Computer Science 2010 | Random Access Memory | Computer Data Storage

1|Page 1. Explain different types of input/output devices??

Ans: Input devices are used to enter data and instructions into computer memory from external world. Examples include: Keyboard, Mouse, Track ball, Track Pad, Joy stick, Touch Screen, Light pen, Touch Screen, Scanner, Digital Camera, Microphone, Graphics tablet. They perform three main functions 1. Receive data from user 2. Convert data into binary form [the language of 0 and 1 also called the machine language. Machine language is the only language, a computer can understand directly.] 3. Provide converted data to computer memory for processing Key board:Keyboard is the most familiar input device. It is most widely used input device to enter data and instructions into the computer. Keyboard has a set of keys like a typewriter. It has alphabetic keys for A,B,C…Z or a,b,c,…z. It has numeric keys like 0,1,2,3,…9. It has function keys F1,F2,…F12 used to perform specific tasks. It has other keys used for editing like Delete, Backspace, Home, End, etc. Mouse: Mouse is an input device used to control motion of pointer on screen. A mouse has two or three buttons called Left, Right and Middle button. Buttons are used to perform different functions. It has a rubber or metal ball inside its body. Mouse is rolled over a flat surface called mouse pad. The movement of ball is detected by internal circuits of mouse. These circuits convert this movement into digital signals, which are sent to computer. Mouse is used in graphical applications. It is also used for playing video games on computer. Track Ball: Track Ball is an input device like a mouse. It is used in Lap top computers to control motion of pointer on screen. It is a pointing device like upside down mouse. It has a ball on its upper side. This ball is moved by fingers or thumb and the pointer moves accordingly on screen. Track Pad: Track pad is a pointing input device. It is used in Lap top computers to control motion of pointer on screen. Track pad is a stationary input device. It has a flat surface of 1.5 to 2 square inch. Finger is moved on this surface to move pointer on screen. Joy stick:Joystick is an input device used to play games on computer. It is used to control motion of an object quickly in game with the help of a hand held stick. This stick can be moved forward, backward or side ways. This stick is mounted on a ball. When stick is moved then ball is moved and signals are sent to the computer. Light Pen:Light pen is an input device consisting of a special pen that is connected to a computer's monitor. The user points at the screen with the pen and selects items or chooses commands either by pressing a clip on the side of the light pen or by pressing the light pen against the surface of the screen (the equivalent of performing a mouse click). Microphone:Microphone is an input device used to enter sounds into the computer. We can record sounds in computer with the help of microphone and sound card. 8. Scanner:Scanner is an input device. It is used to save pictures or text on paper into computer memory. It converts picture or text on paper in to binary form and saves it in computer memory. With the help of scanner we may save our time to type a lot of text.

2|Page 9. Graphics tablet / digitizer:A graphics tablet consists of a special pen called stylus and a flat pad. The image is created on the monitor screen as the user draws it on the pad with the help of stylus (special pen). Graphics tablet is also called a digitizer. 10. Touch Screen:In ATM and in latest smart phones, touch screen is used to receive input from the user. The user enters data by the touch of his finger on different menu options or icons present on touch screen.

Output devices
Out put devices are used to display results of processing to the user. They perform the following functions: 1. 2. 3. Receive results from memory Convert data into human readable form Display results to the user

Examples include: Monitor, printer, plotter, speaker, and multimedia projector. 1. Monitor

Monitor is the most commonly used output device used to display results of processing. It has a TV like shape. Pictures on monitor are formed with picture elements called PIXEL. Monitors may be Monochrome that will display results in Black & White. Color Monitors are also available. They display results in multi colors. Monitor produces soft copy output. 2. Printers

Printers are used to produce hard copy out put. They print processing results on paper. Printers are divided into two main categories: · Impact Printers · Non Impact printers Impact Printers. These printers print with striking of hammers or pins on ribbon. For example Dot Matrix printer and daisy wheel printers are impact printers. Non-Impact Printers. These printers do not use striking mechanism for printing. They use electrostatic and laser technology. Quality and speed of these printers is better than Impact printers. For example Laser printer and Inkjet printers are non-impact printers. 3. Speaker

Speaker produces sound output. We can listen recorded voices, sounds or music with the help of speaker. Speaker produces sound output with the help of sound card. 4. Plotter

3|Page Plotters are used to draw different designs of buildings or internal structure of machines. Mostly Engineers and Architects use plotters. 5. Multimedia Projector.

Multimedia projector is used to produce computer output on a big screen. These are used in meeting rooms or in classrooms of educational institutes.

2. Explain about secondary storage devices?
Ans: Storage devices are used to store data and instructions permanently. Storage devices are also called secondary storage devices / backing storage devices / external storage devices or auxiliary storage devices. Examples of storage devices include Hard Disk, CD and DVD etc. Why Secondary Storage Devices are Used? Secondary storage devices are used because: 1. Primary memory(RAM) is volatile and temporary. When computer is switched off, all data in ram is erased. 2. Storage devices can store large amounts of data and instructions permanently whereas Primary memory has less capacity of storing data.

Types Of Storage Devices
There are three main types of storage devices: 1. Magnetic Tape 2. Magnetic Disk 3. Optical Disk

1. Magnetic Tape
Magnetic tape is the oldest storage device. It is made of plastic coated with magnetic material. Data is stored on magnetic tape in the form of magnetic spots. Tape drive is used to read and write data on tape. Magnetic disk is sequential access device. It is slower device than magnetic disk or optical disk. Magnetic tapes are used in reels of different lengths, for example 200, 600, 1200 feet etc.

