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Printed by A. Spottiswoode, New- Street- Square.





dear Lord,


record of a period, fall of
difficulty in

danger to Europe, and of

our relations

with the Continental Powers, in which you bore a
distinguished part.




remembrance of

the great

man whom, on

his death,

you succeeded


the direction of our Foreign Affairs.
in the



of our fifty years' friendship, increasing



side in veneration as life




recede from me.

Chesterfield Street, Mayfair,

10th April, 1844.


It was


intended by the author of this




should not be published during his

but the

many and

increasing errors of the

Foreign Press in commenting on the matters of which


induce him to alter his purpose.




before the Public therefore now, in order that,
necessary, recourse



be had for the truth of his

statements to the testimony of some




and who were employed

in planning

executing the foreign policy of England in 1806.


avails himself likewise of the official permission

granted to him by Lord Palmerston, and not with-

drawn by Lord Aberdeen,

to print such parts of his

despatches from the Court of Vienna, where he was

employed at that period, as might not be prejudicial
to the public service.

Prince Metternich's consent,

without which their publication would not have been
proper, has been notified to

him through her Ma-

ambassador at that Court.

















Causes of the Commencement and Rupture of the
Negociation for Peace in 1806, between England

and France








of Diplomatic

Intercourse between England and Austria

—82 83 — 106

Despatches to Mi*. Fox, Lord Howick, and Mr. Canning, until

Lord Pembroke's Arrival







Despatches continued from Lord Pembroke's Departure,

September, 1807,








Appendix: Correspondence






Count Stadion






Remarks on M.

Gentz's Narrative of what passed at the

Prussian Head-Quarters in October, 1806, previously
to the Battle of





Remarks on M.

ciations of 1806,


Gentz's Observations on the Nego-

Peace between

England and



not only to their immediate effects. but the knowledge of which ^ is necessary to place in their proper light the ? . but to their remote consequences. The period at which it shall be part taken in ^vill given him to fix his thoughts. at the general peace and settlement (as it was called) of Europe. now it Principles " are array. and the documents it is by accompanied. is At all events.. better qualified than himself for that task. It is the reign of James the observed by Mr. it by Great Britain. that " in reading the history of every country. His first pause be at the peace of Amiens. and to take into his view the remote consequences of that war. social as well as political. to establish some truths hitherto little regarded. relate to the second of the above periods.INTRODUCTION. Fox. and the . the war which broke out afresh after the peace of Amiens. in 1802 his second. if is still at too great a distance to be more than a subject he pauses for speculation. namely. there are certain periods at which mind naturally pauses to meditate upon and consider them with reference. still he can do. The " Two opposed to each other in adverse all The which narrative which follows." Two such periods will occur to him who reads the history of the revolutionary war mth France. in 1815. It will be enough for his purpose if the materials which he presents shall assist others. in his historical work on II. In rendering them public the Author does not pretend to write a history of that war.

and in some measure likewise the cause. Fox. in 1806. Fox's political situation at the time at which he opened them. partially tried by Mr. Addington's administration. had been distinguished by events the most disastrous to Europe. it will eventually occasioned the rupture of these negocibe proper to take a short view of Mr. The debates on those involved every conceivable subject of English interests. its Mr. Mr. and by the recent discomfiture at Austerlitz of a confederacy. was now again to be attempted by Mr. and continued by Mr. Addington. the last which it seemed possible to oppose to her. The new war. will occupy consequently an important place in the following work. ations. foreign as well as domestic. declared his determined opposition to printopics and its policy.2 INTRODUCTION. Re- ferences to the negociations at Paris. that Mr. disincumbered indeed from all obstacles of form. after a long exclusion from power. But in order fully to understand this part of the subject. by encouraging Napoleon to ask too much. not of any new system in our foreign relations. Fox's accession to office was the epoch. Pitt until his death. transactions to whicli he refers. The experiment of peace with France. begun under Mr. which. and the character of the statesmen by It whom they were directed. On Fox ciple the breaking out of the first war in 1793. as a state. in 1802. was shortly after the commencement of this second period. and were carried on not only with the gravity proportioned to their import- . Fox. by a treaty which never was executed. but incalculably aggravated in point of difficulty by the increased power and resources of France. became Foreign Minister. but of an honest experiment to reconcile our old system to the new state of things into which the affairs of the Continent appeared to have settled down.

and the proposer of such a course . mentioned the speeclies and writings of Mr. It originated. as little better than their accomplice. before there began to prevail The war. Burke were decisive. by the doctrines and actions of the French revolutionary chiefs. all operating together and aided by nearly the whole of the daily B 2 throw not be won- . and more especially with regard to the most prudent manner of dealing with it in reference to ourselves. so as. from the opposite views entertained of that revolution as influencing the destinies of the world. to explain. an opinion that Mr. ance. on both sides soon embittered our divisions and such was the extent of alarm and horror excited among all ranks of our population. Every where they had given the tone to the public feeling. not difficult. to his antagonists on the defensive. Mr. had not continued long among a great portion of what may be called the governing classes of this country. How this opinion became prevalent would be long.INTRODUCTION. consequently. Pitt's dexterity in connecting and confounding the old reformers with this faction. in discussions on our existing institutions. When to these considerations are added the really mischievous designs of an extreme popidar faction then beginning to form itself. and in availing himself of all the vantage ground thus given him. it will dered at that such powerful causes. although undoubtedly. Fox had become so enamoured of the French Revolution as to have lost his old English it sight of all principles. of course. in the separation which. had taken place among the With the classes aboveleaders of the Whig party. Exaggeration. but with all that personal earnestness zeal with 6 and party which an honest conviction of their value had inspired the statesmen who took part in them. tliat every endeavour to find out some rational means of avoiding war was regarded as an approbation of their enormities.

Such were the circumstances personal to Mr. and on what principles would he conduct them ? Having condemned the war as unjust. Fox. and that through them Mr. in February. As Minister for Foreign Affairs. It was not long afterwards that negociations for peace were set on foot. the negociations were to be under his immediate conduct and control. therefore. that his accession to office was looked forward to as the epoch. produced the effect described. under which he came into power. would he take for his guidatice the new version of that law asserted and promulgated by France.4 press. fit and adapt it to that of with all their absurdity. In France especially. who. they could not fail to be received generally abroad. How. and such was the necessary consequence of this unwise he was believed to be so much scheme of detraction on their side in his views of foreign affairs. should liave INTRODUCTION. Fox should have been exhibited to the world as a dangerous man. but of a strict incorporating alliance with — — her. such notions as these obtained credit at home. If. in the judgment of those who did not know him. would he incline towards France in the terms of the peace ? Having reprobated the intervention of the continental powers in the settlement of her internal concerns as a violation of the law of nations. if ever he obtained power. 1806. Here would speedily be brought to the proof the consistency of his opposition to the war-system of his predecessors. not only of a peace favourable to France in its direct stipulations. or would he adhere to the . would use it to bring about such changes in our English system as he and his friends might think best calculated to France. Here. was to be the test of his character as an English statesman. with his old opinions as a supporter and advocate of the European policy of King William.

and during the whole of the war mth France. when his mission was brought to an end. in the picture of Mr. it will These of history which may B 3 . without receivino. Fox's directions. he had been pressing on the consideration of the Austrian government. from the Ministers who succeeded Lord Grenville's government any instructions in a different sense or spirit. and the continuance in office of the administration of which he formed a part. Fox's life. small as the then circumstances and condition of Europe necessarily rendered it. They extend from June 1806 to February 1808. He is entitled therefore to assume that on the main points of English European policy which. Since his twenty years' exclusion from power. they saw no reason to alter the line of conduct which had been prescribed to him by their predecessors. which began when he was but six and thirty years old. be observed. established 5" Europe. Fox's instructions to him on his appointment as Minister to the Court of Vienna. this was the only opportunity he had had of proving by his actions letters. It is for this purpose that he now offers to the public. and his own early principles of resistance to her power and preponderance ? usages of The reader of the following will pages. in some measure. in executing Mr. under Mr. relate to a point be said to stand alone. some extracts from his despatches while at the Court of Vienna. with permission from the proper authorities. Fox's political life. During the whole of this latter period the Author continued in the same course of action with which he began his mission.INTRODUCTION. will answer these questions for himself. and perhaps in a small degree from the part borne by the Author. He form his judgment from the transactions to which they relate. after considering them. They were carried on consequently beyond Mr.

the party records. as well as by individuals of no small note. when he came into direct contact with the new system. . It at the and he thinks it his duty. Fox's warm friends so far mistook the character of that transaction. they called a warThe same notion was taken up party in the Cabinet.ruled by what. as from his having been over.6 INTRODUCTION. not so much from any disinclination on his part to conclude a treaty on the terms offered by Napoleon. . Fox's policy. On its failure some of Mr. with Avhom the Author has had the benefit of conversing at various periods of his intercourse with foreign statesmen. The Author has a further motive for dwelling somewhat particularly on the negociation for peace in 1806. how much better adapted he considered the old one to be for the administration of the foreign interests of such a country as Great Britain. and not to rest satisfied with what he will find about it in basse litterature^'' of the day. time by a great portion of the continental press. in their total ignorance of facts. to correct this error as far as he possesses the means and he trusts that whoever may be disposed to study this period of English history with the special purpose of understanding the true character of Mr. as to have persuaded themselves that it had been rendered ineffectual. ''^ are here laid before him. and may read with some advantage the documents which is his wish.

to save the sinking vessel of European independence. and to place them where times. They are divested of that obscurity which attends diplomatic transactions while in progress. These are but little known and are besides so lost in the great results of succeeding years.MEMOIR. although not then in alliance with either. Among the first and wisest of those efforts. until the great day of their common emancipation. to make peace mth B 4 . Not so the efforts made by England and Russia. an overwhelming necessity prescribed to Austria. by Austria herself. The state of Europe in 1806 — the new combination — upon the breaking out war between Great Britain and France. and may now be understood by any one who will give himself the trouble to examine the public documents within his reach. that it will be a task of some difficulty to revive tlieir remembrance. was the attempt made by the administration recently formed by Lord Grenville and Mr. in her own prudent way. after the disastrous peace of Presburg. have long become matter of history. by the rupture of the Treaty of Amiens the continued subjection of Prussia and Germany to the ascendancy of France. they deserve to stand in the history of our eventful I 'will endeavour to perform this task. Fox. and. together with the line of pohcy of interests which had arisen afresh of the which.

The measured. Great Britain was not in a condition to help them. For the causes. Fox in February 1806. entered upon his administration of foreign To effect them by arms was no easy task. The finances of both those powers were exhausted. MEMOIR. had effectually broken the great chain of association through which alone the friends of continental independence could hope to erect any relied by the recent — — thing like a defensive barrier against her power. more or less intimate. either by subsidies or loans. and the gradual fusion of the German States on the Rhine into the same system. was by this time nearly worn out among them. so often abused by the several powers for the attainment of separate advantages. The connection of Prussia with France. and had lost that support of mutual confidence ^dthout which it never can be brought to act for a common cause. and worse than all the principle of concert and union. and. and the elements of her federative system. had for its basis not merely a settlement between us and France as to our mutual objects and individual interests. generous policy of Great Britain in that attempt. All the military strength of Europe that could be on in a contest with France had been dispersed defeat of the Austrian and Russian armies at Austerlitz. With these purposes in view. The fact of its existence is all that is now necessary to notice. the shattered remnants of Europe. at the same tune. It is not the purpose of this memoir to dwell on the many circumstances which contributed to produce this disunion.8 France. founded on a scheme of partial neutrality incompatible with the existence of the old Germanic empire. but the keeping together and preserving. at almost any cost to ourselves. affairs. Mr. we may . but in some form or other ever subsisting under all the different forms of government which France had given to herself since the peace of Basle.

however. There could be no tie the particular errors of the war. found it full of despatches and other documents. there was nothing to hold an alliance together. of honour in a society for pillage. stiU standino. Some sought of territory at the expense of France some expense of each other. was to be tried. who in deep bitterness of heart has thus laid them open to the common eye " As long as there was any appearance of success." writes Mr. " the spirit of aggrandisespirit of ment. as to its specified objects. notwithstanding the disasters at Austerlitz. Mr. and consequently the mutual jealousy accession at the . mth Aushad been put all an end to by the Treaty of Presburg. how this incurable It will discord among the chief powers repelled every approach towards a scheme for common action among them. The power of of Russia. and when the vicissitude of disaster took its turn. — — was tria. " It would answer no great purpose to enter into The whole has been but one error. on entering his office.MEMOIR."* be seen but too often in the transactions which are here commemorated. 9 consult the profound writings of Mr. the . erect. It was but nominally a war of alliance. Burke in reasoning upon the failure of the : — first war against France. verifying to the fullest extent this gloomy prospect of continental affairs. Something. seized on the coalesced powers. some at the expense of third parties. when fresh vicissitudes of disaster showing themselves in the worst of all shapes that spirit of impending foreign conquest had thoroughly awakened them to a sense of their common danger. Fox. but for * Letters on a Regicide Peace. As the combined powers pursued it. Her last aUiance indeed. Burke. they found common distress a treacherous bond of faith and friendship.

and security. if unhappily the failure of the negosubsisted. " voir venir. in a few years afterwards. which they have now reached in their public life.10 purposes of a still MEMOIR.^'' Building on this rock. might be comprised in the words. menaced by the immediate neighbourhood of a French army. and General Fox accordingly was accredited as minister to the to entrust the Court of Palermo. They were succeeded by the Marquis of Douglas. The situation of Sicily. common "VVe . Petersburg was then filled by Lord Granville Leveson. made it necessary commander-in-chief of our forces in that kingdom with diplomatic authority. was to work out its own way to peace. freedom. give encouragement to. in any defensive scheme of resistance they might be made to go far and to last At the same time they excluded no active measures in advance which the fortune of war might long. of the Two Sicilies ciation for peace should render the continuance of war inevitable. and his only means. The embassy at St. Stuart men Avho were then laying the foundation for the high character and rank . cause her alliance with England had an alliance too with the king and we were on friendly terms with Austria. for protecting the Continent from the arms of France. they patiently waited the sure result of a policy through which. Europe. and in his absence its duties were discharged by Mr. and without ostentatiously aiming at successes out of their reach. The whole system of the new two ministry. The nature and extent of these means clearly pointed out the use of them. Fox's means. We were on such terms mth Sweden as to render it fit that we should stipulate for her interests as an . Here were Mr. with resources preserved and with energy restored. and in spite of all intervening obstacles and disasters. Powerless for aggression or for the recovery of lost ground. therefore.

In this narrative. There was nothing in his office on which to ground any. how far he would avail himself of his belligerent rights. Baron Jacobi. in which he had given an account. Jackson continued pacity at Berlin. The Prussian envoy. and the failure of the last campaign. Fox.MEMOIE. — . and yours. on asking for instructions. and chiefly so when the occupation of Germany by the French armies deprived me of all means of communifrom his high sense of honour and thought himself bound to offer it. Go to Vienna. and on was appointed to succeed him. in consequence of the publication of one of his despatches. to determine in the then situation of his continental interests. or rather resignation. if 11 we did not admit her into the general nego- ciation for peace. remained still in in a state of for King of England and it remained London. I Our envoy at Vienna was believe that I should not abuse the confidence ex- pressed in the remarkable words with which. R. A. that if divulged * Sir Arthur's resignation arose deUcacy. necessarily most confidential. He must obviously lessen his efficiency with them in treating of other concerns. Fox himself had no intention of removing Sir Arthur Paget. He had the highest opinion of his ability. in a manner. ally. Mr. The occupation of Hanover was an act of aggression which placed the war with that power His Majesty. he dismissed me: none to give you." — "I have my send me These words were my guide in many transactions which occurred during my residence there. it was not possible to avoid mentioning names and proceedings of distinguished persons. Long habits of indulgent regard (it could be nothing else) had led him probably to Sir his recal. and in one respect hostile. as it was his duty to do.* I had no regular instructions from Mr. Our relations with Prussia at this period were doubtful. and Mr. of the causes which led to the capitulation of Ulm. however. and told me. guided by considerations of prudence alone. in the same ca- Arthur Paget. when I took leave of him. that he had found no better despatches in his office than his.

— 12 MEMOIR. but they were not sufficient to authorise foreseen. " To observe that it is very doubtful whether Russia will give up the mouths of the Cattaro. If she apprehends an approaching war in the south-west parts of the Ottoman Empire. that they can expect no safety unless the war be begun and managed mth the perfect concurrence of the generals. she should give up a place which she considers to be of such value. and especially the . me to act with decision in cases easily to be it when would be out of my orders from thence. such a concession from Russia is scarcely to be expected. and to advise her to make up her mind speedily. or even for that of the general advantage of Europe. At all events. to what she will do in such a contingency. necessary for the Cabinet of Vienna to make up her mind. and Great Britain. let not a danger. it is still to be feared that Bonaparte will take some other pretence On this supposition for quarrelling with Austria. it is unawares. come upon her also. which may go to her very existence. " To suggest to her the possibility of her not being able to avoid it by any concession whatever. in kindness to Austria. all occasions the most perfect good- with regard to any apprehensions she may entertain of our getting her into a scrape for the purposes of Russia and to tranquillise her perfectly. is war. eating with England . But even if. She cannot wish to avoid war more than we wish she should. how is Vienna to be defended? or defended at all? can it be " To admonish them (without however taking any " If there tone of superiority). for On my to. pressing power to await hun therefore some specification of the points he particularly wished me to attend he wrote them down as follows: " To express on will to Austria.

without reserve the whole course of policy intended I told him to be pursued by the new Government. by means of subsidies. and my immefirst confidential conference with his minister In this interview I laid open to him diately followed. perfectly secret any good understanding that may exist between us." After this nothing of importance occurred. we determined to assist her in a deinjuries and I did not neglect to repeat to him My. " that Austria did not appear sufficiently aware of her danger. for the delivery of my credentials. and that there ought to be no diiference of opinion among the members of the Those who do not concur with the leading power ought to quit. if she should feel herself in real danger from fresh exactions and were not the fensive less on the part of France. persuading or forcing explicitly that the system of foreign powers." putting this paper into my hands. in my first conference with him. Mr. " If there should be any means of preserving peace. to enter into wars against their own conception of their interests. and confine our intercourse (except when opportunity offers of secret and confidential communication) to that of mutual respect and civility. and effectually renounced it . 13 Arch-Duke Charles. until by war . Razamouski be still at Vienna. My first audience of the Emperor was on the 18th On June 1806. particularly ^vith reference to the present situation of Austria.JIEMOIR. . and show him every proof of entire " If confidence. to cultivate his friendship. was now but that at the same time. we wiU favour that design by keeping most Cabinet. if ever had been acted upon by England. The generals ought aU to act imder the Arch-Duke. that it appeared to our Cabinet that Austria was not sufiiciently aware of her danger. Fox's last words to me. and to be such as he approves. Fox further told me to observe to Count Stadion.

lay in the success of a negociation which would render . the date of Lord Yarmouth's return to Paris. she could not be indifferent as to the terms of such a pacification. the peace general throughout Europe. One of the chief advantages which presented itself to Austria of making a peace on this basis was the Ill preservation of Sicily to the king of Naples. and that a Russian plenipotentiary was expected there to take part in them. it was her wish as well as her interest to maintain it and she could not but be aware that her best hope of doing so and of escaping from fresh exactions under pretext of a renewal of hostilities between France and Russia. it appeared that the negociations for peace which had hitherto * been confined to unofficial communications. she watched them with the most intense anxiety and when the principle of negociation on the basis of the uti possidetis announced in M. On the other hand.14 MEMOIR. — — . de Talleyrand's first confidential communication to Mr. the date of Monsieur de Talleyrand's first letter to until June l6th. This was an anxious moment for Austria. comprehending all the belligerents. however. and next for she could hope for nothing better that the territorial condition of Europe should remain as it was. Fox. was acceded first. that Court itself misled by the most erroneous accounts Mr. * From March 5th. by England. She would naturally be anxious. Hard as were the terms of the peace which she had just concluded at Presburg. . Fox. opened regularly between Great Britain and France. that might enable her to influence the negociations. Taking no jDart herself. Austria joined cordially in the common wish and hope that a treaty ujDon that basis. might speedily be brought to to a conclusion. were about to be accounts received from Paris. that in principle the peace might be one in which all the belligerents should concur by a common act. in- formed by his correspondents at the Court of Palermo.

Of the extent nications to is my of M.* This was the situation of affairs when Monsieur we might . or even that he had powers to do treaty. He stayed there only to communicate his mission to Count Razamoffsky and myself. and on the 23d of June co-operate with proceeded on his journey. His communications to me were very scanty. d'Oubril's confidential commuCount Razamofl:sky 1 am ignorant. and agree to propose to his Sicilian Majesty some compensation for that island but on my repeated assurances that there was no intention on our part of listening to any proposal of that nature. I succeeded in removing his suspicions. 15 from its minister at London. fit whom the British Ca- binet did not think to admit into their confidence. but it firm behef that he did not inform the Count either of his intention to sign a separate treaty with so. * we received the There had been some conversation on this point at Paris. Count Stadion had entertained some doubts whether not give way on this essential point. Fox's real opinions on the subject of Hanover. who had been invested with the same character on the part of England.MEMOIR. — Annual Register for 1806. d'Oubril. consult the diplomatic correspondence laid before parliament. In a few days after his departure. arrived at Vienna on his way to Paris. which amply noticed in other parts of this Memoir. and whether he was determined to make its restoration to His Majesty a sine qua non of any France. For the way in which the proposal was received by the English government. the Russian Plenipotentiary appointed to Lord Yarmouth. on the rupture of the will be negociations. But he did not fail anxiously to inquire of me what were Mr. scarcely more than the fact of his mission for the ostensible purpose of an exchange of prisoners. and of his orders to listen to any overtures which might be made for peace. .

