1. Basic Elements of Plant Design 1.1 Steam Generator – is a combination of apparatus for producing, furnishing, or recovering heat, together with apparatus for transferring to a working fluid the heat thus made available. It indicates the furnace, boiler, waterwalls, water floor, water screen, superheater, reheater, economizer, air preheater, and fuel-burning equipment. The term boiler has been used for such a long period of time that the two terms are used interchangeably. 1.2 Steam Turbine – is the most versatile prime mover capable of an almost endless variety of application. It is a practical power source when built in as small as 5 hp or as large as 100,000. It is relatively quiet and smooth in operation. 1.3 Condenser – a heat exchanger where steam enters the top and the condensate is collected in the hot well at the bottom while cooling water flows through the tubes. 1.4 Boiler Feed Pump or Feedwater Pumps – its function is to increase the pressure existing on a liquid an increment sufficient to the required service. 2. Rankine Cycle Rankine cycle – is the ideal steam power cycle. This ideal plant consist of a steam generator which receives feedwater under pressure from a pump, a prime mover in which to obtain the working expansion, and a condenser to reduce the exhaust steam to liquid, ready for pumping.

1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5

isentropic (or reversible adiabatic) expansion isobaric (or reversible constant-pressure) heat rejection isentropic (or reversible adiabatic) compression isobaric (or reversible constant-pressure) heat addition

Turbine Work Wt = m(h1 − h2 ) 1

Actual turbine work Wt′ = m(h1 − h2′ ) = m(h1 − h2 )ηt Heat rejected in condenser QR = m(h2 − h3 ) Actual heat rejected in condenser QR = m(h2′ − h3 ) Pump work Wp = m(h4 − h3 )
Wp ≈ mv3 (p4 − p3 )

Actual pump work m(h4 − h3 ) Wp′ =


Wp′ ≈

mv 3 (p4 − p3 )


Head added to boiler QA = m(h1 − h4 ) Actual heat added to boiler m(h1 − h4 ) QA =


where: ηt = turbine efficiency ηp = pump efficiency ηb = boiler efficiency Boiler efficiency – is meant the measure of ability of a boiler or steam generator to transfer the heat given it by the furnace to the water and steam. Thermal Cycle Efficiency For Rankine Cycle Wt − Wp (h1 − h2 ) − Wp (h1 − h2 ) − (h4 − h3 ) = ecycle = = (h1 − h3 ) − Wp Qb h1 − h4 For Rankine engine or turbine (combination with condenser) h −h eengine = 1 2 h1 − h3 For plant thermal efficiency electrical power output EP ep = = heat supplied by fuel m f HV 3. Methods used in increasing the thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle a. For the same throttle pressure and condenser pressure, increase the throttle temperature. b. For the same throttle temperature and condenser pressure, increase the throttle pressure. c. For the same throttle temperature and pressure, decrease the condenser pressure. d. Using reheat cycle e. Using regenerative cycle f. Using reheat-regenerative cycle 2

Reheat Cycle Reheat cycle. STEAM POWER PLANT .to increase turbine power. decrease heat addition.LECTURE 4. decrease turbine power. Regenerative Cycle Regenerative cycle – to improve the cycle efficiency. Turbine work Wt = m(h1 − h2 ) + (m − m1 )(h2 −h 3 ) 3 . increase thermal efficiency Turbine work Wt = m(h1 − h2 ) + m(h3 −h 4 ) Heat added in the boiler QAb = m(h1 − h6 ) Heat added in the reheater QArh = m(h3 − h2 ) Pump work Wp = m(h6 − h5 ) ≈ mv 5 (p6 − p5 ) Heat rejected in the condenser QR = m(h4 − h5 ) Thermal efficiency of reheat cycle W − Wp W − Wp ecycle = t = t QA QAb + QArh 5.E.