2. Magnetic Disk
A magnetic disk is a thin circular metal or plastic disk coated with magnetic material. Data is stored in the form of magnetic spots. Magnetic disk is random access device. It is faster than magnetic tape. There are three main types of magnetic disk: a. Hard Disk b. Floppy Disk c. Zip Disk a. Hard Disk The hard disk is also called fixed disk. It consists of one or more metal plates. The plates are fixed in the

Data is stored in sectors.Before using a magnetic disk we use operating system to format the disk. . Each sector can store 512 bytes. · 5¼ Inch floppy disk.Now a days hard disks of size 40 GB. LASER stands for Light Amplification through Emission of Radiation. 6. The presence of hole represents a One and absence of the hole represents a Zero. CD-R (CD Recordable) Or WORM (Write Once Read Many) CD-R stands for Compact Disk -Recordable. Its storage capacity is 1. This is why it is also called WORM(Write Once Read Many) disk too.4|Page drive.Hard disk is covered in a hard jacket and there are less chances of disk damage due to dust and mishandling. Because we can write data on it only once and later we can read many times. Storage capacity of micro floppy is 1. Main advantage of floppy disk is that it is used to transfer data from one computer to another. It is a portable storage device.DVD-ROM. 3.The storage capacity of hard disk is much greater than floppy disk. b. it is a blank disk. Read/Write window is covered with a metal shutter. But it can store 100 MB or more data. A motor rotates disks. It cannot be deleted or changed. 1. Metal plates are coated with magnetic material to store data. It can be write protected by a notch. 80 GB or more are available.2 MB. Floppy disk drive is used to read and write data on floppy disk. CD-ROM CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk-Read Only Memory. It is a 5¼ inch diameter plastic plate coated with magnetic material. The devices to store data on CD-R are called CD Writers or CD .Now days Operating system and application programs are installed on hard disk. It is used to store large amounts of data like Software or audio/video data. There is also an access arm and read / write heads to read and write data on disks. Laser beam writes on the surface of optical disk by creating very small holes. Floppy Disk Floppy disk is a small plastic plate coated with magnetic material. It is not used in modern computers. Data can be easily transferred by CD Rom from one computer to another. User can store data on it only once. 2. .CD-ROM. CD-RW 4. The data stored on Cd-Rom can only be read. It is covered in a hard plastic cover. Zip disk drive is used to read and write data on a zip disk. CD-R or WORM. Optical Disk LASER technology is used to read and write data on Optical disk. Initially. When disk is inserted into disk drive then shutter is automatically opened. Zip Disk Zip disk is similar to 3 ½ inch floppy disk. .44 MB. Floppy disk is available in two sizes: · 3 ½ INCH Floppy Disk It is also called micro floppy disk. 3. 5. There are following main types of optical disk. DVD-R. Data is stored in magnetic spots. DVD-RW 1. 2. Commonly it can store 650 MB / 700 MB/ 750 MB data. Its diameter is 3½ inch. c. Operating system divides the disk into circles called tracks. . Each track is divided into pie-shaped areas called sectors. Following are major characteristics of hard disk: .

Explain about Primary memory?(or) Explain about Ram and ROM? Ans: The primary memory or the main memory is part of the main computer system. which are currently being executed by CPU. 6. That means any location of this memory can be accessed by the CPU to either read information from it. if there is an error in writing data. 3. Data in RAM can be accessed directly. Because of this write once read many quality. We can write data on CD-R only once. The primary memory itself is implemented by two types of memory technologies. User cannot change or delete data from DVD-ROM. This is a special type of CD. A laser beam with a short wave length is used to create very very small holes on the surface of disk. he may erase the contents and rewrite again. in random fashion. DRAM loses electric charge with the passage of time. it may lose data. It is normally used to store high definition video movies. That is. DVD . • Dynamic Ram (DRAM) Dynamic Ram is widely used in personal computers. It is a cheaper kind of RAM. Data and programs in RAM are erased when computer is turned off. so DRAM needs to be refreshed frequently.Digital Video Disk (DVD-ROM) DVD stands for Digital Video Disk. Then it becomes read only. So there are much more tiny holes on the surface of DVD as compared to that of CD. This memory is accessed by CPU. we can access data directly from any location of RAM in the same time. DVD-R (DVD-Recordable) DVD-R stands for Digital Video Disk Recordable. Initially it is a blank disk. 3. User can write data on it. Ram is also called Primary Memory or Main Memory. 5. RAM is volatile.5|Page Burners. or to store information in it. storage capacity of DVD is much larger than CD. RAM Ram stands for random Access Memory. Types of Ram:There are two main types of Ram. CD-R is often known as WORM(write once read many). DVD-RW ( DVD Rewritable) DVD-RW stands for Digital Video Disk Rewritable. videos and software etc. CD-RW ( CD Rewritable ) CD-RW stands for Compact Disk Rewritable. The processor or the CPU directly stores and retrieves information from it. . Therefore. It is used to store those data and programs. User can write data on disk many times by erasing the old data. DVDWriters are used to store data on DVD-R. This Random Access quality makes RAM a very fast memory. DVD-ROM is pre recorded and it can contain data like movies. Therefore RAM is a temporary memory. The first is called Random Access Memory (RAM) and the other is read only memory (ROM). User can store data on disk only once. It is read only. It can store up to 17 GB or more data. CD-Writers are used to store data on CD-RW. 4. Otherwise. but can read data many times.