M. and to the other for not telHng me what he might have thought it his duty to conceal from the ambassador of his own Court think it right to pubhsh full extracts from my desMonsieur d'Oubril patches relative to this subject. et auoc frais de la Couronne. : avec permission de as follow — la censure. notre conseiller d'etat. d'Oubril one for not deceiving me. a I'effet d'atteindre ce but. In this place. et autorisons par les presentes. nous avons juge bon de commettre ce soin a une personne jouissant de notre confiance. " Portant constamraent du calme fin a la notre solicitude a la conservation en Europe et de la tranquillite. ceeding his powers.* * titled. Erapereur et Autocrate de toutes les Russies. From the tenor of these is clear that in signing a separate treaty. as the serious business of my mission is about to commence. D'Oubril. et signer " Proraettans sur notre parole Imperiale d'avoir pour bon et d'ex- . compilation puhliee a St. A cet efFet nous avons choisi. and as ex- — — . d'Oubril did not at least exceed his commission. I. Petershourg. de Sainte Anne de la seconde. and in order to do full justice to the both to Count RazamofFsky and M. comme nous le choississons. &c." They are " Nous Alexandre &c. nommons. et etant mu par un desir sincere de mettre mesintelligence et de retablir la bonne harmonie avec la France sur des bases solides. en" Les Ephemerides Russes.I 16 MEMOIR. astonishing news of his having signed a treaty with France for a separate peace. et de Saint Jean de Jerusalem. and the found among the State it translation of which will be Papers of 1806. printed in the Annual Register for that year. comme a la pre'parer entre les autres puissances belligerantes de I'Europe. These instructions are given under the authority of a work. de conclure avec eux un acte ou convention sur des bases propres a afFermir la paix qui sera etablie entre la Russie et la France. I Avill now repair that error by reprinting the text of those powers as they were published ten years afterwards by authority. d'entrer en pourparlers avec celui et ceux qui y seront et autorise notre et fe'al Pierre nomme. et Chevalier des ordres de Saint Wladimir de la troisieme classe. aime suffisamment autorises de la part du Gouvernement Francois. for if on Count shall have no reason to complain Razamoffsky's authority I represented him at the time as acting in opposition to his instructions.

of Presburg. and on the 21st Lord Yarmouth presented his full powers for entering into a negociation on the part of England. " (Signe) " (Contre-signe) See Alexandre. were signs of danger serious enough — enough 1 — to perplex the councils of Austria in the precarious state of her own relations with France. of And here began my first whom I never can speak without the highest respect honour and frankness.MEMOIR. and which had a balance for his . by the Russian and French plenipotentiaries. Prince " Pieces 481. de meme et-i terme auquel elle aura ete arrete et signe par iiotre dit de donner notre ratification Imperiale dans le promise. the common cause these. and particularly with reference to the principle on which they meant to conduct the negociation with France. p. 17 The treaty was signed on the 20th July. policy adopted foreign of the course conversation on by our new ministry. It were needless to describe the effect produced at Vienna when these two events came to be known there to say that the surprise and consternation were o:eneral. nor without lasting Except gratitude for his kindness towards myself. ecuter fidelement tout ce qui aura Plenipotentiaire. Justificatives/' in the Memoires Adam Czartorysky.* I had assured him that they never would depart from the old English rule which from the earliest times had governed the system of our continental alliances. and not and England following her example without reason. justice has rarely been done to him otherwise than for his personal qualities but in European history he will be remembered as one of those statesmen to whose temper and sagacity Austria owes. Russia desertino. C . vol. her restoration to her present state It happened that in a of independence and stability." d'ltn Homme d'Etat. ix. after the peace and only difference with that excellent minister Count Stadion. at Vienna. in no small degree.

namely. It had been interrupted. which he did a few days after this conversation. matters as pertained to our several interests. I could venture positively to assure him that. it was not intended to be made the subject even of negociation that in fact there would be no negociation at all unless France as a preliminary renounced her demand of Sicily. I had what they were it common With regard to specific con- not in my . I had no right to be surprised at perceiving some coldness on the part of the minister when he communicated the fact to me. poAver to particularise but on one point. by acknowledging in express terms our unlimited . as well as individual. Fox. that Mr. because France had refused to admit Russia into it as our ally. separately such right of intervention and guarantee then. had consented to a form which admitted of discussing. and that although we had no prospect for the present of making that balance as even in the scale as might be wished. mouth would produce his powers. so far from consenting to its surrender. as he knew. still we should never make a peace that did not provide a foundation for one.8 1 jfEMom. on consultation with Russia. for it was on the acceptance of that condition alone. and returned to her first proposal of the uti jyossidetis . In confirmation of this assurance. ditions. and that it was and then only. . de Talleyrand's first overture in March until May. After so distinct an assurance. of the presentation of his full powers by Lord Yarmouth . the cession of Sicily to France. that Lord Yarlikely to be . leaving it to time and events to bring it to something like an equipoise. but only of discussing. I referred him to the cause which had occasioned the suspension of the prehminary correspondence from the time of M. its of power for object. on the old pretension of excluding us from continental connections nor had it been resumed until she had given way on that vital point.

or some pressing ne- have occasioned such a step on the part of our negociator and that. d'Oubril could have well folded up his treaty. before M. that from the beginning to the end the French negociators never advanced a single step towards their object of acquiring Sicily. I ventured to assure him that either some great mistake. place Sicily among the objects to be treated for it but on the other hand as will be no less clear on referring. It was soon known that to produce his full powers on the instant. to the correspondence. and in either case my credit with him must But this awkward state necessarily be diminished. that on this latter point. Lord Yarmouth had indeed given way. or to quit Paris in twenty-four hours. was the alternative offered to Lord Yarmouth. by the introduction of fresh matter for dispute without the remotest prosj)ect of attaining her end. or had been deceived myself. I had either deceived him. nor even so far as to obtain an estimation of its value from the British plenipotentiary c 2 . after all. In the full certainty therefore of what they would contain on this head. 19 without his having obtained this previous renunciation. In all that I had anticipated on this subject the event fully bore me out. At first sight it seemed to be clear. France would gain nothing by it but the insignificant advantage of being enabled to perplex cessity. Placed in so new and difficult a situation. and unwilling to take upon himself the responsibility of an absolute rupture. we shall shortly do. the conferences at her pleasure. and by so doing had admitted that he was actually refused ready officially to discuss the pretension of France to .MEMOIR. the French government having fresh instructions him the short delay necessary to get upon it from his own government. of our incipient diplomatic relations was sure to cease on the receipt of my next despatches from London. must have occurred at Paris to .

to clear the way for rightly understanding the steadiness and the unity of our policy at this period until Napoleon. it will be necessary to go somewhat at length into the history of these Paris negociations with respect to which. faihng to separate us from the Continent by his diplomacy. what might constitute an equivalent for it. whole matter to the bottom. But in order prevailed.20 in considering MEMOIR. and to the true causes of their rupture. much mis-statement has been hazarded. . and much error has this . and to reinstate me consequently in the confidence of the Austrian to sift minister. effected it for a time by his arms. It is needless to say that my very first despatches from London were of a nature fully to relieve the British government from all suspicion of a vacillating policy on this important occasion.

and. they had gone beyond the lawful means of defence Avhich every country is justified in employing against its adversaries. or as her c 3 . it The facts are as be necessary to enter. them. and thus put themselves into a state of hostility towards every community. passed the celebrated They deleaders went further. long series of vices and errors had existed follow The country called for in the government of France. soon took out of their hands. for their part. and by what gradations will not : we got into it. and we must 1 look back to the war Avith France. whether archical settled mon- or republican. in 793. In order thorouglily to understand the circumstances which led to the negociations the reason of their failure. cree of fraternity. other leaders with factions far different views. If the first movers in the rea remedy to volution looked. It could not be so. that was living under a government. holding out to the people of all other countries who might choose to imitate their example In doing this the promise of assistance and support. no further than so to limit the monarchy as to obtain through new institu- —A tions security against the return of the public evils. whether considered as an example in government. instead of These new reforming the monarchy. Into the causes of that war. A revolution so made and so sustained could not be matter of indifference to the neighbours of France. in 1806. especially to England.21 CAUSES OF THE COMMENCEMENT AND RUPTURE OF THE FOR PEACE IN 1806 BETWEEN NEGOCIATIONS ENGLAND AND FRANCE. Europe took the alarm. subverted it. first for peace. and other formed on it the direction of far different principles.

The was how to deal with it. question. which. if France should give just cause for hostility on other grounds. for us. First. together mth his acts. Burke. — The most distinguished leaders of the public opinion were Mr. nor. therefore. towards the conquest of the world. The views of Mr. observing a wary and mistrustful neutrality towards her. throw no obstacles in the way of her internal at that time Now. must appear before the same tribunal. . has set forth his own in a manner sufficiently explicit to be left as they stand for the judgment of after times. . Burke was Mr. Secondly. there was a choice as to our mode of proceeding. and force her back on her old monarchy. world. in his letter to his constituents of December. we may consult his writings and Mr. For the views of Mr. if forced into one. but friendly in our neutrality. we might make war upon France. and wait for events. Mr. reforms. and before any act of direct aggression had been committed on either side. and Mr. Fox for the last. He would neither enter into war for the old monarchy. Burke. and his reasoning upon them. The comparative prudence of these difi'erent courses it were useless now to discuss all that is required is to point out clearly the opposition of sentiment which prevailed amongst the great leaders of the state. 1793. Pitt. we might keep aloof. Of these . Thirdly. in this case. and above all. The minister took the middle course. for the first modes of proceeding. we might leave her alone be neutral. Mr. . Fox. Fox. . Pitt. continue it until its restoration but he was willing enough to oppose the revolution by arms. to be judged by those rules of historical justice to which all men are amenable whose hands have wielded the destinies of the three .22 first step IMEMOIR. But the diversity of opinion amongst these eminent as materially men led to other differences.

Fox. . some of them connected with him by the strongest ties of affection and confidence from the earliest days of his life. it was seen and proved on both sides in the separation which then took place among the Whigs. c 4 After among much . but thought both of these dangerous to the country and the government and in their minds it was no small aggravation of the danger that he was insensible to the view which they took of it themselves. They dissented not only from the course he proposed. be but one remedy their cause. . but the extinction of Such was the state of political sentiment the leaders when the war broke out. nor even one in which private friendship could follow its impulses in the search of motives for mutual agree. and inaccessible to their remonstrances. Fox was witnessed by an and if the feeling was not. aifecting the public measures. It may not be superfluous to add. that if ever there was virtue in politics. from all participation mth him in political counsels for with them this was no case for compromise. allowance must be made for those sterner modes of thinking which made its repression appear To differences of such a nature there could a duty. Taking the obvious line under such circumstances. not time. reciprocal. . severe. and a in this narrative decisive. if not a difficult trial. in its demonstration. and the opinions by which he recommended it. as mere factious combination to drive a minister from his place. they withdrew Many friends of Mr.MEMOIR. and the less so. . 23 must not be overlooked they aiford a although in this instance a painful proof of the soundness of the distinction between a party acting together for national objects and ends. differed from him as to the nature and character of the impending crisis. ment. But that virtue was put to a The deep agony of Parliament assembled Mr.

porters. a virtuous and able man. saw the necessity of removing every obstacle in the Avay of peace which belonged to mere questions of government. For the military events. Whether this was the first agwhether. and jmrtaking hunself by the proceedings of the dominant factions in France. The war had not lasted long before ill-success began somewhat to sour many of its popular sup- Under the impatience of disappointment they began to inquire into its object. on the other hand. we must consult the public annals. which seemed to them not sufficiently clear. however. towards either of the great parties under whose opposite banners the people of England had ranged themselves. and for the political changes in the conduct of foreign powers which occurred from this time until the peace of Amiens. Mr. to receive M. Wilberforce. an act of positive aggression was committed on the part of France by the infraction of a treaty to which England was a guaranteeing party. — — wholly beside the purpose of the present work. brought on an immediate rupture. mutual manifestation of ill-feeling. wholly to disconnect the intervening transactions from the opinions and counsels adopted by them at the first breaking out of the revolution. and not to in all the horror excited . the refusal gression.24 MEMOIE. It will not be acting justly. and to urge that it should be explicitly and intelligibly declared. de Chauvelin's credentials from the new government did not constitute such an act of hostility as to justify France in considering herseK to be placed is a question of public law in a state of war by us. varying through every form of success and of defeat. aggravated by the decree of fraternity already mentioned. It is enough that this act of aggression. at the head of the two most powerful sects of England in alliance with the church and the state.

on the 28th of the ensuing month. and. although itself emanating from insurrection. soon cleared his with the Repubhc porters . and admitting that a government." ' Opposed to this amendment as to the exact time. Mr. Wilberforce this question of the carried two vital points in French war. therefore. practical 25 security. The restoration of the French monarchy.MEMOIR. Grey's motion that the existence of the then govetmrnent of France ' ought not to he considered as precluding at this time a negociation for 'peace^'' brought forward a declaration in the shape of an amendment to that motion. His proposal (after the usual assurances of support against the enemy) was " to represent to His Majesty that the time was come when it would be advisable and expedient to endeavour to restore the blessings of peace. might yet be capable of maintaining such and practice. but to reconcile to it all dissentients who in the main itself. but agreeing in the substance of it. Burke. way to a direct negociation while his high-principled supin consenting to one." Thus Mr. likely enough to encourage insurrection in other states. under whatever form^ in France which should be capable of maintaining the relations of peace and amity. Pitt. 1794. so saw no inconsistency that the question remained open with regard to the . Pitt. having been disclaimed by the leaders of every section of opinion except Mr. he thought it might be practicable not only to open a door for peace. Mr. " that he was ready to treat for peace with any government. relations. whether as a cause or an object of war. both as to principle disavowing all extreme doctrines. aojreed in the justice this and necessity of the war With view he moved an amendment to the address to the CroAvn. on Mr. on the opening of the session of December.

and taught him . considering the temper which then prevailed on both sides. set Addington. Amiens in 1802. Two negociations were. the other in 1797. extent and nature of the security to be demanded. who immediately negociation. Wilberforce. when Mr. world was not yet ready for peace nor is it to be wondered at that tliese attempts failed. that neither the peace so much desired by Mr. of course. we may consult Mr. could be obtained otherwise than through a regular negociation with persons in actual possession of authority in France. nor the security required against a revolutionary government. and that he hunself was to be the judge of it. such as it was. Roman Catholics of Ireland. For much of their character. but he never arrived at its execution. no matter how they came by it. entered into." But the heartily concurred. making allowance for his particular view of this great subject. He accepted them not only as wise and just in themselves. and every where within her reach. policy favourable to the resigned his office. He was succeeded by Mr. but as affirming his original proposition. concluded at was any thing but a security for peace. In these advances towards peace Mr. on foot a third More successful than his predecessor. Matters went on thus until the year 1800. Burke's two celebrated " Letters on a Regicide Peace. alarmed him for the state in w^hich Europe had been left under its stipulations.26 MEMOIR. were such as to separate those supporters of . the one in 1796. Not but that he was hunself willing enough to execute it if France would have sat down quietly with what she had gained but her never-ceasing exactions and usurpations in Piedmont. Pitt. who had failed also in an endeavour to obtain the consent of the Crown to a measure of home . Fox. that his treaty The conditions of that treaty. he got as far as a treaty. in Switzerland. therefore.

Addington could not make head. the minister was fairly bullied out of the one he had just concluded. that opinion of insecurity. from those who required from a revolutionary government a greater degree of security than they would have demanded from a In the Upper House. Grenville. although supported in his measure both by Mr. for reasons which. by the charges of timidity and incapacity showering down upon him The without mercy from almost every quarter. William Elliot. but opposed by him and by the chief leading powers of the House of Commons as a minister representing the mere will of the Crown. Pitt and Mr. a real wish for peace.MEMOIR. consequences were natural enough in such a case. Fox so far as his treaty required it. Lord restored monarchy. Windham. and the heavy pressure of taxation. Mr. doubtfully supported by Mr. Pitt. and Mr. Fox. or rather to revive. Attacked for his weakness. tlie 27 to be as war who thought them on the whole favourable as could be obtained in the relative situation of the two countries. Thomas Grenville. was displayed in yielding to it. This was very much owing to the inherent weakness of his government. Addington seemed to think that the best defence for his ministry would be some demonstration of vigour. and fell back . well and honestly by Mr. soon began to make a serious impression on the public mind. Mr. declared their dissent from them. and in the Commons. to the quick by the never-ceasing imputations of incapacity. . Mr. which should shame the world out of its accusation but his vigour. Addington retreated from a ground he could no longer hold. although ill supported by numbers. Against this revulsion of the pubhc sentiment Mr. it may be said. which had not nerve enough to With stand by their treaty after they had made it. instead Stung of braving. Mr. the sense of which had been suspended by the hopelessness of success.

that the necessity of such a ministry was understood and felt by no man more than by Mr. while Mr. Into the causes which at this time defeated the project of the formation of a ministry on an extensive and which was to comprise Mr. Pitt. Pitt himself. The new ministry lived therefore. had in this crisis of public difficulty rejoined . the non-execution of the treaty of Amiens was popular enough. Enough to say.28 MEMOIK. war-spirit of the country. and he had recommended it accordingly to his sovereign. Fox. thus got together credit of his by Mr. and Mr. upon the short revive under his pacific experiment. after Ac- some close divisions in the Commons. he gave in his resignation in and Mr. Lord Grenville. Fox disappointed both his and the public wishes. happily. Pitt resumed the administration. Pitt. Addington recovered all that he had lost by having made it . As a measure indeed. cordingly. and he found himself compelled to form a government out of the scanty materials which lay ready for of his former colleagues Lord to his hand Grenville declined to come into office with him. but the great interests of England and of the world were not again to be hazarded under his guidance. 1804. feverish which seemed to Thus after a interval hostile habits. But the state of parties by this time had become such as to render a change of ministry inevitable. House of May. it is not meant to enter at large. that monarch's personal prejudices against Mr. and breathed on the . who had separated from him on account of their differences at the beginning of the first war. and other distinguished men. Fox's old Wliig friends. taking we relapsed into our old our chance as before for what might happen. name alone. and thus to sanction an exclusion for which no wise or constitutional reason could be alleged. him. Unbasis. Mr.

and to encourage a fresh effort on the part of some of the Continental powers. it is supposed. and which from the hour that a treaty of peace had been signed at Amiens with the one and indivisible republic left no longer an object to those chivalrous spirits who had drawn their swords for the old monarchy of France. A short and disastrous campaign de- stroyed and dispersed almost all the remaining means of defence for the Continent. Fox. statesman of English country called for it. profitable no party. and strong in the public confidence. was great enough to infuse spirit into the new war. could be had on terms of portance of peace. including Mr. treaties were entered into with Russia and Austria for no less an object than the entire liberation of Europe. 29 That name. therefore. he consented to the formation of a ministry. and although they made no progress at Berlin. Of this union an honest endeavour to make peace The with France was one of the leading measures. to the im•"•^ji '«S:.. at the the all moment head of which was Lord Grenville. Under his auspices explanations were sought. and hurried. Lord Grenville and Mr. to his called grave the celebrated into the field.MEMOIR. if safety to Europe. however. and the reduction of the power of France to bounds which might render it possible to live at peace with her. it Alive. Fox from the day of their entering upon ofiice held themselves ready to renew . The result of this confederacy was like that of the former ones. Every any note felt that the time was come for putting an to end to the miseries of a protracted struggle. — combination of factions in resistance to the national voice to be impossible. man who had Even the will them once more of George the Third bent beneath this mighty loss a loss carrying with it the overthrow of his own dearest plans of internal government and finding for .

terests as a foundation for the construction of a truly national and parliamentary government. therefore. which. that peace. had been restored. conduct. — . Pitt's death mth . with the exception of some names It able as much to be regretted. as already noticed. was the only object of that great union of parties which. of a negociation for peace France was a necessary consequence of the estabhshment of such a ministry in England not. was likely to arise with regard to internal affairs and at the epoch at which we are now arrived. formed the chief ground of support with one of the parties. in the old one. the experiment which all preceding administrations had hitherto failed to bring to a successful issue. — . suspended during that war other. in many of its important articles. by which republican France was admitted into fraternity with the lawful sovereigns of Europe. . The great questions which divide and distract us in the present day were but dimly visible in the distance. desirit was. had divested the new war of that pecuhar character. and of opposition with the The constitution. The opening. therefore. No difference. led to the formation of the new government.30 MEMOIR. however. as it has been pretended by uninformed foreign writers and orators. must not be supposed. there existed no impediment to the fullest and most complete fusion of all party in- arising from the renewal of the war. that an entire and fundamental change in our national policy had been brought about by but it was precisely the reverse Mr. sity of A general sense of the public difficulties and the necesmeeting them with all the available resources of the country. had produced in the minds of our leading statesmen the effect which they ever will produce among men who deserve that name the oblivion of all differences which are not of a nature to affect the fundamental principles of their pubhc The treaty of Amiens.

and not a few of his friends. it will be but just to discard from it all imputation of deliberate insincerity on the part of Napoleon.RfEMOIR. however. as they thought in their wisdom. and the construction of the new ministry. not so much for its own sake. every thing seemed to lean it soon became aptowards a pacific termination. from the impression he was then under as to his character and political views. — — * See Lord Dudley's Letters. as we have already seen. and in the really altered tone of our mutual intercourse. From what has been said in the introductory chapter to this work. the question of difficulties had only changed hands and while in appearance every thing both as to public opinion in England. and who sought for peace. seemed as favourable to peace as while in the warm even France herself could desire. through the prevalence of which they must inevitably be destroyed. de Talleyrand. or for any good he might hope for ultimately to the world from the change which referable to considerations of a personal . most of them Unhappily. That cause was Napoleon himself. it is clear that he might well have fallen into an error with regard to the minister with whom he was about to negociate. flattering all these hopes there parent that under lurked an incurable cause of failure. professions both of Napoleon and of his minister M. the enemies of that statesman. Before I proceed to develop this cause. To give him this impression. an ''esoteric doctrine" in his politics*. . had alike contributed. Having detected. were removed by that event. 31 that many practical difficulties in the way of peace. who not finding in his own country the place due to his pretensions and his powers. his enemies had for years been representing him as an ambitious and disappointed man. nature. had identified himself with the French cause.

made by France . It was too much. Fox's early admiration of the efforts and on the other. had the habit of considering themselves as speaking his sentiments. on no better authority than the inspirations of their own zeal. in stood him better. under any of her new governments.the through the influence of which he was to obtain elevation for himself On the other hand. the first and promising days of the mighty change which had just been effected.32 MEMOIR. Mr. had been effected in its social condition. as to render her more just and pacific in her dealings "with other states. and so far consequently to enable him to relax in some degree from his old system of mistrust and jealousy of her preponderance. perhaps. as for the means it would afford of securino.and fixino. Fox looked to it as an event which by the formation of a government responsible to public opinion might operate such a fundamental alteration in the foreign policy of France. to questions of political conduct involving such mighty interests as those we were then contending for. had performed the fair promise of her outset. in the hurry of his tempestuous career. theories. many eager friends who. to give herself free institutions. acquired admiration of the to say the least of new it. But of all men Napoleon surely must have been the last to pretend that France. Napoleon should ever have stopped to weigh in his o^vn mind. he would have undertwo countries. the conduct which it would become his duty as an Englishman to hold whenever in the course of events he might have to treat with a French government on the adverse interests of the If he had. helped not a little to countenance that preposterous belief by a boundless destinies of a revolution. He would have seen that. on the one hand. and by a vehemence of language in regard to foreign monarchies ill-suited. to expect that. Mr.

that any negociation with himself. therefore. or to persuade himself that in 1806 as to inspire the 38 it had been such hope of more moderation in his own. had. de Yergennes in those of 1782 deservedly characterised as " un fagot d^epmes. and he might have expected in the conferences of 1806 to meet the same man whom M. that his accession to power. something fication of the treaty of Fox on his D . in many quarters where he was not known.^' But these reflections never appear to have occurred to him. journey to Paris. Amiens.MEMOIR. Fox should have the conduct. would be followed by a peace most favourable to France as to terms. The pains taken in parliament. to fix a jacobin taint on Mr. To this fact I can offer personal testimony. Fox which would not be a positively disgraceful one to England. questions Mr. I accompanied Mr. of which Mr. I had then an opportunity of conversing with many of the leading men of the day. after the raticountries. and lead to a strict alliance and incorporating union with her. It is but fair to say that Napoleon was not singular in this opinion. He might have been aware. among In France. and yielding possibly to that false way of estimating human is actions and motives the habit of which said to have been he gave in to the common error. They had been eminently so in foreign his Aveaknesses. Fox's public character. whenever it should happen. So far back as the year 1802. the belief that in all public Fox was on their side. prevailed almost universally. been successful. and by a very unscrupulous use of the pubKc press. and be carried on at arm's length between the parties. would necessarily follow the old plan and habits of such transactions. and persuaded himself that he should get almost any treaty from Mr. Spoilt by his successes. and amongst almost all of them I found the belief prevalent.

And here was the foundation of the grand error. to ferent story. It has pleased a French author. Fox. which. on the part of Mr. that Napoleon considered them to bear. a character of frankness and sincerity. therefore. although time of their utterance . adding. and that the treaty In this version off in consequence of it. Napoleon followed by his hisof his who adds some remarks own on what * That Napoleon had himself given into such fancies. adverse to his pacific intentions. who informs us that he was commissioned by Napoleon to write the diplomatic history of France. ensuing negociations. A. compact " Avith Spain. but that they assumed a diiFerent character on his that. the ascendancy in the death British Cabinet passed into the hands of a party . tell the world a dif- In a very elaborate account of the above negociations. Fox at the — head of it. he tells us. which gave them in the beginning every prospect of success. which so shortly after their commencement was to prove fatal to the . and of the great Western family which was to give peace to the world. at the regard to the great Western family standing near Mr. I suppose. Fox. and fairly enough so far. . on his presentation at the Thuilleries. is of the transaction. in the full belief that he should hear nothing from him about the balance of power.* It is not. and such like " old saws " nor of any claims founded on what it was the fashion to call the antiquated and exploded system of international confederacies. may be presumed from his words to Mr. was broken torian. Fox. Napoleon should enter upon a negociation with Mr. with " and himself." R. but he told me the purport of them on our return from the Thuilleries. on the presumption of its authenticity. to be wondered at. that when four years afterwards these notions were to be brought to the test. by that event. when in his loose and rambling way he talked to him of the division of Europe into two sects. I shall be obliged to notice at some length. I did not hear the exact words.— 34 like the old " family MEMOIR.

