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1. Basic Elements of Plant Design 1.1 Steam Generator is a combination of apparatus for producing, furnishing, or recovering heat, together with apparatus for transferring to a working fluid the heat thus made available. It indicates the furnace, boiler, waterwalls, water floor, water screen, superheater, reheater, economizer, air preheater, and fuel-burning equipment. The term boiler has been used for such a long period of time that the two terms are used interchangeably. 1.2 Steam Turbine is the most versatile prime mover capable of an almost endless variety of application. It is a practical power source when built in as small as 5 hp or as large as 100,000. It is relatively quiet and smooth in operation. 1.3 Condenser a heat exchanger where steam enters the top and the condensate is collected in the hot well at the bottom while cooling water flows through the tubes. 1.4 Boiler Feed Pump or Feedwater Pumps its function is to increase the pressure existing on a liquid an increment sufficient to the required service. 2. Rankine Cycle Rankine cycle is the ideal steam power cycle. This ideal plant consist of a steam generator which receives feedwater under pressure from a pump, a prime mover in which to obtain the working expansion, and a condenser to reduce the exhaust steam to liquid, ready for pumping.

1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5

isentropic (or reversible adiabatic) expansion isobaric (or reversible constant-pressure) heat rejection isentropic (or reversible adiabatic) compression isobaric (or reversible constant-pressure) heat addition

Turbine Work Wt = m(h1 h2 ) 1


Actual turbine work Wt = m(h1 h2 ) = m(h1 h2 )t Heat rejected in condenser QR = m(h2 h3 ) Actual heat rejected in condenser QR = m(h2 h3 ) Pump work Wp = m(h4 h3 )
Wp mv3 (p4 p3 )

Actual pump work m(h4 h3 ) Wp =


mv 3 (p4 p3 )

Head added to boiler QA = m(h1 h4 ) Actual heat added to boiler m(h1 h4 ) QA =

where: t = turbine efficiency p = pump efficiency b = boiler efficiency Boiler efficiency is meant the measure of ability of a boiler or steam generator to transfer the heat given it by the furnace to the water and steam. Thermal Cycle Efficiency For Rankine Cycle Wt Wp (h1 h2 ) Wp (h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 ) = ecycle = = (h1 h3 ) Wp Qb h1 h4 For Rankine engine or turbine (combination with condenser) h h eengine = 1 2 h1 h3 For plant thermal efficiency electrical power output EP ep = = heat supplied by fuel m f HV 3. Methods used in increasing the thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle a. For the same throttle pressure and condenser pressure, increase the throttle temperature. b. For the same throttle temperature and condenser pressure, increase the throttle pressure. c. For the same throttle temperature and pressure, decrease the condenser pressure. d. Using reheat cycle e. Using regenerative cycle f. Using reheat-regenerative cycle 2


4. Reheat Cycle Reheat cycle- to increase turbine power, increase thermal efficiency

Turbine work Wt = m(h1 h2 ) + m(h3 h 4 ) Heat added in the boiler QAb = m(h1 h6 ) Heat added in the reheater QArh = m(h3 h2 ) Pump work Wp = m(h6 h5 ) mv 5 (p6 p5 ) Heat rejected in the condenser QR = m(h4 h5 ) Thermal efficiency of reheat cycle W Wp W Wp ecycle = t = t QA QAb + QArh 5. Regenerative Cycle Regenerative cycle to improve the cycle efficiency, decrease turbine power, decrease heat addition.

Turbine work Wt = m(h1 h2 ) + (m m1 )(h2 h 3 ) 3


Heat added in the boiler QA = m(h1 h7 ) Pump work 1 Wp1 = (m m1 )(h5 h4 ) (m m1 )v 4 (p5 p4 ) Pump work 2 Wp 2 = m(h7 h6 ) mv 6 (p7 p6 ) Heat rejected in the condenser QR = (m m1 )(h3 h4 ) Heat balance in regenerative heater (feedwater heater or deaerator) m1h2 + (m m1 )h5 = mh6 Thermal efficiency of reheat cycle W (Wp1 + Wp 2 ) Wt (Wp1 + Wp2 ) = ecycle = t QA QA 6. Reheat-Regenerative Cycle

7. Steam Generators (Boilers) Steam generators commonly referred to as boiler is an integrated assembly of several essential components the function of which is to produce steam at a predetermined pressure and temperature.

