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SURFACE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY

A SEMINAR REPORT Submitted By

STUTI BHUSHAN
in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

AT

BABU BANARASI DAS NORTHERN INDIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, LUCKNOW Affiliated to GAUTAM BUDDH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY MARCH 2013 Submitted To CHETAN VERMA

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING BABU BANARSI DAS NORTHERN INDIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LUCKNOW-227105

certificate
Certified that this is a bonafide record of the seminar entitled SURFACE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY presented by the following student STUTI BHUSHAN

of the VI semester, Electrical Engineering in the year 2013 in partial fulfillment of the requirements in the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering of Babu Banarsi Das Northern India Institute of Technology, Lucknow affiliated to UTTAR PRADESH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY.

Mr. CHETAN VERMA


SEMINAR GUIDE ELECTRICAL DEPEARTMENT

Dr. SEETHALEKSHMI. K
PROFESSOR & HEAD ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
No task can be accomplished without proper support, guidance and appraisal. I am highly thankful to many people who contributed either directly or indirectly for this seminar and provided their invaluable cooperation to me to complete it. I would like to thank our H.O.D Dr. SEETHALEKSHMI. K., and our faculty members of Electrical department for constantly guiding and showing me the correct way to reach towards the desired goal. The wholehearted help and co-operation extended by my friends is gratefully acknowledged. I once again extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

(Stuti Bhushan)

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PREFACE
The name Surface comes from "surface computing," and Microsoft envisions the coffee-table machine as the first of many such devices. Surface computing uses a blend of wireless protocols, special machine-readable tags and shape recognition to seamlessly merge the real and the virtual world an idea the Milan team refers to as "blended reality." The table can be built with a variety of wireless transceivers, including Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and (eventually) radio frequency identification (RFID) and is designed to sync instantly with any device that touches its surface. It supports multiple touch points Microsoft says "dozens and dozens" -- as well as multiple users simultaneously, so more than one person could be using it at once, or one person could be doing multiple tasks. The term "surface" describes how it's used. There is no keyboard or mouse. All interactions with the computer are done via touching the surface of the computer's screen with hands or brushes, or via wireless interaction with devices such as smartphones, digital cameras or Microsoft's Zune music player. Because of the cameras, the device can also recognize physical objects; for instance credit cards or hotel "loyalty" cards. For instance, a user could set a digital camera down on the tabletop and wirelessly transfer pictures into folders on Surface's hard drive. Or setting a music player down would let a user drag songs from his or her home music collection directly into the player, or between two players, using a finger or transfer mapping information for the location of a restaurant where you just made reservations through a Surface tabletop over to a smartphone just before you walk out the door.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgement Preface Introduction Chapter-1 Introduction to Surface 1.1 What is Surface? 1.2 What is Computing? 1.3 Overview Chapter-2 Surface Computing Timeline 2.1 Origin and Development 2.2 Initial Prototypes of Surface Chapter-3 Hardware and Software Details 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Surface Hardware Architecture Surface Hardware Components Surface Software Architecture Surface software Components Technical Specification iii iv 1 2 2 2 3 5 5 7 9 9 10 11 11 13 15 15 16 16 18 19 19 21 23 23 23 24 25

Chapter-4 Features 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Key Features of Surface Computing What is Multitouch Technology? What is Object-Recognition Technology? How Surface Works?

Chapter-5 Applications and Business 5.1 Products of Surface Computing 5.2 Real Life Applications Chapter-6 Advantages and Disadvantages 6.1 Advantages of Surface Computing 6.2 Disadvantages of Surface Computing Chapter-7 Conclusion References