As these matters are closely connected with. and I will " Ce begin mine by adopting his excellent advice." he says. Bignon. qu'il est aujourd'hui possible de connaitre la verity. par • Histoire de France depuis le 18 Brumaire jusqu'a M. and a most accommodating generosity in point of terms." * In support of this statement. although for a different purpose." he tells us in referring to some — disputed points. which we shall consider hereafter. Fox's instructions to me. has entered minutely and critically into the details of that negociation. It may be well to give this author's statement in : his own words — " Ces divergences. p. vol. mais sur les pieces seules des negociations. . my proceedings at Vienna. V. 278. n'est point. I shall enter more fully than it might otherwise be necessary into this gentleman's narrative. paix de D 2 . Bignon. admits to be the official notes and correspondence laid before la TilUit. M." To these documents which M. and assigns. and with the principles on which I acted in executing Mr. until the final rupture of it by the departure of Lord Lauderdale from Paris. for the failure of attempt at peace any and every cause except the true one.MEMOIR. " ces divergences ne deviendront pour la paix des obstacles invincibles qu'au suivit la moment oii la maladie que mort de M. 65 he this calls Lord Lauderdale's uncourteous manner of pressing his demands. and to claim likewise for his government equal sincerity of purpose. together with the nature of the proposals of each party for a reasonable adjustment and he points out the fluctuations which from time to time they underwent. Fox placera dans d'autres mains la direction de la politique Anglaise. Bignon equally Avith myself. I understand. the author. " ce n'est point sur des manifestes.

not only that it is Lauderdale. to redound to the honour of the French diplomatist. and it will appear that Mr. immense importance to the inlittle. and compelled at movements on length to negociate on the principles and terms preAll this is meant scribed to him by his opponents. to be settled on a balance of profit and loss between England and France alone. A word On it or two first mth regard to the character of this negociation. as given to it its gravity and its by M. as to make it easy to substantiate from them the direct reverse of M.oh MEMOIR. by whose superior skill it is insinuated that Mr. from the strong ground he had taken up at the commencement of the discussions. the great European settlement which he meditated was defeated. been rendered hopeless by Napoleon himself. as he pretends. and the whole question reduced to one of individual interest. but that he was ready also to . Believe his statement. the English Parliament at the beginning of the session of 1807. terests of mankind he dwells but He represents rather as a diplomatic fencing match. Fox's firmness was overpowered. Fox was driven. of the scientific by which Mr. it had . not true that the death of Mr. he had attained the moral conviction that peace with Napoleon was at that time hopeless and that whether sincere or not in the first offer. Fox occasioned the rupture of the negociation by its having fallen into other hands. Bignon's narrative. I shall adhere. His whole relation is a self-complacent recital this chess board. Bignon's conclusions on all the material points on which he reasons and . to an agree- ment. but that long before that event. and even before the mission of Lord to prove. Fortunately they are so full and so clear. Fox was not only compelled to renounce his whole system of international union and confederacy. point by point. if possible. than as a serious examination of difficulties with a determin- ation on both sides to come.

and forced in his entrenchments. The object cause of the rupture of the negociation? of M. the proposition he has undertaken to prove with a view of casting the blame of the rupture upon the English ministry. Fox might easily grant him. M. that sovereign of the little that and to join Napoleon in despoiling still remained to him of his dominions. and for the prethan successful termination Bio-non must find out D 3 . de Now Talleyrand had the superiority over Mr. this is an advantage which. Bignon does not seem aware that he gives up in fact a most essential part of it. where was the triumph in forcing him to do so ? The cleverness is not very apparent. his warlike sucIf it be true.MEMOIR. what becomes of this superior skill of the French diplomatist in cajoling him ? If he was so willing to yield. have been ready to come into his terms if he had lived. in the course that pretends. For admitting the above statement to be correct. wish. M. the king of Sicily. Fox resisted to the last. is any credit from excellence in that branch of the art on which he never valued himself. as this author of this negociation Mr. cessor was not likely to resist less. Fox. therefore. but if some other cause for its unhis death. Fox was gradually beaten from his ground. and of which indeed he knew nothing but on the other hand. as to Fox was so well disposed towards Napoleon. 37 discard the only remaining ally of his country. by which we are made to consent to what we Victory can only be gained over resistance Mr. what becomes of the assertion that his death was the enough to be able to spare to an antagonist to be derived . is that Mr. even if the fact were so. Bignon's work. If so. what does it prove ? simply that as to what to be called diplomatic dexterity in the contest M. He was great Mr. In thus stating his case.

This happens more particularly when they write about England and English statesmen. But in transaction. and the higher and before they national objects embraced by them undertake to become historians of transactions over which the power of Great Britain has exercised a decisive influence. is mis- taken from beginning to end. Bignon taken the trouble to consider this. or what they contrive to pick up by their own skill and industry. valence of a more warlike spirit infused. it is true.38 MEMOIR. the success of one of them over the other never leads to a change in the direction of the public force prejudicial to the acknowledged interests of the state itself. as well as his master. into the discussions by his successor. Standing without-side (as one may say) of the great causes of political action. partially communicated to them. No warlike spirit either prevailed or existed at this time in the British And here lies the great fault of the history- makers of the present times. and that in an honourable struggle for the great offices of state. as he affirms. the character thus impressed upon the M. never arrive at a distinct knowledge of the events which they relate. they ought to study the nature of They would then that power and in what it consists. learn that the divisions of our parties constitute one of its main ingredients. Foreigners. they never seem to recollect that in all imWhat is portant concerns there are two parties. it was precisely because that war-spirit which he has conjured . but they ought to understand the diiference between what is merely personal in such quarrels. cabinet. Had M. his acuteness would have enabled him to perceive that if the negociation of 1806 began under more favourable auspices than any which had preceded it. are not bound to enter into the disputes and quarrels of our factions. they Thus they consider to be the whole of the case. . Bignon.

from the opposite view taken by the chiefs of our parties of the necessity of the war in 1793. Yet he might have spared. Fox himself Like the to bring the war to an honourable end. Fox to D 4 . his allusion to visit to Paris. resolved upon by Mr. He cannot mean and he ought not to have insinuated. try for in good The proposal came from France. Bignon. be ready to break forth according to the accidental prevalence in council of one or other of them on a particular point. We country through their names and their character for the faithful execution of their public engagements. and Lord Spencer. Fox's to affirm. Neither was it necessary to refine upon the motives which might induce Mr. that of Lord Grenville and Mr. Bignon concludes. This is to show equal ignorance of English politics in general. or that the attentions paid to him by the First Consul. Fox was a union of national interests for national purtion of the new government. in Mr.MEMOIR. had had the effect of disposing him. were not less anxious than Mr. The formal origin of the negociation is fairly enough stated by M. giving security to the her it fair terms of peace. because up anew on this occasion existed no longer and Lord Grenville. It was a government strong enough either to receive from France or to offer to poses. that in any attempt at peace in which those statesmen might hereafter participate. Fox for the purpose of consulting the despatches of Barillon and D' Avaux for the historical work on which he had for some time been engaged. 1802. without injury to the interests entrusted to his defence. and of the composi- have seen how that government was constructed. Like all Whig administrations. Mr. 39 . Windham. and honest enough to earnest. to favour France in the terms of peace. that the visit in question. four years afterwards. the old difference would ever writers of this class. M.

de Talleyrand's overture of the 2d of March. was if ready. In these dispositions. The peace of Amiens was a transaction simply between England and France. faction Fox received with unfeigned satis- M. necessary. in his place in Parliament. expressing a readiness on the part of France to treat for peace on the basis of that of Amiens. and too to stand first. Holding upon the idle much of ceremony of who a statesman should speak Mr. Pitt's envoy. tenor of his opposition to the war. They were to be found in the whole his hand. he declared himself ready even to Ijecome Mr. upon a negociation as soon as he had the They were simple and ready to to do so. however. in which no continental interests were provided for. de Talleyrand (if they were anything more than a friendly demonstration of the pleasure felt by that statesman at the renewal of an old acquaintance under circumstances which promised apparently to render it useful to the world) might have been reserved for an obstacle more difficult to surmount than reluctance or indifference on the part of Mr. negociate on that basis. positions affectueuses '' (a word descriptive of his ations " of mode induce him to make peace of estimating Napoleon) to and the " adroites insinu. and of the declared matters of complaint. therefore.40 enter MEMOIR. to take the first step hunself. could not Mr. totally out It required no " disby the way not at all of keeping with his character. and to go himself to Paris if that Minister would empower him to treat for a settlement of the existing differences. when he became Minister in 1806. would have been a childless inconsistency. Mr. Fox to enter upon a negociation for it. Fox. M. So anxious had he been from the first to avert that calamity. both of himself and of his colleagues. Not to have met an advance towards peace. It was suit To . these strong opinions. Fox. that in power 1792.

In the mode. In his reply. according to the old practice of European diplomacy. instrument the renewal of former treaties. de Talleyrand brought forward this objection to joint negociation. but nothing to the purpose. inasmuch as Mr. Bignon's statement would lead us to believe in a plain peremptory rejection of this principle by his government ab souffrir. harmony between Great Britain and that power. Petersburgh for a objected." The This is lofty. in which M. however. she was herself carrying on at this time a correspondence at St. " intervention d'une puissance etrangere " was never thought of by Mr. had been omitted. the separate peace. and the statement of it by M. liable also to the 41 apparent objection of positively exa participation in those inin that cluding England from terests. the obtaining from us the practical acknowledgment of our separation from the Continent secondly. Fox required the admission of the allies as an indispensable preliminary." "La France ne voulait pas " he tells us. Fox. cation. Bignon. In the sequel it will appear that she availed herself with some dexterity of her manoeuvres at that court to disturb for a moment. M. I'intervention d'une puissance initio. although not essentially to interrupt. . as thread in the of chicanery which so early began to show itself in the conduct of the negociation on the part of within it we shall discover the first web France. therefore. etrangere. this she : larly as a negociating party — of Russia — France particu- . To the admission of our allies For had two reasons first.MEMOIR. in much official less for a justifiit is any of the French documents. there is the widest possible difference. a difference the more necessary to be here remarked and understood. and except for the^sake of assuming a tone in his work of which it would be in vain to search for an example.

" Let us then do ap. the first dated March In 26th. each of whom is at war with a third for an object common to the two. if possible. much less conclude anything. who was most anxiously desirous of peace.42 MEMOIR. To understand thoroughly will be necessary to read. the first (that of Mr. M. the from official correspondence the 26th of March to the 20th of April. . this important point. in our power to terminate them (the common misfortunes). Fox) the demand of joint treaty is set forth with a precision and clearness charac" England teristic of the man and of the occasion. with an " intervention etrangere. knew full well that the introduction of any such language must put an end at once to all further discussion. and the second April 1st in answer to it. But what says the for the admisit French answer to this demand sion of our allies ? Is there a word in rejecting the principle of joint negociation ? Is there one phrase equivalent to the " la France ne voulait pas souffrir ?" Nothing like it. cannot neglect the interests of any of her allies. singular that he should deliberately persist in confounding a joint negociation of two parties. justified had fully hoped by softened animosities on both and by the many new circumstances in which the two countries then found themselves. and she is united to Russia by such close ties that she would not treat. it and to read attentively. and particularly the two letters of Mr." which from its very terms supposes the interference of a power official indifferent to that object. Fox and M." concludes with the benevolent exhortation. and let us endeavour. but in concert with the Emperor Alexander. de Talleyrand. to reconcile the respective interests and the glory of the two as he sides. indeed. de Talleyrand. but while awaiting the arrival of a Russian plenipotentiary^ some And he of the principal points might be discussed.

indeed. therefore.MEMOIR. as the groundwork on which a peace honourable and " perpetual " might be made between France and England. could not come within the compass of a statesman's care. but for an objection to its application battre la . and may be perpetual. de Talleyrand's reply to this demand of treating in concert with Russia contains not a syllable in refusal For what are his words ? " The Emperor of it. wants nothing that England possesses. It consists only of the four articles above stated. de Talleyrand goes on propounding a number pour of plausible generalities (on which he insists with still more importunity in a subsequent despatch) campagne as it would appear. Here was the alpha and omega of this vast transaction . After having stated them as fixed and indispensable articles. it does not contain the whole of the Minister's despatch. and prepare us. This is To cramp her commercial rights To offer any insult to her flag. Fox's principle. Here is all that Mr. " 4thly. provided " 1st. is the whole of what was to he done. that although the above enumeration contains the whole of the French conditions. or principle of joint negociation. appears in this despatch. according to the proposal contained in the letter he is answering. Peace with France is possible. M. " 2dly. not for a frank and vigorous rejection of Mr. attempt is made to restrain her in the regulation of her Custom House duties or . There be no interference in her internal affairs and that . from first to last. a greater than which. It is true. No " 3dly. Fox was required to consent to do." all: not a word in rejection of the ." M. Here. to be expanded of course hereafter into the details necessary to give them their effect. or one more pregnant with happiness to mankind. 43 countries with the tranquillity of Europe and the happiness of the human race.

under the circumstances an objection grounded. 44 MEMom. anything like Russia. on an evident and perhaps intended confusion between participation and mediation. insists again on treating only proto visionally until Russia could take part in the negoci- On this M. was at peace with France at the commence- ment of the war with England. as we have already seen. tion of these four With the excepconsists of his despatch observations more or less astute and ingenious. all of them tending no doubt to persuade Mr. . that Russia was no ally of hers. M. however. if not at actual peace with France. but not one of them necessary to be agreed to. Fox instantly and satisfactorily to the four conditions of France. have broken off all further intercourse between them. Russia became by that act. Fox's demand on the contrary. he accompanied answer at once with a passport for a negociator. de Talleyrand took effectual care (and in this consists the whole of . During that war. Fox to fall in with the writer's views. represented that England totally misunderstood her real position . we were told for our in- formation. Of all this M. she had entered into a coalition with Austria but Austria having made her separate peace. that without waiting to see the effect either of his objection or of his arguments. of no greater cogency indeed than his former ones but for the It was refinement of some of them amusing enough. his The lure of a passport. before opening the regular conferences. de Talleyrand returns . the charge with another set of arguments. de Talleyrand was himself so thoroughly aware. but in the terms of his former letter ation. his dexterity) to avoid putting it in such a shape as to elicit a reply which must points. Such an objection was no answer to Mr. replies did not take. or requiring even to be discussed. nor it. yet in such a state of relationship towards .. Mr. indeed.

And at this point. question thus to an "ay" or a "no. the question remained between them from the 20th of April to the 20th of July. He replies there- two ? lines.MEMOIR. " Russia We Will you negociate conjointly with answer. Let us now return to the progress of the correThe despatch of Mr. Sophistry such as this. we say. with a slight formal variation about to be noticed. : argued against but not rejected by M. nor was it much likely to The whole conciliate the confidence." was delivered on or about the 24th of April and by its contents . Aveeks . Fox. of Mr. the two fundamental points of fact above first. his habits of transacting business and from this own moment he began to augur fore in ill of the result. de Talleyrand. we may well believe. and might continue to lie for what we She began then to see that she was cared about it. 45 her as to preclude her from becoming the ally of England. could not overpower the reason. joint negociation stated are easy to be selected joint negociation secondly. until Russia cut the matter short by signing separately for herself. Fox bringing the spondence. From the many other topics of observation and of argument contained in them. despatch indeed of the French Minister bore a character of jinasserie utterly repugnant to . Fox. yes but if you require us to . no. to all intercourse an end was put for five between the two governments. insisted upon by Mr. and before our negociation with France was even opened. rate treaty. By this time France began to perceive that she had not chosen her ground judiciously in her attempts to decoy us into a sepaNo use had been made of her passport." Such is the summary of the five important letters which passed between these Ministers during the first two months of their intercourse. there it lay. that is. negociate separately.

Accordingly. should prolong a war which the two governments equally Still. first." satisfied without adding to his consent to treat the proviso. " to establish as a basis two fundamental principles. He had ascertained." taken from Mr. all pretension on the part of France to contest the of ris'ht Eno.' 46 losing her opportunity. and most formally he disavows joint treaty. provided nothing were concluded but by common consent. Fox's letter of the 26th of March. during the interval between his last despatch of the 20th of April and this renewed ofi'er of the 2d of June. ' France having thus lowered her tone. rather than in substance. as far as in their power. Mr. or secondly. the future tranquillity of Eu rope. . and reduced her demand of separate treaty to separate and provisional discussion. he was not desire to terminate. " That the two states should have for their object that the peace be honourable for them- selves and their allies^ and at the same time of a nature to secure. however. therefore. de Talleyrand sets himself about seriously to clear away the main obstacle which lay at the bottom of his pertinacious resistance to a First. namely. to negociate in the preliminary forms which were adopted during the administration of Lord Rockingham in 1782. on the 14th disavowal which you have made of the intention falsely imputed to you with respect to our continental connections. that Russia had no objection to the proposed mode of negociating. " That while we mutually acknowledge : — . no doubt can exist upon that essential point and it would be more distressing that difficulties in form. and next he declares himself ready.land to form such alliances as she should think fit. or to interfere with her in any of her transactions with the Continent. of reflection. MEMOIR. Fox acquiesced in the proposal. after five weeks M. He replies " After the open thus.

and to the scheme then on foot. and admirably contrived for that purpose. Bignon's account of the way in which matters had reached this point. 47 our respective rights of intervention and guaranty with regard to the affairs of Europe. ne pouvant etre vaincue. " La difficulte. " qui arretait les negociations au premier pas. contained in the above letter and under the explanations and proviso. He had an eye to that modern invention of carrying on war during peace which had begun under the directory." is regarded France. not very intelligible. de Talleyrand's proposal as above " cet expedient sauva tons les stated. Nothing is ." This stipulation was not without a motive. as it . and adds. therefore. of setting of the Rhine against the old up a protectorate German empire. The French government had created it and the solution came from themselves. and they tell us so at the first word. il fallait I'esquiver.MEMOIR. The difficulty. It was submitted to. : On — — ever since her attempt to introduce her own version of the law of nations into the European system — how this proceeding can be said to " esquiver la difficulte." How this "expedient" which admits to the utmost extent to which England ever claimed it. amours propres. the right and the practice of allying herself with what cona right for giving tinental power she pleased effect to which confederacies for wars and joint a right nesfociations to end them are but the means and invariably resisted by France strenuously also the principles. we also mutually agree to abstain from all encroachment upon the greater or the lesser states that compose it. Mr. Their object was to get us to make a separate peace." He then recites M. was neither avoided nor compromised." says this writer. Fox consented to open the conferences in a regular form and now let us look back for a moment to M.

and of April 20th Mr. tlian to make a peace that shall last we will but be reasonable. Le premier etait celui qu'avait indique M." culte" on the 1st of April." Thus by we see how to it ingeniously get clear the his French o^vn negociator contrives of objection enveloping in our proposal. . temoigne qu'il etait pret a admettre deux principes fondamentaux. d' Amiens. " Nos interets for ever if sont conciliables par cela seul qu'ils sont distincts. and how was it gotten over ? By all the disclaimer of France on the 2d of June of interests pretension to interfere with us in the man- ao^ement of our continental interests or alliances — which she had just told us were distinct from those of the Continent. vous voulez I'etre aussi de la terre par votre puissance combinee. distinct She denies that her interests are. and alliances which. f The French despatch proceeds: "Si." * What be. second. f j\I. therefore. etait la reconnoissance en faveur de I'une et de I'autre puissance de tout droit d'intervention et de garantie pour les affaires continentales et pour les affaires maritimes. " rappelant la mode suivie pour la paix se he says. or can from those of the Continent. quHl proposait lui-meme. and which consequently was to render "/a paix impossible !^^ M. says England in reply? She denies flatly this principle. and how the narrator of these transactions would fain secure for his chief the merit of having effected a compromise by turning * de Talleyrand's Despatch of April 1 Fox's Despatches generally. 48 easier." were to make us masters of the Continent as we already were of the seas. in particular. maitres*de la nier par votre puissance propre.. la paix est In this. Fox. MEMOIR. they say. through the action of a "puissance combinee. Bignon's way of " M." settling this point is curious. une paix honorable pour Le les deux parties et pour leurs allies respectifs. consisted the " diffiimpossible. de Talleyrand.

Si nous la possedions les elle difficidtesJ' He pourrait augmenter de heaucoup was too well aware that Great to see Sicily united to part of the French system. France was ready to resign her pretensions to the restoration of Malta. de Talleyrand's words were too remarkable " Nous ne vous la demandons pas. In accordance. Britain never would consent France. Kidding themselves thus of their own embarrassments. namely. with that rule for conducting the preliminary discussions. which it took some days to settle. to be omitted. detained in France ever since the rupture of the peace of Amiens. was satisfactory as far as it went. not to place this point out of the reach of cavil or dispute from the very beginning. two countries. The substance of this overture. to obtain from Prussia the restoration of separately concerned the Hanover to the King of England. against those of his Majesty's subjects. Lord Yarmouth. residing or travelHng in France when the war broke out. that a British Plenipotentiary might stipulate for Russia as well as for England.JMEMOIR. his concession into 49 an offer. was about to return to England for a partial under an agreement between the two governments exchange of French prisoners of war. or make a E . and our condition into the semblance of an equivalent concession on our side. M. proposing grounds of agreement on the points that therefore. Fox. who. they began the business in form. which on the authority of the documents above recited. de Talleyrand took this opportunity of sending by his Lordship a confidential overture to Mr. With regard to Sicily in particular. M. it will not be too much to affirm was mutually agreed upon between the parties. and to leave the King of Naples in the undisturbed possession of his maritime dominions. had been detained and treated as such.

L'aigreur qui caracterisait commencement de que nous desirous le plus c'est de pouvoir vivre en bonne intelligence avec une aussi grande puissance que la Grande Bretagne. he found that a material change had taken place in the sentiments and views of the French Government. But Napoleon had ascertained something more he had discovered that the existing Russian Cabinet was disposed not only to make peace — with him. It has already been stated that Mr. On Lord Yarmouth's return with Mr. during his absence. leave England in a war in which she must de facto be separated from all continental alliances. but to be satisfied with very moderate conditions. and particularly the temper manifested in the concluding words of the verbal coimnunication to Lord Yarmouth: "Les sen- timens de la France sont entierement le changes. Fox's answer to this communication." But the prospect was soon to be overclouded. and he might form a probable conjecture as to his chance of concluding such a peace separately^ from the tenor of the powers and instructions. had ascertained that there would be no objection on the part of Russia to such a course. Napoleon saw his advantage. Fox. and instantly struck out a new course for the conduct . of neither of which he could be ignorant. they should either bring about a similar one with England the object of all their aims or. et ce dexterous management of the two negociations. They had begun to hope. All this looked fair and promising. that they might induce Russia to make a separate peace and consequently that by a . The effect of this sudden change was soon made manifest. in consenting by his letter of June 14th to enter into separate discussion with France. cette guerre a cesse.50 MEMOIR. what would be — — next best as a result. which so early as April had been given to the Plenipotentiary who was to negociate it.

it was pretended. The confidential overtures . of the 5 Everything was now to Mr. that since he was last at Paris a change had come over the mind of the Emperor. power Sicily by France Avas a point . to English negociation. were mere civilities between two old acquaintances.MEMOIK. Other means were to be brought into action and in an evil hour for the world. that his generals assured him that his brother Joachim could E 2 to be first propitiated . with an ease and sangfroid which carried with it almost the appearance of levity. this great eifort for ending the revolutionary war degenerated from that time forward on the part of France into the old game of shift and stratagem. since the long projected plans of that power for a naval establishment in the Mediterranean pointed rather towards Corfu. the loss of the treaty of 1806. Petersburg. And here began the deviation that led. and for the continuance of those better feelings in which our long interrupted intercourse had been resumed. to be an admirable contrivance for setting us together by the ears. this first move in the game was judged. and led inevitably. in his very first interview with M. Fox through M. de Talleyrand were to go for nothing. reversed. The altered aspect of affairs at Paris. de Talleyrand after his return. as we shall now proceed to demonstrate. the first experiment was to be made by raising a question on the possession of Sicily. In the course now resolved upon by the French Cabinet. binding on neither of them when they should come to real business. produced by the discovery of amicable tendencies at St. and rightly so. presented Russia as the and as the possession of on which it would be far more easy to satisfy Russia than England. Accordingly. to be carried on with the common resources of diplomacy manifested in the least and lowest of its arts. This certainly was a dexterous manoeuvre. These. Lord Yarmouth is told by that Minister.

obviate likewise to treat. Such an act of plain unblushing insincerity at the very threshold. as well as in form. Her ally. it was in fact. There is no example in the annals of negociation. Sicily. For these reasons. he would not suffer himself to despair. There was ground even to think that it might be re.52 MEMOIR. But although not absolutely despairing of peace. the breaking off at once of all further attempt at negociation and such would have been its effect under any other English Ministry than that of 1806. of regaining for him what he had lost. and under most circumstances would have caused. was not enough it seems. Discouraging therefore as this specimen of bad faith must have appeared to Mr. of a demand so utterly devoid of all sense of shame or decency in the must It party proposing it. but we were now required to assist his enemy to turn him out by force from the little he still possessed. but this must be done in such a manner as to fix. Mr. and as no plenipotentiaries had as yet been appointed. There was no hope. not possibly do without and therefore that he insist upon its cession to him. strong and resolute enough to command their own line of action both abroad and at home. unofficial. and to M. had been driven from his continental territory. de Talleyrand. the King of Naples. it is true. justified. it . for France to set out in this negociation with directly revoking the basis she had herself laid down for conducting it. by our complying with his new demands. Fox. an indelible stain on the public faith and honour of Great Britain. The demand of Sicily had been merely thrown out in conversation by M. de Talleyrand's complaint that Lord Yarmouth had returned to Paris mthout powers Fox transmitted to his Lordship without delay the necessary credentials. tracted should Napoleon's hope of a separate peace with Russia prove abortive.

of the energy of his mind. or will you not ?" diminished by the information he had obtained of the manoeuvres going on at St. Petersburg. Powers exactly similar were given to Lord Malmesbury in 1795 and 1796. and varied in nothing from the powers conferred on all ministers employed on Our foreign office is full of them. similar business. de Talleyrand with a view him in a separate treaty. Fox considerably weakened. powers thus issued to Lord Yarmouth there was nothing defective but at the same time there was nothing extraordinary. This writer. To this fact all and every one of his colleagues will bear "witness. 53 is no wonder that from this moment. represents the fact of issuing the above powers as the abandonment on the part of England of her original E 3 . will scarcely be a solecism to say that it was ended before so. it Indeed. Bignon has made what he believes to be a discovery on this point. ated in the johit commission issued shortly afterwards to But as M. " Will you negociate conIt was further jointly with Russia. all then in the full possession of his faculties. and such were those enumerIn the full . and even in the very act of sending credentials to treat. in speaking of this It negociation. Fox himself. and by this the retraction by the French Government last step it was of their own proposal mth regard to Sicily to engage — — shaken to it its foundation. They were drawn up in the usual forms of office.MEMOIR. it may be well to see what it is worth. was considered to be by Mr. It was not imthe refusal of France during five weeks to by proved answer the plain question. reluctantly. Lords Lauderdale and Yarmouth. and more than ever anxious for the success of the great object of his declining days. It had begun to give way as soon as he saw the course of argument adopted by M. never losing sight of his main purpose. the hope of it was in the mind of Mr. although most began.



condition of joint negociation, and

by necessary


ence, as a renunciation of her continental system. " II est done de fait," he says, " que le Cabinet de

Londres s'est completement desiste de la resolution d'abord exprimee de ne traiter que conjointement avec la Russie " and again in the resume of his general

argument on

this point,

he says, " Cette question de
la Russie,

forme a ete tranchee par
ter separement.

qui a envoy^


Plenipotentiaire a Paris avec des pouvoirs pour trai-

L'Angleterre elle-meme a renonce a sa premiere pretention, et des pouvoirs, pour une

paix separee, ont ete pareillement donnes a Lord Yarmouth. Les pouvoirs memes de Lord Lauderdale portaient encore aussi cette autorisation." To be sure

they did and so are all powers expressed, whether they be to treat for peace or for any other object. M. Bignon's way indeed of presenting the question would at once make an end of it in his favour, if the forms in which one state negociates with another were all. These forms requiring, for the sake of the business itself, that the powers to transact it should be as extensive and as general as words can render

them, it is usual so to draw them up, even to a promise to ratify although in practice the non-ratification of preliminaries is never considered to be a contravention of the law of nations. The reason is plain. plenipotentiary, to obtain credit with a state on an equality with his master, must be invested with powers to do, and agree to, all that could be done and agreed to by his master himself, even to the ahenating


the best part of his territories.
trol of non-ratification,

But the

exercise of

these vast powers, always under the understood con-

regulated by his instruc-

M. Bignon, by the easy device of confounding
enables himself in the above passages to
accord, submitting to the

the two,

represent Russia and England simultaneously,

by common

and demands of

France, in
that she


that she exacted for her pride, and all

had contended for in principle; thus consome dexterity it must be confessed, the general power into a special purpose the general power to treat into the special purpose of renouncing the object for which they were to treat. But this is mere quibbling. Hoio were these plenipotentiaries to use their powers ? What were their instructions ?
verting, with

Of the Russian


we know nothing


at all

events they are out of court in this argument. of the English minister are before the pubhc.
letter to

In his

Lord Yarmouth of June 26th, accompanying

the transmission of the credentials, Mr. Fox expressly reserves the two fundamental points of joint negociation and of Sicily. His words are as follow " It

being to be observed as the basis, and ^particularly Sicily^ that his Majesty was induced to authorise your Lordship to hold further conference withM. de Talleyrand:

was on the

faith of the uti possidetis^

and again, " Your Lordship
it is


further directed to acif

quaint M. de Talleyrand, that

Russia offers

to treat

which we do that is to say, separately in form, but in substance in concert with each other;" and to strengthen and make clear this concert the more, he sums up his " The result of what I have stated instructions thus to your Lordship is this: that Sicily is a sine qucL non, on which subject, if the French minister recedes from his former answer, it is in vain that any further
only in the


discussion should take place. If according to the hope conceived by your Lordship, this matter should be arranged, you may open your full powers, stating at the same time the determination of this court not to come to any final agreement without the consent

of Russia."