8. Boiler Types 8.1 Classification according to the contents of the tubular heating surface. 8.1.1 Fire-tube boilers Fire-tube boilers are those in which the products of combustion pass through the tubes and the water lies around the outside of them. a. Horizontal or vertical axes b. External or internal furnaces c. Fully cylindrical or partially cylindrical shells 4


8.1.2 Water-tube boilers Water-tube boilers are those in which the water is inside the tubes while the products of combustion surrounds the tubes. Classification according to: a. Shape of the tubes 1. Straight tube - have a parallel group of straight equal-length tubes, arranged in a uniform pattern and joined at either end to headers. Classification of headers a. Box headers b. Sectional headers 2. Bent-tube - are header less. The drum serve the same function as the headers. b. Drum position 1. Longitudinal 2. Cross c. Method of Water Circulation 1. Forced 2. Natural d. Number of Drums 1. Drum and-a-half a long upper drum is paralleled by a shorted drum. 2. Two-Drum two parallel horizontal drums of equal length but not necessarily equal diameter are set on one above the other and joined by multiple rows of bent tubes. 3. Three-Drum two upper drums and one lower drums are arranged so that one upper drum carries the water level and the other, being lower, really acts as a header. e. Service 1. Marine 2. Stationary f. Capacity g. Thermal Conditions

9. Parts of Steam Generator 9.1 Pressure parts 9.1.1 Boiler heating surface tubes with attached drums or shells for storage of water and steam. 9.1.2 Superheated surface provides more heating surface through which the steam must pass after leaving the boiler if a final superheated state is desired. 9.1.3 Economizer is a feedwater pre-heating device which utilizes steam mixed with the feedwater. 9.2 Enclosure or setting 9.2.1 Water walls water tubes installed in the furnace to protect furnace against high temperature. 9.2.2 Furnace encloses the combustion equipment to utilize effectively the heat generated. Factors to be considered in furnace design a. Air supply b. Character of fuel used c. Degree of pre-heating d. Draft equipment available Types of furnace walls a. Air-cooled masonry walls b. Partially water-cooled walls c. Solid masonry d. Water-jacketed furnace 5


9.2.3 Combustion equipment a. Burner used in fire-tube boilers for firing liquid and gaseous fuels. b. Stoker used in water-tube boilers for firing solid fuels Auxiliaries and accessories a. Air preheater a heat exchanger utilizing the heat of the flue gases to pre-heat the air needed for combustion. b. Forced-draft fan forces air inside to support fuel combustion c. Induced-draft fan usually situated at the bottom of the chimney or smokestack, it is responsible in extracting flue gases out. d. Soot blower removes soot around steam pipes developed as a result of combustion, employs the use of extracted steam from the main steam line. e. Blowdown valve valve through which the impurities that settle in the mud drum are removed; also called blow-off valve. f. Breeching duct connecting boiler to chimney. g. Baffles direct the flow of the hot gases to effect efficient heat transfer between the hot gases and the heated water. h. Fusible plug a metal plug with a definite melting point through which the steam is released in case of excessive temperature which is usually caused by low water level. i. Safety valve a safety device which automatically releases the steam in case of over-pressure.


