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Very Short Answer Questions: 1. Define a Network. What is its need? A network is an “interconnected collection of autonomous computers’. With the help of the Network on can satisfies the below given needs: 1)Resource Sharing . 2) Reliability. 3)Cost Factor 4) Communication medium. 2.Write two Advantages and Disadvantages of Network. Advantages: -Share Resources such as printers, modems, scanners, etc. -Improve communications. Messages can be sent. E.g Internet Email. Disadvantages: -If software and files are held centrally. It may be impossible to carry out any work. If the central server fails. -File Security is more important especially if connected to WANs. E.g. protection from viruses. 3.What is ARPANet? What is NSFNet? ARPANet: Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPAnet) is a project started by U.S. Department of Defence in 1969 the main objective of the project is to connect computers at U.S defence & different universities. NSFNet: National Science Foundation(NSFNet) is a federal agency started in mid 80’s the main objective is to provide a high-capacity network and to be strictly used for academic and engineering researches. 4.What do you understand by InterSpace? InterSpace is a client/server software program that allows multiple users to communicate online with real time audio, video and text chat in 3D-Environments. 5.Name two switching circuits and explain any one. Switching techniques are used for transmitting data across networks. When two computers communicates over network different types of switching techniques are used. These are: 1)Circuit Switching 2) Message Switching 3) Packet Switching. Circuit Switching: In this technique, first the complete physical connection between two computers is established and then data are transmitted from the source computer to destination computer. The important property of this switching technique is to setup and end-to-end path (Connection) between computer before any data can be sent. 6.What is communication channel? Name the basic types of communication channels available. Communication channel is the medium used to carry information or data from one point to another. Some of them are: Guided Media: Twisted Pair Cable, Coaxial Cable, Optical Fibers. UnGuided Media:Micro Waves, Radio Waves, Satellite.
bps: bits per second. the entire network is inoperable. 14. While. Some of the popular topologies are: Star topology. For example. Differences: In bus topology. Topology: The pattern of interconnection of nodes in a network is called the topology. the most important of which are: -Cost. amount of data transferred per second by communication channel is measured in bps. Baud: It is the unit of measurement for the information carrying capacity of a communication channel. 11. In tree topology.Define baud. Tree topology. When do you think. Bus topology.e. 13. the shape of the network is linear. Ring or circular topology. What are the similarities and differences between bus and tree topologies? Similarities: Transmission in both the topologies takes place in the same way. bps and Bps. What is the difference between MAN and WAN? Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) are the networks spread over a city. 12. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are the networks spread across countries. What are the factors that must be considered before making a choice for the topology? There are a number of factors to be considered in making a choice for the topology. Graph topology. If the central node in a network fails. In both cases. What are various types of Networks? Various types of networks are: Local Area Networks( LANs) Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) Wide Area Networks (WANs) 9. -Long cable length. It is generally used to measure the speed of information. ring topology becomes the best choice for the network? If one wants to increase network reliability and is planning to install fiber optics as a transmission medium. . 10. For example. there is no need to remove packets from the medium because when a signal reaches the end of the medium. What is meant by topology? Name some popular topologies. It is also used to measure the speed of information. The data transfer rate i. Bps or baud. Bps: Bytes per second. What are the limitations of star topology? Some of the limitations of star topology are: -It is difficult to expand.7. -Central node dependency. then in my view ring topology is the best choice. -Flexibility. cable TV networks. it is absorbed by the terminators. Mesh topology. -Reliability. How are these interlinked. While. Internet. the shape of the network is like inverted tree. 8.