Surface Computing Technology


INTRODUCTION
Surface computing technology promises to deliver amazing, social, and highly interactive computing experience. People can use the 360 degree interface from all sides for face-to-face collaboration, cooperation, and building trust. Its intimate enough to facilitate the close back and-forth of a consultation and makes intuitive sense to people, young and old. Touch. Push. Pull. Turn. Place an object on the screen. Surface creates new opportunities to socially interact with people and content. Simply put, there is no easier way to bring people together to connect, learn, have fun, and decide. Surface is what computing always promises to be intuitive, informative, engaging, and helpful and with it opening new possibilities in field of computing, which were earlier not possible. Surface touches people, even as they touch Surface. Surface computing is the term for the use of a specialized computer GUI in which traditional GUI elements are replaced by intuitive, everyday objects. Instead of a keyboard and mouse, the user interacts directly with a touch-sensitive screen For years electronics & electrical engineers have looked for a better way for people to communicate with their computers. Keyboards while feeling natural to many of us has advanced very little beyond the typewriters which have been around for well over a hundred years and though the mouse is a step above that it still takes practice for someone who has never used one to become used to the idea of moving the mouse with it and after years of using a computer many older people still have trouble with the concepts of double clicking, right clicking, dragging, dropping and other techniques that can seem simple to more advanced computer users. Surface computing or Microsoft surface (codename : Milan) is a multi-touch product form Microsoft which h is developed as a software and hardware combination technology that allows a user are multiple user to manipulate digital content by the use of natural motions , hand gestures, or physical objects. Microsoft Surface Computer is the first in a new category of surface computing products from Microsoft that will break down traditional barriers between people and technology. It is the next generation of computer interfaces those offer multi touch technology.

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Surface Computing Technology


CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTIONTO SURFACE

1.1

WHAT IS SURFACE? Over the past couple of years, a new class of interactive device has begun to emerge,

what can best be described as surface . Surface Table top The Surface table top typically incorporates a rear-projection display

coupled with an optical system to capture touch points by detecting shadows from below. Different approaches to doing the detection have been used, but most employ some form of IR illumination coupled with IR cameras. With todays camera and signal-processing capability, reliable responsive and accurate multi-touch capabilities can be achieved. Perceptive Pixel The multitouch pioneer and his company, Perceptive Pixel, have devoted the better part of two years to building an entirely new multitouch framework from the ground up. Instead of simply mapping multitouch technology to familiar interfaces and devices, Han's goal is far more sweeping: To use the technology as a foundation for an entirely new operating system.

1.2

WHAT IS COMPUTING? In general way, we can define computing to mean any goal-oriented activity requiring,

benefiting from or creating computers. Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software system for a wide range of purposes; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific studies using computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; creating and using communications and entertainment media; finding and gathering information relevant to any particular purpose, and so on. The list is virtually endless, and the possibilities are vast.

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Surface Computing Technology


1.3 OVERVIEW Surface computing is a new way of working with computers that moves beyond the traditional mouse-and-keyboard experience. It is a natural user interface that allows people to interact with digital content the same way they have interacted with everyday items such as photos, paintbrushes and music their entire life: with their hands, with gestures and by putting real-world objects on the surface. Surface computing opens up a whole new category of products for users to interact with. Surface computing is the term for the use of a specialized computer GUI in which traditional GUI elements are replaced by intuitive, everyday objects. Instead of a keyboard and mouse, the user interacts directly with a touch-sensitive screen. It has been said that this more closely replicates the familiar hands-on experience of everyday object manipulation. Microsoft Surface turns an ordinary tabletop into a vibrant, interactive computing experience. The product provides effortless interaction with digital content through natural gestures, touch and physical objects. In Essence, its a surface that comes to life for exploring, learning, sharing, creating, buying and much more. Currently available in select in restaurants, hotels, retail establishments and public entertainment venues, this experience will transform the way people shop, dine, entertain and live. Surface is a 30inch display in a tablelike form factor thats easy for individuals or small groups to interact with in a way that feels familiar, just like in the real world. Surface can simultaneously recognize dozens and dozens of movements such as touch, gestures and actual unique objects that have identification tags similar to bar codes.

Surface computing breaks down traditional barriers between people and technology, changing the way people interact with all kinds of everyday content, from photos to maps to menus. The intuitive user interface works without a traditional mouse or keyboard, allowing people to interact with content and information by using their hands and natural movements. Users are able to access information either on their own or collaboratively with their friends and families, any experience available today.