10. Definitions from PSME Code 2008 Boiler or Steam Generator a closed vessel intended for use in heating water or for application of heat to generate steam or other vapor to be used externally to itself. Coal-Fired Boiler used stoketed water temperature coal or pulverized coal for water-tube. Condemned Boiler Unfired Pressure Vessel a boiler or unfired pressure vessel that has been inspected and declared unsafe to operate or disqualified, stamped and marked indicating its rejection by qualified inspecting authority. Existing Installations any boiler or unfired pressure vessel constructed, installed, placed in operation but subject to periodic inspection. External Inspection an inspection made on the external parts, accessories and/or component even when a boiler or unfired pressure vessel is in operation. Fire Tube Boiler a boiler where heat is applied inside the tube. Fusion Welding a process of welding metals in a molten and vaporous state, without the application of mechanical pressure or blows. Gas-Fired Boiler uses natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for heating boiler, fire tube or water-tube. Heat-Recovery Steam Generator unfired pressure vessel that uses flue gas heat. Internal Inspection an inspection made when a boiler or unfired pressure vessel is shut-down and handholes, manholes, or other inspection openings are opened or removed for inspection of the interior. 6


Locomotive Boiler a boiler mounted on a self-propelled track locomotive and used to furnish motivating power for traveling on rails. Low Pressure Heating Boiler a boiler operated at a pressure not exceeding 1.055 kg/cm2 gage steam water temperature not exceeding 121 C. Medium Pressure Heating Boiler a boiler operated at a pressure not exceeding 103.5 MPa gage steam, or water temperature not exceeding 130 C. Miniature Boiler as used in this Code herein mean any boiler which does not exceed any of the following limits: 405 mm inside diameter, 1065 mm overall length of outside of heads at center, 1.85 m2 of water heating surface, 7.03 kg/cm2 maximum allowable working pressure. New Boiler or Unfired Pressure Vessel Installation include all boilers and unfired pressure vessels constructed, installed, placed in operation or constructed for. Oil-fired Boiler uses Bunker C as fuel for heating boiler and power boiler. Portable Boiler an internally fired boiler which is self-contained and primarily intended for temporary location and the construction and usage is obviously portable. Power Boiler a closed vessel in which steam or other vapor (to be used externally to itself) is generated at a pressure of more than 1.055 kg/cm2 gage by the direct application of heat. ASME Boiler Construction Code the term, ASME Boiler Construction Code of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers with amendments and interpretations thereto made and approved by the Council of the Society. Reinstalled Boiler or Unfired Pressure Vessel a boiler or unfired pressure vessel removed from its original setting and re-erected at the same location or erected at a location without change of ownership. Second Hand Boiler or Unfired Pressure Vessel as used herein shall mean a boiler or unfired pressure vessel of which both the location and ownership have been changed after primary use. Unfired Pressure Vessel a vessel in which pressure is obtained from an external source, or from an indirect application of heat. Waste-Heat Boiler unfired pressure vessel that uses flue gas heat from waste incinerator. Waste Tube Boiler a boiler where heat is applied outside the tube.


11. Performance of Boilers


Factor of Evaporation, FE h s h fw FE = h fg where: hfg = latent heat of vaporization or evaporation at standard atmospheric conditions. hfg = 970.3 Btu/lb or hfg = 2257 Btu/lb or hfg = 539 kcal/kg Equivalent Evaporation, EE EE = ms FE where: ms = amount of steam generated. Equivalent Specific Evaporation, ESE m EE ESE = s FE = mf mf where: mf = amount of fuel burned in the furnace.




ASME Evaporation unit, ASME EU ASME EU = ms (hs h fw ) Rated Boiler Horsepower (Rated Bo Hp) Rated Bo Hp = Total Heating Surface / k where: k = 12 sq ft = 1.1 sq m for fire-tube boilers k = 10 sq ft = 0.91 sq m for water-tube boilers Also Package Fire-Tube Boiler have a heating surface of 5 sq ft per boiler horsepower.



