why document is being written The average paragraph is ___ to ___ words long. and all things considered  Briefly & by and large  Finally  In any case. in the long run  On balance and on the whole  To sum up and to summarize Transitions that may be used to start if a paragraph can be categorized by the comparison or relationship that they are intended to indicate…include the following:  Show contrast or qualification  Indicate continuity  Show cause and effect  Indicate exemplification Some generally accepted writing guidelines that assist in the development of the text are as follows:  Be clear  Get to the point  Use a minimum of words to convey the message  Write in a conversational tone . in short.

during the emergency incident the company officer must monitor subordinates to ensure that they do not become physically stressed The company officer is responsible for ensuring that all personnel use the equipment that has been provided. the primary cause of fatalities must be addressed through education. Avoid archaic language  Avoid jargon  Avoid long sentences and use of numerous commas within sentences  Write in an active voice  Use parallel structure  Always proofread a document before finalizing it  Use bullets. Some of these include the following:  Lockout/tag-out procedures to prevent unexpected energization startup.  Two unit members or mechanical devices to lift objects or victims who are over a predetermined weight  Appropriate protective clothing when performing certain tasks. may include eye protection. or other indicators of key points  Use appendices for additional info  Retain a copy of the written documentation Chapter 10 To reduce emergency scene casualties. fat fucks. lack of physical fitness  Second. numbers. hand protection. the company officer must approach safety from the following two directions:  First. Operational procedures must also be implemented to ensure as safe a work environment as possible. The company officer must ensure that members of the unit are aware of the risks posed by the following conditions: Shitty nutrition. etc. fitness and wellness. etc.  Heavy items mounted in lower compartments  Respiratory protection  Two In/Two Out program  RIT Teams ..

hep B. benefits. inconsideration.Includes willful disregard. phobia. disloyalty. jealousy. The plan must covert the standards of exposure control such as the following:  Education and training requirements  Vaccination requirements for potential threats such as anthrax. oversensitivity. decon. PAR count An infection control program begins with a written infection (exposure) plan that clearly explains its intent. PASS devices  Breathing conservation programs  Personal accountability system. uncooperativeness. absent-mindness. intolerance. excitability. obsession. irresponsibility. and purposes. and disinfection of personnel & equipment  Exposure control & reporting protocols Exposure reports must be maintained for ___ years following termination or retirement of employee  30 Several reasons to investigate workplace accidents are to identify and document the following conditions:  Behavior or condition that caused an accident (root cause)  Previously unrecognized hazards  Apparatus/equipment defects or design flaws  Additional training needs  Improvements needed in safety policies and procedures  Facts that could have a legal impact on accident case  Historical trends Human factors that often contribute to accidents have been classified into the following three broad categories:  Improper attitude. counseling or discipline can lead to accident reduction . recklessness. laziness. impatience. Readjusting any of these traits through training. annual flu vaccinations and TB  Documentation and record keeping requirements  Cleaning. fearfulness.

The investigation should provide the following information:  General information.Items: o Type of equipment involved o Age and condition o Location o Maintenance history o Distinguishing characteristics Chapter 11 Organizational structure principles discussed include the following:  Scalar structure. slow reactions. failure to recognize potential hazards.Each subordinate must only have one supervisor .Includes insufficient knowledge. sight. weight. disabilities.Includes problems of hearing.Items: o Date and time of incident o Type of incident. company officers collect information about the participants. Lack of knowledge or skill. intoxication or physical limitations in general In conducting an accident investigation. poor training.Items: o Weather and temp o Day or night conditions o Noise & visibility o Terrain  Apparatus/equipment information. indecision.Chain of authority  Line and staff personnel. allergies. inexperience.Legal ability to make and implement decisions  Unity of command. These problems can be reduced or eliminated through training  Physically unsuited. injury fatality o Location and emergency response type o Names of witnesses and their accounts of the situation  Environmental information.Two distinct groups  Decision-making authority. misunderstanding. illness. illness. events or incident.

EMS.Large jobs divide into smaller tasks for individual assignment Scalar Structure  The term to describe the common organizational structure in the fire and emergency services in scalar. logistics and personnel administration Centralized authority:  Decisions are made by one person at the top of the structure. but in large orgs the leaders span of control may be exceeded unless decisions-making authority is delegated Decentralized authority: . Span of control.Limits the number of subordinates that one individual can effectively supervise  Division of labor. inspections. pyramid-type of org with authority centralized at the top The true scalar structure is well suited for dealing with emergency situations for the following reasons:  Span of control is maintained  Information is centralized for decision making  Functional chain of command is maintained Line personnel:  Those who deliver services to the public or external customers. typical functions include fire suppression. The scalar org is a paramilitary. education and investigations Staff personnel:  Those who provide support to the line personnel or internal customers typical functions are training. Centralized authority works well in very small orgs such as the individual fire company. which is defined as having a uninterrupted series of steps or chain of authority.

including the geographical area that subordinates may be working within o Complexity o Rate at which it must be performed o Similarity/dissimilarity to tasks being performed by others  Proximity of subordinates to the supervisor and each other  Consequences of a mistake Effective supervision is extremely difficulty in the following situations:  Tasks being performed are very complex  Workers level of training is minimal  Workers are performing dissimilar tasks  Workers are widely separated form the supervisor and each other . values and goals of the org The most common of these difficult situations (Unity of command issues where an employee id required to report to more than one supervisor):  The employee follows that last order received. Decisions are allowed to be made at a lower level (basically delegation of authority) with the effects of the decisions reported through the structure. Thus the 1st assignment is incomplete but the supervisor who ordered it thinks its done  The employee executes the task poorly while trying to do two (perhaps conflicting) tasks at once  The employee plays the supervisor against each other so that neither supervisor knows exactly what the employee is doing  The employee becomes frustrated while attempting to follow the conflicting orders of different supervisors and gives up both tasks The variables that affect span of control in any given situation are as follows:  Ability and experience of the supervisor  Ability and experience of subordination  Nature of the task: Characteristics: o Urgency o Conditions under which it must be performed. the chief must ensure that all members understand the direction. even though the previous order has not been performed. For decentralized authority to work effectively.