All these facts, and especially Mr. Fox's resolution

with regard to

Sicily, are

of such decisive importance,

E 4



not only in determining the character of this whole
transaction, but in rendering clear

and manifest the

true cause of the failure of the negociation, that they

cannot be stated too often, or with too



and circumstantiahty. Again, therefore, I shall transcribe the words of Mr. Fox himself; M. Bignon's shall
follow " I have no conception," says Mr. Fox, in reply to

communication to him of the what grounds he (M. de Talleyrand) can recede from what he said so distinctly to your Lordship before upon the subject of Sicily. Vous I'avez. Nous ne vous demandons rien,' are words that made the more impression upon me, befirst

Lord Yarmouth's

demand, " on




had been used hy his Excellency to me. It was on the faith of the

contained in the latter clause of the sentence in one of his letters
uti possidetis


and particularly satisfaction had been given to your Sicily, on which Lordship, that his Majesty was induced to authorise your Lordship to hold further conference with M. de
to be strictly observed as the basis,



tergiversations or cavil, therefore,

would be a breach of the principle of " With the proposed basis in its most essential party regard to the complaint of the want of full powers, to avoid all pretence for cavil on that account, I am commanded by his Majesty to transmit to you the instrument accompanying this letter. But your Lordship should fairly state to M. de Talleyrand, that you are not authorised to make any use of them formally,
on that


M. de Talleyrand

shall return




ground with regard to Sicily." And now for M. Bignon's narration. He describes the course of proceeding which necessarily arose out of this conduct of his own government on the one part, and Mr. Fox's resolution not to be made the dupe of it on the other, in the following terms



Nous verrons

et I'autre cle ces bases,

sens selon leurs

deux puissances s'ecarter I'une ou bien en vouloir forcer le interets. Le gouvernement Franles

s'eloignera sur le fait de



mais sans
Cette de-

detour, et en proposant des compensations.

rogation sera admise puisqu^on ouvrira la discussion

sur la nature des compensations proposees.
terre de son cote forcera le sens des


mots sur deux France a reconnu le principe de Vuti possidetis. On se souviendra que cette reconnoissance aurait ete tout au plus tacite, car c'est Lord Yarmouth seul qui dit avoir vu I'equivalent de cette reconnoissance dans les termes nous ne vous demandons rien,' de M. de Talleyrand. H y a ici une distinction a faire. Sous I'administration de M. Fox cette pretention sera abandonnee, ou du moins on s'en desistera dans la pratique. Plus tard il y aura peu de bonne foi a y revenir, ou du moins a s'y attacher

EUe pretendra que




avec obstination
unie ou separee
dire les trois



uti possidetis

— negociation
les discus-

voila les trois questions, onpourrait

mots sur lesquels vont rouler

Ces divergences cependant ne deviendront pour la paix des obstacles invincibles qu'au moment oil la maladie que suivit la mort de M. Fox placera dans d'autres mains la direction de la politique Anglaise. Jusque la on avait porte dans la negociation le desir de pouvoir s'entendre, et on avait fait quelques pas qui permettaient
d'en attendre une heureuse issue."

sions qui dureront plusieurs mois,

further on Apres quelques hesitations I'Angleterre cede, ou du moins admet la discussion sur I'indemnite elle n'est pas satisfaite de celle qui est ofFerte; elle en voudrait une plus avantageuse. Ainsi le Cabinet de Londres a flechi sur deux objets importans. D'abord il consent a une paix separee. En second lieu, il ne
: ;


repousse plus la cession de la







SOUS la condition d'un dedommagement a regler ce qui constitue une derogation formelle au principe de
Yuti possidetis y

These extensive quotations from M. Bignon's work it, except in a very few instances, unnecessary. Distorted as are his facts, and false as are the inferences which he draws from them, his statement nevertheless is valuable. It enumerates the points at issue with precision, and in a way to expose his asseverations with regard to them to direct Two of these points have already been contradiction.
will render a return to
first, the bold assertion that there was a war party in the English Cabinet, together with the fact more than insinuated that but for them Mr. Fox, if he had lived, would have made peace on the terms secondly, that on the question offered by Napoleon

disposed of



of joint negociation with Russia, he ultimately gave
fact distinctly disproved

a way, and consented to make a separate peace, by the official documents That he never departed from the already quoted. claim of negociating his treaty on the basis of uti posthat he never consented that France should sidetis have Sicily, and that so far from opening conferences * on the nature of the compensation to be proposed, he never would suffer the cession of that island to be talked of, unless France were prepared to offer to its lawful sovereign, not only such a compensation as he

might accept

for himself, but a continental equivalent

such as 7night afford security to Europe^ is all that now remains to be proved in order to demolish the whole
fabric of sophistry



work has been

so labo-

riously endeavouring to erect.

into the

of the uti possidetis. But before entering argument on this head, it may be well to notice some of the doctrines of public law as taught


" On ouvrira

la discussion sur la nature des

compensations pro-


See suprd.



and practised in those days the glories of which M. Bignon has been selected to commemorate. It will be no less curious than instructive to ascertain what the French statesmen then understood by diwhat value they set on auplomatic intercourse thorised discussion, on confidential communications, and in short on all that is transacted between

take their seats at the be to take our example indeed a little out of the order of time, but from the illustration it aifords of the spirit which they brought to this negociation, it can no where be more usefully

when they

council table.

It will

introduced than in this place.


of these doctrines

was put forth by General Clarke (the minister named shortly after the period which we have reached to treat with Lord Lauderdale) so very plainly, and expounded by him, briefly indeed, but mth such a curiosa felicitas of allusion, that it were doing him injustice to present it to the world in any words but his own. Lord Yarmouth, who had conducted the business up to this time, judged it necessary, on the first meeting of the plenipotentiaries after Lord
Lauderdale's arrival,

read over the minutes of

what had passed in his former conferences with the French ministers, and particularly that part of them which regarded the recognition of the uti possidetis as the basis on which alone Great Britain would consent to treat. To this recapitulation it was replied by General Clarke, that he could give no answer to what had been stated without alluding to conversations which were to be considered only as " des romans politiques.''^ Incredible as these words may seem, the fact of their having been used, and used in earnest, is placed beyond a doubt by the joint despatch of Lords Lauderdale and Yarmouth, dated the 9th of
in reply said that

These are their words: " General Clarke he could make no answer to what




Lord Yarmouth stated, without alluding to conversations which he affected to consider as loose, calling them des romans politiques at the same time by his silence he clearly admitted what Lord Yarmouth most distinctly stated." That these were no hght words thrown out at random, is evident from the whole tenor of what we have already read. And to what do they lead ? To render all serious and consequently all honest intercourse between states, impossible. To call such conversations loose and leading to nothing, is non'

sense, if not worse.

There are none such in diplomacy.


propositions brought forward in conference are

and whether agreed to, or rejected, or reserved for further discussion, they are of the very essence of the transHow are we to beheve a plenipotenaction itself tiary who, after many days of grave deliberation on the most important of them all, namely, the basis, so soon as he finds a difficulty beginning to press upon him, turns it off with a horse-laugh, as if the proposal were nothing more than the havardage of a couple of gossips ? How are we afterwards to be sure that when all appears settled, and the substance of the conferences is about to be embodied in a treaty, some jocular kind of mental reservation, lurking mthin and infecting the mass, may not vitiate the whole contract ? But this levity is no laughing
parts of the negociation.
are its records



Mischievous to nations, it is fatal to negoboth as to their character and usefulness. There is nothing that comprehends higher ideas of trust as well as of dignity than the credentials of an ambassador. In them we see the greatest interests
confided to the best quahties


people and their

hopes to the sagacity and honour of their delegate. But according to General Clarke, all this must be The minister appointed to negociate with reversed.



him must read his commission backwards and presuming that the General, acting on his own avowed principle, will so read his own, mutual disbelief, in the intervals of their mutual mauvaises plaisanteries, must be the rule of their intercourse, in exact proportion to the extent and value of the objects committed
to their care.


to return to the uti possidetis.


we know

to be the practical as


the obvious basis for an

adjustment between contending parties who are equal in force and means, and who mutually become tired of the combat although neither of them be compelled
field. Like every human however, this has its deviations and exceptions in cases which do not alter its essence. One of the belligerents, for example, finds himself at the opening


necessity to quit the


of a treaty which takes the uti possidetis for its professed basis, in possession of a territory belonging to
his adversary, of

no possible use to himself" in the
system, but essential to the very

economy of



Here an exchange may be admitted without necessarily revoking the basis, and without prejudice to the distinctive character of the
existence of the other.

by substituting, as a new and different basis, the principle of mutual restitution. Such, with the special reservation of Hanover, was the basis proposed
for the treaty of 1806 communicated confidentially no doubt to Mr. Fox, as all such weighty matters must be in the first instance when men are disposed to undertake them in earnest. General Clarke, as we have seen, treats its admission by France as a "roman politique." M. Bignon goes farther he stoutly denies the fact. He says it was all a mistake; that this basis never was thought of by M. de Talleyrand in his communications to Lord Yarmouth and that there is no authority for stating it to have been so, except M. de Talleyrand's words to his Lordship on his


taking leave.




souviendra," he says, " que

cette reconnoissance aurait ete tout au plus tacite, car

Lord Yarmouth

seul qui dit avoir



termes nous ne vous demandons rien.' " Now what says Mr. Fox ? In his letter to Lord Yarmouth above cited he expresses " Yous I'avez himself thus nous ne vous de:

de cette reconnoissance dans





are words that

made the more impres-



because those contained in the latter

had been used by his ExcelHere is a direct lency in one of his letters to me" for however it may falsification of an important fact
clause of the sentence

purpose to dispute the construction question, the fact of their having words in of the been used by M. de Talleyrand, not only verbally to Lord Yarmouth, but in writing to Mr. Fox, is distinctly averred by Mr. Fox himself. M. Bignon cavils, however, at the extended sense given to these words. Does he mean to deny this " Nous sense because they are but five in number ? ne vous demandons rien " He is a master of his language, and in his vocabulary perhaps may find some limit to the word " rien ;" but gravely, and in a matter of serious business, such as that in hand, and intrusted to the agency of two such men as Mr. Fox and M. de Talleyrand, to affirm that this sentence, short though it be, did not substantially and fully convey and include, and was not intended to convey and include, the broad principle of an unfettered " use as your own exercise of power over property what you possess" can only be protected from severer censure by attributing to it an intention of trifling wholly misplaced in transactions of so much vital importance to the peace and happiness of the
suit this writer's



this is a case


must be

suffered to rest.

on which not a shadow of amIt is not enough

that the plain unsophisticated


mind of Mr. Fox led him to put this construction on M. de Talleyrand's words his knowledge of the law of nations, in which no man in Europe was more thoroughly versed than



made it impossible that he could have underthem in any other. Rules are prescribed by

that law,

plain, positive rules, for the interpretation
all acts

not only of treaties, but of

leading to treaties.

In cases of doubt as to the construction of words,



natural meaning as the rule


which to judge of their import. In cases of doubt as to the nature of an offer, it is to be taken from the words of him who offers. If there be obscurity in these, so much the worse for him; pactionem oh" scuram^'' it is the rule, its nocere in quorum fuit potestate legem apertius conscrihere ; " and in cases of doubt as to the extent of an offer, it is to be interpreted against the party offering. To every branch

of the case before us, these principles of interpretation

France told us that she wanted noor our allies held in possession. France was the party voluntarily using the words by which that renunciation was expressed. France was the party offering to make peace with us on a basis which she herself proposed. What, therefore, did she mean when she engaged herself so to do ? What did she want when she told us that she wanted nothing ? Was it not her business to tell us ? or was it Mr. Fox's to find it out, and to enter hand over head into a negociation before he could see an inch of his way, for the chance of picking up a basis as he went ? Really there is no end to the absurdities in which the necesdirectly apply.

thing of what


sity of sustaining his negative does

not involve this

author at every step.


the doctrines of General Clarke and

would follow that


M. commu-

nications, the

moment they begin

to be acted upon,



lose their obligatory force, precisely because they are
It is painful to observe, as

we advance

into the evidence

on the subject of

this negociation,

appears in the conduct of his agents to justify a suspicion that Napoleon, from the moment of

how much


Lord Yarmouth's return, never intended to make for no statesman hke him could be ignorant of

the uses of confidence in great
their very


It is in fact

and being.
It helps

It enables the actors in

and when reached them to escape from the wearisome path of fencing and finessing, in which a negociator may go on for months together, and after having, with consummate skiU as he flatters himself,
to reach their point quickly,


to hold


extorted at length a concession from his antagonist,

himself as httle sure of

its definitive

adoption as

he was from the beginning. Confidence in such cases is amongst the most valuable of human means. Together with the ministers, it brings the two countries face to face, as it were, and in the interchange of proposals adds the sanction of public truth to the security

of private honour.

The ground thus prepared,


Mr. Burke observes in one of his letters on a " Regicide Peace," the peace is as good as made before the
discussions begin.

was by reciprocal confidence,

he says, in each other's good faith, and that of the countries they represented, that Sir William Temple and the pensionary De Witt were enabled to carry through successfully, in the short period of three days, the great treaty of Triple Alliance, one of the most important diplomatic transactions on record, and which, under any other circumstances, would have been one of the most difiicult. Precisely of the same character was the opportunity presented in 1806 to the governments of England and France. That of England had come to the resolution of putting an end, if possible, to the Avar of the Revolution. In this for

nor even on that without the full consent of its owner. Bignon. some conversations may have taken place among the plenipotentiaries on the comjDarative importance of Sicily in the hands of France. . I now come to the main question as to Sicily. lawful possessor. Fox and all that was wanted to finish the work. Fox's death.MEMOIR. Fox's instructions to Lord Yarmouth. Lord Yarmouth had exchanged his powers and opened the negociation in form. the question of its cession never was brought forward from upon first to last. As a proposition. or from any other source whatsoever. the first 65 time since 1792. to cede that island to France a point which he much labours to establish. But he mistook them both. according to M. even under discussion an estimate of its value with a view to fix a compensation for its surrender. to It is not meant deny that when. Not a single conference was held Not a memorial was presented. equal steadiness of purpose. written or oral. except that of a general European interest. is to be found in Mr. personified^ Mr. The union of our Cabinet for this The confidence necessary for object was complete. Mr. whether from the published documents. not a step taken to brine. in . may before he presented his credentials. it. and which he represents as having been nearly agreed upon before Mr. On no ground indeed. could the negociators be F . on the part of England. as affecting the peace of Europe but this was all. Parliament and the country were unanimous. and good sense enough to understand the man and the government he had to deal with. and render it lasting. Fox's readiness. No such willingness. namely. For what the author alleges on this head. he must himself confess. he has not a shadow of authority. or of its . was a similar disposition on the part of Napoleon. under circumstances to be stated hereafter. effecting it was. nor in his letters to his Lordship one say.

on the part of England from the uti possidetis. Now as far as uti possidetis had nothing whatever to do with this claim. or from any other recognised method of negociation. Fox by consenting. the other.66 MEMOIR. inasmuch as not in question for one. Not so on the part of France who made the demand. That island was part of the ancient dominions of the common ally of England and Russia. or on what ground he can maintain his proposition that Mr. if he can. France pretend that if England did not deviate from act. under the quahfication of the King of Sicily's consent. It it if the uti possidetis was could not be in question for is The fallacy of this reasoning palpable. was so ample as to cover this and every other conceivable form or Nor can principle on which treaties can be discussed. and a surrender of it on that of England. neither did she deviate from hers. But such an her original principle of negociation. the pjossession of which never had been out of its rightful owner. infamous as it would have been on would not have constituted a departure other accounts. was France who asked us to negociate with her.. ciple of public law its cession could be bargained for. therefore. . gave up his original claim of nego- ciating on the basis of uti possidetis. and cannot apply consequently to the demand of a territory. could be nothing but an act of naked undisguised spoliation. the third party for the convenience of the two others. on the part of France. on what prinwai. never possessed. never even attacked by France during the whole course of the Let this author show. perpetrated against a England was concerned. to enter upon a discussion as to its cession. Her prehminary renunciation of all and every possession belonging to England and her allies. justified in allowing Sicily to be named. The principle which governs this mode of negociating relates only to conquests made during war by one of the belligerents over the other. A demand for it.

was ever brought forward during Lord Lauderdale's stay at Paris. and even of giving it to France. and who felt the incalculable value of Austria as a preponderating and protecting power in the . connected with Piedmont and the Swiss cantons. This it was which constituted her title to be negociated mth not on this or that specified or defined principle. when be negociated with at all. Avhere a new and safer line of defence for the Austrian frontier might easily be devised such for instance as the setting up a strong and efficient sovereignty in the north of Italy. An equivalent. at the desire of Russia. negociation upon its legs.MEMOIR. there might be imagined a way of disposing of Sicily. under such arrangements as might render its cession not only acceptable to its lawful sovereign. No proposal. might assuredly be found in other quarters. agreed to hear what she might have to offer to the King of Sicily^ and what reasons she had to allege why we should admit of a deviation from her first proposal to us. for that island. 67 She asked to do so under the above renunciation. It is true no doubt. the quiet possession of which by France would at all times depend upon her keeping at peace with us. such as existed some years later at the Congress of Vienna. she claimed Sicily. The event confirms this view of the case. A plan of this sort might have had its advocates. and it in our consent. it amounted in fact to no more than a permission de novo to set the received value for . . practically speaking. In efi'ect she broke off the treaty and when England. but to France. did more than deviate from the uti possidetis. and supposing likewise a general fusion of European interests. that speaking abstractedly and apart from the immediate point in view. therefore. among statesmen who looked beyond their day. acceptable or otherwise. with regard to Sicily. even in 1806. F 2 . but advantageous to the general security of Europe.

de Talleyrand that he cannot talk with him on that subject. Let us begin with Lord Yarmouth's return to Paris on the 1 6th of June. in which he states that a demand had been brought forward for Sicily. Mr. his Lordship on consideration agrees to forward this new proposal to his Court. and during the same day. European system. possessions as much out of this. Cloud with an ofi'er of the Hanse towns in exchange for Sicily. Albania. rejecting the demand. but sending him the full powers with an instruction not to use them unless M. provided that such an accession to her maritime strength were balanced by the cession on her part of a continental territory adequate to the establishment and consolidation of such a sovereignty. It is answered by another refusal. The French nister puts him ofi* for a day. At the first conference after on a renewal of the demand. Bignon through the whole of what he has told us on this subject.68 MEMOIR. m . de Talleyrand should return to his first ground follow with regard to Sicily. and that complaint was made that he had returned without full powers. and Ragusa. Dalmatia. and then offers. Fox replies on the 26th. But nothing like this appears by the conferences to have been under contemplation. Lord Yarmouth informs M. Nor could there be any fundamental objection of principle to bringing under the consideration of English statesmen a question of how far they might safely allow France to extend her military posts in the Mediterranean. and by an order to Lord Yarmouth to return home if it should be persisted in. Subsequently however. his Lordship accordingly on the 9th of July apphes for his passport. As it was so persisted in. we will M. on that minister's return from St. and his first despatch from thence of the 19th. Taking these principles for our guide. instead of the Hanse Towns.

St. Fox of the above circumF 3 . says. and although lodging together under the same roof. I sent off without delay a special messenger to England to apprise Mr. Fox's several communications with M. he never came near me. Fox his reasons for so doing. some account. d'Oubril been here. joint or separate negociation. he passed through Vienna where he remained three or four days. '''Had not M. by way of compensation to the King of Naples. That I may not have British occasion to return to this part of the subject. Fox's speech on that subject in the House of Commons. on the so much disputed question between them of planation. ^^ I shoidd have insisted on my passports. his 69 power as Sicily itself. I am myself enabled to render I have already mentioned that in his Petersburg to Paris. Of one part of his proceedings. but having once met him by accident at the Count de Cobenzel's. d'Oubril at Paris should have induced Lord Yarmouth to depart from the strict letter of his instructions requires some ex- This was the minister appointed by the Emperor of Russia to co-operate with the English plenipotentiary. That the presence of M. him to Mr. way from and to listen to ajiy proposals that anight be made to him He then took occasion to ask me some for peace. he . Lord Yarmouth again consents to transmit this proposal to his Court and in stating to Mr. During the whole of that time. How well he co-operated with Lord Yarmouth will appear hereafter. or of listening to pacific professions. he informed me that the object of his mission was to negociate an exchange of prisoners. I will add that not being satisfied that his mission to the French capital was solely for the purpose of an exchange of prisoners.MEMOIR. in the manner pointed out in Mr. de Talleyrand. questions with regard to the value annexed by the I referred government to the restitution of Hanover.

for it soon became evident that. with powers. . his reserve towards me at Vienna true. T have been assured on no light was at Paris. Pozzo di Borgo. d'Oubril to act with him in resisting the new demand of France was a matter of sufficient weight to justify the suspension of the Of the extent execution of his orders to quit Paris. to make a treaty with or without England. have since heard that M. 70 MEMOIE. which. . At all events. up but most anxious that England was a joint peace. Lord Yarmouth's reason for transmitting the second proposal for the exchange * M. to be perfectly fair. As separately for Russia. a joint but if not. struck me as carrying an air of too much reserve towards myself. that on leaving the Russian Court he had orders not to return without some treaty treaty.ids or not. it apfor his own government. with us. a separate one Be this as it may. whether specially authorised or not. On considering this fully. stance. he was not only ready to give Sicily to France. peared to Lord Yarmouth that to ascertain how far he might depend on M. whether we should consent to the French dema. he seems to have exerted himself fairly enough to remove what he believed to be the chief obstacle to so desirable an event but his efforts to this end were of a nature to convince Lord Yarmouth that. in doubt d'Oubril's assistance he long was not of M.. may afford a clue to much of his conduct while he I in July. d'Oubril had orders to communicate with me confidentially and fully on the He best knows whether this be object of his mission. as it has since been ascertained. There he arrived early authority *. he was fully resolved on his own part to sign should do the same. his first object . in the relative situation of the two governments. if possible.

it might be possible " to submit such a proposal to the King of to give effect to Sicily. probability. Mr. indeed.'' He throws out. d'Oubril expressed his wish that this Court might rather seek to temporize than abruptly to break oft' a negociation jirospect now brought to a state which affords so little of success. After observing. if possible. Fox's relaxation from his peremptory order to his Lordship not even to discuss such a subject. Fox proceeds to examine not with M. He discusses the point with a view of exposing the utter inadequacy of these territories as a compensation. Fox's despatch in reply to his Lordship on July 1 8th ^vill bring under our view all that remains to be stated. and the injustice of an act which " they must first be wrested from independent and friendly states. " of inducing France to extend her offer that any further discussion of it might ? did he relax To comply with the desire of the Eussian minister.MEMOIR. that the demand. in whatever shape brought forward. that if it were proposed to annex Istria and the Venetian territories to Dalmatia. — scarcely have been worth pursuing. And representative^ consists the "W^hy anxious and for that reason alone to stop him. It is only in compliance with that desire that his Majesty has been pleased to direct you F 4 . de Tal- — leyrand^ hut icith his own representative — the nature and value of the territories specified as a compensation to the King of Naples. was a direct breach of the original terms on which Great Britain consented to negociate." he says. 71 of Sicily was admitted by the British government and Mr. in his headlong course of concession on matters which vitally affected our " There appears so little alliance with his sovereign." In the suggestion thus throTvm out to his own whole extent of Mr. but as to its influence on his own hopes of success in the work he was labouring to effect. had not M. not only as to this matter of Sicily. accordingly.