17. It’s difficult to install. Advantages: -Centralize control. -Difficult to expand the network. -Connection losses are common problem. -It guarantees secure transmission and has a very high transmission capacity. -It’s low bandwidth capabilities make it unsuitable for broadband applications. Write two disadvantages of twisted pair cables. thunder storms etc. -Microwave propagation is susceptible to weather effects like rains. repairing the cables. Disadvantages: -Fault diagnosis is difficult. 16. Disadvantages: -Installation problem. Disadvantages: -Long cable length. -They are the most expensive of all the cables. Write two advantages and disadvantages of Microwaves. Write two advantages and disadvantages of Satellites. Write the two advantages and two disadvantages of Bus topology in network.15. Give two advantages and two disadvantages of tree topology in network. Advantages: -It offers freedom from land acquisition rights that are required for laying. 21. . Disadvantages: -Microwave communication is an insecure communication. Advantages: -It is immune to electrical and magnetic interference. -It offers ease of communication over difficult terrain. Disadvantages: -Over-crowding of available bandwidths due to low antenna gains. Advantages: -The area coverage through satellite transmission is quite large. Briefly mention two advantages and two disadvantages of Star topology in network. -Easy to expand the network. -Technological limitations preventing the installation of large. (Pending) 19. Advantages: --Answer to be found from the internet. 19. 20. -Nodes must be intelligent. high gain antennas on the satellite platform. -The laying and maintenance of intercontinental cable is difficult and expensive and this is where the satellite proves to be the best alternative. -One device per connection. it is incapable of carrying a signal over long distances without the use of repeaters. Advantages: -Short cable length and simple wiring layout. -Fault isolation is difficult. Disadvantages: -Because of high attenuation. Write two advantages and disadvantages of Optical fibers.
24. just as we are sitting just next to it. What is a modem? Name two categories of modems. (v) Router A Router is a network device that is used to separate different segments in a network to improve performance and reliability. (i) Protocol A protocol is a set of rules that two or more machines must follow to exchange the information. and applications to users or other nodes on the network. (ii) Ethernet Ethernet is a LAN architecture developed by Xerox Corp along with DEC and Intel. Modem comes into two categories: 1. It is used in long distance network lines. (iii) Ethernet card The computers that are part of Ethernet. A network host is a network node that is assigned a network layer host address. (i) RJ-45 Registered Jack-45 (RJ-45) is an eight wire connector. If it is designed for twisted pair it will have a RJ-45 connection. (iv) Bridge A Bridge is a network device that establishes an intelligent connection between two local networks with the same standard but with different types of cables.12. Once we login we can work on that system. If it is designed for coaxial cable the connection will be BNC.External modems. It establishes an intelligent connection between a local network and external network with completely different structures. What is remote login? What is Telnet? The process of login into another computer of a network is called remote login. 23. or 24 RJ-45 ports. (ii) Host: A network host is a computer connected to a computer network. Some Ethernet card also contains an AUI connector. have to install a special card called Ethernet card. which is commonly used to connect computers on the local are networks. A switch is responsible for filtering data over network and it supports any packet protocol. services. 2.22.Internal modems. Hubs comes into two types: Active hub and Passive hub. A Modem is a computer device that allows us to connect and communicate with other computers via telephone lines. (iii) Repeater A Repeater is a network device that amplifies a signal being transmitted on the network. A router works like a bridge but can handle different protocols. (vi) Gateway A Gateway is a network device that connects dissimilar networks. . Telnet: Telnet is a utility program that lets us log on to remote computer system. 23. A network host may offer information resources. Define the following: (i) Protocol (ii) Host (iii) Repeater (iv) Bridge (v) Router (vi) Gateway. (v) Switch A switch is a device that is used to segment networks into different subnetworks called subnets or LAN segments. (iv) Hub A hub is a hardware device used to connect several computers together. Ethernet card contains connections for either coaxial or twisted pair cables or both. Ethernet uses either a bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates up to 10 Mbps. Define the following: (i) RJ-45 (ii) Ethernet (iii) Ethernet card (iv) hub (v) switch. Hub usually can support 8.
TCP is responsible for making sure that the data grams get through the other end. For e. . Some common header lines includes: To:_____________ Subject:__________ Cc:______________ Bcc:______________ 29. Briefly explain file transfer protocol. 27. What is the structure of an E-mail message? E-mail message consists of three parts. 28. 30. HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol is an application-level protocol which is used by web browsers and web servers to communicate between them. the body and the signature. E-mail: Electronic Mail (E-mail) is sending and receiving messages by computer over network. A three page letter can cost about Rs. What are the advantages of E-mail? What are the disadvantages of E-mail? Advantages: -Speed. 31.in/ WWW: World Wide Web is a set of protocols that allows us to access any document on the net through a naming system based on URLs. What is HTML? Where it is used? HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a document-layout and hyperlink specification language. Disadvantages: -Hardware requirement. What is TCP/IP? What is HTTP? TCP: Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol is a network layered protocol generally used in Internet for sending and receiving information. the header. What is Internet? What is E-mail? Internet: Internet is a world wide network of computer network. What is protocol? Name some commonly used protocols. Electronic mail can be delivered almost as fast as the wire can carry it. -Low cost.100 to fax. A protocol is a set of rules that two or more machines must follow to exchange the information. -Impermanent. -FTP: File Transfer Protocol -TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol. 26. It is used for creating web document. Some of the commonly used protocols are: -HTTP:Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. The same letter can be sent by e-mail for the cost of one local call. One of the original services on the internet which was designed to allow for transferring files from one system to another. It keeps track of what is send and retransmits anything that did not get through.nic. the body is the actual message. you have to be at a computer to read or print e-mail. What is URL? What is WWW? URL: Uniform Resource Locator specifies the distinct address for each resource on the internet. The header at the top of the message. Your sent mail message may be altered by the mail servers. 32. the signature comes at the end.25. Files of any type can be transferred over the internet via FTP.g: http://cbse.