division of labor is important for the following reasons:  Assign responsibility  Prevents duplication of effort  Makes specific. In the fire and emergency services. response times.The division of labor principle consists of dividing large jobs into smaller tasks that are then assigned to specific individuals. the assignments are divided into groups that may be based on the following elements:  Type of task  Geographical area  Time of year or season  Available resources  Skills specializations The most common reasons why fire and emergency services orgs enter into mutual aid agreements besides to receives fed or state funding are as follows:  Allows sharing of limited or specialized resources between neighboring jurisdictions  Addresses the need for neighboring jurisdictions to assist each other when a response requirement exceeds the primary jurisdictions capabilities:  Addressees occupancies within a jurisdiction that may be considered target hazards or high-risk facilities  Addresses the situation where an org may require assistance when its resources are deployed at an incident and a 2nd. apparatus availability. etc. Insurance Services Office and other requirements for staffing. clear-cut assignments To accomplish the work assignments within a fire & emergency services org. simultaneous emergency occurs  Allows orgs to meet NFPA. through shared resources  Provides a quicker response when other fire and emergency services orgs are closer to the emergency site than are the primary jurisdictions resources .

procedures or equipment  Changes in the types of services delivered by the org  Preparation for the next level of authority or advancement . hydrant locations. evac routes. references. This determination is based on a number of considerations including the following:  Legally mandated training  Performance during emergency ops  Annual refresher or recertification requirements  Post incident analysis reports  Personnel evaluation reports  Changes in operational procedures  Implementation of new policies. Defines responses for areas on the boundaries between adjacent jurisdictions  Defines response methods for fire and emergency services orgs within a jurisdiction such as a mil base or corporate fire brigade Company officers may be tasked to assist in the development and maintenance of mutual aid plans. specs.  Address insurance and legal considerations that may affect the agreement  Establish additional nonemergency agreements such as training and routine comm as required Chapter 12 Most company-level training needs will be established by the org. public works systems etc. equipment compatibility and other factors that may affect effectiveness of different orgs  Provide maps. including incident management & chains of command  Establish operating guidelines  Define lines and methods of comm  Include common terminology. At a minimum. these plans should specify the following actions:  Define roles of each or.

 New personnel assignments based on transfers, promotions or newly hired personnel The company officer will have to follow a process that includes the following steps: 1. Determine the type of service, skill or task that must be performed 2. Compare the new level of performance to the current level 3. Design the type of training that will raise the knowledge, skills, and abilities of company personnel to a new level Instructors use the 4-Step model of instruction to develop lesson plans and as a process for teaching lessons and courses. Company officers can use the process for effective company level training. The model consists of the following 4 steps 1. Preparation 2. Presentation 3. Application 4. Evaluation Step 1: Preparation  Establish lesson relevancy to the job by introducing the topic. Gaining the students attention, and stating the learning objectives. How the students will be evaluated should be attention. This step also includes the self-preparation that instructor or company officer takes before beginning the lesson or class. Instructor prep includes the following activities: o Reading the lesson plan o Gathering any additional information that may be required o Assembling the A/C training aid & props o Practicing the skills that will taught Step 2: Presentation  Present the information to be taught using an orderly, sequential outline. Select the training method that is appropriate to learning styles of the students and the topic being taught. Presentation can be combined with the next and most important step, application. Generally the presentation choices available are as follows:

o o o o o

Lecture Illustrated lecture Discussion Demonstration Learning activities such as role-playing when the topic benefits from these approaches

Step 3: Application:  Provide opportunities for learning through activities, exercise, discussions, work groups, skill practices, practical training evolutions, and similar learning activities. The purpose is to reinforce the student’s learning. Most learning takes place during the application step, making this step critically important Step 4: Evaluation:  Have students demonstrate how much they have learned through a written, oral or practical exam/test. The purpose is to determine whether students achieved the lesson objectives or course outcomes It may become necessary for the company officer to modify or alter the lesson plan. Modifications may be necessary for the following reasons:  Time is not available to present the lesson completely.  A/V aids that are required in the lesson plan may not be available  A lesson plan may be outdated and not accurately represent the current process or policy.  Members of the audience my not respond to the teaching methods listed in the lesson plan  Environmental conditions may prevent the presentation of the lesson plan as originally intended Before beginning a presentation, the company office should ensure that space is appropriate to the presentation in the following ways:  Ensure the seating arrangements is comfortable and that all participants can see the officer and any visual aids  Ensure that all distractions (both audible and visual are removed) radios lowered, cellphones etc.  Reduce the glare that might obstruct the view of videos

 Have all training aids and props readily accessible in working condition  Ensure that room temp is in a comfortable range As a facilitator, the company officer’s role is to guide the discussion and meet lesson objectives in the following ways:  Keep the discussion on the topic  Avoid pertinent details  Ask thought-provoking questions  Analyze conversations to ensure understanding Practical training evolutions fulfill the following two primary requirements for the emergency services org:  Hands on training required to applicable NFPA standards and OSHA regulations and mandated by professional associations & local jurisdictions  Practical training evolutions that allow students to apply the knowledge and practice the skills they learned in the classroom Simple training evolutions involve small numbers of students performing a single task that requires only a few skills:  Lifting and setting ground ladders  Using portable fire extinguishers  Lifting and moving patients  Forcing entry though doors  Taking & recording patient’s vital signs  Deploying and advancing attack hoselines  Driving and parking apparatus The use of NIMS/ICS during practical training evolution has two benefits:  First it helps ensure the safety & accountability of participants  Second, it acquaints participants with the operation of the system Examples of potential remote training uses include the following:

Ventilation/Forcible entry  Military or government owned reservations. vehicle extrication  Subdivisions construction. tech/rescue. joint ops  Airports. hoseline ops. driver ops.CFR. RIT.Wildland fire suppression. vet/force entry. company officers must take many factors that contribute to a safe and effective learning experience into considerations:  Safety  Learning experiences  Justifications  Supervision  Resources/logistics  Weather  Legal requirements  NIMS/ICS  Exposure  Evaluations/critiques .Building collapse.Driver/operator & building construction training  Abandoned/condemned structures.Vehicle Ex  Parking garages. RIT  Vehicle Salvage. supply & attack hose deployment. Parking lots. hoseline ops. foam  Grain Silos: Tech rescue/ropes  Industrial sites: Confined space. tactical simulations  Warehouses & aircraft hangars. off road driving.Large eara search and rescue. Haz-mat  Wildlands.wildland/off-road driving  Structures under demo.Drive/operator training. tactical sim ops Remote-site training locations must meet the requirements for environmental protection regarding:  Water run off  Soil contamination  Air pollution When planning practical training evolutions.standpipe ops & high angle rescue  Commercial buildings for sale/vacant.Search & Rescue.

The company officer relies on the results of standing plans to manage the day-to day emergency and nonemergency activities of the unit Single Use plan:  Accomplishing a specific-objective such as the development of a program. including times. Therefore. project or budget Strategic Plans:  Subjective. Ensure that training participants have the necessary skill levels & knowledge need for a particular training evolution  Design the practical evolution so that a positive outcome is possible  Provide a summary of what has been learned and what can be carried into operational environment/actual emergency setting  Videotape the training evolution if possible to assist with the critique and for future use as a training aid  Document all company-level training accurately. The plan attempts to take into account external factors that will . topics. procedures and rules that are used frequently. two broad categories can be established:  Standing plans  Single-use plans Plans may also be categorized as:  Strategic  Operational/administrative  Contingency Standing Plan:  Develop policies. What the org will do…Chart the course if the org over an indefinite future that is divided into definite time components. participants and results Generally accepted basic classification of plans is based in the frequency with which they are used.

Design 4. The problem may be an emergency situation such as a victim trapped in a car or issues between members Step 2. Operational plans are concerned with those factors that are within the control of the control of the org. must be communicated to members of all units Operational/administration:  Objective. Based on trends and expectations of the future environments but external factors are somewhat unpredictable and some unforeseen events will occur. and objectives previously selected Step 4. Select 3. demographics.Identify:  Select a problem that requires a response. Focus on how objectives will be accomplished. objective and fact based Contingency:  Create alternative plans that can be implemented in the event of incontrollable circumstances The five step-planning model includes the following steps: 1. outcomes.Implement: . hazards. based on best information. which requires choosing the goals. Evaluate Step 1.Design:  Determine the steps required to meet the goals. etc. Identify 2. Implement 5. outcomes and objectives required to meet them Step 3.Select:  Choose the appropriate response to the problem.affect the org such as changes in the economy.

 Perform the elected activity or supervise crew members in the activity that will mitigate the problem Step 5. Effectiveness may be immediate such as the successful extrication The first step of the planning process can be applied during the inspection:  Site hazards are identified.Occurs when people express their emotions openly by using threatening behaviors toward people and objects.Occurs when people hide their own emotion so that others do not know how thy feel  Aggressive behavior. appropriate actions are selected. These concerns result in three types of behavior that are defined as:  Passive (non-aggressive behavior).Occurs when people express their emotions honestly and defend their rights without hurting others . and the best actions are designed into an overall action plan with equal input by crew members The second step of the process can be applied during the inspection:  Once an incident occurs and the company officer puts the preincident plan for this type of incident into effect and mentally applies the planning process steps to create an incident action plan Plans may be altered for the following reasons:  Existing conditions may warrant the immediate alteration of an operation  Original requirements are not being effectively met Each generally accepted conflict management style used in the business community is based on the concern for the other party and oneself.Evaluate:  Determine the effectiveness if the activities in meeting the goals or outcomes. which results in the violation of others rights  Assertive behavior.

The result is lose-lose because the conflict is never resolved Accommodating Conflict:  Lose-Win~ Appeasing other persons by passively giving in to their positions. people may deny that a problem exists. The forcing style can damage relationships. The result is a decision that causes everyone to compromise on some thing while benefiting on others Collaborating conflict:  Problem solving. Forcing conflict 4. . Avoiding conflict 2. resulting in a win-lose situation. mentally or physically withdraw from a situation. refuse to take on a situation. The result is a lose-win situation because the second’s persons are met at the expense of the first person Forcing conflict:  Win-Lose~ Relying on an aggressive and uncooperative approach to conflict management. The supervisor is moderately assertive and cooperative.Conflict management styles may include any one or more of five types: 1. this style is focused on the best interests of the org. create animosity and result in a single-solution response to a problem Negotiating conflict:  Reaching a compromise solution that all parties can agree upon. Collaborating conflict Avoiding conflict:  Lose-Lose~ Taking a nonassertive or passive approach. Negotiating conflict 5. Accommodating conflict 3. which usually results in the best solution to the conflict (also referred to as problem solving style) While the previous styles involve personal interests of the parties involved. community and service area.Sharing of information openly and honestly.

negotiation.Implement the chosen conflict management style. skills. Define/diagnose the problem 3. Try to align with common ground of goals of the org Conflict Resolution Step 5:  Convert the decision to an action. effort and resources required to resolve an issue. Convert the decision into action 6. Determine whether a conflict is a symptom of a deeper and more involved problem Conflict Resolution Step 3:  List alternative options. Test the action against the desired outcome Conflict Resolution Step 1:  Classify/identify the problem. All parties must adhere to regardless of means . If one style doesn’t work pick another Conflict Resolution Step 4:  Determine the right response/appropriate conflict management style.Determine the amount of time. through collaboration. Classify/identify the problem 2.Select the appropriate style. Determine the right response/appropriate conflict management style 5. If a situation requires an immediate & forceful response give direction to those involved and expect them to follow it. and identify participants Conflict Resolution Step 2:  Define/Diagnose the problem. List alternative options 4.. force. accommodation or avoidance.Six Steps of Conflict Resolution: 1.Determine what type of conflict is involved.Determine whether an issue should be resolved. Knowing the advantages of each style & the situations that are appropriate to each will help in making the decision.