Petersburg. Fox yielded to his proposal for " temporizing " on this point with the French govern- ment. d'Oubril's instructions l^een drawn up. therefore." And why. Lord Yarmouth.72 MEMOIR. that could have been interposed to arrest the execution of a measure which must have separated them. was Mr. . a most ominous despatch to say that there were circumstances and considerations which might induce him to sign a separate treaty. purchased the at expense of this very limited cheaply compliance with the wishes of a plenipotentiary. Switzerland. the Ottoman Porte. more practicable any so shape can be given to the proposal for the exchange to ascertain whether of Sicily. Great Britain and Russia. " the last hope of averting says to he those dangers (dangers that threatened Germany." liance. de Talleyrand. was not unknoAvn to Mr. Fox so anxious to keep on terms with the Russian plenipotentiary ? This gentleman had written just at this time to Count Strogonoif. Spain. "We have perceived over and over again the vital importance attached by Mr. the Russian ambassador at London. Sweden. To take from him all excuse or even pretence for such an act as arising from any diiference between himself and the British Cabinet. it may here be asked. Mr. Fox: nor had he been inactive in his remonstrances against It was easy to the wavering policy of that Court. Fox for half a century perhaps." Any delay. — — — The had existence of that particular influence at St. and Portugal) is to be found in the union of the only two powers on whom France has made no impression. under which M. to whom the power of producing that separation had in an evil hour been entrusted. to continue the conferences with as M. appeared to Mr. Fox to the Russian al" In the present circumstances of Europe.

d'Oubril at Paris was too quick for Mr. sake of some trifling local advantages on the Turkish But M. after the pretension object to its cession had been put forward and recorded. to first. But by exchanging the powers first. d'Oubril signed and sealed He refused even to wait eight and forty hours. to learn the sentiments of the Russian ambassador at London with regard to the step he was about to take. and. this no doubt was a great advantage to them and as such they followed it up. On the plan adopted by the French Cabinet for the negociation. Fox at St. open a that possession. Its possession never could become an ! . and by substituting for it that of compensations and equivalents. to be negociated about. Petersburg. The point was to give a new turn to the demand for Sicily.MEMOIR. Li that case there could be no talk of its surrender. and in spite of Lord Yarmouth's remonstrances against any separate signature. as they hoped. which. by Mr. Fox the condition of the exchange of powers. as we have seen. for the . like . Its prehminary renunciation had been made. of their first basis of uti possidetis . would be thrown into the mass. the last-mentioned frontier. perceive the bait held out erect 73 in offering to by France. and brought to account in making up the settlement. —separate discussion he had consented from the — never even communicating Lord Yarmouth what to he Avas about. nay even in spite of the readiness of the British Cabinet so far to comply with his wishes as "to ascertain whether any practicable shape could be given to the proposal for the exchange of Sicily. territories into a state." M. nor its retention counted as an equivalent for something else. Thus they would get rid. all others. must essentially become Russian and he did not fail earnestly to exhort the Russian Cabinet not to slacken in the great cause of European independence. nominally given to the King of Sicily.

new basis for the M. Petersburg whither he had hurried off " to lay his head^^^ as he declared. to the distinctive character for frankness and honesty given by themselves to this negociation. on the very next day after M. d'Oubril's departure for St. Neither of the two governments of England and Russia adhered to what had been done in their names. however. comments on this manoeuvre with something of sarcastic exultation " Ce n'est — . a most calamitous defeat. a case on which by all the established practice of diplomacy he had a right to apply for fresh instructions. until at length Lord Yarmouth. seeing no alternative between compliance and the immediate renewal of hostilities. d'Oubril's treaty and that of Great Britain. That of Russia refused to ratify M. consent to the admission of a negociation. if estimated according to the rules by which cards are shuffled in a way to secure the co-operation of fortune. In vam he asked for the delay of a few hours to consult his government on a case so important and unprecedented. door to every sort of complication and delay that might suit their future convenience. Bignon. or quit the country. '"'' at the feet of his master i^'' Lord told that he must produce his full powers instantly. making every allowance for the difficulties of Lord Yarmouth's situation. General Clarke. but if judged by those of true wisdom workmg for great purposes. — Such is the brief ! summary ! of this extraordinary transaction Such the boasted victory achieved by the French diplomatists a victory indeed. And so in the sequel it proved to be. on the 21st of July exchanged his full powers with the French plenipotentiary.74 MEMOIR. The French Cabinet held fast the ground they had won. never would . In vain he appealed to the common rules Yarmouth was — of fair dealing. Accordingly.

" he observes. he did was for one question but theij^ it is clear. to his it. he sacrifices their whole character for prudence as well as sincerity ? True.MEMOIR. did ! . disavowal of M. reviving and cheering the hopes of a troubled world. which years of mistrust and hatred had begun to peer above the horizon. contrivances many France gain by all these Just nothing ? For with reo-ard to Sicily. their immediate object. Bignon aware. What. . they failed in detaching Russia from England as completely as they had failed before in detaching England from Russia." Vce victis! he ! Anglais s'affranchit de cette would say so much the — worse for the loser Is But this is dangerous ground. " si le Plenipotentiaire restriction. while it dashed to pieces at a the best. Their great one fault on the part of the — consisted so all fault — and him it was a as it in compelling of such a negociation as this. themselves as an superior pretenoff or preceding ones by honour and is — either to break to disobey his orders. blow the hght after so fabric of incipient good-^vill. in alluding to the breach of the condition prescribed to Lord Yarmouth for the production of his powers. they never advanced a step towards its cession while by the instantaneous therefore. 75 pas la faute du gouvernement Francais. M. d'Oubril. Whether what . in resorting more he loses than he gains for how much ? government How for the sake of stealing a little credit for cir- cumventing a young negociator under circmnstances that would have puzzled many an older one. — characterised its it at the outset had been with exception to sions to much emphasis by faith. that the production of his powers by Lord Yarmouth was not a French government. did for the worst by having recourse in their deahngs with him to a scheme of trickery that could serve only the purpose of an hour.

been brought to a state which he considered to be " hope- M. the surviving members of the British " Ces divergences." . Bignon has deliberately affirmed that if Mr. bad faith. was a proof of less. but confidentially to his own representative. already observed) to M. " ne deviendront Sicily. qu'au moment ou la maladie que suivit la mort de M." To venture on such a sentence with the above despatch lying before him. an intrepidity of pur- pose more suited to the inventor than to the narrator ? of historical transactions From the above plain statement of facts. structing him how to act. and while in- — . the principle of an exchange for Sicily had been so well settled^ that a recurrence to the subject as a cause of rupture subsequently on the part of England. Bignon's work. in Cabinet. enumerating uti possidetis^ joint the three points of difference. I might close my examination of M.76 MEMOIK. Fox's confidential as well . Fox had lived. Fox placera dans d'autres mains la direction de la politique Anglaise. and — — des obstacles invincibles. Fox died. Fox's despatch to Lord Yarmouth of July 18th was before him when he wrote his book yet in the not (as I have face of that minister's declaration. by the conduct of the French government. " C'est sur les pieces seules des negociations qu'il est aujourd'hui possible de connaitre la verite. — that the negociation had. With the extracts above cited from the documents of the negociation." Mr. and in such manifest defiance of his own rule for judging of political truth. to say the least of it." he says. derived as official corre- from Mr. does it not exhibit. pour la paix treaty. peace would have been made at and he gives his readers to understand this time that before Mr. Yet I cannot take my leave of author without thanking him once more for his rule of judging of the truth in diplomatic controthis versies. de Talleyrand.

la totalite des table. In de- ference to Russia. from the first moment of the negociation to the end of it. it might be possible to put such a matter in a negociable shape. the question had never even been seriously mooted between the two governments. he must have had pensee de Napoleon. et . That was the utmost of their understanding on this point and it is needless to say that in such a shape it never was put either during Mr. Fox's views in adhering with such tenacity to his refusal on this point ? What but the candid confar. What more do we want to evince the soundness of Mr. Bignon himself of the true secret of the demand ? " Relativement a la Sicile. soit d'en faire ceder plus tard la Telle ^tait certainement la c'etait propriete a la France. qui par le meme motif que ne s'y trompait pas. le Roi Joseph. how fession of M. whether by written or oral discussions. I'Angieterre. " ce serait une etrange meprise de supposer que le seul but de I'empereur fut de procurer a son frere. Fox's life. le il quand etats du Roi Ferdinand. avait montre sur ce point une si longue resistance. Fox authorises to inquire Lord Yarmouth with the consent of the King. L'objet veridigne objet de la politique de I'empereur se voyait contraint d'abandonner Malte au pouvoir de I'Angieterre.MEMOIR." he says. 77 spondeiice. etait de balancer I'influence et la navigation de cette puissance dans la Mediterranee. Mr." If these were Napoleon's views. or at a^y subsequent period until the final rupture of our intercourse with France on the 6th of October. soit qu'il diit laisser cette isle comme qu'il nourrit le projet province dependante de Naples. . en y donnant pour point d'appui a I'influence et a la navigation Fran9aises I'admirable etablisse- ment de exister la Sicile. it is clear that so far from there having been any understanding on the subject of an exchange for Sicily.

78 MEMOIK. his Lordship and M. therefore. British On them the with confidence to justify the It were a waste inflexible steadiness of their course. nothing can be added in . and are in every body's hands. applied to the other. as is a settled determination to betray his relies government and obstruct the conclusion of a treaty.! . For these there is no more foundation than for his insinuated Criminal facility in yielding all praise of Mr. then at Mayence. at the very time that he disclaimed them the them — at moment that he authorised the declaration to Lord Yarmouth that he asked nothing from England and at the moment that M. . de Talleyrand. * This last to M. Fox. and to the notes exchanged from the 9th of August until the 6th of October*. because his public life and opinions had marked him out as the steady advocate for peace with France under every one of her governments. were published at the time. elucidation of the facts of the case. and because it was universally known trust. that it will be new men about public to him to learn that Lord Lauderdale was selected for this mission by Mr. de Talleyrand assured his Lordship that Sicily in the hands of France would prove rather an embarrassment to the negociation than a help to it It is not my purpose to pursue further these remarks on M. of time. when So little does he know of the whom he writes. To those conferences. Fox. to enter into a particular defence of Lord Lauderdale from the personal attacks upon him in which the author has indulged. is Napoleon just as untrue when applied to things to the one. Champassed between notes that pagny and General Clarke. Bignon's account of the negociations of 1806 nor to enter into their history after they were put into the hands of Lord Lauderdale as plenipotenThe official documents and the tiary for England.

Bio-non were it not for the temptation of making one more extract from his history. n'opposait a tout que I'eternelle demande de Vuti pos: sidetis. short of the surrender of national honour. 79 among his colleagues that. et le Hanovre. et qu'il voulait tracer autour du gouvernement Fran9ais le cercle de Po- . si elle s'y refiisait. et annoncer a tous momens le terme de sa mission. Les discussions verbales n'avaient pas Comte de Lauderdale.MEMOIE. Here therefore I should take my leave of M. the deliberately printing and publishing of which will appear incredible to those who do not know the work. En se plaignant Comte de Lauderdale eiit fait prendre une direction inattendue a une discussion qui jusqu' alors que le avait ete calme et moderee. perance. on avait beau lui Pour mieux donner a entendre que. may afford some relief from the severer reflections which must have passed across their minds on perusing it. formaient une paix assez honorable pour I'Angleterre. " Dans cet intervalle " (the period between Lord Lauderdale's first note of August 11th and the 22d). " Blesse a la fin d'une conduite aussi etrange le gouvernement Francais laissa eclater son mecontentement dans une note dont la franchise alliait des formes decentes au langage severe de la verite. lui faire sentir que le Cap de Bonne EsMalte. plus de succes avec lui que les argumentations ecrites. but which to those who do. le sort du Hanovre pourrait dans quarante-huit heures etre fixe autrement d'une maniere irrevocable le Comte de Lauderdale immuable dans sa position. Le reste a Paris. sans egard pour les insinuations flatteuses ou comminatoires. semblait ne s'y trouver que pour renouveller sans cesse les demandes de ses passeports. " Lord Yarmouth etait retourne en Angleterre. there was scarcely any sacrifice he would not be ready to make to efi'ect it.

" Si effectivement la mission du plenipotentiaire Britannique a ete de rompre la negociation deja si avancee. on lui expkliait enjin les passeports qu'il avait demandes avec tant de perseverance. 1806. Bignon adds for himself in his cha- racter of authorised historian of these transactions: " Comme on reconnoissait I'impossibihte de conclure la paix avec un plenipotentiaire dont toutes les de- mandes etaient des offenses. therefore. to propose to . September 4. M. when it was ostentatiously put forth in the Moniteur as one of the official documents ? What is yet more astounding is that the note really sent to Lord Lauderdale on that day was an invitation to It appears among our parrenew the conferences liamentary papers in the following words ! : — " Paris. " He has the honour. prolonger les calamites qu'il etait dans son devoir de faire cesser. Will it be believed that Lord Lauderdale never ber." And a little further he adds. s'il a voulu en faisant succeder au langage doux et conciliant qui avait rapproclie les deux gouvernemens le ton imperieux du reproche et de la menace. que M." Undoubtedly he ought not. et toutes les demarches des traits d'hostilite. if such a note had been The date of it is the 4th of Septemdelivered to him." Lord Lauderdale a la triste gloire d'etre arrive a son And M. saw nor heard of it until after his return to England in October.80 pilius. de Talleyrand ajoutait. " Apres la note accusatrice Lauderdale. The Minister for Foreign Affairs has received the orders of His Majesty the Emperor and King to hold a conference this day with his Excellency. Lord Lauderdale." MEMOIR. de Talleyrand venait de remettre a Lord que ce plenipotentiaire ne il semblait devait pas demeurer a Paris un seul instant de plus. but.

after all. where did it fall ? Not on Lord was uplifted.MEMOIR. like the hero of Virgil. of true renown G . he was told that. 81 Foreign Affairs His Excellency to call at the office for at half past two. and he himself having refused any pwjet of treaty until that basis should be re-established. clothed in all achieved so many acts. who possessed within himself so many ? and Or is it England that he humbles by this exhibition of his Emperor. than I was at the change of tone manifested on this occasion. and Lauderdale. " in a style. Bignon sepages of the Moniteur riously think that this after-clap tends to the honour and dignity of France? Or. MM." &c. all appeared to have changed. The history of The French to deliver all this will be found in Lord Lau- derdale's previous despatch of the 30th of August. at our next conference. they should give them up. but on the And does M. On delivering to them his valedictory note. " so perfectly different from anything I had before heard. he had applied on the precedingLi the interval between that angry conference. the East Indies." And he excuses himself to his government for consenting once more to hsten to what they might have to offer. on a more 'particular explanation. who was safe in England. that it could please for his passport. It was in the midst of these blandisliments that the The bolt terrible " note accusatrice. they might not arrive at a conclusion co-incident in its effects with the object he had in view^'' and they went on talking about Hanover. de Champagny and Clarke met him with smiles and affability. that I should not be more surprised if." was concocted. plenipotentiaries having refused to return to the original basis." his Lordship adds. Lucia and Tobago. the Dutch Colonies. " they did not know whether. sources. his last day and — ! Napoleon. St.

he changes his spear for the pen of M. Fox. et Bellatoris equi cava tempora conjicit hastam " Vellere. The refusal of the Emperor of Russia to ratify D'Oubril's treaty had again brought England and her allies on the line on which they stood at the period of the Napoleon was again at first overtures to Mr.82 his terrors. . MEMOIR. tot spicula tadet inter pugna congressus iniqua. his manoeuvres to decoy us into a separate peace. They failed. but to little purpose. and most obligingly requests us to talk with him again about peace ? We did talk with him again. et urgetur — when instead of striking his adversary to the ground. and Lord Lauderdale left Paris. The conferences went on until the 6th of October. and rising hausted his " Inde forbearance — in his wrath after having ex- ubi tot traxisse moras. Multa movens animo jam tandem erumpit. de Talleyrand.

or be printed in the : — . in examining the French account of more of a controversial tone than may agree with the rules of strict historical statement. from divide themselves into three periods the time of the author's arrival at Vienna. The despatches which follow contain only and call for the recital of events as they successively arose during his mission. until the battle of Jena. no comment beyond such as may be useful to connect them clearly in the reader's mind. and of the states- man who directed them on the part of Great Britain. until the termination of his own mission in February. His private letters to some distinguished men. Impelled by his sense of duty to the memory of that minister. but a vindication of those transactions. in June. as well as by the demands of truth. and consequently under that impression of their correctness which renders all restraint painful that prudence and propriety do not impose. has adopted rather that he has undertaken not a bare narrative. to lay open the nature of the difficulties which thwarted every project for mutual defence. Pozzo di Borgo. G 2 . until the peace of Tilsitt in July. charged with a mission to the Austrian government. from the arrival there of M. 1806. 83 CONTINUATION. and under the guidance of a fixed principle in English policy to carry him through the alternations of hope and disappointment which prevailed among the continental powers at the time of their several dates. 1808. secondly.MEMOIE. If the author. The transactions which they record will appear to first. Appendix. and to his colleagues in the public service. and its consequences. let it be remembered the negociations of 1806. will either be interwoven into the narrative. 1807 thirdly. he has set down his remarks in the spirit of one who communes with himself.

to Paris. In the front of them appear the disasters of the Prussian monarchy. at the place where it was interrupted. In following the progress of these events. In reading the correspondence therefore.84 MEMOIR. or on what basis he was to rest his negociation. some apparent vacillation in the councils of Austria. to make part of a kingdom to be set up in Italy. it will be proper carefully to trace the connection between transactions apparently remote from each other. the inevitable consequence of the situation she stood in at the time of the battle of Jena. mination of the struggle by the treaty of The mission of M. but all of — them contributing more or less to the calamitous terTilsitt. attached more value to the getting Dalmatia from France than to the retention of Sicily by its lawful owner. as already re- led to my first serious conferences with the Austrian Minister. We may now resume our statement of the chief matters in these despatches. as it afterwards appeared. both the Russian ambassador and myself. of the terms which D'Oubril was to insist upon. — — . Fox. more plainly than it might have been advisable to do in an otlicial document. My opinion on the subject was expressed in the accompanying extract of a private letter to Mr. together with the fortress and territory of Cattaro. in order to discuss the character and the merits of the Paris neo^ociations. (ceded It will by the treaty of Presburg. be seen too. The Kussian Cabinet. that with the exception of recovering Dalmatia from France. d'Oubril lated. and the efforts made to save it from destruction. previous to it. and long — will be observed and accounted for.) we were ignorant.

MEMOIR. Jtdy 23. he gave Talleyrand any reason to expect that it would be considered otherwise than as an indemnity to the King of Naples for Naples alone. that there could be no difficulty in giving her honest counsel if she should be disposed on any occasion to ask for any. and as there are two parties to was not inconsistent with this neutrality (so to call it) in the policy of a friendly power to watch over the due performance by France of that time. (Extract. nor. 85 Mr. does D'Oubril say a word that leads us to believe that in the conversation about Dalmatia. on the other hand. It is true he would not sign when he was desired. the Emperor Alexander never will consent to such a desertion of the King of Naples. These intentions agreed so entirely with the wishes of the English government. G 3 .) "Vienna. " Razamoffsky is persuaded that unfavourable as the change in the Russian ministry may be. and I conclude that on a point so clear in all its bearings. and Razamoffsky thinks that he has exceeded his instructions even in his language." you will never think The clear decided purpose of Austria was to abide by the treaty of Presl)urg. policy. and faithfully to execute its engagements. I8O6. by a part of D'Oubril's despatch of the 11th from Paris. D'Oubril's letter is very obscure in this place. it At the same every compact. but I " Razamoffsky and are equally puzzled could he ever get as far as that it should have been proposed to him to sign? It does not appear that Talleyrand ever receded from his demand of Sicily. Adair to Mr. Secretary Fox. how whether of honour or of of receding from the instructions you have given to Lord Yarmouth.

and which. by the help of her Montenegrin allies. that — — hastily to take offence at proceedings capable of being explained or renounced. were wanting entirely to remedy the faults which had been committed in German pohtics ever since the first outbreak of the Prench Revolution. The occasion for applying this principle was in the case of Cattaro. it is true. at the Court of Vienna. were still in progress but Russia was a power whom it was so much the interest of France herself. of Presburg. and to maintain for Austria the sure possession at least of her state of peace. at all times to afford effectual military assistance to it would have been a neglect of his first duty in an English minister not to promote the most cordial harmony between that government and the Court to which he was accredited. the one redeem- ing benefit of that unhappy treaty. The second was the injudicious hankering after session . were at first ^to use the word in its enlarged sense confined to this object. confidence and union The only means of obtaining that security for her were through mutual among the Powers which were yet left standing in Europe. and so able . therefore. which it was to be hoped that our intimate alliance with Russia might facilitate. to stand well mth. which fortress Austria had agreed to surrender to France by the Treaty of Presburg but of which Russia had contrived to get pos. and perhaps fresh misfortunes. under any system of her government. Time. English politics. and to persuade the other not Austria. The point was to dissuade the one from enforcing claims and indulging projects incompatible with the welfare of Europe. or to resolve sufi'er them to affect the course of action which the two Powers might hereafter upon on a more extended view of the common first interest. just as it was about to be evacuated by tlie Austrian garrison.8G MEMOIR. unhappily.

The Thus far as to the endeavours of the English government to preserve a good understanding between Austria and Russia during the transactions recorded in these despatches. it was to be ascertained whether. and the retaining it The occupation under their protection. to bring into better humour with each other the long adverse powers of Austria and Prussia. arising out of the new European not one of the confederacies which had been entered into either to conquer or resist it had taken for its basis a pure. circumstances of the world. was the entrance of a Russian army into Moldavia. time and common misfortune might not have so softened their mutual animosities as to admit of a reconciliation solid enough to ground upon it a system of future defence for Germany. third. thoroughly. appeared convenient to a large and powerful class of Russian statesmen as a stepping-stone to other objects. but if not. but the successive defeat of every one of them seemed to render it reasonable to try a new course. indeed. difficult business. renouncing all schemes that went beyond the stipulations of their existing treaties Avith France. Nor was this a mere visionary conception it was a case for practical experiment. Ever since the great change introduced by the Revolution into the relations of France with the states. consequence of the former causes for but later in its occurrence. simple. if possible. a dissatisfaction. by mere — G 4 . under a mistaken view of national greatness. Our next was a more indeed. Objects of a far different character were stipulated for among the parties to those alliances . unmixed principle of self- defence. of this province. to be desperate. It was to reconcile. To effect this. 87 Dalmatia by the Russian Cabinet.MEMOIR. and endeavour to secure Avhat was left not. ever present themselves to their imagination when troubles break out in the west of Europe. which. . and seemed.