• EPROM EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. If there is any error in writing instructions then PROM chip becomes unusable. because its contents can be read and used only and we cannot change or delete its contents. it is slower than SRAM. They are much faster than humans. 2. Program instructions written on EEPROM can be erased with the help of electricity and rewritten.6|Page Dram is recharged many times in a second. The instructions in ROM are written at the time of manufacturing by the manufacturer. One important reason a computer needs ROM is that instructions stored in ROM (called ROM BIOS . Now we cannot change or delete the instructions. • Static Ram (SRAM) Static Ram does not need to be refreshed again and again. 4. Static Ram is used to build a very fast memory called CACHE (pronounces 'cash' ) memory. Explain the characteristics of a computer? Ans: 1. Importance of ROM 1. Initially PROM is a blank chip. There is no time wastage in refreshing the memory again and again. ROM does not require electricity to retain its contents.Basic Input/output System)execute on start-up of computer and guide the computer what to do. So if once we write instruction on this chip with errors. • EEPROM EPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. Since CPU cannot access the data from DRAM while it is in the process of refreshing or recharging. Speed Computers work at a very high speed. Storage . Static RAM is more expensive and faster than DRAM. ROM ROM stands for Read Only Memory. Once instructions are written on it. then it become ROM. Therefore. ROM is a permanent memory. ROM contains a set of start-up instructions to check that memory is functioning well and check for other hardware devices. A computer can perform billions of calculations in a second. Therefore. It is a non volatile memory. Computer speed is measured in Mega Hertz (MHz). 2. Its retains its contents even after switching off the computer. Types of ROM Following are the types of ROM • PROM PROM stands for Programmable Read Only Memory. we can erase wrong instructions and rewrite new instructions. They make the computer ready for work. Then it becomes ROM and we cannot change instructions in it. Instructions can be stored in PROM only once. Program instructions written on EPROM can be erased and changed with the help of ultra violet rays. So processor can access data from static RAM faster than DRAM.

Shape and Resources. bank or at home. We can do a work in less time and cost by computer. Processing A computer can process the given instructions. It is used by one person at a time. hence the name. memory and processor.7|Page A computer can store large amounts of data permanently. Accuracy Accuracy means the capability to provide results without any errors. We can use a computer in hospital. The major types of personal computers are desktop computer and portable computer. 5. Laptop computers are very small in size and can be placed easily on lap. 8. with computer. Cost Reduction Computer can reduce cost. both monitor and system unit are placed on the table. In Tower model. Recalling A computer can recall the stored data and information at any time. the system unit is placed on the desktop or table. Examples of personal computers are PC and Apple Macintosh. multiplication and division. No Feelings Computer has no feelings. performance? Ans: Computers are classified on the basis of size. It is now widely used in many homes. No Intelligence Computer itself is not intelligent. Versatile A computer can perform different types of tasks. These computers come in two models or casings. Monitor is placed on the system unit. Uses of Micro Computer The PC is the most common type of computer used in the office. 6. It only follows the given instructions. Explain “Classification of Computers” OR Explain Types of computer on the basis of Size. speed and price as under: • Microcomputer or Personal Computer • Mini Computer • Mainframe Computer • Super Computer 1. It easily fits in the hand of the user. 9. can do work of many people in an office. 4. as and when required. Micro Computers Desktop Model computer Micro computer is also called personal computer. Computer can process large amounts of data and produce 100% accurate results. Handheld computer is also known as palmtop computer. output device. It was introduced in 1970. 10. Notebook computer is also called laptop computer. It contains input devices. A single person. 5. Portable Computer Portable is a personal computer that can be carried from one place to other easily. subtraction. Notebook computer and handheld computer (smart phone) are examples of portable computers. storage device. In Desktop model. Desktop Computers These computers can easily fit on a table or desktop. If a computer is given a program for addition it cannot perform subtraction by itself. It cannot be affected by sorrows and happiness. . It can perform different types of processing like addition. 3. Handheld Computers (like smart phone) are also potable.

ETA-10. Uses of Super Computers include: 1. It is designed to perform multiple tasks for multiple users at the same time. Examples of mainframe computers are • NEC 610 • DEC 10 Uses of Mainframe Computers Mainframe computers are used in large organizations. It generally consists of two or more processors. nuclear energy research. Super computer is the fastest computer. space science 6. A mainframe computer is a very large computer in size. A device with a monitor and keyboard is called terminal. Mainframe computers can serve up to 50. 4. Super Computers Super computers were introduced in 1980s. It has no processing power and cannot work as stand-alone computer. The users access a mainframe computer through terminal or personal computer. complex and advanced computer. 2. Super computer is the biggest in size and the most expensive in price than any other computers.000 users at the same time. 5. animated graphics like in Hollywood movies. airlines use these computers for ticket reservation system. Minicomputer is larger and more powerful computer than personal computer. Mainframe Computers Mainframe computers were introduced in 1975. It is more powerful than mini computer. For example. It can process trillions of instructions in one second. 3. It is the most sophisticated. 3. Mini computer can serve up to 4000 connected users simultaneously. Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks. It consists of multiple processors. Super Computer is the fastest and most powerful computer of a time. Weather forecasting. It is also known as dumb terminal. Examples of super computers are CRAY-XP. It is normally accessed by users via personal computer or terminal. It has a very large storage capacity. It can execute five million instructions per second.8|Page These are also used for business and engineering application. Weapon and missile design etc. Super computers are used for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations.. Examples of mini computers are: • VAX-8800 • AS 400. A typical mainframe computer can execute 16 million instructions per second. 2. Supercomputers are very expensive. 4. Uses of Mini Computers Mini computers are often used by small and medium-sized companies to provide centralized store of information. Mini Computers Mini computers were introduced in the 1960s. fluid dynamic calculations. What are Different Types of Computers? .