Implement the decision & test the results against the agreed-upon outcome Benefits of internal conflict/dispute resolution:  Most effective peer-mediation process  Relationships are maintained  External publicity is avoided  Costly litigation is avoided  Org and participants control the process  Participant control the resolution Discipline in the fire service is designed to fulfill the following purposes:  Educate and train  Correct inappropriate behavior  Provide positive motivation  Ensure compliance with established rules. standards & procedures There are many possible reasons why personnel may break the rules or not comply with procedures. Some (but not all) of the reasons include the following:  Resentment  Boredom  Ignorance  Stress Progressive discipline usually involves the following three levels:  Preventive action  Corrective action  Punitive action Preventive action in Progressive Discipline: . regs.Conflict Resolution Step 6:  Test the action against the desired outcome.

Use this action when either continues to exhibit earlier corrective efforts or .. Give the employee a letter in person or send by certified mail w/ return receipt Correct action Preventive action in Progressive Discipline Letter includes the following information:  Description of what transmitted in the preventive interview if one was held  Description of what the employee is or is not doing that violates org rules  Review of org policy regarding the possible consequences if the behavior continues or a change in behavior fails to meet org standards  Statement informing the employee that a copy of the letter will be placed in their personal file Punitive Action in Progressive Discipline:  Give the employee notice of possible sanctions. Hold an individual counseling interview to correct the inappropriate behavior as soon as it is discovered & prevent it from becoming a pattern or progressing to a more serious offense Preventive action in Progressive Discipline Process:  Ensure the employee understands both the rule that was violated & the org necessity for the rule during the interview  Explain exactly what is expected of the employee in the future & what may happen if the rule is violated again  Document the interview in a written record  Most commonly used by company officer Corrective action in Progressive Discipline:  Use when an employee repeats a violation for which preventive was taken or commits a different violation or a serious first violation. Corrective action differs from preventive action primarily in that it is always done in writing.

consider the range of possible sanctions:  Formal written reprimand (similar to corrective letter except it is considered severe and formal discipline)  Fine  Suspension  Demotion  Termination  Prosecution Chapter 15 Cultural values can be defined as:  Learned.After meeting all mandated procedural rules & employee protection requirements. Put the employee on notice that this behavior cannot and will not be tolerated Punitive Action in Progressive Discipline.commits a very serious first offense. long-lasting and emotionally charged moral concepts that assist people in making decisions. Generates a win-win situation News & Media Programs . Three of the most effective means of providing fire and life safety information. enhancing the orgs image through public education are:  Group presentations  Media programs  Direct Assistance Group presentations:  Every efforts to deliver a fire and life-safety message to a community group is also a good-way to learn about people in that group and develop a positive relationship with the group. forming judgments and preparing to act.

 Second. Evaluate the program to determine impact Identification in Five Step Planning Process for Life Safety Programs. subways & stations. newsletters. Select the most cost-effective objectives for the education program 3. Assistance may involve replacing a batter in a smoke detector. Identify major and life safety problems. ads on busses. assistance and advice when confronted with safety issues. it helps identify the most significant local fire and life-safety problems and concerns. it helps to identify emerging issues such as the misuse of candles The following a re some of the questions asked during the identification process and suggested action items:  What are the major fire and burn hazards? . Design the program 4. Live and/or prerecorded fire/life safety messages delivered by fire and emergency services personnel through the various news media should be used frequently to increase public awareness while enhancing an orgs public image. in very active and/or high population areas. Implement the program 5. the use of graphing or mapping analytical software programs can help identify and visualize problem areas. a common model is composed of 5 steps: 1. billboards Direct Assistance:  Public relies on us as experts in fire & life safety for information. 2. Providing accurate information is critical The planning process for creating programs provides for systematic planning and action. Examples PSAs. recommending the size & type of extinguisher for an occupancy or referring a citizen to the appropriate agency for aid. inserts in utility bills. The identification step accomplishes two objectives:  First.

Being aware of the scope & limitations of available resources is important if planners are to realistic about an education program can accomplish Following are some of the questions and sample tasks considered in the selection step of planning: . identify any patterns What are the high-risk locations? o Identify neighborhoods or building occupancy types. injuries. examples ignition sources or behaviors Risk:  The likelihood of suffering harm from the hazard. involve these groups in the fire education planning effort What is the high-risk behavior? o Identify which behaviors. why certain victims have an above average fire/injury rate. thought of as the potential for failure or loss. teach people exactly what to do and what not to do Hazard:  Refers to the source of the risk. one study focused fires in large trash cans and occurring right after school. identify types of fires occurring at these times. identify why risks are above average. the objective of the selection step is to:  Choose the most effective or achievable objectives for the public fire and life safety education program. identify most frequent causes.    o Research records for causes of fire. week. For example. acts or omissions cause fires & burn injuries. identify how behaviors can be changed. Expressed as the number of related incidents. plan to concentrate resources to these locations When are the high-risk times? o Identify certain times of day. or deaths per capital Selection. plan to concentrate fire-safety messages at these times Who are high-risk audiences? o Identify groups w/ higher fire death/injury rates.the most cost-effective objectives for the education program. or year with the highest incidences of fire loss or burn injuries.