It was not for preponderance in the expiring Germanic empire that either Austria or her rival had to struggle. when would the statesmen who governed their councils seriously set themselves to work to secure for their respective countries the advantages and these were yet many of the new position they were compelled to take up. France had become the heir. but a determined front. Opposed to the just hopes which. while by pressing on to fresh usurpations at the expense of European Prussia herself. and eventually for that of all Germany against her aggressions. indeed. — Her renunciation of the Nether- and all her other cessions under the Treaty of Luneville. too. viewed in the was calculated to inspire. and in some respects to removed the great source of hostility ever flowing from contiguity of dominion. of ancient jealousies were fast disappearing. and by showing him a peaceful. such a state of things . had both these powers. But Napoleon was himself gradually undermining at Berlin the foundistance. parchment agreements with the common enemy of the old system. she was herself laying a foundation for their union.— 88 MEMOIR. it is true. If nothing would content Napoleon but an empire for himself in the West. had . the patron of that system which gave a French bias to its engagements and its councils. there was to be reckoned. a confederacy of the other powers to preserve their own limits in the East seemed to be dictated to them by the common instinct of selfpreservation and the time. the ascendancy in the Prussian Cabinet of Count Hangwitz. it was to be hoped. No frontier interest could beget quarrels between them. Of all these old causes of quarrel. but by gathering together the remaining forces of the Continent. lands. The causes. prejudicial as they were to the old balance. arrived. The recovery of Silesia had long ceased to be even desirable to Austria.

whose influence over the councils of Berlin. dation of his ovni edifice . more than balance that of Count Hangwitz. as in and Count Hangwitz might fact he became aware when it was too late. Fox my road to Vienna lay through the territories of Brunswick.a barrier ao-ainst the advance of Russia into Germany a Prussian and a French alliance. — — operation. Fox was not unwilling to authorise this step . that pre- viously to that as of the my leaving London. convince her that the policy of as the fine-spun reasoning its retention. to resume her natural rank in Germany. by surrendering that territory. and not unreasonable to hope. I suggested to Mr. and that it would be far better for herself. it was impossible for us to submit to her occupation of Hanover but it was possible. were most erroneous. even of Count Hangwitz was to be hoped for whenever the direct safety of the Prussian monarchy should clearly appear to him to be at stake. but on taking my leave of him he . in a decisive moment. that neither the aggrandisement of his country by giving her Hanover.MEMOIK. might. that we might . With all our goodPower. It was with a hope of being able to prepare the way for the necessary explanations on this point. as well by which it was excused. it me might be advisable for open myself to his Highto endeavour to see and Duke ness. ever entered into the thoughts of the French Emperor for any purpose of durable advantage to Prussia that he never had it in his contemplation to consolidate on any reciprocally national principle such for instance as the formino. and those connections by which alone she could maintain it. Mr. 89 have been aware. A greater difficulty in the way of this union pre- sented itself in the existing state of the relations bewill towards that tween Prussia and Great Britain. nor her preponderance by allowing her to set up a confederacy in the north of Germany in imitation of his own on the Rhine. The co. therefore.

and got the better before long of this just cause of resentment King was so offended with the conthat he avouM not hear of my making . On the other hand. in any scheme might find its use. the refusal . It will be seen in the despatches. a proceeding sufficiently in the nature of one to enable his Majesty to recur to it hereafter. any approach to her. to ascertain the intentions of Austria in a of action in which it contingency speedily about to arise for although the English government was as far as ever from wishing to engage her in hostilities against her own judgment. in obedience to instructions from home. however. even through that channeL Events. for by that act Russia seemed to have renounced her old friends and taken a new ground for her connection with western Europe. was. and exshould be continued. True it . me that the duct of Prussia. announcing the Emperor's abdication of the pressed his pleasure that it dignity of Emperor of Germany. his continued interest in its preservation. were rapidly advancing. The despatch of August 13th announces the first steps which were taken. that the signature of D'Oubril's treaty gave her but little encouragement to engage with us. that an opportunity arose of setting on foot a correspondence on this subject mth Prince Hardenberg. who as Elector of Hanover was one of the branches of that empire about to be abdication dissolved without liis consent. was framed for the purpose of keeping still in view the old basis of union among its princes and states. would have been ridiculous but to answer the official communication of the fact by expressing on the part of his Majesty. there was an apparent nullity in her neutrality that appeared to us neither creditable nor safe.90 told 5IEM0IE. was. although not a direct protest. My answer to the official note of the Austrian government. on the part of his Majesty. that his Majesty approved it. To protest against the .

She contented herself. . augured well for an advance towards a defensive union. finding the Cabinet of Vienna unmoved by proposals pointing to nothing more distinct than the defence of Bohemia. the 91 wliicli news of arrived at about the same time from St. vailed baffled and the remembrance of old wrongs and confederacies was decisive against entering which were sure to be on the Austrian visited and visited perhaps alone monarchy.MEMOIR. and arriving at Vienna ten into measures. was the moment for Prussia to redespatch Baron Jaco})i to England but other councils prevailed. They will be seen in the despatch of September 7th. It was to no purpose that. overtures to Austria . intercourse already established with Prince Harden- with making but they were of so vague a character that no prudent government could listen to them. waited until that battle was lost. that but a few months before. pre. Petersburg. It could not be forgotten. and thwarted all the effects of the friendly at once This. perhaps. the bane of all useful union. came forward shortly afterwards with more specific declarations such as that she would listen to no terms of accommoberg. and that no further encroachments made on the Austrian terri- Mistrust. Prussia. the failure of — — days before the battle of Austerlitz. therefore. sent as he had been to concert measures with the allies. and grounded on no preliminary re-establishment of confidence between these Powers. to ratify that treaty. All these things were — . dation short of the entire evacuation of or exactions should be tories. and then signed a treaty ^vith Napoleon the very treaty which forced Austria afterwards into that of Presburg. awakened at last to a true sense of her own danger. Germany by the French troops. and as such was frankly and acknowledged at Vienna. the very minister then at the head of the Prussian government.

common de- Neutrality.* It . that warning became exhortation. however. 92 too fresli MEMOIR. conveyed to the minister in my first audience. had not demonstrated to Austria the necessity of considering * Private Letter to Lord Morpeth.. besides which. in her memory to give sense of even true repentance was — then manifested on the part of Prussia it — way at once to a for true it undoubtedly . Fox. although the warning words of Mr. of Hanover was persisted and that Count Hangstill witz and the system of that minister were pre- dominant. the battle of Jena took place. provided that he were now disposed to come forward in earnest. See Appendix. and embark in any plan which might really deserve the name of a common cause. would be unbecoming in this memoir to insinuate that Count Hangwitz had any private views of his own in the advice which he gave to his sovereign at The very contrary was the presumption this crisis. . a mere form of words. became for any of them war or submission could henceforward be the only question with Austria and war itself one only of sooner or later. that was acted upon and efforts were made to remove all prejudices against him grounded on past differences or errors. that previously to affairs. were more frequently and emphatically brought to his recollection. It was not until a later period. It cannot be supposed. did not fail to be remarked that the retention in. But she was left to follow her own impulse and the language of England was still the same. after this event. In the midst of these sad uncertainties. and at one blow broke through all the ligaments by which it yet seemed possible to bind together the states of Europe for their fence. the battle of Jena. In fact. . the general aspect of and even the vagueness of the Prussian overtures.

were. was ready to sustain by arms. both as to danger and the means of defending herself. will be seen to bear on her part the impression of this line of poHcy and in her assumption at length of the mediatorial character. A declaration of her neutrality was communicated consequently to the foreign Powers on the 6th of October. which at one time she . d'Oubril's treaty. she took the place that was due to her remaining greatness. difiiculty of obvious that nothing could exceed the To advance maintaining such a post. her 93 own possible condition. as it then was. from the battle of Jena to the peace of Tilsitt. by one of the most virtuous monarch s that ever reicrned. one step without being able to see where to make a second. as To off"er well as discreditable to her judgment. not to renew war mth France. encouraged her to hold firmly to the purpose which she had announced from the first. But it is mediation immediately after the battle of Jena would have been an attempt to whistle down a storm nor . struction of that monarchy. satisfactory and these. and the degree likewise to which she might rely on the steadiness of the latter power in the miirht occur durino- many turns of fortune that The the continuance of hostilities. it may be presumed. presided over. . so far as they went. on the one hand. in the event of the de- She had to take into account the extent of available succour which might be obtained from England and Russia. The transactions of this second period therefore.MEMOIR. and to the national bent of her government. and England assurances from ratify on the other the refusal to M. namely. nor to endure worse terms than those to which she had consented by the Treaty of Presburg. but on the other hand not to bend to dishonourable exacfairly tions. namely. would have been derogatory to her honour. .

troubles. for inpresented to her view — stance.: 94 MEMOIR. in . seems as some shape or other. and influenced more or less the whole system of our operations from that day until the peace of Tilsitt. but immediately and All these were obpressingly dangerous to herself. and of hostile exactions endangering her independent With Prussia it was that of still unsubexistence. Another racter as if. choice in that of had prescribed to war into which decisive chaIt events seemed to be forcing her. that of amicable. indeed in the tangled skein of public interests then in a state of things. with Russia. was at hand. Her situation relatively to — stacles to action. a " question cT Orient " is ever destined to draw away European statesmen from a steady consideration of their more direct interests and the attentive observer will perceive in what manner the revolution. indeed. it and that of a most soon proved. for her to avoid But seemed scarcely possible Difiiculties much longer taking a direct part in the surrounding began to press upon her from France was from that quarter one of continued insult and vexation. which exhibited Prussia at war with England and France at the same moment. dued distrust but serious remonstrance against projects prejudicial in a general sense to Europe. and were to be removed herself. all sides. affected those interests. which about this time broke out at Constantinople. while they increased its necessity. or before she could either stir a step in the path of peace which she make her obstacle. and England blockading the Prussian ports while Napoleon was marchcould Austria clearly discern her ing upon Berlin own relative situation towards the parties to whom it would be to be offered. It was first necessary for all — of us to get out of this unnatural posture of affairs before any beneficial step could be thought of by her in the way it of pacific interposition.

Arbutlmot. a diversion of the Russian arms from the proper line of their operations in Germany and Poland. Pozzo di Borgo was despatched with a special mission from St. it will appear that the misunderstanding then existing between the two Courts seemed others to be coming to a point and soon afterwards received the account.MEMOIR. 95 from Mr. By the despatch of November 2 2d. written soon after the A despatch army was known at Vienna. which of . authorised Wliether the explanations which he was to give with regard to the occupation . the French amdestruction of the Prussian bassador . To this new cause Court of Vienna must be added the delay on the part of Russia in surrendering the fortress of Cattaro. Petersburg. namely. our ambassador at Constantinople. between Russia and Turkey became scarcely for alarm to the to be avoided. a subject of long and angry remonstrance. not unnaturally excited by this step. therefore. giving an account of an act of contravention on the part of the Porte of their treaties with Kussia by the deposition of the Hospodars of Wallachia and Moldavia reached me about the 24th of October. and to engage her likewise in a decisive interposition in the cause of Europe. or of an endeavour to mediate a general peace. and was transmitted to his Majesty's government.000 men had advanced into Moldavia. In consequence of M. together with my own of that date. as in fact it did produce. To calm the apprehensions of the Court of Vienna. and was intended to produce. the question of a junction with the allies. and even of serious menace. M. This event had been brought about by the successful negociations of General Sebastiani. Pozzo's proposals. again presented itself to Austria. War. we all was the most sure to embitter it. on the part of France. that a Russian army of 40.

Austria to accede to it. the same interests under a general compact the belligerents brought about among by her intervention and under her auspices. of the principalities. The Court Avhich it of Petersburg strenuously pressed for first the adoption of the of these alternatives . * See Despatch No. had accepted it. This of course made it impossible Treaty. was not then so much a point of deliberation in their councils as the comparative expediency of those two courses. and all the parties. a chance was held out of ameliorating their o^vn condition in point of security both in Germany and Italy. until the end of April 1807. at Bartenstein. On the other hand. dated . terrupted summary of them.. together with the proffered guaranty of England* for their future evacuation. December 30. Russia and Prussia negociated between themselves a new They signed a convention alliance against Napoleon. Thus they were at cross-purposes from the first. 1806. when he was ordered to proceed It will be well to give an uninto Constantinople. By the one. Pozzo's arrival in December 1806. Austria had at this time already offered her mediation. the purport of which was nothing less than the entire liberation of Europe and they pressed . including Napoleon himself. ill provided for under the Treaty of Presburg by the other. a hope of securing .96 MEMOIR. were of a nature to satisfy entirely the Court of Vienna. But she preferred mediation and began seriously to set it on foot. for her to accede to the Bartenstein These and other negociations occupy the period from M. 32. But these Powers unfortunately began acting be- fore they fully understood each other's views. in will be seen that Great Britain would have supported Austria had she resolved upon adopting it.

and to the value of her eventual interposition. it will appear that the Emperor Alexander had already signified that he was ready to come into . knew it at the end of February through General Vincent's communication to Talleyrand at Warsaw. as already said." 1806. who was not a man I his advantages. it had long been a matter of confidential communication between the two Cabinets and by the despatch of the 14th of March. " Separate. Napoleon. H . fell in mth both the negociations above noticed. but the events of every day added something to the scale of her influence. 97 to miss or to neglect . us pause for a moment. || Here let —which The of this state of cross purposes. such a measure. saw that the time was arrived in which a step might be taken. From the last of these it imme- although not yet persuaded that Napoleon's distresses were such as to justify a deviation from the prudent course diately after the battle of Eylau. marked The second is in that of the 26th of will appear that February 1807. . is mention of this matter of mediation in a despatch of the 6th of December. and with some hope of success.MEMOIR. This assent on the part of Russia determined Austria to enter upon the matter with all the seriousness • See also Despatch of March 11. Austria. which she had prescribed to herself. towards efi'ecting a general peace. and take a view for such it was literally — led to the final discomfiture of our endeavours .* At Petersburg. to produce a real union first among the three Powers. 1807. She was not indeed in a situation to enforce her mediation on the belligerents. and by complicating them with a proposal of his own rendered them both abortive. Napoleon.. Both Napoleon and Russia were aware of this intended move long before it was ofiicially made.

of our amicable relations with Prussia had given of Prussia of February under pretence of answering a letter from the King 1 7th. of a general negociation and settlement: — England as a party to the and to the future treaty. to propose a congress of all the Powers at war to meet at Memel for a general peace. Apprised by this For this he had great facilities. The above projet was communicated by General Vincent to M. de Talleyrand before the date of my Fifthly. and whose policy never could admit of his entering honestly into a measure grounded on the only motives that could induce Austria to propose it. Napoleon. set himself to counteract this mediation m limine.— 98 that its RIEMOIR. time of the plans for a new concert to Avhich the re-establishment in the preceding month rise. Avere who knew in February that matters coining to this pass. Fourthly. . which had been brought to him by Major Kleist. de Talleyrand as the basis for a general peace : First. Secondly. to be the subject Germany Austria not feeling herself secure under the existence of such a compact as that of the federation of the Rhine. the affairs of left as before the war. importance deserved. Poland to be Thirdly. he sent General Bertrand to the king on the 26th. although the actual offer in regular form was not made until the 3d of April. She instructed accordto oiFer the following ingly her minister at Warsaw terms to M. negociations. the affairs of Turkey to be settled according to the former treaties of the Porte with the Powers at war. the admission of despatch of the 14th of March. If this overture should be agreed to. there was an end of course to the mediation at once if rejected . the affairs of Italy to be equally the subject of revision.

becommg a belligerent. even had his congress been agreed to there were ahvays ways enough for him to get out of It. ix p 3.his enemies were always in his favour.95 2 . or by any direct engagement to join us in the event of its feilure Besides this. his expectations. and Turkey as Ms ally. who might indeed have consented. each other.MEMOIJl. Austria had no intention of If rejected simply. 99 and the treaty for a concert concluded. how resolved soever the Court of ^ lenna might be to follow it up to his Prussian Majesty.* gress. 1 his he weU knew never would be achnitted by ixussia. he stood only where he was before. The dehberations at the head-quarters of the allies on the comparative expediency of a mediation or of a con- The event answered were governed necessarily by the comparative * See Memoires d'un Homme II d'Etat. had not been accompanied either by an increased demonstration of force. proposed to its consequences. vol. as she did afterwards under the first article of the Austrian re-es- That his proposal must be was sure from the beginning. The proposal of a congress that should admit England -thus On -was in itself sufficiently plau. well knowing that from a mediator. but who never could consent to her being received into the "'"''''^^''^^-^^ ""' to a peace with Turkey tabhsh their former treaties mth which should *^'^ FraZe'"'' ^^^^ ^^^^ confederate of revolutionary France sible to appearing to renounce the whole forei-n system of the other hand. there was equaly an end to it that way. the chances of peri^lexin. rejected. PWt however he "All" the Powers at war included Turkey. as may be seen by the very letter in which he it embarrass at least any scheme for mediation especially as that measure.

The resume of this diplomatic transaction. in its knoAvn and apparent facts. of which the object has already been stated. to try the ground in that quarter. Napoleon sends General Bertrand to the King of Prussia to propose a congress for a general peace and he instructs the General. For while he was weighing the nature of his difficulties. and who was acquainted from the first with the Russian mediatorial plan of the Court of Vienna. for a purpose within the reach of prudence. without Austrian assistance. namely. — for ex- the defeat of a congress through the possible travagance of Napoleon's demands. So they resolved upon a course of their own. may be given in a few words : — On reeling the 26th of February. to be prepared for the failure of both it seems. the being forced by the allies. and for the unsupported as it yet was by any concentration of the Austrian armies. in passing through the lines. to accept such terms as this convention prescribed. but which there existed at that time no practical means of carrying into effect. chances of arriving through the one or the other at the great result. to accept the far more favourable ones of the mediation. and considering which of the two events he had most to fear. namely. or the being forced by a inefficiency of a mediation confederacy. This was a deathblow to the mediation. But instead of adopting either. the preponderating party in these councils. substituted another.. and while he was yet under the blow which he had received at Eylau. he could have desired nothing better than a result which. and entered into a convention at Bartenstein. they determined. a safe and honourable peace. Russia. great no doubt and laudable in itself. and just such a conclusion to it as Napoleon could wish. including Austria. had her . 100 JIEMOIR.

cared little for the convention of Bartenstein. 101 choice on this 2r)th of February as to which of the two measures she would absolutety for neither. She dechired She rejected the congress (although not without discussing some points in the proposal). Their dates correspond with his inferences. by bringing forward an inadmissible pretention with regard to the Porte. and entered into a treaty with Prussia for prosecuting the war confederacy. After this. . she accepted the mediation. on the other hand. It will be for history to work out the whole truth from the opposing narratives of contemporaries. she threw away the mediation while Napoleon on his side. Endeavouring to make a belligerent of Austria. should.MEMOIR. have taken a tone more in the difficulties in which the new convention had placed him. accordance with in a subsequent explanation with myself. No. sensible that in laying down so broad a basis for his mediation as that which we have been considering. and on a re-perusal of his despatches. favour. and entrenched himself behind the Treaty of Presburg. The despatch.. 39. but invited Austria to join the new Thus she fell of herself into the snare. will explain and account for a change which had become inevitable when tlie two Powers on whom he relied had repudiated his pro- n 3 . effectually prevented the formation of the congress which he had oifered and he . dated 29th May. so long it. it was not to be wondered at that the Austrian minister. such appears to him view of these communications between the Courts and head-quarters of the respective parties. . 1807. he had advanced too far in the line to be the true now of hostile intervention to make it safe for him to re- main there without support. as Austria did not join Such appeared to the author at the time.

to war it must inevitably lead. deux lievres a la fois"* produces nothing but disThus it was. and try again for an alliance. In advancing so far as to propose the five articles. him any other to which injustice own country he could accede. months and a battle left Europe a wreck It was no part of the duty of an English minister. Making up her mind to that result. There can be no doubt that either the mediation or an alliance ought to have been the sole object in view. Austria well knew that if a negociation upon them were seriously entered upon. Pozzo and himself. and after it but that " Courir the two could not be pursued together. Here it may surely be permitted to give way to a sentiment of regret for this termination of a proceeding from which great and decisive advantages might have resulted.A. Having already made up her mind to . the parties to the Bartenstein convention might have seen that such a result could only be reached through this mediation. to discourage the accession of Austria to an alhance.— 102 posal without offering to his ! MEMOIR. whatever he might think of the comparative merits of the two plans. cemented and guarantied as this would have been by a close union with England. the mode in question which she should be advised to act became a far different from that of pushing her into head-foremost a new struggle by means of promises and subsidies. the substance of which had been so repeatedly urged upon her both by M. her accession to a confederacy. . however. R. and three traction and fatigue. If it was wise to reject Napoleon's offer of a congress. the time as well as to the necessity of acting. offered to her a fairer prospect of security than a continued submission to demands which diminished more and more every day her * Count Stadion's own words to me.

Fox's discretionary instructions. and cut off from all communication with what was still unoccupied of the Prussian dominions. Count Stadion was hunself a man who with the most pacific personal inclinations could well understand that the boldest counsels are not always the most dangerous. the Porte would be far more safe than if her fate were left to depend either on the wavering determination of Napoleon or the unfettered policy of the Court of Petersburg. an attempt was made to relieve them by raising a sum of money for that purpose at Vienna. Even her doubts with regard to Turkey would have been resolved for the Austrian Cabinet was too well acquainted with England not to be assured that while we made part of such a confederacy. After the battle of Jena the progress of her armies was unresisted. It was a question . H 4 . therefore for herself to decide independently of foreign counsel. Those valuable possessions were totally unprovided with the means of defence. but seemed to be justifiable in an emergency so unexpected as that which had sian Majesty occurred. in the critical position of Napoleon between the battles of Eylau and Friedland. 103 effective means of self-defence. Appendix. not unworthy of the serious deliberation of her statesmen. it may be added. Other parts of this correspondence give an account of the endeavour to save the Silesian fortresses from falling into the hands of France. it was proposed provisionally. them the consent of course of his Prus- and on her refusal. Under these circumstances.* It is right here to declare that this last proceeding was wholly without the participation or even know* See Correspondence with Lord Hutchinson. What was done on these two occasions was a stretch. to Austria to take possession of -svith . all and one. undoubtedly.MEMOIR. of Mr.

we were equally re- solved to maintain the integrity of the Turkish dominions. The suspension of our dij)lomatic relations with the Austrian government rendered that measure indispensable. consequently. and the failure. materially influenced the deliberations in the councils of ledge of the Austrian ministers. for the payment of the allowances to the disbanded officers of the Condean army.104 MEMOIR. Austria. enough will be seen as be matter of surprise that. p. as it will be seen. it became important that she should be tranquiUised as to the steps intended to be taken by Great Britain. and the true causes of its failure. of the great purpose which the expedition he com- manded was we go on. Of the deep injury to the public cause produced afterwards by Admiral Duckworth's retreat from before Constantinople. of the second . Hobhouse's Travels in Albania. Marks of confidential as * For a history of edition. and. just before my departure from Vienna.* It will not sent out to eifect. this expedition. 1111. In such a crisis. although restoration of the old treaties. The Turkish declaration of war against Russia on the 27th of December forms another link in the chain of the transactions of that eventful month. Equally so was an arrangement entered into with the house of Arnstein and Eskeles. The news of it arrived at Vienna at a most awkward time for the public interests. see Sir J. amicable and was the general tenor of our intercourse. C. and that she should diswe were determined to support our ally in her just demand for the tinctly be assured that. occasions arose on which the minister exhibited dissatisfaction at the earnestness with which he was urged by England to take a more decided course in support of a cause which we thought to be quite as much that of Austria as that of our ally.

but end it at once. of anticipated recrimination . to act in the best way they could for the execution of their instructions. 105 danelles which after the retreat from the Darbecame a very general one at Vienna. for instance. Some private letters of the ministers at those Courts. this feeling.MEMOIK. as the not sending expeditions. as it were. considered at Vienna to be even offensive. in which she rejected the mediation and the second by an official declaration through her ambassador that. appear this occasionally in correspondence. there accused us of all imaginable wrongs — and everywhere. and above all of evincing no sympathy. make During much of this period the direct commuEngland and Vienna having been interrupted. not that it was our duty to carry on the Avar mth vigour. For their sakes they pretended. On this last occasion the public discouragement had reached its height. the other hand. The first exhibited her discontent by the terms. the refusal of Austria to accede to the Bartenstein treaty was not more favourably On viewed by either Prussia or Russia. and dehver up our conquests. who. will show the course pursued by them respectively in promotinowhat they knew to be the system of their government . unless Austria . saw no inducement to conand who in the spirit. according to their fancy. it was necessarily left to the King's servants at that capital and at Petersburg and nications between the Prussian head-quarters. Russia must the best terms that she could for herself. together with the public ones now printed. such. here. with the suffering nations of the Continent. make peace. would consent to join the allies. That unlocked for disaster strengthened more than ever a party. as they said. since the cession of the tinue the old connection with England Netherlands to France.

106 MEMOIE. with Turkey and soon afterwards.* It was on the 5th of April. that on the final failure of that mission M. Lord Hutchinson. it was notified to me that Lord Pembroke had been appointed ambassador to the Court of Vienna. and Mr. The object of our endeavours was still the same. with the Marquis of Douglas. * Correspondence Leveson. from the time at which this notification was received until the 15th of July. Pozzo was ordered to proceed to Constantinople to make peace. Stuart. . Lord Granville Appendix. on the change of ad. The matters contained in the despatches. 1807. if possible. . are in substance the same as will be found in those of May and June. when they were discontinued in conse- quence of his Lordship's arrival. namely. ministration in England. to prevail on Austria to join us until the accounts brought by Lord Pembroke of the total defeat of the Russian army at Friedland put an end to all solicitation on that subject. and gave no hope of engaging her co-operation by other means. Pozzo in his mission. and also the steps which were taken at Vienna to assist M.