TDMA: Short for Time Division Multiple Access. What is video conferencing? A two-way videophone conversation among multiple participants is called video conferencing. 34. you type a message on your screen. 35. then the recipient can type a message in response to your message. What is Voice-Mail? What is Chatting? Voice-Mail: The voice-mail refers to e-mail systems that support audio. Wireless communication: Wireless communication is simply data communication without a physical connection like cables. GSM uses narrowband TDMA which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency. Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator are two most popular web browsers. Define web browser and web server. a single frequency can support multiple. which is received by you instantly. video and multimedia data rates up to and possibly higher than 2Mbps. CDMA. simultaneous data channels. offering a services to mobile computer and phone users. 38. Mobile communication: Mobile communication means that the computing device is not continuously connected to the base or central network. is called chatting. 37. voice. a digital cellular technology that uses spread. GSM: GSM is short for Global System for Mobile communications. In this way. Web browser: A Web browser is a WWW client that navigates through the World Wide Web and displays web pages. SMS: Short Message Service (SMS) is the transmission of short messages to and from the mobile phone. CDMA: CDMA is short for Code-Division Multiple Access. a technology for delivering digital wireless service using time-division multiplexing (TDM). . Define GSM. 36. TDMA works by dividing a radio frequency into time slots and then allocating slots to multiple calls. WLL: WLL is short for Wireless Local Loop is a system that connects subscribers to the public switched telephone network using radio signals as a substitute for other connecting media. Chatting: Online textual talk.spectrum techniques. EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution is a radio based high-speed mobile data standard which allows data transmission speeds of 384 kbps. Define mobile communication and wireless communication. Web server: A Web server is a WWW server that responds to the requests made by web browsers.33. it is a leading digital cellular system. which is immediately received by the recipient. EDGE was formerly called GSM384. Users can leave spoken messages for one another and listen to the messages by executing the appropriate command in the e-mail system. 3G 3G is a specification for the third generation of mobile communications technology which offers broadband packet-based transmission of text. in real time. Define the following: (i)3G (ii) EDGE (iii) SMS (iv) TDMA. fax machine and/or IP address. WLL. In chatting.
which in turn are connected through gateways to the Internet backbone. -All the packets are then sent to the address of destination computer. -Communication Facilities. Internet Functions: -At the source computer. Evolution of networking started way back in 1969 by the development of first network called ARPANET a short of Advanced Research Projects Agencey NETwork. -Communication Medium. 6. This process is continued until the data are delivered to the destination computers. Network Goals: -Resource Sharing. NSFnet allowed only the academic research on its network and not any kind of private business on it. . began exchanging data and messages on it. 2. -CostFactor. -Reliability. -Each packet is given a number serialwise. A packet generally contains some information. scientists. (NSF) created a new. Rather they are connected to smaller networks.Briefly explain how Internet evolved. which was more capable of ARPANET.g. high capacity network called NSFnet. Message Switching works on store and forward principle. In this technique the source computer sends data to the switching office first. information. 3.What is a network? What are its goals and applications? Network: A network is an “interconnected collection of autonomous computers’. which were later interconnected along with ARPANET and NSFnet to form INTERNET. the National Science Foundation. In mid 80’s another federal agency. the message/file to be sent to another computer is firstly divided into very small parts called Packets.Short Answer Questions 1. . 4. -Access to remote database. Circuit Switching Message Switching In this technique.e. If a packet is lost it is demanded again. Applications: -Sharing of peripherals. which stores the data in its buffer. The goal of this project was to connect computers at different universities and U..1 . -The destination computer receives the packets in random manner.The packets are reassembled in the order of their number and the original message/file is obtained.S. first the complete physical connection between two computers is established and then data are transmitted from the source computer to the destination computer. Soon the engineers.How is circuit switching different from message switching? Switching techniques are used for transmitting data across networks. most computers are not connected directly to the internet. students and researchers who were part of this system.How does Internet work? In Internet. 2. defense. So many private companies build their own networks. It then look s for a free link to another switching office and then sends the data to this office.