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Surface Computing Technology


Surface computing is slowly starting to catch on and is starting to be used in real world applications. Here is just a sample of what surface computing technologies have been used. The Microsoft Surface is starting to pick up popularity and has been used in various places and venues. AT&T became the first retailer to use Surface to help their customers purchase phones. Customers could place the phones on the Surface and receive full phone specs, as well as pricing. It has also been used in a wide variety of locations which include hotel lobbies, such as Sheraton Hotels, as well as venues which included Super Bowl XLIII to help police organize and monitor the event in great detail. It is also starting to gain use in the broadcasting industry and has been used by MSNBC during the 2008 US Presidential Elections. However, USD $15,500 (device only) is still considered expensive for most business. Surface computing is a completely intuitive and liberating way to interact with digital content. It blurs the lines between the physical and virtual worlds. By using your hands or placing other unique everyday objects on the surface such as an item youre going to purchase at a retail store or a paint brush you can interact with, share and collaborate like youve never done before. Imagine youre out at a restaurant with friends and you each place your beverage on the table and all kinds of information appears by your glass, such as wine pairings with a restaurants menu. Then, with the flick of your finger, you order dessert and split the bill. We really see this as broadening content opportunities and delivery systems. Surface computing is a powerful movement. In fact, its as significant as the move from DOS [Disk Operating System] to GUI [Graphic User Interface]. Our research shows that many people are intimidated and isolated by todays technology. Many features available in mobile phones, PCs and other electronic devices like digital cameras arent even used because the technology is intimidating. Surface computing breaks down those traditional barriers to technology so that people can interact with all kinds of digital content in a more intuitive, engaging and efficient manner. Its about technology adapting to the user, rather than the user adapting to the technology. Bringing this kind of natural user interface innovation to the computing space is what Surface Computing is all about.

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CHAPTER 2 SURFACE COMPUTING TIMELINE
2.1 ORIGIN & DEVELOPMENT Surface computing is a major advancement that moves beyond the traditional user interface to a more natural way of interacting with digital content. Microsoft Surface, Microsoft Corp.s first commercially available surface computer, breaks down the tradit ional barriers between people and technology to provide effortless interaction with all forms of digital content through natural gestures, touch and physical objects instead of a mouse and keyboard. The people will be able to interact with Surface in select restaurants, hotels, retail establishments and public entertainment. Early work in this area was done at the University of Toronto, Alias Research, and MIT. Surface work has included customized solutions from vendors such as GestureTek, Applied Minds for Northrop Grumman and Smart Surface. Major computer vendor platforms are in various stages of release: the iTable by PQLabs, Linux MPX, and Microsoft Surface. In 2001, Stevie Bathiche of Microsoft Hardware and Andy Wilson of Microsoft Research began working together on various projects that took advantage of their complementary expertise in the areas of hardware and software. In one of their regular brainstorm sessions, they started talking about an idea for an interactive table that could understand the manipulation of physical pieces. Although there were related efforts happening in academia, Bathiche and Wilson saw the need for a product where the interaction was richer and more intuitive, and at the same time practical for everyone to use. This conversation was the beginning of an idea that would later result in the development of Surface, and over the course of the following year, various people at Microsoft involved in developing new product concepts, including the gaming-specific PlayTable, continued to think through the possibilities and feasibility of the project. Then in October 2001 a virtual team was formed to fully pursue bringing the idea to the next stage of development; Bathiche and Wilson were key members of the team.