E.1. Steam Generators (Boilers) Steam generators – commonly referred to as boiler – is an integrated assembly of several essential components the function of which is to produce steam at a predetermined pressure and temperature. Horizontal or vertical axes b. Fully cylindrical or partially cylindrical shells 4 . STEAM POWER PLANT . Boiler Types 8. External or internal furnaces c. Reheat-Regenerative Cycle 7. a.LECTURE Heat added in the boiler QA = m(h1 − h7 ) Pump work 1 Wp1 = (m − m1 )(h5 − h4 ) ≈ (m − m1 )v 4 (p5 − p4 ) Pump work 2 Wp 2 = m(h7 − h6 ) ≈ mv 6 (p7 − p6 ) Heat rejected in the condenser QR = (m − m1 )(h3 − h4 ) Heat balance in regenerative heater (feedwater heater or deaerator) m1h2 + (m − m1 )h5 = mh6 Thermal efficiency of reheat cycle W − (Wp1 + Wp 2 ) Wt − (Wp1 + Wp2 ) = ecycle = t QA QA 6. 8.1 Classification according to the contents of the tubular heating surface.1 Fire-tube boilers Fire-tube boilers – are those in which the products of combustion pass through the tubes and the water lies around the outside of them. 8.

Service 1.have a parallel group of straight equal-length tubes.1 Factors to be considered in furnace design a.E. Water-jacketed furnace 5 . 2. 9.1 Boiler heating surface – tubes with attached drums or shells for storage of water and steam. Degree of pre-heating d. Air-cooled masonry walls b. Natural d. Classification of headers a.1 Water walls – water tubes installed in the furnace to protect furnace against high temperature. Stationary f. Straight tube . Three-Drum – two upper drums and one lower drums are arranged so that one upper drum carries the water level and the other. Classification according to: a. Number of Drums 1.1. Method of Water Circulation 1.are header less. arranged in a uniform pattern and joined at either end to headers. Two-Drum – two parallel horizontal drums of equal length but not necessarily equal diameter are set on one above the other and joined by multiple rows of bent tubes. Longitudinal 2. Bent-tube .LECTURE 8. 9.1. really acts as a header. 3.2.2. being lower.2. Draft equipment available 9. 9. The drum serve the same function as the headers. 9. e. Thermal Conditions 9. 9.2 Types of furnace walls a. Box headers b. Shape of the tubes 1. Air supply b. Partially water-cooled walls c.2. Drum –and-a-half – a long upper drum is paralleled by a shorted drum. STEAM POWER PLANT .2 Enclosure or setting 9. Parts of Steam Generator 9. Cross c. Sectional headers 2.1.3 Economizer – is a feedwater pre-heating device which utilizes steam mixed with the feedwater. Character of fuel used c. Solid masonry d. Forced 2. Drum position 1. b.1 Pressure parts 9. Capacity g.2 Furnace – encloses the combustion equipment to utilize effectively the heat generated.2. Marine 2.2 Superheated surface – provides more heating surface through which the steam must pass after leaving the boiler if a final superheated state is desired.2 Water-tube boilers Water-tube boilers – are those in which the water is inside the tubes while the products of combustion surrounds the tubes.1.2.

it is responsible in extracting flue gases out. Condemned Boiler Unfired Pressure Vessel – a boiler or unfired pressure vessel that has been inspected and declared unsafe to operate or disqualified. Breeching – duct connecting boiler to chimney. Baffles – direct the flow of the hot gases to effect efficient heat transfer between the hot gases and the heated water. Induced-draft fan – usually situated at the bottom of the chimney or smokestack.2. g. without the application of mechanical pressure or blows. Soot blower – removes soot around steam pipes developed as a result of combustion.E. Forced-draft fan – forces air inside to support fuel combustion c. placed in operation but subject to periodic inspection. Definitions from PSME Code 2008 Boiler or Steam Generator – a closed vessel intended for use in heating water or for application of heat to generate steam or other vapor to be used externally to itself. accessories and/or component even when a boiler or unfired pressure vessel is in operation.4 10. Fusible plug – a metal plug with a definite melting point through which the steam is released in case of excessive temperature which is usually caused by low water level. d. i.3 Combustion equipment a. also called blow-off valve. e. Safety valve – a safety device which automatically releases the steam in case of over-pressure. 9. manholes. Fire Tube Boiler – a boiler where heat is applied inside the tube. Heat-Recovery Steam Generator – unfired pressure vessel that uses flue gas heat. Fusion Welding – a process of welding metals in a molten and vaporous state. Burner – used in fire-tube boilers for firing liquid and gaseous fuels. Gas-Fired Boiler – uses natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for heating boiler. f. Coal-Fired Boiler – used stoketed water temperature coal or pulverized coal for water-tube. Stoker – used in water-tube boilers for firing solid fuels Auxiliaries and accessories a. External Inspection – an inspection made on the external parts. fire tube or water-tube. or other inspection openings are opened or removed for inspection of the interior.2. b. Blowdown valve – valve through which the impurities that settle in the mud drum are removed. STEAM POWER PLANT . b. Internal Inspection – an inspection made when a boiler or unfired pressure vessel is shut-down and handholes. 6 . h. employs the use of extracted steam from the main steam line. installed. Existing Installations – any boiler or unfired pressure vessel constructed.LECTURE 9. Air preheater – a heat exchanger utilizing the heat of the flue gases to pre-heat the air needed for combustion. stamped and marked indicating its rejection by qualified inspecting authority.