It measures a physical property like voltage. An analog computer takes input in analog form and gives output in analog form. Digital watch 3. Examples: 1. 2. Analog computer has low memory and fewer functions. Analog computer is mainly used in the field of engineering and medicine. A hybrid computer combines the best characteristics of both the analog and digital computer. Digital Computers A digital computer works with digital data. These computers can store results. Hybrid computers are also used in spaceships and missile system. Digital computer performs arithmetic and logical operations on data. 3. Analog Computers Analog computer is used to measure continuous values. Digital computer uses binary number system. It can accept data in both analog and digital form. Hybrid Computer Machines are generally used in scientific applications . speed. A digital computer represents data in digital signals. Personal Computer-(also called PC or Micro Computer) 2. Today most of the computers used in offices and homes are Digital computers. Hybrid computer devices are used in hospitals that may calculate patient's heart function. Examples: 1. Hybrid computer can handle both analog and digital data. time and temperature. Its output is usually displayed on a meter or scale. A 0 represents OFF and a 1 represents ON. Thermometer 2. They have large Memory(that is data storing capacity). temperature and blood pressure etc.9|Page Ans: Computers can be divided into the following 3 types on the basis of their working mechanism: 1) Analog Computers 2) Digital Computers 3) Hybrid Computers 1. Speedometer 3. Binary number system consists of only two digits 0 and 1. Digital Score board 3. Hybrid Computers A hybrid computer is a combination of both analog and digital computer. Examples include: Examples of Analog Computers include: 1. It gives output in digital form. Analog clock 2. pressure. Digital computers are very fast.

4. Operating system also maintains a queue of jobs for processing one by one. edit files. 4. Multi-user and Single-user Operating Systems: The operating systems of this type allow a multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. 1. File Management It manages files. with the help oif operating system. It allocates memory area to different programs. 3. Embedded System: The operating systems designed for being used in embedded computer systems are known as embedded operating systems Various services performed by operating systems are discussed below. It also manages efficient use of RAM during processing. Real-time Operating System: It is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. move files from one location to another within one computer or from computer to computer. 5. Process Management CPU can perform one task at one time. the system is grouped under a single-tasking system. It de-allocates the memory area when a program is terminated. Hybrid computers are used for controlling industrial processes. for example: • creation of files . and delete files and folders etc. It controls I/O devices like mouse. 5. It manages the stored files and folders on disk in a proper way. 3. Define operating system? Explain the functions of operating system? Ans: Operating system is a platform between hardware and user which is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of a computer. monitor and printer etc. Secondary Storage Management Operating system manages secondary storage.10 | P a g e 4. 2. operating system decides which task should get the CPU first. Multi-tasking and Single-tasking Operating Systems: When a single program is allowed to run at a time. copy files. I/O System management It manages Input/output operations. If there are many tasks. You can create and save files and folders. It hosts the several applications that run on a computer and handles the operations of computer hardware. 6. while in case the operating system allows the execution of multiple tasks at one time. it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system. 2. There are different types of operating systems. keyboard. Main Memory Management Operating system manages memory (RAM)for many running programs. Distributed Operating System: An operating system that manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer is known as a distributed operating system. These are as follows: 1.

Microsoft Windows XP provides Command Prompt to enter and execute commands. User Interface may be Graphical user interface (GUI) or Command line interface. 10. e. it manages print queue for printing each document one by one in a proper sequence. 9. editing files moving of files etc. Explain the block diagram of a computer with a neat diagram? Ans: . modification or deletion. 13. We have to install device driver before using a device. Command Interpreter system Operating system provides command interpreter for reading and executing user commands. 7. Providing Interface Operating system provides User interface to interact with the computer. For example. 14. 6. device driver software for a modem comes with it on CD. Printing Controlling Operating System also controls printing function. Operating system makes sure that each and every process performs within its own boundaries.g. 11. So operating system provides protection so that no process can interfere with another process activity. 8. Data Security Operating system protects the data stored on the computer from illegal use. Microsoft Windows XP provides an easy to use graphical user interface called GUI.. It checks the computer and makes it ready to work. Users can share files and hardware resources like printer. Whereas DOS provides a Command Line Interface called CLI. Loading and Execution Operating system provides the facility to load programs in memory easily and then execute it. Booting Operating system starts the computer.11 | P a g e • • • • deletion of files copying of files. For example. 12 Device Controlling Operating system controls all devices attached to computer with the help of device drivers. 7. Protection System There are many processes of different users in memory at a time. If a user issues two or more print commands at a time. Device driver is software that permits a computer system to communicate with a device. Networking Operating system provides access to shared resources by networking system.

The primary memory is temporary in nature. Whenever the results are saved. It preserves the intermediate and final results before these are sent to the output devices. Therefore most computers have limited primary storage capacity. again they get stored in the secondary memory. The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the primary memory. A numeric occupies 2 byte space. 2. Secondary Storage: Secondary storage to store several programs. This memory is generally used to hold the program being currently executed in the computer.  Supply the converted data to the computer system for further processing. Byte is the space occupied in the memory. . documents. Input Unit: Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem. Memory Size: All digital computers use the binary system. The cost of the primary storage is more compared to the secondary storage.  Accept the data and instructions from the outside world.. A character occupies 1 byte space. Each character or a number is represented by an 8 bit code. data bases etc. Therefore we need to input the data and instructions into the computers. Some of the commonly used secondary memory devices are Hard disk. The set of 8 bits is called a byte. CD. floppy disk drive. They can solve highly complicated problems quickly and accurately.e. i. Other commonly used input devices are the mouse. sound and graphics. The various storage devices of a computer system are divided into two categories. All the input devices perform the following functions. magnetic tape. It also saves the data for the later use. 1. the data has to be transferred to the secondary memory. before they are processed. The programs that you run on the computer are first transferred to the primary memory before it is actually run. Keyboard is the one of the most commonly used input device. etc. The input unit consists of one or more input devices. In order to store the data permanently. The data is lost.12 | P a g e A computer can process data. pictures.  Convert it to a form that the computer can understand. 0’s and 1’s. etc. Storage Unit: The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through the input unit. when the computer is switched off. Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast.