11.6 Developed Boiler Horsepower (Dev Bo Hp) ms (hs h fw ) ASME EU Dev Bo Hp = = c c where: c = 33,475 Btu/hr = 35,316 kJ/hr = 8,433 kcal/hr Percent Rating Developed (% Rating Dev) Dev Bo Hp % Rating Dev = 100 Rated Bo Hp



Over-all Boiler Efficiency or Steam Generator Efficiency, eo. ms (hs h fw ) + mrs (hro hri ) + mbo (hbo h fw ) eo = m f HHV where: mrs = amount of steam reheated hro = enthalpy of steam leaving reheater hri = enthalpy of steam entering reheater mbo = amount of water blowdown at boiler pressure hbo = enthalpy of saturated liquid at boiler pressure if there is no reheater and no boiler blowdown. ms (hs h fw ) eo = m f HHV


Boiler and Furnace Efficiency, ebf ms (hs h fw ) ebf = m f HHV mr HVr where: mf = amount of ash refired HVr = heating value of ash

11.10 Net Efficiency of Steam Generating Unit, enet (ms maux )(hs hfw ) enet = m f HHV where: maux = amount of steam used for SGU auxiliaries. 11.11 Gross Station (Power Plant) Heat Rate, GSHR - Defined as the amount of heat required per unit power developed . Gross heat supplied by fuel GSHR = Gross work output 11.12 Net Station (Power Plant) Heat Rate, NSHR Heat supplied by fuel , m f HHV NSHR = (kW hr generated) (kW hr used by auxiliaries )


11.13 Over-all (Gross) Station Efficiency, o kW output at generator terminals o = Heat supplied by fuel 11.14 Grate Efficiency, egr m HV egr = 1 c r m f HHV where: mc = amount of carbon in refuse or ash HVc = heating value of combustible in refuse or ash 12. Steam Turbines The operation of the steam turbine generator involves the expansion of steam through numerous stages in the turbine, causing the turbine rotor to turn the generator rotor. The generator rotor is magnetized, and its rotation generates the electrical power in the generator stator. 12.1 Principal Parts a. Rotor is the main moving element of a turbine. b. Casing is the principal stationary element, often called the cylinder. It surrounds the rotor and holds, internally, any nozzles, blades, and diaphragms that may be necessary to control the path and physical state of the expanding steam. c. Bearings this the main bearings of a single-cylinder turbine which are two in number and are placed outboard of the shaft seal. d. Shaft seals to prevent outflow at the high-pressure end and air inflow at the vacuum end. e. Steam control regulate the flow of steam through a stationary turbine to produce constant rotative speed in the presence of variable power demand. f. Oil system is required for lubricating the bearings. 12.2 Classification of Steam Turbine 12.2.1 Types of Blades a. Impulse Stages - consists of a stationary nozzle with rotating buckets or blades. The steam expands through the nozzle, increasing in velocity as a result of the decrease in pressure. The steam then strikes the rotating buckets and performs work on the rotating buckets, which in turn decreases the steam velocity. 1. Velocity compound stage involves a stationary nozzle followed by several rotating and stationary buckets. The nozzle has a large pressure drop with a resulting increase in velocity. The velocity compound stage is also called a Curtis stage. 2. Pressure compound stages involve several sets of nozzles with small pressure drops through each set of nozzles and complete velocity dissipation in each row of rotating buckets. The pressure compound stages are also called Rateau impulse stages. b. Reaction Stages are composed of one stationary row of blades and one rotating row of blades with a pressure drop occurring in each stationary and rotating row. 12.2.2 Cylinder Arrangement a. Single cylinder - With all rotating blades attached to one shaft and the steam flow all in one direction. b. Double flow units - Single cylinder units with steam entering in the center and flowing in two equal quantities, but in opposite directions along the shaft. c. Tandem-compound units 10


d. Cross-compound units - Differ from tandem-compound units only in that the high- and low-pressure ends are not on the same shaft. e. Steeple- or vertical-compound units Back Pressure Initial Temperature and Pressure High Pressure 1800 to 2400 psig range. Supercritical Pressure Above 3206 psig. Low Pressure 200 to 400 psig range. High Temperature Inlet temperature above 900 F. Reheat Reheat turbine when steam is extracted from the turbine and its temperature increased (usually in the steam generator) before being returned to the turbine. Other Methods a. Single-stage or multistage units b. Mixed-pressure units c. High or low speed turbines d. Nonextraction or extraction turbines e. Uses stationary, marine, or mechanical-drive turbines.