055 kg/cm2 gage steam water temperature not exceeding 121 C. 7 . Miniature Boiler – as used in this Code herein mean any boiler which does not exceed any of the following limits: 405 mm inside diameter. 1. 7. Oil-fired Boiler – uses Bunker C as fuel for heating boiler and power boiler. ASME Boiler Construction Code of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers with amendments and interpretations thereto made and approved by the Council of the Society. Power Boiler – a closed vessel in which steam or other vapor (to be used externally to itself) is generated at a pressure of more than 1. Reinstalled Boiler or Unfired Pressure Vessel – a boiler or unfired pressure vessel removed from its original setting and re-erected at the same location or erected at a location without change of ownership. or from an indirect application of heat. STEAM POWER PLANT . Portable Boiler – an internally fired boiler which is self-contained and primarily intended for temporary location and the construction and usage is obviously portable. Medium Pressure Heating Boiler – a boiler operated at a pressure not exceeding 103.055 kg/cm2 gage by the direct application of heat.LECTURE Locomotive Boiler – a boiler mounted on a self-propelled track locomotive and used to furnish motivating power for traveling on rails.E. Waste-Heat Boiler – unfired pressure vessel that uses flue gas heat from waste incinerator. placed in operation or constructed for. or water temperature not exceeding 130 C. Unfired Pressure Vessel – a vessel in which pressure is obtained from an external source. 1065 mm overall length of outside of heads at center. ASME Boiler Construction Code – the term. New Boiler or Unfired Pressure Vessel Installation – include all boilers and unfired pressure vessels constructed.03 kg/cm2 maximum allowable working pressure. Second Hand Boiler or Unfired Pressure Vessel – as used herein shall mean a boiler or unfired pressure vessel of which both the location and ownership have been changed after primary use. Waste Tube Boiler – a boiler where heat is applied outside the tube. installed.5 MPa gage steam.85 m2 of water heating surface. Low Pressure Heating Boiler – a boiler operated at a pressure not exceeding 1.

hfg = 970. 11.LECTURE 11. STEAM POWER PLANT . EE EE = ms FE where: ms = amount of steam generated.3 Btu/lb or hfg = 2257 Btu/lb or hfg = 539 kcal/kg Equivalent Evaporation.4 ASME Evaporation unit.1 sq m for fire-tube boilers k = 10 sq ft = 0. ESE m EE ESE = s FE = mf mf where: mf = amount of fuel burned in the furnace.2 11.3 11. Equivalent Specific Evaporation.E. 11.1 Factor of Evaporation. ASME EU ASME EU = ms (hs − h fw ) Rated Boiler Horsepower (Rated Bo Hp) Rated Bo Hp = Total Heating Surface / k where: k = 12 sq ft = 1. FE h s − h fw FE = h fg where: hfg = latent heat of vaporization or evaporation at standard atmospheric conditions.5 8 . Performance of Boilers 11.91 sq m for water-tube boilers Also Package Fire-Tube Boiler have a heating surface of 5 sq ft per boiler horsepower.