Control Unit: It controls all other units in the computer. division. The control unit is generally referred as the central nervous system of the computer that control and synchronizes its working. There are two types of low level languages: • • Machine Language. 8. =. Arithmetic Logical Unit: All calculations are performed in the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of the computer. One KB is equal to 1024 bytes and one MB is equal to 1000KB. • It controls all units of the computer. where to store the data after receiving it from the user. Output Unit: The output unit of a computer provides the information and results of a computation to outside world. languages are divided into two categories according to their interpretation. High level languages Low Level Languages:Low level computer languages are machine codes or close to it. 1. Visual Display Unit (VDU) are the commonly used output devices. The CPU is like brain performs the following functions: • It performs all calculations. ‘etc. It also controls the flow of results from the ALU to the storage unit. subtraction. The ALU can perform basic operations such as addition. Low level languages 2.e. Computer cannot understand instructions given in high level languages or in English. <. The control unit instructs the input unit. >. Central Processing Unit: The control unit and ALU of the computer are together known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU). • It takes all decisions. the control unit transfers the data from storage unit to ALU once the computations are done. etc and does logic operations viz. language of 0 and 1. Assembly Language . It can only understand and execute instructions given in the form of machine language i. Explain about different types of programming languages? Ans: In order to communicate with the computer user also needs to have a language that should be understood by the computer. It also does comparison and takes decision. the results are transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then it is send to the output unit for displaying results. multiplication. Whenever calculations are required. different languages are developed for performing different types of work on the computer. Printers. Basically.13 | P a g e The size of the primary storage is specified in KB (Kilobytes) or MB (Megabyte). It controls the flow of data and instructions from the storage unit to ALU. For this purpose.

a manufacturer designs a computer to obey just one Language. . Because of this feature it is also known as ‘Symbolic Programming Language’. ii) It requires no translator to translate the code i. ii) Since it is machine dependent therefore programmer should have the knowledge of the hardware also.14 | P a g e Machine Language: It is the lowest and most elementary level of Programming language and was the first type of programming language to be Developed. The language mainly helps in compiler orientations. its machine code. Each instruction in the high level language is translated into many machine language instructions thus showing one-to-many translation Ex: c. Advantages of Machine Language i) It makes fast and efficient use of the computer. LABEL etc.fortran etc. ii)It is easy to locate and correct errors. SUB for subtraction. High Level Languages High level computer languages give formats close to English language and the purpose of developing high level languages is to enable people to write programs easily and in their own native language environment (English). it understand machine Language. The instructions of the Assembly language will also be converted to machine codes by language translator to be executed by the computer.Directly understood by the computer Assembly Language: This is another low level but a very important language in which operation codes and operands are given in the form of alphanumeric symbols instead of 0’s and l’s. Since a computer is Capable of recognizing electric signals. High-level languages are basically symbolic languages that use English words and/or mathematical symbols rather than mnemonic codes. In fact.g. These alphanumeric symbols will be known as mnemonic codes and can have maximum up to 5 letter combination e. Advantages of Assembly Language i) It is easier to understand and use as compared to machine language.e. iii) It is modified easily Disadvantages of Assembly Language i) Like machine language it is also machine dependent. which is represented inside the computer by a String of binary digits (bits) 0 and 1. ADD for addition. The symbol 0 stands for the absence of Electric pulse and 1 for the presence of an electric pulse ..c++. START. Machine Language is basically the only language which computer Can understand.

. We can delete the files immediately without moving them to recycle bin by pressing the shift key along with the delete key 5. Windows etc. Paint can be used to create.-etc. icons.e. 4. .15 | P a g e Advantages of High Level Language Following are the advantages of a high level language: • • • • • • • User-friendly it is easier to learn. Multiple Applications can be simultaneously run in different windows. are displayed is known as desktop. then these files are moved. Wordpad etc. operating system desktop may contain background. folders. Some of them are 1. They are easier to maintain. documents and data files are all accessible from one place called My Computer My Computer is generally located at the upper left corner of the desktop 3 Icons: Icons are pictures representing windows elements like files. To delete these files permanently. Paint. The windows. the things you have on your computer — your programs. The object code generated by a translator might be inefficient Compared to an equivalent assembly language program 9. Similarly. Desktop: Screen upon which icons. to Recycle Bin from where these can be restored if desired. edit and view pictures. Recycle bin: Recycle Bin When we delete our files in windows. 2. shortcuts etc. one or more active or inactive windows. Icons play a very important role in graphical user interface. Problem oriented rather than 'machine' based. Windows Accessories Windows operating system comes equipped with basic accessories like Calculator. taskbar. Recycle Bin provides us with a second choice to restore the deleted files Recycle Bin can be opened by double clicking on its icon placed on the desktop. My Computer: In windows. It has many very useful features that adds to its user-friendliness. . we have to remove them from Recycle Bin So. Explain the features of windows (or) Windows operating system? Ans: Windows is a GUI (Graphical User Interface) based operating system which allows multitasking i. Wordpad is a text editor used for short documents. Program written in a high-level language can be translated into many machine language and therefore can run on any computer for which there exists an appropriate translator. Programs developed in high level language can be run on any Computer Disadvantages of High Level Language • • A high-level language has to be translated into the machine language by a translator and thus a price in computer time is paid. Notepad. They require less time to write. Notepad can be used to create or edit text files that do not require formatting.