Sir. Vienna. &c. J. Fox. ultimo. 1806. Mr. Courvoisier. and delivered me your despatch of the 14th.CORRESPONDENCE. Fox. Adair to the Right Hon. d'Oubril having left Vienna only on the 23d is no reason to expect any accounts . Vienna. I have the honour to be. I HAVE this Emperor. Mr. July 3. &c. C. I shall send back the messenger after the arrival of your next despatches. M. Adair to the Right Hon. Vienna. Sir. I am informed that Lord Yarmouth was at Paris on the 18th instant. Adair to the Right Hon. which you give me reason to expect by Count Starhemberg's courier. have the honour to be. C. Fox. there M. have received from Sir Arthur Paget the I correspondence^ and ciphers. Sir. J. to I whom day had my first audience of the I had the honour of presenting official his Majesty's letter. 1806. C. I HAVE the honour of informing you that the mes- senger. June 13. June 28. Mr. 1806. J. arrived here on the 26th instant. d'Oubril left Vienna on the 23d.



for some days. When they arrive I will send off a messenger without delay with whatever information M. d'Oubril may communicate to me,

from him



the result of the conference I propose

again to have with Count Razamoffsky, on the points

contained in the note verhale delivered to Lord Granville

Leveson Gower.

be material for his now acquaint you that until we hear from M. d'Oubril, I have no hope of learning from Count Razamoffsky the sentiments of his Court, with regard to any of the points which
Majesty's service, that I should

In the mean time


Majesty's ministers consider



objects for

In our demand of Hanover and Malta, he assures me that Russia "will support us and with regard to Dalmatia, he teUs me that Russia can never agree to its remaining in the hands of France. I understand further, that it is intended to propose to France that it shall be erected into an independent state. The silence of Count Razamoffsky on the other
negociation, except Dalmatia.

points, viz. Naples, the

King of

Sardinia, the Inde-

pendence of the Ottoman Porte, &c. &c., I can attribute to only one or the other of the two following either he is ignorant of the determination causes: of the Russian Cabinet, or the Russian Cabinet itself

has come to none. To this latter oj^inion I am inclined to adhere, as in the course of my conversations with

have pressed to know Avhether he was or to discuss with me the different articles of the note verhale, so as that we might send a joint instruction to M. d'Oubril upon them, he has constantly replied that he must wait until he receives despatches from M. d'Oubril before he can answer



was not authorised



I think


duty further to inform you that the

erection of Dalmatia into an independent state, asso-

ciated (as the intention


supposed to be) with the republic of the Seven Islands, or any arrangement which may bring Russia so near the Austrian frontier, Court. will be viewed with extreme jealousy by this may powers^ belUgerent the It is wished here that
consent to its being given to the King of Sardinia. * * * I have received no accounts from Constantinople of the state of affairs in that quarter but from what Count Razamoffsky tells me, the fuither

passage of troops through the Dardanelles has been It is strongly his opinion, and forbidden to Russia. state it to you, that the apto he has desired me

would pearance of an Enghsh squadron in those seas of the councils have a most beneficial effect upon the vigorously on Porte, if it be the intention to act
that side.

Assistance from England in represented to me as highly necessary.





notification of the evacuation of Cattaro has

reached the government here consequently the embargo on Enghsh and Russian ships still continues at
the ports of Trieste and Fiume. I have the honour to be, &c.

Mr. Adair



Right Hon. C. J. Fox.
Vienna, July 13. I8O6.




duty to inform you that on Thursfrom the nth instant, I received accounts


Lord Yarmouth, dated the 2d, relating to the proI commujected changes in the Germanic Empire. and Stadion Count to nicated them immediately both

Count Razamoffsky. M. d'Oubril not having reached Paris on the 2d, and it appearing to me, under all the circumstances, that



the information was of a nature to make it necessary that it should be known at St. Petersburg with all

convenient speed, I sent off an estaffette to Lord G. L. Gower with a copy of Lord Yarmouth's despatch.

have the honour to

be, &c.

Mr. Adair

to the

Right Hon. C. J. Fox.
Vienna, July 20.



As Mr. Morier is going on immediately to England with his despatches, I take this opportunity of informing you that difficulties are still made on the
part of the Russian governor at Cattaro in respect
to the delivery

up of that

place to the Austrians.


particular he wants to take such a position with his

troops as


impossible for the French to

from the Austrians without coming to an

action with the Russian and Montenegrin forces.

The Austrian ministers

This conduct has produced the worst effects here. are alarmed, and "with reason,
the French in revenge should take possession of

Fiume and Count Stadion informed me, but in the strictest confidence, that orders had been given to the Austrian general who commanded the
Trieste and

troops sent to receive the fortress of Cattaro, to use
force to

get possession of


if his


should any longer be evaded. I have the honour to be, &c.
P. S.

— A courier from M.


mth despatches
to St. Peters-

of the 11th from Paris, arrived here yesterday, and

was sent on in a few hours afterwards burg by Count Razamoffsky.



Mr. Adair

to the

Right lion. C. J. Fox.
Vienna, August 2. 1806.


you that on Tuesday the 29th ultuno, I received accounts from Lord Yarmouth informing me that a separate peace had been signed between Russia and France on the 20th

HAVE the honour

to acquaint

by M. d'Oubril and General



the same day, although by a different channel, received information of its having been Lord
his full

Yarmouth's intention to produce
the 21st.

powers on

of importance to his Majesty's service of that no time should be lost in communicating facts Paso much importance to his Majesty's ministers at



lermo and Constantinople, and likewise to the conimander-in-chief of his Majesty's fleets in the Mediterranean, I forwarded the inteUigence without delay, together with the articles agreed upon, to Mr. Ar-

buthnot, Mr. Elhott, and Sir Sidney Smith. same time, If in acquainting them, as I did at the would with my opinion that the British government Sicily of surrender the for accede to no proposition duties the of hne France I went beyond the strict

excused entrusted to me at this Court, I hope to be when the following reasons for my so acting are considered

advices from England left me no reason determination. to doubt that such was his Majesty's therefore Lord Yarmouth's instructions



not to produce his

powers unless the demand of with the fact of Sicily were renounced by France, appeared his intention to produce them on the 21st, it more than probable that France had desisted from

such pretensions.

But on the other hand, the




signed by M, cl'Oubril, added to the fact of a negociation opened just afterwards by us (both of

which events were sure to be known at Vienna, and to be represented by the French mission in whatever manner they might think fit), gave but too much countenance to the opposite conclusion, and to aU the fears and irresolution which the belief of it


calculated to inspire.

it appeared to be of the utmost importance to his Sicilian Majesty's affairs not to suffer the



suspicion to obtain credit


his sub-

jects in that quarter, that Great Britain

would aban-

don them to France. In this opinion I am confirmed by the Sicilian minister at this Court, who, since the
circumstance of the separate peace and secret article has been divulged, urges me to make the most forcible representation to his Majesty's

government upon

the subject, and to implore from his Majesty prompt and efficacious succours, and an energetic declaration
of the continuance of his friendly dispositions.

Thirdly, after the fullest

and most confidential

explanations with Count Razamoff'sky, I perceive that



of opinion with me, that in acceding to the terms

any terms -without the conM. d'Oubril has exceeded his powers. Independently of M. d'Oubril's assurances to us both upon this head, Count Razamoffsky asserts it
in question, or indeed to

sent of Great Britain,

to be a fundamental principle of Russian policy that


shall not continue in the hands, or


the influence of France.

AVhat may have been offered to Russia by way of compensation for Dalmatia, or what secret instructions may have been given to M. d'Oubril, are matters, I am satisfied, entirely unknown to Count Razamofi'sky. I beg, however, to refer you to my private letter of the 18th of June, and to submit whether there be not some reason to apprehend, that notwith-



standing the article of guaranty to the Ottoman Porte, an accession of territory on the side of Moldavia mav be the price of this extraordinary proceeding.

Accounts have been received of M. d'Oubril's having passed through Frankfort on his way to He had not thought St. Petersburg on the 25th. proper at that time to communicate any part of his transactions to Count RazamofFsky, not even the fact
of his having signed preliminaries of peace. I am not informed of the resolutions of this Court

respecting the

intended changes in the Germanic Empire, but from all I can gather, it appears to be that of submission. The march of French troops in different directions alarms them, but they seem equally
to dread having recourse even to the show of defensive I have reason to believe that upon the measures.

some very angry representations have lately been made by France; but it is hoped that the signature of the Russian preliminaries wiU
subject of Cattaro,

reheve Austria as well as Germany for the present. I have the honour to be, &c.

Mr. Adair

to the

Bight Hon. C. J. Fox.
Vienna, August



a despatch which Count Razamoffsky has just received from M. d'Oubril, dated Berlin, July 28., and which contains the only information which the


Count has received of his proceedings at Paris since the 11th of that month, it appears that in signing the

of a


peace with France, M.

d'Oubril not only transgressed his instructions, but that there is reason to think he has exceeded his




M. d'Oubril's despatch is rather an apology for his conduct than a justification of it under any existing necessity. He states the danger to which the House of Austria was exposed by the hostile preparations of the French in Germany as one of liis reasons for hastening to sign what was pressed upon him; and that another motive was his hope that by so doing he should accelerate the maritime peace. He states himself to be thoroughly aware of the responsibility to which his conduct has exposed him, and that he is proceeding "svith all despatch to St. Petersburg to explain the motives of it, and to receive his punishment if he should have offended. The articles which he has sent to Count Razamoffsky differ materially in two points from those which Lord Yarmouth communicated to me, and which I therefore conclude that his Lordship has transmitted to England. There is no pro\'ision in them, notmthstanding the danger with ^vhich M. d'Oubril appears to think the House of Austria is threatened (and with which it really is threatened), for the immediate evacuation of the Germanic empire. That measure is not to take
months after the definitive treaty between Russia and France. The secret article concerning the King of Naples expresses that the Balearic Islands, which it is proposed to obtain from Spain to serve as an indemnity

until three

for the cession of Sicily, are to be given with the title



to the hereditary Prince Francis

his pre-

sent Majesty to be provided for as

may be.

It likewise

stipulates that the ports of those islands shall be shut

against English vessels during the war.

These transactions of M. d'Oubril are of a nature
to inspire such a mistrust of the conduct



ments of the Court of


Petersburg, that I should

not think myself justified were I to omit sending you




the earHest advices of a fact so material as that of his


having acted in direct defiance of his instructions, and contradiction to his own most positive declarations, both to Count Razamoffsky and myself, while he was

at Vienna and as his whole conduct has been sucli, as to furnish a considerable degree of doubt whether

he has communicated to Count StrogonofF the proceedings of which I here send you an account, I think It expedient to forward it to England by a special messenger.

dated July 21., in which he says that he had seen Count de Budberjr, the new minister, who had expressly assured him that no change of system had taken place, either with regard to the Court of Naples or that of Great

Count Razamoffsky is firmly persuaded that his Court, notwithstanding the change in its administration, will not ratify the treaty in confirmation of which opinion I may add the authority of a despatch received by the Commander Ruftb from the Neapohtan imnister, at St. Petersburg,


their several relations to that of St. PetersI


have the honour to

be, &c.

mto an aUiance with him and the Court of Copenhagen and the Elector of Hesse Cassel, to defend
against the consequences of the French proceedings in

P. S. I conclude that Mr. Wynne has informed you that M. de Goertz had arrived at Dresden from the of Prussia, with proposals to the Elector to enter







Mr. Adair

to the

Right Hon. C. J. Fox.
Vienna, August 9. I8O6.

Is with great concern that I transmit to you the copy of a conmiunication which has this day been made to me by Count Stadion, of the Emperor having abdicated his dignity as head of the Germanic empire. I enclose hkewise a copy of the Act of abdication. Count Stadion having mentioned the intention of


formally notifying this event to his Majesty's govern-

ment through Count Starhemberg, his note appeared to require no other answer from me than that which
I enclose to you.

I have the

honour to

be, &c.

Inclosure B.

Mr. Adair


Count Stadion.

Le Soussigne, ministre plenipotentiaire de S. M. Britannique, a regu la communication que le Ministre des Affaires Etrangeres a bien voulu lui faire de I'acte
par lequel S. M. I. R. Apostolique se demet de sa dignite de chef de I'Empire Germanique, et de la Couronne Imperiale y annexee. En temoignant au ministre le vif regret dont cette notification I'a penetre, le Soussign^ n'a d' autre vue que celle de donner a son Excellence une nouvelle preuve des sentimens amicales du Roi son maitre en vers I'auguste Maison dAutriche, et d'exprimer en meme tems I'interet qu'il ne cessera jamais de prendre, tant connne Roi d'Angleterre que comme Electeur d'Hanovre, a tout ce qui regarde le salut de I'Empire Germanique et I'independance generale de I'Europe.

a Vienne_, ce
9- d'Aout,

Soussign^, &c. &c.


Robert Adair.




Mr. Adair


Mr. Secretary Fox.
Vienna, August 9- I8O6.


Finding that no communication had been made to the Austrian government of a circumstance which eventually may turn out of so much importance to its interests as that of M. d'Oubril's having transgressed








Russia, I have

confidentially imparted
It is

the fact to
ratifying the

Count Stadion.
the event of the

not difficult to foresee that in

Emperor Alexander not

endeavour to attack him on the side of Poland, and that the war re-commencing on the northern and southern frontiers of Austria, her Under neutrality may not be of very long duration. it appeared circumstances, to me that these possible the Austrian government could not take too early a moment to consider of the conduct they will have to pursue. I have urged, therefore, in the strongest manner their most serious deliberations upon these

have the honour to

be, &c.

Mr. Adair


Mr. Secretary Fox.
Vienna, August 11. I8O6.


I HAD the honour of receiving your despatch dated the 28th of July, on Saturday last the 9tli instant. I lost no time in executing the instructions it



in a

few days


hope to send you a

satisfactory account of the result.

By my

despatch of the

4tli instant,


I sent

by Courvoisier


reasons therein






perceive that the suspicion respecting


d'Oubril's having transgressed his instructions both
in signing separately,

and in signing what he

did, is

I have already acquainted you that on the 11th of July I wrote to Lord Granville Leveson Gower, informing him of the meditated changes in the Germanic Empire, and enclosing the heads of the plan, such as they were sent to me by Lord Yarmouth. ]My letter would have reached him on the 25th; and the contents of it, added to Count Razamoffsky's despatch of the 29th, on which day I informed him of the separate peace and secret article, mil, I trust, produce the effect of confirming the Emperor Alexander in his good dispositions towards the common cause before M. d'Oubril will have arrived at St. Petersburg. I have the satisfaction of informing you that nothing can be more fair, confidential, and cordial, than the manner in which Count Razamoffsky co-operates with me in all my endeavours to obey his Majesty's commands. I have the honour to be, &c.


beg to be permitted to correct a mistake No. 10., in respect to the period fixed in the treaty with Russia for the evacuation of Germany. I had understood from Count Razamoffsky, that it Avas three months after the signature of the definitive treaty. It appears by the copy you have sent me, to be three months after the signature of the


my despatch


Mr. Adair


Mr. Secretary Fox.
Vienna, August 11. I8O6.



Pope's nuncio at this Court has been with day to communicate to me the important


in case of refusal or hesitation. For the present I can believe them to be no other than such as he has himself declared in his answer to Bonaparte. his Holiness had mth becoming dignity and spirit rejected the demand. The nuncio detailed to me the conversation between Bonaparte and Cardinal Caprara. at Paris.CORRESPONDENCE. at which this requisition was made. It is to reach his Majesty's be feared that. I 4 . of instantaneously dispossessing his Holiness of all his dominions. he would be received in them with every mark of reverence and respect. namely. I have the honour to be. &c. the menace will have been executed. putting at her disposal all his fortresses. on the 3d of July. he will not put himself in a state of war with a power from which he has experienced none but the most friendly dispositions and I did acts. 119 formation that upon the peremptory requisition of Bonaparte to his Holiness the Pope to sign a treaty with France. before this intelligence can government. that as head of a religion whose principle is peace. as well during the present as in every future war with Great Britain. Under the circumstances stated not hesitate in assuring him that to me by the nuncio. accompanied with the menace. amounts to a resignation of his dominions. and excluding us from all his ports. if events should compel his Holiness to seek a temporary asylum in countries under the protection of the British arms. I shall inform myself more particularly of the motives which have induced his Holiness to adopt a determination which. in the present circumstances of Europe.

Adair to Mr. I can obtain no positive information of the state of their forces. d'Oubril's treaty. a question on which I have never ceased pressing the few persons to whom I can open myself at this Court to come to an eventual resolu- — . I have had some explanations with Count Stadion. which are important. Mr. or the degree of preparation in which they are to resist an attack. and should France in that case call upon them to declare for or against her. in which his Imperial Majesty had received a summons equally peremptory. Count Stadion proceeded to explain to me. After showing tAveen me the notes which had passed beminister. Vienna. de la Rochefoucault. as to the part they will take. first to — together with the Emperor's refusal to be the take that step among the great powers. Sir. The great question which may speedily arise.120 CORRESPONDENCE. August 13. but Count Stadion assures me they are very forward. him and the French upon the subject of his Imperial ]\Iajesty's resignation of his dignity as Emperor of Germany and likewise the note from M. namely. Secretary Fox. inasmuch as they have enabled me to ascertain more distinctly the system of the Austrian Court under the present circumstances.000 men the army on which they can depend. the course which his Imperial Majesty in- tended to pursue in future. In consequence of the instructions contained in your despatch of July 28th. I have another account. to acknowledge Joseph Bonaparte as King of Naples and Sicily. I8O6. which reduces to 130. but in the strictest confidence. should the Emperor Alexander not i^atify M. however.

Sir. &c. Sir. &c. and It is soon to speak further with me upon the subject. upon property throughout the hereditary states. to enable them to raise a loan upon it in England. perhaps. to urge them occasion shall arise (and of this Count RazamofFsky will be the fittest judge). of Austria herself as for that of the to com- municate to us. Vienna. Vienna^ August 13. Secretary Fox. 1806. Count Stadion caught eagerly at the suggestion. moment but when the this too early. I have the honour to be. which. that if this tax could be collected without difii- and be made a settled part of the Austrian means might possibly be found in a case of war. M7\ Adair to Mr. indeed. it is obviously as much for the interest allies. Immediately on the receipt of your despatch of the which arrived on the 20th instant. 121 Just at — does not yet appear it is to be decided. resource. revenue.CORRESPONDENCE. tion. August 23. I have thrown out. Secretary Fox. in conversation with Count Stadion. may become of importance that I should be authorised to inform them how far they may count upon such a culty. 1806. I have the honour to be. it appears to be the intention to lay a tax of 10 per cent. I propose in concert with him to press for further explanations. I waited . In the distressed condition of the Austrian finances. Adair to Mr. Mr. 8th.

which contain a direct and formal disavowal by the Emperor Alexander of all M. d'Oubril. clares. who communicated to me without reserve the whole of his advices both public and private from Count Strogonoff. Directions have been sent to all the Russian commanders to pay no attention to M. Talleyrand. that even on these terms he will sign no peace until the state of war between Great Britain and France shall have ceased. If fortunately any further delay should have occurred. and notifying to France. in a note which the Emperor has ordered to be presented to M. surrendered. except the following conditions be included in it The total evacuation of Dalmatia and Albania by that Sicily (at least) shall remain to its France sovereign. the measures which have just been taken will save are hopes of its and at aU events there it being recovered almost as soon as . . that that fortress is already in the hands of the French. It is with great satisfaction that I have now the honour of informing you that Count RazamoiFsky has just received despatches from St. declaring that he had exceeded both his instructions and his powers.122 COKRESPONDENCE. Petersburg. Petersburg. that Russia will listen to no terms of peace. Count Eazamoffsky had already expedited the order for the surrender of Cattaro to General Bellegarde. Count Razamoffsky had already received advices from : — . but to consider everything he had done as null and void. of the 12th instant. and that the King of Sardinia should receive something to indemnify him for the loss of his The Emperor further deterritory on the continent. refusing absolutely to ratify the preliminaries. It is to be apprehended therefore. d'Oubril's transactions at Paris. In consequence of most positive injunctions received but a short time before from St. on Count EazamofFsky.

but that he considered the information as a mere stratagem of the enemy. affairs. Mr. that all would be forgotten if she would come fairly forward but he has no means of discovering the ulterior objects of this counter-federation. nor . 123 Admiral Seniavin. I will not fail again to impress upon this Court a serious view of its situation. stating that he had heard of M. I have the honour to be. Petersburg will create. relative to this latter Power. He has already given PiTissia to understand. Sir. nor to repeat the generous offer of his Majesty. 1805. have led me to think that the private intimation in your despatch of July 28.h whom a matter so difficult as that of inducinsf Prussia to do anything displeasing to France. indeed. Adair to Mr. d'Oubril's preliminaries. &c. who commands in the Adriatic. * * * however.. and above all the apparently serious dispositions of Prussia to secure herself ao-ainst similar treatment. d'Oubril's having signed. does not seem to me to be precisely the person throu". Vienna^ August 23. Secretary Fox. The general aspect of whether Count Hangwitz has or has not any secret .CORRESPONDENCE. to whom I gave the hint as directed by you. can be negociated. if that case should occur which you point at in your despatch of July 28. might be used in such a manner as to produce the most beneficial consequences. the rejection by Russia of M. In the new situation of affairs '^vhich this decisive conduct of the Court of St. a renewal of hostilities upon a more extended scale may mth certainty be anticipated. the vexations of France renewed and extended over this unhappy country.

I shall' request your particular instructions how to proceed further. Count Stadion acknowledges himself to be quite in the dark respecting the transaction viewed on this side. Mr. Wynne induce me to suspect that all is not fair in the Prussian proposals. therefore. He knows every step of the ground on which such an operation would be con- . means might be found of reconciling such If you dispositions very greatly with her interests. more especially as we have the fact before us of a large French army on her frontiers. having presented itself. I have had it intimated to him that if I could be sure that these movements of Prussia proceeded from a real change of system with regard to France. through a channel secure and unsuspected. I views of his own in setting it on foot. Sir. An opportunity. recapture of it. will naturally become one of the first military objects of the allies. and nothing done by it to interrupt the project. I have the honour to be. Vienna. August 23. If the measures already in train for the retention of the fortress of Cattaro should prove too late. &c.124 COREESPONDENCE. approve of what I have done. has at a plan for attacking the enemy in that quarter. 180&. Some late conununications with Mr. Secretary Fox. my request drawn up general ofiicer of most distinguished merit. the together with the expulsion of the French from Dalmatia and Albania. and likewise that you would send me an abstract of those parts of the treaty of Potsdam which it may be advisable to attempt renewing. A whom I see occasionally. and but very privately. of opening a correspondence with Count Hardenberg. Adair to Mr.

This fortunate delay may. in a great measure. No. and every little island. which have recently been taken wiU. Secretary Fox. stating that the Russian commander had positively refused to surrender that fortress. but from a quarter which renders it equally authentic. notwithstanding all the temptations and even threats of Bonaparte to induce him to join the allied . The measures I trust. especially the Bishop. Sir. the French could not maintain ation. although not to any great extent. I HAVE the honour of informing you that official accounts were yesterday received from Cattaro. September 3. and that the Elector of Hesse Cassel had signed the treaty of counter-federation. the ^Montenegrins were properly supported." the other. 125 rock. from one end of the coast to the other. that themselves long in Dahnatia.COKRESPONDENCE. ducted. He is very sanguine in his expectif. mitted to me. dated August 15th. the retention of that important post. under that of " operations mihtaires. or position. 1.. secure My information is not from Count Stadion. 2. in addition to the other measures he recommends. No. Pecuniary means. are essentially I enclose necessary to this object.. be ascribed to General Lauriston having insisted receiving it upon only from the Austrians. the you two memorials which he has transfirst. From Count Stadion I learn that a large Prussian force is assembhng in Saxony. Adair to Mr." I have the honour to be. Mr. Vienna. 1806. &c. whether for land or naval attack. under the title of " Memoire raisonne.

still Count Stadion. and it be of a nature to include all the smaller states of northern Germany in a reIt ciprocal guaranty of their respective possessions. with great anxiety this point. I find Powers of the Rhine. in order your further instructions upon far I to know how may follow up the step I mentioned having taken in No. they will venture nothing. or by offering her some further exchanges or accessions of territory. in case she could be brought to act for the common for cause. Bonaparte will find the means of accommodating his diiFerences with Prussia. even the most distant. . 1. reluctant to make any. I have the honour to be. appears to me that this will afford some test of its to find out whether future objects. as a compensation for Sicily. and are ready to sacrifice all their just causes of resentment if they could see any reasonable prospect of inducing her to act a firm and decided part. therefore. communication to Prussia of our dispositions towards that Court. Count Stadion is himself thoroughly impressed with this opinion. I wait. But while Count Hangwitz is minister. &c. The belief is general among them that upon hearing of the non-ratification of the Russian preliminaries. his ministers are perfectly The Emperor and all towards Prussia. well disposed my last despatch marked separate. however. more especially as the present armaments of to procure a Prussia are against the wishes of Count Hangwitz.126 CORRESPONDENCE. particularly as T know that the Hanse Towns were at one time proposed to be given to the King of Naples. I will endeavour in the mean time copy of the treaty signed by the Elector of Hesse. either by guaranteeing Hanover to that Power.