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In early 2003, the team presented the idea to Bill Gates, Microsoft chairman, in a group review. Gates instantly liked the idea and encouraged the team to continue to develop their thinking. The virtual team expanded, and within a month, through constant discussion and brainstorming, the first humble prototype was born and nicknamed T1. The model was based on an IKEA table with a hole cut in the top and a sheet of architect vellum used as a diffuser. The evolution of Surface had begun. A variety of early applications were also built, including pinball, a photo browser and a video puzzle. As more applications were developed, the team saw the value of the surface computer beyond simply gaming and began to favor those applications that took advantage of the unique ability of Surface to recognize physical objects placed on the table. The team was also beginning to realize that surface computing could be applied to a number of different embodiments and form factors. Over the next year, the team grew significantly, including the addition of Nigel Keam, initially software development lead and later architect for Surcface, who was part of the development team eventually tasked with taking the product from prototype to a shipping product. Surface prototypes, functionality and applications were continually refined. More than 85 early prototypes were built for use by software developers, hardware developers and user researchers. One of the key attributes of Surface is object recognition and the ability of objects placed on the surface to trigger different types of digital responses, including the transfer of digital content. This feature went through numerous rounds of testing and refining. The team explored various tag formats of all shapes and sizes before landing on the domino tag (used today) which is an 8-bit, three-quarter-inch-square tag that is optimal thanks to its small size. At the same time, the original plan of using a single camera in the vision system was proving to be unreliable. After exploring a variety of options, including camera placement and different camera lens sizes, it was decided that Surface would use five cameras that would more accurately detect natural movements and gestures from the surface.

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Surface Computing Technology


2.2 INITIAL PROTOTYPES OF SURFACE
By late 2004, the software development platform of Surface was well-established and attention turned to the form factor. A number of different experimental prototypes were built including the tub model, which was encased in a rounded plastic shell,

Fig 1: THE TUB MODEL

a desk-height model with a square top and cloth-covered sides, and even a bar-height model that could be used while standing. After extensive testing and user research, the final hardware design (seen today) was finalized in 2005. Also in 2005, Wilson and Bathiche introduced the concept of surface computing in a paper for Gates twice-yearly Think Week, a time Gates takes to evaluate new ideas and technologies for the company. The next phase of the development of Surface focused on continuing the journey from concept to product. Although much of what would later ship as Surface was determined, there was significant work to be done to develop a market-ready product that could be scaled to mass production.

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Surface Computing Technology

Fig 2:T1 PROTOTYPE

In early 2006, Pete Thompson joined the group as general manager, tasked with driving end-to-end business and growing development and marketing. Under his leadership, the group has grown to more than 100 employees. Today Surface has become the market-ready product once only envisioned by the group, a 30-inch display in a table like form factor thats easy for individuals or small groups to use collaboratively. The sleek, translucent surface lets people engage with Surface using touch, natural hand gestures and physical objects placed on the surface. Years in the making, Microsoft Surface is now poised to transform the way people shop, dine, entertain and live. This is a radically different user-interface experience than anything and its really a testament to the innovation that comes from marrying brilliance and creativity. There are other new surface computing applications that are still being developed, one of which is from the MIT Media Lab where students are developing wearable computing systems that can be used on almost any surface. The name of this device is Sixth Sense.

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Surface Computing Technology


CHAPTER-3 HARDWARE & SOFTWARE DETAILS

3.1

SURFACE HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE

Fig3: Microsoft Surface Hardware Architecture


1. Screen: A diffuser turns the Surface's acrylic table top into a large horizontal "multitouch" screen, capable of processing multiple inputs from multiple users. The Surface can also recognize objects by their shapes or by reading coded "domino" tags. 2. Infrared: Surface's "machine vision" operates in the near-infrared spectrum, using an 850 nm wavelength LED light source aimed at the screen. When objects touch the table top, the light reflects back and is picked up by multiple infrared cameras with a net resolution of 1280 x 960. 3. CPU: Surface uses many of the same components fond in everyday desktop computers a Core 2 Duo processor, 2GB of RAM and a 256MB graphics card. Wireless communication with devices on the surface is handled using WiFi and Bluetooth antennas (future versions may incorporate RFID or Near Field Communications). The underlying operating system is a modified version of Microsoft windows 7. 4. Projector: Microsoft's Surface uses the same DLP light engine found in many rear projection DTVs. The footprint of the visible light screen, at 1024 x 768 pixels, is actually smaller than the invisible overlapping infrared projection to allow for better recognition at the edges of the screen.