What is window explorer? What are its various features? Ans. 11.--> . Clipboard : Clipboard is a temporary storage space for data that is being copied or moved. Then go to the destination folder and click Edit --> Paste Copying a file/folder to a floppy disk: (i) Select the Folder you want to mdve or copy (ii)Right click on the file or folder in the right pane (iii) Select Send To .16 | P a g e 6. in word 2000 you can have as many as 12 sets of data simultaneously stored in clipboard. On the left side are the dives and folders. Windows Explorer is a program which allows you to view all of your folders. However. The right side shows the files and subfolders of the folder or drive you have chosen from the left pane. Clipboard generally stores one set of data at a time. and the files that belong in those folders. Features of Window explorer are: Creating a folder: (I) Select the Drive or Folder you want to create your Folder in (ii) Right click in the right pane in the white area (iii) Select New (iv) Select Folder (v) Type in name for that Folder Deleting a file / folder: (i) Select the File/Folder you want to delete (ii) Hit the Delete Key on the keyboard (iii) Confirm Deletion Moving/Copying files to different folders: (i) Select the Folder you want to move or copy (ii) To Move File : Simply drag it to the destination you want it to go to (iii) To Copy File : Click on Edit --> Copy from the top of the screen. It is divided into 2 parts. The contents of clipboard are cleared each time you select a new set of data and choose either cut or copy commands again.

Explain about tables in Ms-word? MS-OFFICE Ans: A table is a collection of rows and columns. The layout of a table looks like a small spreadsheet. To draw a table click on the Tables and Borders icon. The intersection of a row and column is called a cell.5 Floppy (A) (v) You can also drag the file to 3. Copying a file/folder from a floppy disk to other drive (I) Select 3. CREATING TABLE: Draw Table: This feature is very useful to draw a table of your specification.5 Floppy (A :) in the left pane (ii) Seiect the File/Folder youwant to copy from in the floppy drive (iii) Drag it to your destination Renaming a file or folder (i) Select th File or Folder you want to rename (ii) Right Click on it (iii) Select Rename (iv) Rename File 1. or Table >Draw table.5” Floppy (A:\) in the left pane.17 | P a g e (iv)S&ect 3. With the help of a .

It is easier than insert table option if you are not sure of the required number of rows and columns.18 | P a g e pencil tool. Select Table Insert Table 3. We can also insert a table by clicking Insert Table icon from the standard tool bar. A grid will be displayed containing 5 columns and 4 rows. . A table will be displayed with the specified columns and rows. where the table must be created 2. Pressing Tab at the end of the row will move the insertion point to the next row and pressing Tab at the end of table will add a row at the bottom of table. Once you have finished typing in one cell to go to the next cell press Tab key. Enter the number of columns (1 to 63) and rows (1 to 32767) click on OK 4. a table can be drawn easily. TYPING IN A TABLE To type the text or numbers in the table. Click on the box containing the table to specify the number of rows and columns. move to the appropriate cell and type it. Click on the portion of the text. INSERTING A TABLE: 1.

• Select Table Delete columns • The column will be deleted and the next column will be brought in its place. click on OK. .19 | P a g e Deleting a column: • Select the column to be deleted by clicking at the top of the column. select the color and width. select the cells (select entire table to put the borders in full) and select FormatBorders and Shading. Grid (for inside borders only) or All (for outer and gridline borders). SETTING THE ROW HEIGHT AND COLUMN WIDTH: Table Alignment: To center or to bring the table to the right side select Center or Right from Alignment in Row of Cell Height and width in Table menu. Select Box (for outer border only). Applying borders: Borders can be applied to any part of the table or entire table. To put the borders.

If necessary. When you change a header or footer. Microsoft Word automatically changes the same header or footer throughout the document. the document's title or file name.20 | P a g e 2. or so. For example. Do one or more of the following: Page numbers. click Header and Footer. apply bold format. or apply a different font color. • • • With the insertion point positioned within the dashed line surrounding the header.inserting date and time . To enter the footer information. (You can also use . Make your changes to the header or footer. with the word "Header". page numbers. revise text. click Show Previous or Show Next on the Header and Footer tool bar to move to the header or footer you want to change. click the Switch Between Header and Footer button. The footer area is at the bottom margin. Also. a company logo. EDITING HEADER OR FOOTERS • • On the View menu. • You can work in the header and footer areas by clicking Header and Footer on the View menu. Explain about headers and footers in Ms-word? Ans: • Headers and footers are areas in the top and bottom of each page in a document. printed on it.for example. the date. unless the document contains different headers or footers in a section. click Header and Footer.that are printed at the top or bottom of each page in a document. To move to the footer area. This is the header area. type the text you want for the header. change the font. at the top margin you see the insertion point positioned in an area enclosed by a nonprinting dashed line. The Header and Footer toolbar is displayed and the main document content is dimmed. or the author's name . Headers and footers appear only in print lay out view and in printed documents. page of pages(3 of 13) . click the Switch Between Header and Footer button to move the insertion point to the footer area. • • Create a Header or Footer: • • On the View menu. • You can insert text or graphics in headers and footers .