12.2.3 12.2.4



13. Power Rating Mechanical drive turbines are rated in horsepower; turbine-generator units, in kilowatts. Internal power is the product of torque and rotor speed. Nominal rating is a declared power capacity expected to be the maximum load. Capability is the manufacturers guaranteed maximum continuous output for a clean turbine, operating under specific throttle and exhaust conditions, with full extraction at any openings, if provided. Overload capacity is the difference between capability and rating. 14. Willans Line Willans line is a straighlt line which shows the relation between the steam consumption in lb per hr and the load in kW of a steam turbine generator unit.



Note that the Willans line for throttle governing and for an infinite number of governor valves is a straight line and will conform to the general equation y = a + bx Where

y = throttle steam flow, lb per hr a = no-load steam consumption, lb per hr b = slope of the curve, lb per kwhr x = load, kw

15. Performance of Steam Turbines


Ideal Turbine Work Wt = ms (h1 h2 ) where:

h1 = enthalpy of steam entering h2 = enthalpy of steam after ideal (isentropic) expansion

15.2 Actual Turbine Work Wt = ms (h1 h2a ) = ms (h1 h2 )st where: h2a = enthalpy of steam after actual expansion hst = stage efficiency Turbine Power Output Wt = ms (h1 h2 )t = ms (h1 h2 )stm where: t = turbine efficiency = st x m m = mechanical efficiency Electrical or Generator Efficiency Generator output e = Turbine output Generator output = Turbine Output x e = ms(h1 h2)te 12

15.3 15.4



15.5 Thermal Efficiency 15.5.1 Brake thermal efficiency Turbine output eb = ms (h1 h f 2 ) 15.5.2 Combined or overall thermal efficiency Generator output ec = ms (h1 h f 2 ) 15.5.3 Ideal Rankine thermal efficiency h h er = 1 2 h1 h f 2 15.6 Engine Efficiency of Turbine 15.6.1 Brake engine efficiency Brake power eb = ms (h1 h2 ) 15.6.2 Combined or Overall engine efficiency Generator output ec = ms (h1 h2 )

16. Steam Condensers Steam condenser a heat exchanger where steam enters at the top and the condensate is collected in the hot well at the bottom while cooling water flows through the tubes. 17. Functions of Steam Condenser a. To convert steam to liquid before entering the steam-generating unit. b. To create a vacuum at turbine exhaust thereby increasing turbine power. 18. Classification of steam condensers a. Surface condenser where steam and cooling water are not allowed to mix; commonly shell and tube design.



b. Direct-contact condenser (mixing) also called jet condensers , where steam and cooling water are allowed to mix.

19. Heat Balance in Condenser

mw c p (t 2 t1 ) = ms (hs h f )E

where: cp = 4.187 kJ/kg-C or 1.0 Btu/lb-F E = heat extraction factor

20. Vacuum Efficiency, hvac p p vac = atm cond patm psat where: patm atmospheric pressure pcond absolute condenser pressure psat saturation pressure
21. Feedwater Heater Terminal difference is the difference between the saturation temperature of the steam in the heater and the temperature of the water leaving the heater. Subcooling the reduction below saturation temperature. 14


Open heaters or Contact heaters are feedwater heaters that function by mixing steam with the feedwater. Deaerator a contact heater especially designed to remove the noncondensable gases. 22. Feedwater Pumps and Boiler Feed Pump Boiler feed pump whose function is to increase the pressure existing on a liquid an increment sufficient to the required service.

Pump Work = m(h2 h1 ) Pump Work mv1 (p2 p1 ) Pump Work = mgH where: m = mass flow rate, kg/s v1 = specific volume, m3/kg p1 = entrance pressure, kPa p2 = exit pressure, kPa H = head, m

Pump input power (Brake power of the pump) =

Pump Work Pump Efficiency

23. Steam Engines Steam engines where steam is admitted to the engine cylinder at throttle pressure during the first part of the working stroke, then cut off by closure of the steam valve. The steam so trapped in the cylinder expands adiabatically to the release pressure, then is exhausted from the cylinder during part of the return stroke. Steam engines are double-acting and the process is isentropic.