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3.2 SURFACE HARDWARE COMPONENTS

Essentially, Microsoft Surface is a computer embedded in a medium-sized table, with a large, flat display on top that is touch-sensitive. The software reacts to the touch of any object, including human fingers, and can track the presence and movement of many different objects at the same time. In addition to sensing touch, the Microsoft Surface unit can detect objects that are labeled with small "domino" stickers, and in the future, it will identify devices via radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags. Microsoft Surface is an attractive glass table about three feet high, with a solid base that hides a fairly standard computer equipped with an Intel Core 2 Duo processor, an AMI BIOS, 2 GB of RAM, Windows 7, a moderately-powerful graphics card from either AMD/ATI or NVIDIA. The display screen is a 4:3 rear-projected DLP display measuring 30 inches diagonally. The screen resolution is a relatively modest 1024x768, but the touch detection system had an effective resolution of 1280x960. Unlike the screen resolution, which for the time being is constant, the touch resolution varies according to the size of the screen usedit is designed to work at a resolution of 48 dots per inch. The top layer also works as a diffuser, making the display clearly visible at any angle. Unlike most touch screens, Surface does not use heat or pressure sensors to indicate when someone has touched the screen. Instead, five tiny cameras take snapshots of the surface many times a second, similar to how an optical mouse works, but on a larger scale. This allows Surface to capture many simultaneous touches and makes it easier to track movement, although the disadvantage is that the system cannot (at the moment) sense pressure. Five cameras mounted beneath the table read objects and touches on the acrylic surface above, which is flooded with near-infrared light to make such touches easier to pick out. The cameras can read a nearly infinite number of simultaneous touches and are limited only by processing power. Right now, Surface is optimized for 52 touches, or enough for four people to use all 10 fingers at once and still have 12 objects sitting on the table. The unit is rugged and designed to take all kinds of abuse. Senior director of marketing Mark Bolger demonstrated this quite dramatically by slamming his hand onto the top of the screen as hard as he couldit made a loud thump, but the unit itself didn't move. The screen is also water resistant. At an earlier demonstration, a skeptical reporter tested this by pouring his drink all over the device. Microsoft has designed the unit to put up with this kind of punishment because it envisions Surface being used in environments such as restaurants where hard impacts and spills are always on the menu. The choice of 4:3 screens was, according to Nigel Keam, mostly a function of the availability of light engines (projectors) when the project began. Testing and user feedback have shown that the 4:3 ratio works well, and the addition of a slight amount of extra acrylic on each side leaves the table mlooking like it has normal dimensions. The Surface has an integrated Windows 7 PC providing powerful input and graphics processing. The device also includes USB ports, digital audio out, HDMI in and out, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi connectivity.

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Surface Computing Technology


3.3 SURFACE SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE

The following figure represents the entire Surface platform, including the hardware layer and software components

Fig 4: Surface Layer Architecture

3.4 SOFTWARE COMPONENTS

The Surface software components not only enable us to respond to multitouch and tagged objects through applications, but also provide the basics of the Surface user experience. These include integration with Windows 7, the Launcher application, and the suppression of user interface (UI) messages from the Windows operating system and other programs running on the platform.

Windows 7 Surface runs on the Windows 7 64-bit operating system. Windows 7 provides all the administrative, security, and directory functionality of the Surface unit.

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Developers and administrators working with a Microsoft Surface unit have full access to Windows functionality (in Windows Mode). However, when people interact with Microsoft Surface applications, the Windows user interface is suppressed (in Surface Mode).

Integration with the Vision System The Vision System uses PixelSense to process captured touch data by converting raw visual information into lightweight, easily useful application data you can access through Surface APIs. PixelSense enables each pixel in the Surface display to detect when a person touches it or when someone moves a finger, tagged object, or untagged object over it. It does this without the use of cameras.

Presentation layer The Presentation layer integrates with Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) and includes a suite of interaction controls designed for Surface enabling us to quickly and easily touch enabled applications.