Click the Switch Between Header and Footer button to switch between viewing the header or footer area. click the Different odd and even check box. 8. to return to the document. 4. and then click OK. 5. or double-click the dimmed main document text. Click the Switch Between Header and Footer button to switch between viewing the header or footer area. The Header and Footer toolbar is displayed. to return to the main document when you are through. 7. Click the Close button. Click the Show Previous or Show Next button to move to an even page header or footer. The Page Setup dialog box is displayed.21 | P a g e the vertical scroll bar between the header and footer areas to scroll between the header and footer.) • • Follow steps 2 through 3 above to create the footer. Create the header or footer you want to appear on each even-numbered page. Click the Close button on the Header and Footer toolbar. Create the header or footer you want to appear on each odd-numbered page. Under Headers and footers. Click the Layout tab if it's not already selected. Create a Different Header or Footer for Odd And Even Pages 1. 6. 9. click Header and Footer. 3. or double-click the dimmed main document text. . On the Header and Footer toolbar. Click the Show Next button to move to an odd page header or footer. 2. click the Page Setup button. On the View menu.

data will be merged with in the main document. the data written in these fields will be inserted in the main document during merge. When merging. the format of the letter and where the data from data source file must be inserted is specified in the main document. Mere requires 3 steps: 1. Therefore. It can contain text. which are to be inserted into the letter. In one record. graphic objects and fields. Creating Main Document 2. The individual information of the record is called a field. Creating Data Source . one member’s information is stored . envelops.. Generally. they are merged to get the desired result.22 | P a g e 3. DATA SOURCE: Data source file contains the information in the form of records. For example circulars. MAIN DOCUMENT: The main document contains the subject matter of the letter to be printed. After creating those two files. mailing tables. Mail Merge is used to print multiple copies of a particular letter addressed to many members. which is inserted to the main document. Those two files are generally the Main Document and Data Source file. Explain Mail-Merge in Ms-word? Ans: Mail Merge is used to create form letters.for example. one person’s address. and catalogs by merging the information from two different files. Actually. invitations etc.

The following dialog will be displayed on the screen. open a new document to create a main document by selecting File--New. Before selecting edit the Master Document.. to type the contents. click on Get Data in Data Source. A dialog will be displayed to specify a name for the data source. Then select • Tools-----Mail Merge. The existing field names will be displayed on the screen to the right. a dialog will be displayed prompting where to create the main document (whether in the active window (current file) or in a new document). Click on Active Window • The Edit button will be displayed to the right of Create. A dialog will be displayed asking to edit the data source or edit the master document. mailing labels. . Click on OK. • • • • Click on create Data Source to specify the fields (items) to be included in the address. To create the data file. The following list will be displayed.23 | P a g e 3. Merging of two files CREATING MAIN DOCUMENT • First. • Click on the button Create to display the available formats (form letter. The added fields will be displayed on the right side list. as shown below. place etc. Creating Data Source: The address must be stored in the data file. Type a name and click on save. • From the list click on Form Letters. Type the field name on the left side below the Field Name and click on the button Add Field Name. The following list will be displayed. like name. Unwanted fields can be removed by clicking on the field name and by clicking on the button Remove Field Name. After specifying the field names. specify the address of members to whom the letters must be sent. Then. envelop or catalog) of the main document.

If the letters has to be printed for a few addresses only. By default. A letter will be printed for each address in the data source in a new file. After the typing is completed. • • • • After typing the letter. Now. select ToolsMail Merge. click on OK. To type other address. save it under a name (do not give the name of data source to the letter). These merged letters can be saved in a file and printed later. . Click on Merge displayed at the bottom of the dialog. click On insert Merge Field icon available in Mail Merge tool bar. The following Merge dialog will be displayed. type the contents of the letter. Merge dialog will be displayed again. Now the document is ready to merge. a list of available fields in the data source will be displayed. the merging will be done in a new document and a letter will be printed for every address in the data source. Wherever the content of data source is to be included. Click on the desired field name to insert it into the file. Select Merge to merge the addresses with the letter. Data source dialog will end and a blank screen will be displayed to type the subject matter of the letter. address etc. To merge the data source with the main document and to print a letter for every address in the data source.24 | P a g e • • • • • Type the details by pressing enter after typing the name. specify from and To for address numbers. click on Add New button.

To run your macro. 2. 5. Advanced users of ten create and use macro to automate frequently used operations. 3. Click the Assign button. Type a name for your macro in the Macro name text box. 6. You can repeat this step to assign multiple keystrokes to the same macro if you want. as shown in Figure. as shown in Figure 3. you can temporarily stop the recording of your macro. Press the keystrokes that you want to record in your macro. follow these steps: 1. Press the keystroke that you want to represent your macro (such as Alt+F12). Explain about Macros in Ms-word? Ans: A macro is a series of keystrokes and mouse clicks that can be called with the simple click of a mouse. Click the Stop Recording button when you finish recording the keystrokes. A Customize Keyboard dialog box appears. The mouse pointer turns into an arrow with an audiocassette icon. Click the Close button.25 | P a g e 4. Recording macros in Word To record a macro in Word. a Stop Recording toolbar appears. press the keystroke combination that you chose in Step 4. it's where you assign a keystroke combination to your macro. 8. 7. If you click the Pause Recording button. Click the Keyboard button. This provides time saving shortcuts to speed up such operations. which you can use to pause or stop recording a macro. 4. A Record Macro dialog box appears. ******** . Choose Tools --> Macro --> Record New Macro.

spelling and grammar checking. tables. Standard toolbar and formatting toolbars are displayed at the top of the screen below the menu bar. edit. We can create. Horizontal ruler line will be on the top and vertical ruler line is to the left of the screen. Ruler bar: It displays the margins.26 | P a g e 5. drawing tool bar is displayed at the bottom of the screen. In word 2000. It displays . View Bar: View Bar is displayed below the workspace containing 4 icons in it. Online Layout View. etc Components of MS-word: Tool bar: A set of icons to perform different tasks and displayed as a set is called a tool bar. indents. It can be used to display the document in Normal View. and print the documents according to our requirements. auto correct. tab positions on a numbers scale. Page Layout View or Outline View. Status Bar: The Status Bar is displayed at the bottom of Ms-Word window (above the task bar). Explain about components of Ms-word Window and it’s features? Ans: MS-WORD is a word processor developed by Microsoft Corporation. Some of the features of Ms-WORD include mail merge.

