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In brief

Convey emotions via 3-D


Scientists, for the first time, have identified three dimensions that the human brain uses to communicate emotions, reports PTI from Washington. According to a study, the human report of emotion relies on three distinct systems: one that directs attention to affective states (I feel), a second categorises these states into words (good, bad, etc) and a third that relates the intensity of affective responses (bad, awful). Dr Kevin Ochsner, Director of the Social Cognitive Neuroscience Lab at Columbia University and his team set out to study the processes involved in constructing selfreports of emotion, rather than the effects of the self-reports or

the emotional states themselves. They recruited healthy participants who underwent brain scans while completing an experimental task that generated a self-report of emotion. This effort allowed the researchers to examine the neural architecture underlying the emotional reports. We find that the seemingly simple ability is supported by three different kinds of brain systems., said Ochsner in an Elsevier statement. The findings suggest that self-reports of emotion while simple are supported by a network of brain regions that together take us from an affecting event to the words that make our feelings known to ourselves and others, he added.

Mars mission on track: official


Indias Mars mission is on track and space scientists are testing the payloads before they are integrated with the satellite, reports PTI from New Delhi. We are on track for an October launch this year. The payloads are undergoing tests, a senior official of the Department of Space said. The Mars Orbiter Mission, expected to be launched in mid-October this year, will carry five experimental payloads with a total weight of 14.49 kg. The Methane Sensor for Mars, which will be capable of scanning the entire Martian disc within six minutes, will weigh 3.59 kg.

Earlier, missions to Mars had detected Methane in the thin Martian atmosphere, but the discovery is yet to be corroborated. Methane is known to be released by some microbes as part of their digestive process.

Predict date of menopause


Scientists have developed a new method which uses a womans age, menstrual bleeding patterns and hormone levels to predict when she will have her final menstrual period. The method, developed by University of California, Los Angeles researchers, could help women and physicians

gauge the onset of menopauserelated bone loss, which generally begins a year prior to the last period. The researchers used womens ages, menstrual bleeding patterns and measurements of hormone levels to estimate the amount of time until they were likely to reach menopause, said the studys lead author, Dr Gail Greendale.