measurable and attainable Design:  The design step is the bridge between planning a fire and life safety education program and actually implementing it in the field. Identify those who influence these high-risk victims. select the audience on which the public educator will have the greatest effect  What are the potential costs and benefits of various options? o List alternative objectives. estimate loss-reduction effects  What resources are available within the community? o Identify influential people. reinforce messages through endorsement  How will the public educators be trained and scheduled?  How will materials be produced and distributed? . choose most effective approach within limits of local resources By the end of the selection step. Planning the implementation step includes answering the following questions & identifies the associated task:  How will the target audience participate and cooperate in implementing the program? Involve target group in implementing program. signers for hearing impaired. what will be needed. review existing programs. they should be clear. Objective is to develop the most effective means of communicating the programs message to the identified audience Implementation:  The implementation step is where the day-to-day job of public fire and life safety education happens. Refer to high-risk audiences listed in the ID step. determine cost. Most officers spend more time implementing/delivery than they do developing. make contact w/ key people. program planners will be able to reach a crucial decision:  Specific objectives of the education program. tell target audience what to expect. those who speak the native language.

It is the point for measuring the effect of education programs and modifying them as needed. The former is valuable for its freshness & immediacy. The presentation is the actual transfer of facts/ideas. To accomplish this duty successfully. To ensure that the education program actually works:  A public education will need to observe day-to-day program implementation. The presentation should apply the lesson pan in the following ways:  Explaining information  Using supplemental training aids  Demonstrating methods and technique Evaluation:  Evaluation is the bottom-line of public fire and life safety education.The actual teaching of a class is what the implementation step is all about. with information about the org and its ops. Techniques may vary from obtaining immediate feedback or monitoring long-term statistical trends. be guided to the ultimate implementation decision: monitoring and making ongoing adjustments and refinements to the program as needed during implementation A PIO has the responsibility of providing the public news media. the PIO must know the following:  Mission statement of the org  Generally accepted terminology to describe the types of ops  Names of reporters/media staff  Deadlines for media  POCs for various ethnic communicates  Basic marketing theory & image management Chapter 22 .

program.Managing Definition:  Is the act of influencing. tools.Funds that are allocated to the org  Physical resources. monitoring or directing a project. etc. controlling. situation or org through the use of authority.personnel assigned to the company officer  Financial resources. required to perform the mission  Informational tasks. it is both the broadest view of the org (creation of mission statement) & narrowest . apparatus. a company officer should be able to:  Understand the development of management theories  Know the various management functions that a manager performs  Recognize the skills necessary to manage  Understand the management of change within the org Resources provided by the citizens of a service area through political and economic support are generally considered to be as follows:  Human resources. which competes with the time required of other projects It is a generally accepted business principle that the management process includes four functions:  Planning  Organizing  Leading  Controlling Planning in the Management Process:  Setting goals and objectives and determining the direction the org or unit will take to achieve those results. discipline or persuasion. exposure reports. To be an effective manager.Facilitates. equipment.Data that are compiled by the org concerning its operation such as incident reports. injury reports  Tine resources.Time required for completion of any project.

(development of tactical plans for accomplishing a specific objective. success or failure often hinges in the ability to communicate . accomplished by establishing the internal structure of the unit organization that creates divisions of labor. measuring and reporting the actual performance. and motivating employees to achieve the goals and objectives. includes setting performance standards. data analysis skills for problem and risk identification and other skills Human and communication Management skills:  Interpersonal skill that include the ability to work with other people and supervise subordinates. Leading is a proactive approach to managing Controlling in the Management Process:  Establishing and implanting the mechanisms to ensure that objectives are attained. ordinances. comparing the performance standard with actual performance and taking preventive or corrective action to close the gap between An effective manger must possess the following management skills:  Technical Skill  Human and communication skills  Conceptual and decision-making skills Technical Management skills:  Methods and techniques required to perform certain tasks as a manager such as computer skills. codes. inspiring. filling positions Leading in the Management Process:  Influencing. report writing. also referred to as directing in some business definitions. Organizing includes staffing.) Organizing in the Management Process:  Coordinating tasks and resources to accomplish the unit’s goals and objectives. coordinating the allocation of resources & taking responsibility for tasks & flow of information within the department. knowledge of laws.

. Mutual trust Motivational Method:  Do not micro manage employees. and abilities.Training motivates employees by:  Giving them the feeling the organization considers them valuable and trustworthy by investing in them  Providing them with new knowledge.Conceptual and decision-making Management skills:  Skills that include the ability to understand abstract ideas and solve problems through a variety of ways. giving them the feeling that they are progressing in their careers Career planning Motivational Method:  Assisting the employee in selecting a career path will benefit the org and the employee Pride in accomplishment Motivational Method:  Instill a feeling of accomplishment in the quality of service or product the employee generates Respect the humanity of the employee Motivational Method:  Remember that the employee has commitment and responsibilities outside of normal working hours. without compromising org policies. also the ability to understand or as a whole & recognize how the various parts are interrelated In the private sector. there are many motivational methods or tools available for managers to use: The following are some proven methods:  Training  Career planning  Pride in accomplishment  Mutual trust  Assign authority with responsibility  Remain committed to high quality in service and products Training Motivational Method. skills. Delegate responsibility and allow workers to be creative in their ideas.