the information can be represented in the form of tables. template features for preparing presentations. Explain about Power point and its features? Ans: Microsoft power point is an audio-visual tool. Word also has the facility of macros. overhead transparencies etc. The information on the slide can be edited and animated. Graphical pictures can either be created in word itself or can be imported from outside like from Clip Art Gallery. Microsoft power point is an audio-visual tool. modifying the existing text. By using power point. ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Changing the size of the margins can reformat complete document or part of text. Features of Power point: 1. Tables can be made and included in the text. Slides can be viewed in different ways. Ms-Power Point 1.27 | P a g e the information about the active document such as page number. presentations can be made in different styles like on screen presentations. viii) ix) x) Word also provides the mail-merge facility. which is used for presentation purposes. Features of MS-Word: i) Using word you can create the document and edit them later. 3. as and when required. . which is used for presentation purposes. Font size and type of fonts can also be changed. Text can be formatted in columnar style as we see in the newspaper. By using power point. section number. insertion point position etc.. 2. Page numbers and Header and Footer can be included. Macros can be either attached to some function/special keys or to a tool bar or to a menu. Word also allows the user to mix the graphical pictures with the text. number of pages. by adding more text. Spelling can be checked and correction can be made automatically in the entire document. A slide is container of information. Text boxes can be made. 4. It also provides online help of any option. Power point provides auto content wizard. deleting/moving some part of it. Word count and other statistics can be generated.

• Make the selections and click on Next. Choose the type of the presentation and click on the Next. • Click ON Finish to conclude the wizard. CREATING A PRESENTATION USING TEMPLATE • A presentation template is a saved presentation file that contains predefined slide and title • Masters. Enter the data in each text box and click on Next. Select the AutoContent Wizard option from the PowerPoint dialogue box. 2. CREATING A PRESENTATION USING AUTOCONTENT WIZARD: The steps to create a presentation using AutoContent Wizard. color schemes and graphic elements. • • . copied in presentations. A dialogue box as shown in the figure will be displayed. Power point allows adding animation effects to slide contents. deleted. A dialogue box will be displayed that helps to select a visual style and duration of the presentation. Click on the Next button. Slides can be inserted. It also includes masters with preformatted fonts and styles. Create a power point presentation using auto content wizard and design template? Ans: PowerPoint offers a variety of ways to create a new presentation. 6. Slide numbering can be provided. We can create a presentation by the following three methods. 7. 8. • Select the kind of output is required and whether handouts are to be printed or not and click on Next. · Using AutoContent Wizard · Using Templates · Using Blank Presentation.28 | P a g e 5. Music can be added while displaying a slide.

29 | P a g e The steps to apply a template to a new presentation are: • Select the template option from the PowerPoint dialogue box. · Click and drag the pointer until the ellipse shape and size we want. · Release the mouse button. DRAWING RECTANGLE AND ELLIPSE: The steps to draw a rectangle are: · Click on the Rectangle tool icon in the Drawing Toolbar. 3. • Click on the Presentation • Designs tab to display the design templates. · Click and drag the pointer to the opposite corner for the rectangle. • The New Slide Dialogue box will be displayed as shown in the figure. Explain about drawing objects in power point? Ans: The drawing feature in PowerPoint helps to draw shapes such as rectangles. • Select a layout and click on OK button • Now we can start creating the presentation by adding the information and styles to each slide. The mouse pointer changes crosshair. 4. Deleting a Slide The steps to delete a slide are: · Select the slide to be deleted. · Move crosshair pointer to the position on the slide where we want to place the edges of the ellipse. · Select Delete option from Edit Menu. · Select the Slide. · Select Edit  Paste. The steps to draw an ellipse are: · Click on the Ellipse tool icon in the Drawing Toolbar. . The mouse pointer changes to crosshair. · Move crosshair pointer to the position on the slide where we want to start the rectangle. delete or copy slides wherever necessary. circles and even stars on a slide. • Select a template and click on OK button to activate the template. · Select an appropriate layout from New Slide dialogue box. which we want to copy. squares. · Click on OK. we can add. · Place the cursor where we want to insert the slide. Adding a Slide The steps to add a slide are: · Select the New Slide option from the Insert Menu. Copying a Slide The steps to copy a slide are: · Open the presentation in Slide Sorter View. · Release the mouse button. Explain working with slides? Ans: After creation of a presentation.

The AutoShapes tool displays a popup menu click on it. The steps to draw an Arc are: • Open the slide we want to draw an Arc. Select a tool and move the pointer to • the slide. • Release the mouse button. The steps to draw a Line are: • Open the slide we want to draw a Line. The steps to draw an AutoShape are: • Click on the AutoShape on the drawing Toolbar. . Banners and Callout. • Move the crosshair to the slide and point where the Arc begins. DRAWING AUTO SHAPES: The AutoShapes feature makes it easy to draw frequently drawn shapes in PowerPoint slides and other applications. The mouse pointer changes to Cross hair. • The AutoShape popup menu will be displayed. • Click and drag the mouse to the endpoint of the Line. except that Line and Arc are not enclosed objects. • Move the crosshair to the slide and point where the Line begins. • Click and drag the mouse to the endpoint of the Arc. Block Arrows. The Line and Arc have a beginning point and en end point with resize handles at each point. • Click the pointer to anchor the beginning point and drag to the end point for the object. Stars. • Click on the Arc icon tool in the Drawing Tool bar.30 | P a g e DRAWING LINES AND ARCS Drawing Lines and Arcs is similar to that used for drawing shapes. • Release the mouse button. • Click on the Line icon tool in the Drawing Tool bar. Flowcharts. Basic Shapes. It contains objects like Lines. The mouse pointer changes to Cross hair.

31 | P a g e MS-EXCEL Explain about cell references in Excel? Ans: .

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