475 Btu/hr = 35. ebf ms (hs − h fw ) ebf = m f HHV − mr HVr where: mf = amount of ash refired HVr = heating value of ash 11. m f HHV NSHR = (kW − hr generated) − (kW − hr used by auxiliaries ) 9 .E.316 kJ/hr = 8.6 Developed Boiler Horsepower (Dev Bo Hp) ms (hs − h fw ) ASME EU Dev Bo Hp = = c c where: c = 33.10 Net Efficiency of Steam Generating Unit.12 Net Station (Power Plant) Heat Rate. NSHR Heat supplied by fuel . GSHR . ms (hs − h fw ) eo = m f HHV 11.7 11.8 Over-all Boiler Efficiency or Steam Generator Efficiency.11 Gross Station (Power Plant) Heat Rate. ms (hs − h fw ) + mrs (hro − hri ) + mbo (hbo − h fw ) eo = m f HHV where: mrs = amount of steam reheated hro = enthalpy of steam leaving reheater hri = enthalpy of steam entering reheater mbo = amount of water blowdown at boiler pressure hbo = enthalpy of saturated liquid at boiler pressure if there is no reheater and no boiler blowdown.Defined as the amount of heat required per unit power developed . STEAM POWER PLANT . Gross heat supplied by fuel GSHR = Gross work output 11. 11.9 Boiler and Furnace Efficiency. eo.433 kcal/hr Percent Rating Developed (% Rating Dev) Dev Bo Hp % Rating Dev = ×100 Rated Bo Hp 11. enet (ms − maux )(hs − hfw ) enet = m f HHV where: maux = amount of steam used for SGU auxiliaries.LECTURE 11.

1 Types of Blades a.2 Cylinder Arrangement a. The generator rotor is magnetized. The velocity compound stage is also called a Curtis stage. Pressure compound stages – involve several sets of nozzles with small pressure drops through each set of nozzles and complete velocity dissipation in each row of rotating buckets.2 Classification of Steam Turbine 12. 1. Tandem-compound units 10 . ηo kW − output at generator terminals ηo = Heat supplied by fuel 11. 12. Reaction Stages – are composed of one stationary row of blades and one rotating row of blades with a pressure drop occurring in each stationary and rotating row. c. The nozzle has a large pressure drop with a resulting increase in velocity. The steam expands through the nozzle. 2. increasing in velocity as a result of the decrease in pressure. Single cylinder . Bearings – this the main bearings of a single-cylinder turbine which are two in number and are placed outboard of the shaft seal. Impulse Stages . e. causing the turbine rotor to turn the generator rotor.E.13 Over-all (Gross) Station Efficiency.2. b.LECTURE 11.1 Principal Parts a. It surrounds the rotor and holds. b. any nozzles. 12. Oil system – is required for lubricating the bearings.consists of a stationary nozzle with rotating buckets or blades. but in opposite directions along the shaft. Steam Turbines The operation of the steam turbine generator involves the expansion of steam through numerous stages in the turbine.14 Grate Efficiency. internally. f.2. Casing – is the principal stationary element. Double flow units . STEAM POWER PLANT . blades. The steam then strikes the rotating buckets and performs work on the rotating buckets.Single cylinder units with steam entering in the center and flowing in two equal quantities. 12. Steam control – regulate the flow of steam through a stationary turbine to produce constant rotative speed in the presence of variable power demand. Velocity compound stage – involves a stationary nozzle followed by several rotating and stationary buckets. d. The pressure compound stages are also called Rateau impulse stages. which in turn decreases the steam velocity. often called the cylinder.With all rotating blades attached to one shaft and the steam flow all in one direction. c. egr m HV egr = 1 − c r m f HHV where: mc = amount of carbon in refuse or ash HVc = heating value of combustible in refuse or ash 12. and its rotation generates the electrical power in the generator stator. b. Rotor – is the main moving element of a turbine. and diaphragms that may be necessary to control the path and physical state of the expanding steam. Shaft seals – to prevent outflow at the high-pressure end and air inflow at the vacuum end.

Internal power – is the product of torque and rotor speed.6 13. turbine-generator units.2. 14. Reheat Reheat turbine – when steam is extracted from the turbine and its temperature increased (usually in the steam generator) before being returned to the turbine. Overload capacity – is the difference between capability and rating. Willan’s Line Willan’s line – is a straighlt line which shows the relation between the steam consumption in lb per hr and the load in kW of a steam turbine generator unit.LECTURE d. Cross-compound units .E.4 12. STEAM POWER PLANT . e. High or low speed turbines d. Low Pressure – 200 to 400 psig range. Supercritical Pressure – Above 3206 psig.or vertical-compound units Back Pressure Initial Temperature and Pressure High Pressure – 1800 to 2400 psig range.Differ from tandem-compound units only in that the high. in kilowatts.2.3 12. Steeple. with full extraction at any openings. Capability – is the manufacturer’s guaranteed maximum continuous output for a clean turbine.2. Nonextraction or extraction turbines e. Uses – stationary. marine. if provided. Other Methods a. Power Rating Mechanical drive turbines are rated in horsepower. Mixed-pressure units c. Nominal rating – is a declared power capacity expected to be the maximum load. 11 . High Temperature – Inlet temperature above 900 F.and low-pressure ends are not on the same shaft. Single-stage or multistage units b. operating under specific throttle and exhaust conditions. 12. or mechanical-drive turbines.2.5 12.