In analog systems. Coaxial Cable..Discuss and compare various types of networks. 12.How does transmission take place across networks? By various switching techniques like circuit switching.What are communication channels? Discuss various communication channels available for networks. bytes per second(Bps) or baud. There are three types of networks: -Local Area Networks (LANs). It is measured in Hz(hertz). LAN MAN WAN Small computer networks that are confined to a localized area (e. Metropolitan Area Networks are the networks spread over a city.7.g. an office. It is measured in bps(bits per second).g. UnGuided Media: Microwaves.. 10. Communication channels are the medium used to carry information or data from one point to another. (bits per second). Radiowaves. kHz(kilohertz). MHz(Megahertz).What do you understand by data transfer rates? The data transfer rate represents the amount of data transferred per second by a communications channel or a computing or storage device.What is bandwidth? How is it measured? Bandwidth: It refers to the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies of a transmission channel. bandwidth is measured in bps. The networks spread across countries are known as WANs. .THz(Terahertz). -Wide Area Networks (WANs). For e. INTERNET. GHz(gigahertz). Various available communication channels are: Guided Media: Twisted Pair Cable. Optical Fibers. -Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). a building or a factory) are known as Local Area Network. The term is also sometimes used to refer to the amount of information travelling through a single channel at any one point of time. cable TV networks that are spread over a city. A computer network means a group of ‘networked’ computers. 8. Satellites. Wide Area Network is a group of computers that are separated by large distances and tied together. In digital systems. Rarely LAN computers are more than a mile apart. For example. A transmission media or communication channel carries the data from one point to another. message switching and packet switching data are transmitted across network. 11.
(Tree topology) . Star topology: In the star topology. 2) Star and Tree topologies Star topology: In the star topology. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. there will be a central hub/bridge/switch and every computer is connected to it directly. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage. Ethernet systems use a bus topology.Compare and contrast i) Star and Bus topologies 2) Star and Tree topologies 3) bus and ring topologies 1) Star and Bus topologies: Bus topology: All devices are connected to a central cable. All devices are connected to a centrally. but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the central device.15. All devices are connected to a centrally. In this topology the network is shaped like an inverted tree. there will be a central hub/bridge/switch and every computer is connected to it directly. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage. Bus topology was quite popular till about a decade ago. but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the central device. Tree topology: The tree topology is a hybrid where groups of star-configured networks are connected to a linear bus backbone. called the bus or backbone. but is now being replaced with the star topology.
Switches are capable of inspecting data packets as they are received. but a switch generally are more intelligent than a hub with a slight higher price tag. Network switches appears nearly identical to hub. called the bus or backbone. (Clockwise or Anticlockwise) from node to node around the ring. determining the source destination device of each packets & then forward them appropriately by delivering only to the destination device. It offers better performance than hub. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. each node is connected to two and only two neighbouring nodes.3) bus and ring topologies Bus topology: All devices are connected to a central cable. . In this topology data travels in one direction only. Data is accepted from one of the neighbouring nodes and is transmitted onwards to another. (ring topology) 18. Ring topologies In Ring topology. The advantages of using the ring topology are that it needs short cable length and is suitable for optical fibres.What is the role of a switch in a network? A switch is a device that is used to segment networks into different subnetworks called subnets or LAN segments. It’s a small hardware device. Ethernet systems use a bus topology.
Briefly discuss the role of following devices in the context of networking. A router works like a bridge but can handle different protocols. (i) Repeater (ii) Router (iii) Bridge (iv) Gateway. They are of two kinds: amplifier Repeater and Signal Repeater. For example a router can link Ethernet to a mainframe. . i)Repeater: A Repeater is a network device that amplifies and restores signals for long-distance transmission. ii)Router A Router is a network device that is used to separate different segments in a network to improve performance and reliability. which exceed the maximum rated distance for a single run.19. They are used in long network lines.