23.1 Ideal p-V Diagram


Piston Volume Displacement Piston rod neglected: VD = 2 D 2 LN 4 Piston rod considered: VD = D 2 LN + D 2 d 2 LN 4 4 Indicated Power IP = pmiVD pmi = indicated mean effective pressure Area of Diagram pmi = Spring Scale Length of Diagram



Brake Power BP = 2TN where: T = torque, kN-m N = speed, rev/s Using brake mean effective pressure, pmb BP = pmbVD


Friction Power Friction Power = Indicated Power Brake Power FP = IP BP Mechanical Efficiency Brake Power m = Indicated Power




23.7 Thermal Efficiency a. Indicated thermal efficiency Indicated Power ei = ms (h1 h f 2 ) b. Brake thermal efficiency Brake Power eb = ms (h1 hf 2 ) 23.8 Engine Efficiency a. Indicated engine efficiency Indicated Power i = ms (h1 h2 ) b. Brake engine efficiency Brake Power b = ms (h1 h2 )


Efficiency of Equivalent Rankine Cycle h h er = 1 2 h1 h f 2

24. Combined Cycle Power Plant Combined gas turbine-steam cycle is employed to transfer heat carried by the flue gas in the gas turbine cycle to the feedwater in the steam cycle; the heat exchanger performs the function of a boiler.

Schematic Diagram



Gas Turbine Cycle: Net Work of the Cycle, Wnet = ma [(hc hd ) (hb ha )] = ma c p [(Tc Td ) (Tb Ta )] Heat Added in the Combustion Chamber, QA = ma (hc hb ) = ma c p (Tc Tb ) Heat Loss in the Heat Exchanger, QL = ma (hd hc ) = ma c p (Td Tc ) Steam Cycle: Net Work of the Cycle, Wnet = ms [(h1 h2 ) v 3 (p4 p3 )] Heat Gained in the Heat Exchanger, QG = m fw (h1 h4 ) = ms (h1 h4 )

Thermal Efficiency of the Combined Cycle, W W + WnetS ek = net = netG QA QA Energy balance in the heat exchanger, Heat lost by exhaust gases = heat gained by feedwater ma c p (Td Tc ) = ms (h1 h4 )

ms =

ma c p (Td Tc ) h1 h4

where: ms = steam mass flow rate ma = air mass flow rate

25. Binary Mercury-Steam Cycle Power Plant Binary mercury-steam cycle - is employed to transfer heat carried by the mercury in the mercury vapor cycle to the feedwater in the steam cycle; the heat exchanger performs the function of a boiler.



Schematic Diagram

Overall Turbine Work, Wt = Whgt + Wst = mhg (ha hb ) + ms (h1 h2 ) Overall Pump Work, Wp = Whgp + Wsp = mhg (hd hc ) + ms (h4 h3 )
Wp = mhg v c (pd pc ) + ms v 3 (p4 p3 )

Heat Added in the Mercury Boiler, QA = mhg (ha hd ) Thermal Efficiency of Binary Cycle, W Wp W eb = net = t QA QA

Energy Balance in the Heat Exchanger, Heat lost by the mercury heat gained by water mhg (hb hc ) = m fw (h1 h4 )
m fw = ms


mhg =

m fw (h1 h4 ) hb hc

where: ms = steam mass flow rate mfw = feedwater flow rate mhg = mercury flow rate



26. Cogeneration Steam Power Plant The terms cogeneration and CHP are used interchangeably paper and are defined as the combined simultaneous generation of heat and electrical energy with a common source of fuel. Common examples of cogeneration applications include pulp and paper mills, steel mills, food and chemical processing plants, and District Heating (DH) applications. Schematic Diagram

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