STEAM POWER PLANT .1 Ideal Turbine Work Wt = ms (h1 − h2 ) where: h1 = enthalpy of steam entering h2 = enthalpy of steam after ideal (isentropic) expansion 15.E. lb per hr a = no-load steam consumption. kw 15.3 15. lb per hr b = slope of the curve. lb per kwhr x = load.2 Actual Turbine Work Wt = ms (h1 − h2a ) = ms (h1 − h2 )ηst where: h2a = enthalpy of steam after actual expansion hst = stage efficiency Turbine Power Output Wt = ms (h1 − h2 )ηt = ms (h1 − h2 )ηstηm where: ηt = turbine efficiency = ηst x ηm ηm = mechanical efficiency Electrical or Generator Efficiency Generator output ηe = Turbine output Generator output = Turbine Output x ηe = ms(h1 – h2)ηtηe 12 15. Performance of Steam Turbines 15.4 .LECTURE Note that the Willans line for throttle governing and for an infinite number of governor valves is a straight line and will conform to the general equation y = a + bx Where y = throttle steam flow.4 15.

To convert steam to liquid before entering the steam-generating unit.6 Engine Efficiency of Turbine 15.6. 13 . Steam Condensers Steam condenser – a heat exchanger where steam enters at the top and the condensate is collected in the hot well at the bottom while cooling water flows through the tubes. Surface condenser – where steam and cooling water are not allowed to mix.1 Brake engine efficiency Brake power η eb = ms (h1 − h2 ) 15.2 Combined or Overall engine efficiency Generator output η ec = ms (h1 − h2 ) 16.E. 17.5. STEAM POWER PLANT . Classification of steam condensers a.5 Thermal Efficiency 15.3 Ideal Rankine thermal efficiency h −h er = 1 2 h1 − h f 2 15.5.LECTURE 15.6.2 Combined or overall thermal efficiency Generator output ec = ms (h1 − h f 2 ) 15.1 Brake thermal efficiency Turbine output eb = ms (h1 − h f 2 ) 15. commonly shell and tube design. Functions of Steam Condenser a. 18. To create a vacuum at turbine exhaust thereby increasing turbine power.5. b.

where steam and cooling water are allowed to mix. 19. 14 . Vacuum Efficiency. hvac p −p ηvac = atm cond patm − psat where: patm – atmospheric pressure pcond – absolute condenser pressure psat – saturation pressure 21.187 kJ/kg-C or 1. STEAM POWER PLANT .0 Btu/lb-F E = heat extraction factor 20.E. Subcooling – the reduction below saturation temperature. Direct-contact condenser (mixing) – also called jet condensers . Feedwater Heater Terminal difference – is the difference between the saturation temperature of the steam in the heater and the temperature of the water leaving the heater. Heat Balance in Condenser mw c p (t 2 − t1 ) = ms (hs − h f )E where: cp = 4.LECTURE b.

kPa H = head.E. m3/kg p1 = entrance pressure. kg/s v1 = specific volume. The steam so trapped in the cylinder expands adiabatically to the release pressure. Pump Work = m(h2 − h1 ) Pump Work ≈ mv1 (p2 − p1 ) Pump Work = mgH where: m = mass flow rate. Steam Engines Steam engines – where steam is admitted to the engine cylinder at throttle pressure during the first part of the working stroke. STEAM POWER PLANT . then cut off by closure of the steam valve. 22. Deaerator – a contact heater especially designed to remove the noncondensable gases. then is exhausted from the cylinder during part of the return stroke. Steam engines are double-acting and the process is isentropic. kPa p2 = exit pressure. 15 . m Pump input power (Brake power of the pump) = Pump Work Pump Efficiency 23.LECTURE Open heaters or Contact heaters – are feedwater heaters that function by mixing steam with the feedwater. Feedwater Pumps and Boiler Feed Pump Boiler feed pump – whose function is to increase the pressure existing on a liquid an increment sufficient to the required service.