Also suggested there should be no more than ___ org levels in any org  15 to 25.Assign authority with responsibility Motivational Method:  Delegate tasks qualified members of the unit along with the commensurate amount of authority to allow the members to complete the tasks assigned Remain committed to the high quality in service and products Motivational Method:  This will motivate the employee to attempt to reach the same level of results. 5 The forces of change affect the unit or org and originate in two areas:  Inside & Outside . The company officer should be aware of the negative results the following actions have on employees & the unit:  Micromanage.Indicates lack of trust by the supervisor/manager & results in an inefficient use of resources  Be vague about the employees role in the unit & org.Can destroy the unit integrity & result in a loss of unit effectiveness  Permit employees to criticize each other. High expectations yield high results Focus on the safety and well being of the employee Motivational Method:  Ensure that the employees feel that managers and supervisors have the employees best interest in mind The actions of a manager can destroy employee motivation & damage relationships & unit cohesion. rations ranging from ___ to ___ subordinates per supervisor is advantageous.Will destroy the unit & kill mutual respect Most advocates of the contemporary management theory suggest that a higher span of control.Causes the employee to ne uncertain of his or her duties and contribution to the units goals/objectives  Permit employees to compete in an unfriendly manner.

while most change is slow & gradual based upon numerous causes people to go through the following four change process stages: 1. Commitment.The first force of change inside:  Within the org and includes changes that are created by the delegation of responsibility. Resistance. might include the location of future facilities or types of service deliveries provided by the org Structure Change Type: . among others Some change is immediate and affects people greatly. procedures. changes in the demographics of the community. 3.People refuse to believe that they will be affected by the change 2. Exploration. Denial. org restructuring and realignment of duties & tasks to meet the 2nd or outside force of change The second force of change outside:  From outside the org takes form of political decisions. or structure that results form the change The types of change that an org will have to undergo because of the forces change are as follows:  Strategic  Structure  Technology  People Strategic Change Type:  Change in the short or long-range plan of the or.Increased understanding in the third stage leads to an increased commitment to the new process. people start to resist it.People start to gain a better understanding of the potential change through training 4. periodic performance reviews.When the threat of change becomes real. economic trends in community service demands. which can be manifested in anger and dissatisfaction with management or the org.

Create a climate for change 2. or computerization People Change Type:  Change in the skills. Provide support for employees during the change 7. Communicate the advantages & effects if change 4. attitudes. performances. the company officer can increase the opportunity for success in the process. division or size of work Technology Change Type:  Change may include the addition of new equipment.Fear is one of the most common reasons for resistance  Loss of control or power  Fear of loss  Self-interest  Learning anxiety  Lack of trust  Lack of shared vision By recognizing a resistance to change & taking steps to reduce it. example new recruits Resistance to change is caused by the following:  Uncertainty. behaviors or cultures of the work force to meet the force of change. Meet the needs of both the org and employees 5. Plan for change 3. Seek the input & support of “opinion leaders” in the org Step 1 Create a climate for change:  Encourage employees to suggest changes & implement those changes . may consist of unifying the command structure. Change in the org design of the org. apparatus. extinguishing agents. Involve employees in the change process 6. communication systems. Resistance to change can be overcome by the following 7 steps: 1.

Change is not linear.. it should have a feedback loop for corrective action Step 3: Communicate the advantages and affects of change:  State factually the advantages and effects of change to prevent unfounded rumors from eroding the trust between the supervisor and employees…essential for the change process Step 4: Meet the needs of both the org and employees:  See the change from the employees viewpoints/ Then try and balance Step 5: Involve employees in the change process:  Employees like to know that their perspectives on issues are taken into consideration when changes are considered. Support steps: o Listen to employees concerns. Define change objectives & clearly communicate them to the work group d. Analyze the current conditions b. resistances and suggestions o Provide the necessary resources. Identify the resistance factors c. keep them informed. acquire and provide the necessary resources for change to the workgroup e. Planning steps: a. etc.Step 2: Plan for change:  Have a plan & prepare to follow it in order to effectively implement change. Involve employees in the change process. Step 6: Provide support for employees during the change:  Make a firm commitment to change. Identify. including training o Help employees cope with unexpected change Step 7: Seek the input & support of “opinion leaders” in the org Change Agent: . implement their suggestions.

the officer must have time management skills & the ability to prioritize the project Change is affected by two forces:  Driving. planning. external. Finally. depending on retraining and driving forces.Are opposing forces that create barriers that restrict change Driving forces may include the following:  Available financial resources  Greater public support for the additional services  State mandate for EMS trained personnel in all fire departments Restraining forces may include:  Lack of new volunteers to expand the existing department  Lack of time for training new volunteers  Lack of advancement within volunteer ranks There are three options once the force field analysis is completed. Move ahead with the process of there are significant driving forces to overcome the restraining 2.Internal. the officer must be able to sell the change to the org & the community. Move ahead at a slower pace if there is equilibrium between the two forces/ Focus on weakening the restraining forces . positive or negative  Restraining. A person who leads a change project or initiative by defining. researching. they are as follows: 1. building support and carefully selecting members of a change team A change agent must possess three qualities that ensure success of the project:  Attitude  Knowledge  Skills In short.

If the restraining forces exceed the driving forces. Implement the change 5. Identify resistance & overcome it 3. Lewin Change Model:  Unfreezing  Moving/Changing  Refreezing Unfreezing:  Managers demonstrate to work groups the difference between the current level of performance& the desired or new level Moving/Changing:  Work groups learn new behaviors. values. processes or procedures Refreezing:  Changes become permanent It is important to remember that initial implementation of a change & institutionalizing that change are usually two different things New model for change process.3. Control the change Step 1. Recognize the need for change 2. Plan the change interventions . Plan the change interventions 4. 5 Steps: 1. Identify resistance & overcome it  Identify potential resistance to the change & determine the best method for overcoming it Step 3. it may be necessary to abandon the efforts to make change. Recognize the need for change  Clearly state the need for change & establish objectives Step 2.