Core layer The Core layer exposes Surface specific contact data and events enabled applications with any user interface (UI) framework that is based on HWND. Though the Visual Studio 2010 templates are based on the XNA Game Studio 4.0, we can use the Core layer with almost any user interface framework.

Windows integration The tight integration between Surface and the Windows operating system provides system wide functionality on top of the Windows operating system. This functionality to support unique aspects of the Surface experience, such as managing user sessions, switching between the standard Windows user interface (Windows Mode) and the deployment experience (Surface mode), monitoring critical Surface processes, and handling critical failures.

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Surface Shell Surface Shell is the component that manages applications, windows, orientation, and user sessions and provides other functionality. Every Microsoft Surface application must integrate with Surface Shell.

3.5

TECHNICALSPECIFICATIONS

Display Type: 30-inch XGA DLP projector ATI X1650 graphics card with 256 MB of memory Maximum resolution: 1024 x 768 Lamp mean-life expectancy: 6,000+ hours Maximum pressure on the display: 50 pounds per square inch/3.5 kg per cm Maximum load: 200 pounds

Input Devices Camera-based vision system with LED infrared direct illumination

Computing System 2.13-GHz Intel CoreTM 2 Duo processor Memory: 2 GB dual-channel DDR2 Storage: Minimum 250 GB SATA hard-disk drive

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Audio Output type: Stereo at panel built-in speakers Output compliant standards: Stereo Input: None

Network Protocols and Standards. Network adapter: Intel Gb LAN Wireless LAN connectivity supported: Yes

Networking and Data Protocols: IEEE802.11b, IEEE802.11g, Bluetooth 2.0, Gigabit Ethernet

I/O Connections 2 headphone jacks 6 USB 2.0 ports RGB component video S-VGA video (DB15 external VGA connector) Component audio Ethernet port (Gigabit Ethernet card [10/100/1000] External monitor port Bays for routing cables On/Standby power button

AC Input Ratings AC input: 100-240 VAC, 50/60Hz, 10A, 650W


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CHAPTER-4 FEATURES

4.1

KEY FEATURES OF SURFACE COMPUTING Direct interaction: Users can actually grab digital information with their hand and interact with content through touch and gesture, without the use of a mouse or keyboard. Customers will benet from Microsoft Surface instantly. Interacting with content is natural, simple, intuitive, and fun.

Multitouch contact: Surface computing recognizes many points of contact simultaneously, not just from one finger as with a typical touch screen, but up to dozens and dozens of items at once.

Multiuser experience: The 30-inch diagonal display and the horizontal form factor makes it easy for several people to gather around surface computers together, providing a collaborative, facetoface computing experience.

Object recognition: Users can place physical objects on the surface to trigger different types of digital responses, including the transfer of digital content.

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4.2 WHAT IS MULTITOUCH TECHNOLOGY?

Multi-touch

is

an

enhancement

to

touchscreen

technology, which provides the user with the ability to apply multiple finger gestures simultaneously onto the electronic visual display to send complex commands to the device. Multi-touch has been implemented in several different ways, depending on the size and type of interface. Both touch tables and touch walls project an image through acrylic or glass, and then backlight the image with LED's. When a finger or an object touches the surface, causing the light to scatter, the reflection is caught with sensors or cameras that send the data to software which dictates response to the touch, depending on the type of reflection measured. Touch surfaces can also be made pressure-sensitive by the addition of a pressure-sensitive coating that flexes differently depending on how firmly it is pressed, altering the reflection. Handheld technologies use a panel that carries an electrical charge. When a finger touches the screen, the touch disrupts the panel's electrical field. The disruption is registered and sent to the software, which then initiates a response to the gesture. In the past few years, several companies have released products that use multitouch. In an attempt to make the expensive technology more accessible, hobbyists have also published methods of constructing DIY touchscreens. Fig 1 :Multi Touch Screen