MAN.What is a communication protocol? What is its role in a network? A protocol means the rules that are applicable for a network. so they only allow those messages that need to get to the other side to cross the bridge. WAN. It establishes an intelligent connection between local network and external networks with completely different structures. A Gateway is a network device that connects dissimilar network or different types of networks like LAN. 20. A communication protocol is a formal description of message formats and the set of rules that two or more machines must follow to exchange those messages. Due to this the performance of the network increases. Bridges are smart enough to know which computers are on which side of the bridge. iv) Gateway.iii) Bridge A Bridge is a network device that establishes an intelligent connection between two local networks with the same standard but with different types of cables. .
The main difference between Networking and Remote Networking. there needs to be a common set of rules and instructions that each computer follows. f. e. Q. the messages are transferred to the client’s computer when they are read.3 What is point-to-point protocol? Ans. A gateway can interpret and translate the different protocols that are used on two distinct networks. a gateway perform an application layer conversion of information from one protocol stack to another. A communication protocol used to connect computer to remote networking services include Internet Service Providers. the Point-to-Point protocol is commonly used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. SLIP. Q. c. IMAP is a standard protocol for accessing e-mail from a local server. Routers allow different networks to communicate with each other. g. e-mails are stored on the server. A gateway operates at the upper levels of the OSI model and translates information between two completely different network architectures. IMAP. In networking. TCP/IP Q. They forward packets from one network to another based on network layer information. HTTP. Setting up and configuring network hardware and software.8 What is the differences between POP3 and IMAP Mail Server? Ans. When computers communicate each other. Ensuring the security of the network. b.5 What is the role of network administrator? Ans. Provide training to the users to utilize the network’s resources. Managing user account.2 What is the difference between Networking and Remote Networking? Ans. Q. Some protocol: PPP. Its primary use has been to connect computers using a phone line. Installing and configuring network media and connections. while in POP3. A simpler e-mail protocol is Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3).4 How gateway is different from router? Ans. FTP. A specific set of communication rules is called a protocol. Q. which download mail to the computer and does not maintain the mail on the server.1 What is protocol? How many types of protocols are there? Ans. is the network which we use in offices or other places locally such LAN or INTERNET and remote networking is one which we use TERMINAL Services to communicate with the remote users such WAN. Connecting user nodes and peripherals of all kinds to the network.Networks -Higher order thinking skills(HOTS) Q. d. Adding users to and removing users from the network. Basic tasks for which a network administrator may be responsible: a. Unlike routers that successfully connect networks with protocols that are similar. .
Q. signals are sent on multiple frequencies. 3. Ans. Domain One or more computers are servers If you have a user account on the domain. SNo 1. Each computer has a set of accounts. Q. Analog signals unidirectional transmission Frequency division multiplexing possible Uses for long distance 2 3 4 5 Q.9 Name different layer of the ISO OSI Model. There can be 100+ computers The computers can be on different local network Workgroup All Computers are peers. SNo 1 Baseband Entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a signal Digital signals bi-directional transmission No Frequency division multiplexing possible Uses for short distance Broadband broadband transmission. Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer . Baseband is a bi-directional transmission while broadband is a unidirectional transmission. 4. 2. Typically not more then 20-30 computers All computers must be on the same local netork.7 What is the difference between baseband and broadband transmission? Ans.8 What are the difference between domain and workgroup? Ans. allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously. International Standard Organisation – Open Systems Interconnection has seven layers. you can logon to any computer on the domain. No Frequency division multiplexing possible in base band but possible in broadband.
It is code transparent and any terminal of the same speed can use the same sub-channel after the sub-channel is established. Ans. FDM-Frequency Division Multiplexing is used in analog transmission. The National centre wrote this program for Super Computer application at the university of Illinois. The node providing the service is known as the server and the nodes that use that services are called clients of that server.11 What is FDM? Give example. Usenet newsgroup is a special group set up by people who want to share common interests ranging from current topic to cultural heritages. The best example if FDM is the way we receive various stations in a radio. . It has a simple window interface. which creates useful hypertext links that automatically perform some of the menu bar and button functions. Q. iii) WAIS: is a WIDE AREA INFORMATION SERVER.13 describe the following in brief: i) MOSAIC ii) USENET iii) WAIS Ans. To designated a particular node which is well known and fixed address. to provide a service to the network as a whole. This type of network is called Client-Server Architecture.Q. i) MOSAIC: is the program for cruising the internet.10 What is client server architecture? Ans. Q. It is often used in short distance. ii) USENET: is the way to meet people and share information.
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