Allowing barriers to be placed in the way of the vision & change process 6. environmental & economic conditions) are necessary to determine two things:  Need for change  Potential for change The need for change based on shifts in the carious elements analyzed must be determined. political. Failure to make the change permanent part of the orgs cultures . The failure to communicate the vision to the org 5. Not planning for & recognizing the short term results 7. Declaring completion of the change process prematurely 8. The change process is too complex 2. monitor and analyze the change model. Implement the change  Use appropriate change agent & put the change into operations Step 5. The change process lacks universal support 3. review. Control the change  Enforce. Recognize that a variety of change agents or interventions exist that can help in implementing the change. Lack of a clear vision & not underestimating the importance of having one 4. Take corrective action if change objectives are not met Periodic systems analysis of the org and the service area (including demographic. Eight reasons that the change process fails: 1. Some change interventions o Training and development o Team building o Job design o Direct feedback o Survey feedback Step 4.

a local gov is likely to include a variety of depts. Develop an idea of the tasks that need to be accomplished 2. the company officer may apply the following strategies:  Simplify the change process by dividing it into attainable segments  Gain support for the change from the key actors in the org & community  Define the desired result & state them clearly  Communicate the vision to all members of the org & all involved community etc. Divide large tasks into smaller units that can be accomplished 5.  During the planning process try to determine the arguments against the change & develop strategies to answer these arguments logically/factually  Include limited objectives or milestones in the planning process  Ensure that all objectives have ben met & that the final goal is complete before declaring victory  Implement the change & monitor the results of the change to ensure that it becomes permanent Nonemergency time management requires the company officer to prioritize tasks too. Example of these depts include the following:  Law Enforcement  Building Department  Water Department .To minimize the effect of these reasons for failure. each structure to provide specific services. The steps for prioritizing are: 1. Using a priority list. establish a timetable for completion of the tasks 4. Organize the tasks based on both urgency & importance 3. Determine any tasks can be delegated to subordinates or other unit members Chapter 23 In addition to the fire and emergency services org.

The agency is headed by a commissioner who oversees the commissions operations and influences it objectives Highway Department Responsibilities:  These agencies have a role in providing fire orgs with usable thorough fares to support emergency responses and to accommodate the required apparatus Environmental Protection Agency Responsibilities:  In addition to serving in inspection. locations of entrances & exists fire suppression systems. Use resource. including fire codes. are enforced during construction & renovation. etc. the building dept is responsible for ensuring that building codes. Most receive funding from the legislature or assembly to support operation of the commission. conducts cause and origin investigation. A key responsibility under most state govs is to:  Advise the legislation on fire & life safety-related legislation and to and oversee the fire prevention program. personnel from these agencies often assist in the . The responsibilities of the fire marshal very greatly from state to state. The building dept frequently maintains files of building plans that indicate structural layout. The fire marshal commonly services on panels and committees tasked with state planning for Haz-Mat control & disaster preparedness Fire Commission:  A few states have established commissions to conduct fire training/certification programs. enforcement and training role.    Zoning Commission Street or road Dept Judicial System Office of Emergency Preparedness Building Department:  In most localities. 1st step in the fire prevention process & precedes the fire & life safety inspection program.

USFA.The following are examples of internal resources:  Street Department.Provide inert materials for controlling liquid spills  Public Works.development of response plans & frequently deploy to incident sites to support local response efforts Department of Homeland Security  Among the fire services that were absorbed into the DHS were FEMA. US Secret Service. the USCG. Citizen & Immigration Services. supervisors and managers in other departments with courtesy respect and dignity  Offer positive comments & give compliments sincerely  Handle complaints about service in private and with tact  Never make derogatory remarks about individuals or groups in other departments  Comply with the guidelines of the org for requests for assistance  Follow the Golden Rule. and the National Fire Academy.Provide traffic or crowd control or investigative resources  Fire  EMS The company officer should take the following steps to build strong relationships:  Treat personnel. and it will provide positive benefits Formal intergovernmental agreements should include the following items: . TSA Chapter 24 Internal aid agreements.Provide heavy equipment for collapse or trench rescue ops  Law Enforcement.

agreed-upon set of goals  Reduce jurisdictional conflicts of turf wars  Create a forum to critique the team’s performance in incident management  Create a controlled environment for discussion of operational issues  Encourage sharing of resources  Build personal and professional relationships between participants  Increase understanding & respect between agencies Monitoring.Records are maintained on:  The planning process the results of training scenarios  Post-incident critiques and on the strengths & weaknesses exhibited during actual implementation of the agreement .To accomplish a successful interagency team.       Agency authority & responsibility Funding & reimbursement procedures Response procedures Communication systems. Agencies from different states must agree who will be in charge of the operations or form a multiagency emergency scene management tram to provide unified command (UC) The benefits of National Response Plan. protocol& procedures Pre-incident planning & training Post-incident evaluations Notification procedures Vertical jurisdiction:  Occurs when multiple levels of government are involved Horizontal jurisdiction:  Is an incident that covers multiple jurisdictions such as a wildland fire that crosses county or state borders. the DHS adopted NIMS in 2004. The benefits of these tam approaches are as follows:  Establish a common.

. Every group tends to have the 5 essential characteristics of a group. the unit.Chapter 26 Research on formal and informal groups has revealed two important facts:  Informal subgroups for within all formal groups  The informal subgroup may have greater influence on the productivity and success of the formal group than does other factors  Each informal subgroup has an effect upon the formal group. a study of which involves recognizing the internal & external pressures that affect these basic elements & learning to deal In the fire service. The group structure of an emergency response unit is not significantly different from the structure of any other formal or informal group. The members of the group must have the following:  Common binding interest  Vital group image  Sense of community  Shared set of values  Different roles within the community The effects if these elements on group members are what make up group dynamics. binding interests of the group may include:  Desire to serve the community  Sense of professionalism  Sense of adventure  Affiliation with a high-risk profession  Desire for a secure career Members of the group must share a viral group image.