4.3

WHAT IS OBJECT- RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY ? The object recognition feature on Microsoft Surface is the first of its kind. Since most

touch screens are dependent on electrical resistance or heat, it would not work. But since Surface is simply based on touch (which cameras recognize (Natural User Interface (NUI) )) it can recognize not only human touch, but objects as well. In fact, object recognition is almost exactly the same as touch recognition. A game with bouncing balls would bounce off of a camera just as it would a finger or hand. The nice thing
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about this is that it helps merge technology with the real world. That means that in the paint app, you can use the paintbrush rather than your finger, and have the same effect. And in the air hockey app, the puck and goalie mallets from any other table work perfectly. But when it comes to Microsoft Surface, there is object recognition and there is object recognition. What I mean is that Surface can do more than just say hey, there is an object on me. Microsoft Surface can also recognize specific objects, what they are, and interact with them! In order for Surface to recognize what an object is you have to put a tag on it. These are called byte tags, and they look a lot like a domino:

When an object with a tag is placed on the Surface, the relation between the tag and the object is recognized, and from there on out, it is recognized as that object. So if you put a camera down with a tag in relation to that camera, the Surface recognizes the object as a camera. This has no use in simple things such as a paintbrush or air hockey puck/goalie mallets as mentioned before. This is used when sharing data between digital electronics and Surface, such as cameras, mp3 players, and cell phones. But you need more than just a tag to do that. For the data transfers, Microsoft Surface uses Bluetooth 2.0. So once you place your camera (which has a tag on it), and it is recognized as a camera, Bluetooth 2.0 downloads all of the images onto surface, and creates a spill out effect.
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Its as simple as that, but at the same time, very advanced.

4.4

HOW SURFACE WORKS? Microsoft Surface uses cameras to sense objects, hand gestures and touch. This user input

is then processed and displayed using rear projection. Specifically: Microsoft Surface uses a rear projection system which displays an image onto the underside of a thin diffuser.

Objects such as fingers are visible through the diffuser by series of infraredsensitive cameras, positioned underneath the display.

An image processing system processes the camera images to detect fingers, custom tags and other objects such as paint brushes when touching the display.

The objects recognized with this system are reported to applications running in the computer so that they can react to object shapes, 2D tags, movement and touch.

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CHAPTER-5 APPLICATIONS

5.1

PRODUCTS OF SURFACE COMPUTING Many companies have begun developing some type of surface computing. Some, like

Microsoft, turn customized furniture (i.e., tabletops or bars) into interactive surfaces; while others, such as GesturTek, design their systems to work with pre-existing structures like walls and floors. While the following does not detail all of the surface computing solutions in market today, it does provide an overview of the major players.

Microsoft Surface Microsoft Surface is arguably the best known surface computing solution in market today. Surface is a table-top only, multi-touch display that uses cameras (within the tables) and rear-projection to provide interactivity through natural gestures, touch, and physical objects.

Laser Touch (Microsoft) Laser Touch is a low-cost solution that can transform any display (monitor, projector, etc.) into a touch screen. The biggest difference from Surface, aside from price, is Laser Touchs ability to be used on multiple displays, not just tables. Unfortunately, there are no plans to commercialize it.

GestureTek GestureTeks solutions include interactive displays for any surface (tables, loors, and walls), as well as virtual gaming and interactive signage. GestureTek also uses its solutions for industry-based specialties (i.e., health and mobile), enough that it has created different divisions within the company for these two. It has enough solutions to offer a custom toolkit to potential clients, including components of its different solutions or whole solutions themselves.

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Perceptive Pixel Perceptive Pixel was founded by Jeffry Han, considered by many to be the revolutionary mind of multi-touch displays. Han has developed large-scale, multitouch displays for corporations and the government, and he is also rumoured to be the mind behind iPhones multi-touch display. Perceptive Pixel specializes in giant, wallsized touch screens that support multiple inputs. These displays were used on CNN during the 2008 election season.

Diamond Touch (Mitsubishi) Diamond Touch is a table-top only, multi-touch display that supports small group collaborations. Diamond Touch was specifically intended for in-office business use. Its unique technology uses antennas instead of cameras.

Smart Table Smart Table is a table-top only, multi-touch display intended for child education.