STEAM POWER PLANT . kN-m N = speed. pmb BP = pmbVD 23.4 Brake Power BP = 2πTN where: T = torque.3 23.LECTURE 23.E.1 Ideal p-V Diagram 23. rev/s Using brake mean effective pressure.6 16 .5 Friction Power Friction Power = Indicated Power – Brake Power FP = IP – BP Mechanical Efficiency Brake Power ηm = Indicated Power 23.2 Piston Volume Displacement Piston rod neglected: π  VD = 2 D 2 LN 4 Piston rod considered: π  π  VD =  D 2 LN +   D 2 − d 2 LN 4 4 Indicated Power IP = pmiVD pmi = indicated mean effective pressure Area of Diagram pmi = × Spring Scale Length of Diagram ( ) 23.

Indicated engine efficiency Indicated Power ηi = ms (h1 − h2 ) b. Brake engine efficiency Brake Power ηb = ms (h1 − h2 ) 23. Combined Cycle Power Plant Combined gas turbine-steam cycle – is employed to transfer heat carried by the flue gas in the gas turbine cycle to the feedwater in the steam cycle.8 Engine Efficiency a.9 Efficiency of Equivalent Rankine Cycle h −h er = 1 2 h1 − h f 2 24. Brake thermal efficiency Brake Power eb = ms (h1 − hf 2 ) 23. Indicated thermal efficiency Indicated Power ei = ms (h1 − h f 2 ) b.E.LECTURE 23. STEAM POWER PLANT .7 Thermal Efficiency a. Schematic Diagram 17 . the heat exchanger performs the function of a boiler.

Wnet = ms [(h1 − h2 ) − v 3 (p4 − p3 )] Heat Gained in the Heat Exchanger. Heat lost by exhaust gases = heat gained by feedwater ma c p (Td − Tc ) = ms (h1 − h4 ) ms = ma c p (Td − Tc ) h1 − h4 where: ms = steam mass flow rate ma = air mass flow rate 25. QL = ma (hd − hc ) = ma c p (Td − Tc ) Steam Cycle: Net Work of the Cycle. QG = m fw (h1 − h4 ) = ms (h1 − h4 ) Thermal Efficiency of the Combined Cycle.is employed to transfer heat carried by the mercury in the mercury vapor cycle to the feedwater in the steam cycle. W W + WnetS ek = net = netG QA QA Energy balance in the heat exchanger.E.LECTURE Gas Turbine Cycle: Net Work of the Cycle. Binary Mercury-Steam Cycle Power Plant Binary mercury-steam cycle . Wnet = ma [(hc − hd ) − (hb − ha )] = ma c p [(Tc − Td ) − (Tb − Ta )] Heat Added in the Combustion Chamber. the heat exchanger performs the function of a boiler. STEAM POWER PLANT . QA = ma (hc − hb ) = ma c p (Tc − Tb ) Heat Loss in the Heat Exchanger. 18 .

E. mhg = m fw (h1 − h4 ) hb − hc where: ms = steam mass flow rate mfw = feedwater flow rate mhg = mercury flow rate 19 . STEAM POWER PLANT . Heat lost by the mercury – heat gained by water mhg (hb − hc ) = m fw (h1 − h4 ) m fw = ms Thus.LECTURE Schematic Diagram Overall Turbine Work. QA = mhg (ha − hd ) Thermal Efficiency of Binary Cycle. Wp = Whgp + Wsp = mhg (hd − hc ) + ms (h4 − h3 ) Wp = mhg v c (pd − pc ) + ms v 3 (p4 − p3 ) Heat Added in the Mercury Boiler. W − Wp W eb = net = t QA QA Energy Balance in the Heat Exchanger. Wt = Whgt + Wst = mhg (ha − hb ) + ms (h1 − h2 ) Overall Pump Work.

LECTURE 26.E. STEAM POWER PLANT . steel mills. Schematic Diagram - End - 20 . and District Heating (DH) applications. Cogeneration Steam Power Plant The terms cogeneration and CHP are used interchangeably paper and are defined as the combined simultaneous generation of heat and electrical energy with a common source of fuel. food and chemical processing plants. Common examples of cogeneration applications include pulp and paper mills.

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