In addition to being essential to the cohesion of the group. They may choose to use any of the following ways to assist their subordinates in reaching full potential:  Counseling  Coaching  Providing peer assistance  Mentoring Counseling Guidance starts with a counseling session between the CO & a new member at a unit. Leadership style is directive. This pride contributes to group spirit and high morale. That is. reinforces correct behaviors and redirects incorrect behavior Providing peer assistance- . trust & respect develops. as group grows. outlining the process Storming:  Conflict may arise as members jockey for informal leadership Performing:  The company officer must monitor progress in this area as well because team members can develop certain behaviors and attitudes that can work to destroy the team concept Company officer shave a number of tools available to help manage the behavior of individual unit members. The officer expectations are stated positively and behavioral limitations are set Coaching In a coaching session. the group image is one of the greatest influences on the success of the group Forming:  Employees uncertain of their roles in initial stage. the members of the group must reorganize the existence of their group & take pride in it. the CO guides the individual member through any new activities. not certain if they can work with others.

positive reinforcement and constructive feedback to subordinates in order to maintain & improve their performance. Counseling involves resolving behavior issues through such actions: o Giving advice. For the CO. providing pro development opportunities Coaching:  Can be described as an intensive process of directing the skills performance of an individual. Begin with assigning a more experienced member to work w/ the new member who is a having difficulty becoming part of the group or learning the required duties Mentoring A supervisor acts as a trusted &friendly advisor or guide Counseling:  Is a broad term used for a variety of procedures designed to help individuals adjust to certain situations and a means of either reinforcing correct behavior or eliminating improper behavior. recommending path choices. immediate. coaching is the process of giving motivational correction. direct and frequent Private industry generally describes to a formal coaching model that contains the following four steps:  Describe the current level of performance  Describe the desired level of performance  Gain a commitment for change  Follow up the commitment Personnel might be formally evaluated in the following situations:  When they are hired  During their probie period  Annually as part of review . having discussions. To be effective feedback needs to be positive.

The PIA objectives are the following:  Provide an opportunity for participants to objectively review operations in a constructive manner  Identify effective procedures (strengths) for future emergency ops  Identify areas needing improvement (weaknesses) & recommend changes to improve effectiveness . like other types of evaluations. For promotional purposes  For disciplinary or termination purposes Personnel evaluations. rules. regs. The PIA should be written for all incidents whether small or large. standards & procedures  Provide direction Chapter 31 The post-incident analysis is written document what is complied by the IC. have specific guidelines to which the company officer should adhere  Timely  Clearly stated criteria  Not discriminatory  Consistency  Through records  Trained supervisors  Objectively Discipline in the fire service is designed to do the following:  Educate and train  Correct inappropriate behavior  Provide positive motivation  Ensure compliance w/ established policies.

reports The information from each of these sources is then compiled into a chronological report if the incident Post-incident Critiques  Can be informal or formal  Weather permitting. each unit commander or rep should present a brief report of their participation in order of arrival  Greatest failure of both the PIA & critiques is the failure to learn from it and apply the results Chapter 32 In the Everyone Goes Home project.The PIA is critical & objective assessment of the emergency incident based on all available information about the incident. of the 16 initiatives set. Information sources include the following:  Pre-incident survey or fire & life safety inspection report  Size-up  Incident action plan  Command & general staff records  Outside agency reports  Interviews  Site plan  Incident Safety plan  Personnel accountability system  Weather reports  Communication records  Misc.  Informal critique Can be used as a training exercise for the unit  Formal critique is held if the PIA indicates that it is necessary or the incident involves interagency/jurisdictional  Provide copes of the analysis before the critique before the allow the participants time to read the report  Following an overview of the incident. occurs immediately after termination of the incident & prior to leaving scene. the following 6 can be addressed by the CO: .

health and wellness initiatives based on annual statistics  National Fallen FF Foundation. Create. In the fire service this approach is frequently impractical but can includes providing lifting/back .Collects injury & fatality statistics from the fire service compiles the info and issues annual reports  National Fire Academy (NFA).Provided statistics on illnesses/injured that have been nationally reported & issues warnings on potential trends  NOSH. avoid the activity that creates the risk. injuries.Maintains data on safety. implement and support a change in the orgs culture that emphasizes the importance of safety. health & wellness  Adhere to & support personal accountability for choices that result in a healthy lifestyle and safe environment  Apply the risk management model to safety. issues an evaluation of each incident  Fire Dept Safety Officers Association (FDSOA) NFPA. Simply put. health & wellness in the org  Empower subordinates to stop unsafe behaviors & practice/provide positive role model for subordinates  Thoroughly investigate all employee Several approaches can be taken in risk control.Tracks LODDs/provides support to survivors  National FF Near-Miss Reporting  Close Call.Investigated LORD. accidents  Insists on safe design maintenance and operation of all apparatus & equipment National sources for information and statistics on safety related risks include:  CDC. including the following:  Risk avoidance  Risk Transfer  Control Measures Risk Avoidance The best risk-control choice is risk avoidance.

health & wellness programs o Ongoing training and education programs o Ongoing training and education programs o Well defined SOPs Examples include steps to mitigate backing up incidents and use in truck or use of proper PPE/ accountability on scene Human Factors that contribute to accidents:  Improper attitude  Lack of knowledge or skill  Physically unsuited Some questions to ask/answer in Accident Reports:  Who was involved  What were the circumstances  What was the root cause . Can be difficult but not impossible Examples: o Contracting the cleanup and disposal if Haz-Mat waste would transfer risks to private contractor who is trained/equipped to remove the waste & accepts liability o Buy insurance however does nothing to prevent actual occurrence Control Measures Effective control measures (risk reduction) is the most common method used for the management of risk. While control measures will not eliminate the and include a policy prohibiting smoking by org candidates when they are hired thus reducing the risk for lung CA Risk Transfer This approach can be accomplished in one of two primary ways: physically transferring the risk to someone else and through the purchase of insurance. Effective control measures include: o Safety.. they can reduce the likelihood if occurrence or mitigate the severity.

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