Catchyoo Catchyoo provides interactive solutions for floors, walls, and tables. Its solutions are designed for large system deployment and include worldwide network capabilities. These networks are similar to comprehensive digital signage networks with features like content management, real-time administration, and scheduling.

Reactrix Reactrixs solutions are more sophisticated than Catchyoos, but almost identical. According to MediaWeek, as of October 2008, Reactrix is up for sale and is in discussions with potential buyers.

Sensacell Sensacell is an interactive floor system comprised of different modules that can form any shape of any size (up to thousands of square feet). Once the user is within six feet of the modules or steps on them, sensors identify the proximity/pressure and react by illuminating.
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5.2 REAL LIFE APPLICATIONS

Organizing photos and videos

User places a digital camera with Wi-Fi on the Surface


table recognizes the camera at a touch of the screen data is downloaded digital pictures and videos can be manipulated instantly

Planning trips and events User places a mobile phone on the Surface gets the data about events in the neighborhood slides them towards the phone and the data is automatically copied and stored

Transforming print to digital To share a hand-written paper sketch place a photo on the Surface it is scanned automatically displayed on the Surface and can be manipulated directly

Creating music playlists browse through a music library

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choose data by literally picking favourite artists and drag it to your mp3-player

Virtual concierge (Starwood Las Vegas) Guests can order food & drinks via Surface the order goes to the kitchen automatically After the meal place a credit card on the Surface payment is done automatically

New shopping experience (T-Mobile USA) Customers place cell phones on the Surface product features and prices plans appear automatically features can be compared Payment via dropping a credit card on the Surface

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CHAPTER-6 ADVANTAGES ANDDISADVANTAGES

7.1

ADVANTAGES

Large surface area to view different windows and applications. Data Manipulation - Selecting, moving, rotating and resizing (manipulating objects on the screen is similar to manipulating them in the manual world). Quick and easy to use. More Than One User Several people can orient themselves on different sides of the surface to interact with an application simultaneously (Max 52 points of touch). Objects Recognition - Increased functionality aiding user in speed and ease of use.

7.2 DISADVANTAGES

Not Portable. Very expensive($10,000-$15,000) Privacy Open for many to view Screen Visibility Glare, finger prints/ dirt and human interaction obscuring interface Poor Accuracy- Fat fingers are not accurate as mouse or stylus Currently designed for specific areas.

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CHAPTER-7 CONCLUSION

Some people will look at Surface and claim that it does nothing that hasn't been tried before: computers with touch screens have been around for years and have already found niches in ATMs, ticket ordering machines, and restaurant point-of-sale devices. This view largely misses the point of the product. Like most projects, Surface takes existing technology and presents it in a new way. It isn't simply a touch screen, but more o f a touch-grabmove-slide-resize-and-place-objects-ontop- of-screen and t h i s opens up new possibilities that weren't there before. Playing with the unit felt a bit like being in the movie Minority Report (in a good way), but it also felt like a more natural and enjoyable method of doing certain computing tasks. Sharing and looking at family photos, for example, is more fun on Surface than on any other device. The retail applications, particularly the dining application, show how businesses could use the technology to really stand out from competitors, though one wonders how diners will react when their table locks up and needs a reboot. Many people who viewed the early Xerox PARC demonstrations of the GUI came out of that experience knowing that every computer would work that way someday, and they were right. Playing with Surface, one gets the sense that although not every computer will work like this someday, many of them will. More importantly, computers running Surface-like software will end up in places that never had computers before, and the potential applications are exciting. Imagine a multiplayer real-time strategy game where you and another human opponent can move units around as quickly as you can point to them. Or perhaps an educational environment, where university students could assemble and disassemble anything from molecules to skyscrapers quickly and easily.

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REFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_computing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Surface http://www.surface.com http://msdn.microsoft.com/refrence/ http://www.engadget.com/2011/01/06/microsoft-and-samsung-unveil-sur40-the-surface2-0-experience/

http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/handsoncomputing/default.aspx#secondlight

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