Vienna. I have no further information to send you respecting the Northern league. As it is possible that my messenger who is charged with despatches for the India Company may arrive in England before the post of the 3d inst. there prevails . in concert mth Count RazamofFsky. in the event of their de- manding it. that the object of them went to nothing further than the defence of Bohemia. that an Austrian courier arrived here on the 2d from Cattaro. 1806. I will re-state for the information of his Majesty's govern- ment. September 7. however. to remove as far as may relate to such a proposal the mistrust which prevails among the Austrian ministers. Secretary Fox. the proposition so limited has not tempted this Court to alter its system. so feel to attack Russia. I have been given to understand. which place he left on the 15th ultimo. as to render it impossible to listen to them. that I shaU myself justified in endeavouring. nor produced any more favourable impression of the ulterior views of the Cabinet of Berlin. this to the would be an object of much importance common cause.. Sir. that Cabinet could be induced to If. Propositions have been made directly by Prussia to this Court. with an account that the Russian commander had then positively refused to deliver up that fortress to the French. but they were of so vague a nature. 127 Mr. of every thing coming from Count Hangwitz. -support Austria in refusing the passage of French troops through Bohemia.CORRESPONDENCE. As this is considered to be an object in which the immediate interests of Prussia are nearly as much concerned as those of Austria. Adair to Mr. By what I learn from Count Stadion.

nothing on the 2d of September and with regard to what the Elector of Hesse Cassel has signed. It may become of the greatest importance that I should be enabled to state. you will be sensible that I require the means of speaking somewhat more explicitly than your Instruction of July 28th I more than appears to authorise me to do. Count : Stadion is still unacquainted with it. upon an emergency. and considerable magazines are forming in Moravia. Secretary Fox. he replied. Vienna. frank and explicit communication of the treaty but whether this or any other suggestion will be attended to. Adair to Mr. an equal degree of mistrust of Prussia in the councils That prince had signed of the Elector of Saxony. as I have reason to know that General Andressy has endeavoured to induce this government to reduce its army. I suggested to him the necessity of his requiring from Prussia a . I received Sir Francis Vincent's despatch dated August 29th. is can venture to promise. The preparations of Austria are in a state of some forwardness. The language of Bonaparte towards Austria has of . September 13. the views and sentiments of his Majesty. In pursuing the objects relative to Prussia to which I have alluded in my late despatches. 1806. Mr. and that when it was answered to him that the preparations of Prussia rendered such a measure insecure. SlE. &c. " that Prussia should soon J^ cease to give alarm to her weakest neighbour 1 have the honour to be.128 COEEESPONDENCE. The armies are now concentrating in the different provinces. By Count Starhemberg's courier who arrived here on the 11th instant.

It affords me the most heartfelt satisfaction that his Majesty has been graciously pleased to approve what I had done with regard to the Prussian correspondence. but that he should soon settle that matter. Bonaparte affects to speak in terms of the lowest contempt. Sir. Of the Prussian armaments however. he could always bring Prussia to his and General threat of recalling M. and dated Sep- tember 5th." This unusual abstinence from insult and menace upon the subject of Cattaro is attributed to his having account of the non-ratification of the preliminaries with Russia. to He declared both Count Vincent that by a single from Berlin. I8O6. Lord Lauderdale "WTote to me on the 1st from Paris. I have the honour to be. and likewise to the increasing strength and consolidation of the Northern received the league. late 129 considerably softened. Adair to Mr. having given orders to take it by force. September 19. I received a most important communication from Count Hardenberg upon that subject. Laforet Metternich own terms. Secretary Fox. He signified to me K . &c. Vienna. He had not then heard of the non-ratification. It is now my duty to inform you that on the same day on which your messenger arrived. Mr. By the messenger Spencer's Kaye I received yesterday Lord despatch marked separate.CORRESPONDENCE. On the 2d he told Count Metternich " that he saw plainly the Russians would not give up Cattaro either to France or to Austria.

.130 CORKESPONDENCE. and one on which two Powers united against such an enemy as France would. that war must be undertaken and carried on with the utmost vigour. He did not disguise. and to prevent the total slavery of Europe. He assured me that the nature of the present armaments. when Prussia last year appeared to be actuated by similar principles. in case of success. and of all the measures connected with them. After mentioning that he was so authorised. jesty commands of his Prussian Maupon the subject I had opened to him. in order to save their own honour. forced her to break her faith mth Europe. and to become the instrument of her usurpation and in terms the most forcible he cautioned all those who might be wilhng to try another struggle with France in defence of what ^vas left to them first to see clearly their way. I was assured that the strictest secrecy would be observed with regard to whatever we might have to . he desired me. however. to submit to the mandates of France. but with expressions of much personal civility. to state distinctly the objects which I was authorised by my government to propose with a view of bringing about so desirable an end. easily be brought to understand each other. considering it but as a secondary object. On the point of Hanover he touched very lightly. . his mistrust of those persons who. but by all means to get rid of that influence which produced all the disasters and disgi^aces of the last war. were decidedly hostile to France that war appeared inevitable that both in the army and the public in general there Avas but one voice. namely. and that he was fully authorised to communicate directly with me upon the best mode of bringing about an arrangement such as you hinted at in your despatch of that he had taken the July 28th. .

le Comte. as far as has hitherto proceeded. Je suis infiniment flatte. and without having recourse to the medium of it . that no time ought to be lost in enabling make some distinct offer to his Prussian Majesty. Animes done mutuellej'ai a I'ouverture que notre ami commun * * . Such in substance are the contents of his letter. naturally pointed out to me the steps to be taken upon receiving the above communication. of a third person. It it appears to result from this intercourse. 1806. K 2 . 131 communicate to each other. I regret that it is out of my power to send you a copy but for reasons unnecessary now to enter upon. I was not authorised to take one. I answered it accordingly by a letter. Adair . Inclosure in above. I have the honour to be. The despatch I received on the same day from England.COERESPONDENCE. ViennCj ce ISme Sept. que ma conduite a cet egard a regu 1' approbation gracieuse de mon souverain. Mr. to Count Hardenherg. M. of which I have the honour to enclose you a copy. Cette demarche de ma part a ete fondee sur I'interet commun et evident de nos deux gouvernemens et c'est avec un vrai plaisir que je viens d'apprendre par un courrier arrive aujourdhui. and that Count Hangwitz was perfectly ignorant of the transaction. Under these circumstances I have despatched the messenger Kaye to Hamburg in order to me the more speedily to receive his Majesty's further commands. &c. in which I am directed to pursue this correspondence if any opening should appear. de la maniere franche et amicale dont vous avez bien vouiu repondre eu I'honneur de vous faire par *.

les difficultes sur tous les rapports que presente cette question delicate. Prussienne d'alors. Sans attendre d'autres explications ou d'autres pouvoirs de ma cour. * Between Prussia and Russia. Mes dernieres d^peches ne s'expliquent pas autant que je I'aurais desire en detail sur les articles que Ton pourrait presenter comme projet d'une nouvelle federation. II s'agit de nous opposer tous a I'ennemi commun. d'objets qui sont pour le moment purement secondaires. . voyons ce qu'il y aura a faire dans ce moment decisif de sa destinee. je me trouve deja pleinement autoris^ a discuter cette matiere sur les principes enonces par ce traite. Je m'ouvre a vous sur ce sujet sans phrase comme sans reserve. je depecherai un courier a Londres sans perdre un moment pour demander les instructions les plus precises et les plus positives a cet I'accueil Mais encourage par egard. M. par meme amour de leur gloire. que vous avez fait a ma proposition. et dans d'autres circonstances empecher toute communication confiNon pas que je me dissimule dentielle entre nous. il semble qu'on ne pourrait mieux faire que d'en prendre pour base le Traite de Potsdam* de I'annee derniere en y portant toutefois tels changemens que les circonstances auraient rendus indispensables. . et de nous garantir de nouvelles attaques.. Je suis entierement de votre avis sur la nature de 1' obstacle qui pourrait en premier lieu. mais il ne s'agit pas ici. comme vous me I'observez bien. tant pour ce qui regarde les arrondissemens calcules sur le status quo des possessions de S. 132 CORRESPONDENCE ment par le le meme devouement pour nos inaitres. de reduire sa puissance dans de justes bornes. En me attendant pour ce qui regarde I'objet essentiel. et le meme desir de voir cesser les usurpations qui desolent I'Europe depuis tant d'annees. que pour les subsides dont il y (^toit question.

Les ordres que je recevrai du ministere Britannique me decideront alors ou a vous proposer de recevoir un hoimne de confiance nomme par M. les assurances de ma plus parfaite estime. a peu de chose pres. Fox. Sir. Sans avoir I'honneur de vous connoitre personellement. Vienna. ou de vous aboucher avec moi selon les circonstances. having already augovernment on the subject of pecuniary aid provided any reasonable thorised Your despatch me to speak to the Austrian K 3 . M. le Comte. entrusted some India despatches for the East careful person frequently Company to a very employed upon that service Arthur Paget. la reponse Dans 24 jours : d'ici j'aurai mais pour ne pas perdre tout-a-fait un tems si precieux. affairs at this Court. 133 Si vous croyez. j'ose vous demander en attendant votre opinion sur ce que je viens de vous comniuniquer. que de pareils arrange mens. M. whom I sent last week to Hamburg. Agreez maintenant. et que la voix coimnune de I'Europe vous assure de plus en de mon gouvernement plus. Having in the absence of the messenger Kaye. Mr. pourraient convenir a I'etat et aux dangers actuels de I'Europe. concerning the state of of July 28th. I8O6. c'est un sentiment qui date de loin en moi. &c. I take the opportunity of his departure to write more fully to you than I could by by Sir post of the 24th instant. le Comte. September 29. Adair to Mr.CORRESPONDENCE. Fox. J'ai I'honneur d'etre. je crois pouvoir repondre de ma part que nous pourrions bientot nous entendre.

and in the end with their safety. than they seemed disposed before to hazard. the condemnation to death. and by the disgusting insolence with which he has enforced them. by regular process. On the other hand. continued their preparations mthout interruption. join in inspiring mth these causes some degree of spirit into their measures. although by no means with that of influencing. They are assembling a large force in the neighbourliood of Tabor. by the continually increasing demands of Bonaparte. with a view of discovering. for imputed offences of a similar nature. Since that time. of two peaceable Austrian subjects. I have lately reverted to this topic. The execution of a bookseller at Braunau for having in his possession a pretended libel on the French government. . and the example of that gallant people and of the Montenegrins in Dahnatia. inhabitants the one of Lintz and the other of Vienna. have encouraged them to take some steps towards a system more consonant with their dignity. have taught this Court that if submission be their system to their submission there can be no limits. On the 13th of August I had the honour of communicating to you the views and situation of Austria. Great facihties in council have been afforded to the party which has always seen their situation in this light. the steady vigour of his Majesty's councils. d'Oubril's Treaty. and indeed mth as much vigour as could be expected from them in the present state of their finances. accordingly. They have. The resolution is taken to refuse the passage of French troops through Bohemia.134 CORKESPONDENCE. purpose could be answered by administering it. the refusal of Russia to ratify M. more than all. as they had then been confidentially imparted to me by Count Stadion. and. and yet more the state of afi^airs between Prussia and France. their determinations. the success of his arms in Calabria.

on the 24th inst. I find. that these measures of preparation were solely Avith a view to preserve their neutrality. therefore. On renemng this subject with him.. to consider his communication to me as an official overture. possible. of entering into some explanations with the British government in conjunction ^Yith Russia and Prussia. and that their apprehensions of embarking with her are reduced to personal mistrust of Count Hangwitz. It has 135 been signified to Bonaparte. equivocally declares. but that they would not be discontinued. and without the possibility of retreat. that he may not have had the opportunity which has presented itself to me of learning his Prussian Majesty's last instructions to his ministers at foreign courts. that he meant this in case Prussia should be once fairly. however. that no obstacle shaU be raised by K 4 . Such being the dispositions of the Austrian Cabinet. Wynne's having infonned you of Count HangIt is witz and the interior of the Prussian councils. the conduct and language of Austria is materially changed. expressed to me his desire. you will be enabled to judge after I shall have briefly laid before you what has just come to my knowledge. I rely several very important details concerning upon Mr. Count Stadion. although I can perceive by it that the hopes of the Austrian ministers in regard to Prussia are greatly increased. engaged in the contest with France. I am not entitled.CORRESrONDENCE. — . the entire and immediate evacuation of Germany by the French troops secondly. as I have already had the honour of conununicating to you. his Prussian Majesty un^vill hsten to no accommo- dation with France mthout first. and Hkewise how far it may be prudent to attempt removing it. that he In these. In short. How far this continued hesitation be well or ill-founded. as indeed it was to be expected.

in order to your instructing me in the conduct you would have Count Hangmtz. that Germany to the Northern federation some effectual security shall be provided for the future peace of Germany. possessions. by engagements . Avith which France shall not interfere and among the Powers chiefly interested in that fourthly. that the Elector of first system with regard to France. and he likemse declares. word to the permanency of his present system. and that the perusal of it has convinced that Prince that Count Hangwitz had long ago seen the of information.. in the most solemn manner. 136 that CORRESPONDENCE. I have the same reason for believing that Count Hangwitz has communicated to Prince Hohenlohe all the correspondence which has passed between the Prussian and the French governments since December last. I in this paper of in- mav add from other and correct sources Saxony has joined Prussia on the express assurance that no secret instructions have been given to Count Knohelsdorf. To the assurances contained structions. that when once engaged he will never separate himself from any Power who shall assist him in the great royal work he has undertaken. Power to the accession on the part of any of the smaller states of thirdly. Whenever the matter . He pledges his pendence. should me it to pursue with regard to left to on any occasion be me to express the opinion of his Majesty's government on this very delicate subject. or inde- In this paper. no further attempts shall be made against the Austrian territories. its maintenance. which has been officially connnunicated to Count Stadion. Prince Hohenlohe' s mihtary instructions are to defend the Austrian territories. These particulars I have thought it necessary to lay utter impossibility of persevering in his before you. his Prussian Majesty exhorts the Emperor in the most energetic language to make common cause with him.

On the one side it is almost certain. But in the present circumstances. to the office of Secretary of State for the Foreign Department. Fox's death. as it 137 may mth Prussia. considering the reto support solution so strongly manifested by the King him. communicating to me the melancholy information of Mr.CORRESPONDENCE. Adair to Earl Spencer. 1806". and likewise that his Majesty had been graciously pleased to appoint your Lordship. the use to be made of this power is really a matter of great difficulty to resolve. and which is called for by the general voice of Europe. Lord. in consequence. and a question well worth your deliberate attention. ad interim. dated September 15th. and the imminent danger to which both Prussia and Austria would be exposed if Bonaparte were allowed to take these two Powers separately. On the other. &c. October 8. I have the honour to be. they will make the dismissal of Count Hang^\'itz an indispensarily nected sable condition. requested Sir Francis Vin- . 1 HAVE the honour of acknowledging the receipt of your Lordship's despatch. it surely would be most deeply to be lamented that even a just dislike and well-founded mistrust of this minister should present invincible objects to an union which has been prepared by circumstances beyond his control. 1 My have. the voice of the British Cabinet will neces- have a decisive influence on all questions con"svith their due apphcation. Mr. that in any concert which this Court may be desirous of establishing with Prussia. and afterwards with other Powers. Vienna. of subsidies comes into discussion.

Count Hardenberg again positively affirms that Count Hangmtz is ignorant of the correspondence carried on between him and me. On the other hand. of some importance towards the discovery of the real views of Prussia appears to arise My out of this circumstance. therefore. I HAVE the honour of acquainting your Lordship that I have just received a letter from Count Hardenburg. W Mr *^ it ^ M. inducing his Majesty's ministers to consider whether. October 8. cent to lay before your Lordship aU to ]\Ir. Adair to Earl Spencer. I have the honour to be. of which the enclosed is a copy. be on the side of France. calling your Lordship's attention to a circumstance which it may be of some moment to consider. . In the letter which accompanied the enclosed.U. Vienna. Mr. notwithstanding Baron Jacobi's may not be advisable that this correpersons still spondence should go on with a view to counteract the designs which many ascribe to Hangmtz. I have the honour to be. •3P I suggest the observation to your Lordship chiefly with a view of mission.138 COKKESPONDENCE. Loed. I shall transmit to your Lordship without delay whatever further communications may reach me from In the mean time I take the liberty of that quarter. 1806. in case the first successes of the Count war should &c. &c. my private letters Fox which relate to public affairs or the in- terests of his Majesty's government. W . the mission of Baron Jacobi to England is undertaken at the express recommendation of that minister. A question.

ne pourra guere servir de base aux arrangemens a prendre entre nos deux Cours. je ne manquerai pas de mon cote de vous informer des intentions du Roi mon maitre. les autres objets devroient facilement s'arranger. Thornton a Hamburg. Depuis huit jours le Roi est a I'armee il ne me reste done que de rendre compte a sa .CORRESPONDENCE. et je me trouverais iniiniment heureux de travailler avec vous a etablir la plus parfaite union de principes et de mesures entre nos deux souverains. 1806. Majeste de ce que vous venez de m'ecrire. Monsieur. aussitot qu'il aura plu a sa Majeste de me les faire connoitre. Monsieur. d'autant plus que des pour-parlers ont ete entames entre le Baron de Le Traite de Jacobi et M. but as this letter was an answer to mine of the 18th. * Date effaced. Persuade qu'il ne pent exister dans ce moment qu'un seul grand but pour tons les deux. Lord Morpeth was appointed on the 1st of October. Count Hardenberg to Mr. it — .A. Monsieur. was probably written on the 24th. Agreez. * de Sept. 139 Inclosure in above. quoique I'esprit doive sans doute etre le meme. and arrived at R. et d'attendre les ordres dont elle daignera me munir. head-quarters the 12th. J'ai re9n la lettre dont vous avez bien voulu m'lio- norer en date du 18me de ce mois. Mais il faudra toujours s'occuper d'un nouveau j)i'ojet de traits adapte a I'etat actuel de choses. tant pour les subsides que pour les autres objets. Potsdam. conclu sous des circonstances tres-differentes entre la Prusse et la Russie. a Tempieberg le &:c. En attendant les ouvertures ulterieures que vous me faites esperer. Adair.

you may assure Count Stadion that whatever means of vigour the Emperor may be inclined to pursue. in which are the following words " Should it be the determination of the Emperor to resist the demands of Bonaparte. arguing any reasonable probability of advantage. Vienna. Secretary Fox's despatch dated July 28th. a late conversation with the preparations Count Stadion in re- now going on the Austrian States. that part of ]\Ir. but those also which retarded. this country will support him. October p. In the course of this conversation he requested that I would again state the nature of his Majesty's most generous proposal. My In sj^ecting Lord. . Mr. Adair to Earl Sjjencer. distinctly. 1 806. and might in a great degree prevent their putting their owi\ army on that footing which the state of affairs renders so eminently necessary. Our discussion was long and unreserved but not feehng myself authorised to come to any result upon a matter of such importance." we discussed fully the question whether the British govermnent might be disposed to consider the present armaments of his Imperial Majesty as offering such a prospect of advantage to the common cause as to induce a compliance with a request for pecuniary aid. and he pointed out to me very clearly not only the reasons which precluded all possibility of their acceding at this moment to the propositions of the Court of Berhn.140 CORRESPONDENCE. in the event of the Emperor being driven to resist by force the encroachments and vexOn reading to him. that minister took occasion to enter into the financial difficulties of the Austrian govern- ment. I recommended to Count — — . which I did ations of France.

to which I could accede without hesitation. &c. however.CORRESPONDENCE. I could not doubt that his Majesty's ministers would consider the execution of such an intention as furnishing a case in which pecuniary aid might reasonably be granted. and that the necessity for her arming is equaUy strong whether success or failure attend the present exertions by which she of Prussia. I have the honour to be. is. depending upon the principle of a combined and well-concerted resistance to France. avoiding in the present time any further concessions to France. may head of France. If failure. and with a view bomi fide to resist her ultimately. There were some obvious points. It is not for stances to offer me to presume under these circumany opinion to his Majesty's ministers. it can as little be doubted that Austria will again have to experience all at the his insolent menaces and exorbitant demands. . 141 Stadion to address himself directly to his Majesty's government through Count Starhemberg for a full explanation of his Majesty's sentiments and views. advantages fectly new it is impossible to say what not arise from a situation so perto the Continent since Bonaparte has been If success. I made no difficulty therefore in giving it as my opinion that if it was the intention of the Austrian government gradually to increase its forces until they reached the complete war estabhsh- ment. All I shall observe at this instant that Austria will scarcely ever find such an opportunity of tility arming as she possesses from the appearances of general hosis everywhere surrounded.

As it appears expedient that Lord Morpeth should be apprised of the effect which a hberal conduct on the part of the Cabinet of Berhn would have at this Court. It is my object to remove this mistrust in case Prussia shall evince a steady resolution to repair last by her future conduct the calamities of which she was year the cause. Adair to Viscount Howich Vienna. By the messenger Donaldson. I requested a confer- ence with Count Stadion to this effect. Conceiving that it would be of importance to liis Majesty's service in the event of Lord Morpeth's accompHshing the first object of his mission. I shall endeavour to induce Count Stadion to make a similar avowal to the Prussian Minister. to remove as far as possible all difficulties in the My way of a general union against France. who arrived here on the 13th inst. and to give an earnest of her good faith by complying with the just demands of his Majesty. that the conduct of Prussia towards his Majesty in the present instance will be considered as the test of her sincerity on other points of general interest.142 COERESPONDENCE. Mr. Lord. I have the satisfaction of informing you that it has been expHcitly declared to me. October 17. I have despatched the messenger Kaye to his . I received your Lordship's despatches of September 30th. 1806.witz. Your Lordship will have already observed that a deeply-rooted distrust of Prussia. while the direction of affairs continues to be entrusted to Count Hang. forms one material obstacle to a cordial under- standing between the two Courts..

accounts from Constantinople being such as to require the immediate transmission of Mr. am grieved to inform your Lordship. should even fear that they would not resist a peremptory demand to disarm. &c.* I have the honour to be. doubt that . for the passage of little troops into Dalmatia. and the security of the communications by post. October 24. may not produce I on the Austrian there is Of their assisting Prussia not at this moment the smallest prospect. that the the 14th. Lordsliip at the Prussian head-quarters with a confidential letter for this purpose. My The Lord. is consternation here since the defeat of the Prussian army on so great as to render effects it it im- possible to say what bad councils. I can no longer trust which have repeatedly been given both to Count Eazamoffsky and myself. 1806. I have judged to it necessary special forward them to your I Lordship by a messenger. With regard to what more immediately concerns allies. that such permission would on no account be granted. appearing to be very doubtful since the misfortunes which have attended the Prussian arms.CORRESPONDENCE. and as there exists to the assurances already a convention mth Austria. the interests of his Majesty and his namely. there can be but * Vide Appendix. Vienna. The same to the same. Arbuthnot's despatches to his Majesty's government. the passage of troops through their territory. A war between Russia and the Porte in particular will give France a pretext for marching to the assistance of her ally.

I8O6. and that I shall in some In the mean time. allow me to suggest to your Lordship the necessity of your pointing out to me very precisely the hne of conduct which his Majesty would have me to adopt. it she will avail herself of vinces. if. stipulations be consented to. I have the honour to be. Vienna. This will be the more expedient. The same to the same. as there is every reason to beUeve that my communications with England by the usual channels will be cut off. or the heads of such information as it may be of importance for your Lordship to to receive I and in my power to collect. in order to penetrate into the heart of the Turkish pro- Under these circumstances.144 CORRESPONDENCE. contrary to their true tenor. I will do my despatches by my utmost. or prejudicial to the interests of his Majesty or of his allies. I am at present under the position of the my necessity of sending Stettin. I shall not fall to remonstrate with every degree of force I can reasonably employ. . to the utmost extent. October 28. after the confidential overtures which have been made to me lately. have little at present to add my despatch. Breslau and to find some nearer channel of correspondence by which I may convey either duplicates. however. French armies being such as to communications mth England by the direct road to Hamburgh. My The cut off all Lord. or any interpretation of former sense be left to act alone. any new agreement should be entered into with the French government. &c.

which seems to be given on the side of Turkey. has lately broken out The afresh. Bonaparte on both Saxony and Poland. while the same causes which have hitherto led the Russian commanders in the Adriatic to retain that fortress. complains of the preference be aware of the necessity of interposing the powerful influence of the therefore. still continue.CORRESPONDENCE. evident to demonstration. Petersburg to a war L . which seemed to have been quieted during Lord Lauderdale's negociations. however. In the uncertainty of the present alarming moment all resolution seems to be suspended at this Court. successes of France render this Court more anxious than ever to put a stop to what they think a just ground of complaint on her part. 145 No. which sees its own destruction in the success of those views. appear likely to operate with still stronger force under the present circumstances. I see no reason to apprehend any immediate compliance with insulting demands from France. It is in the next place observed with concern that Russia appears to have a very inadequate force in The views of readiness on the side of Poland. are now The Court of Vienna. as it would be. 23. which I sent by the messenger Donaldson. in which latter country he expects great assistance. and Russia come forward in time. The armaments. and if Prussia should hold out. Your Lordship wiU. as well as by the hopes that the war in the north of Germany would have commenced with better success. therefore.. on every side by France. at St. and with some share of acrimony. The discontent of this Court at the delay in surrendering up the fortress of Cattaro by the Russians. surrounded. But I am grieved to remark two circumstances which may be productive of serious evil to the common cause.

Vienna. there is little hope that the fate of Austria can long be deferred after the occupation of Saxony by France. will have to undertake the last struggle for but I much fear that this is one their independence of those cases in which the most obvious common danger will not be able alone to lead men to a just . through whom I forward this present despatch. or perhaps both of them. 1. to press upon your Lordship's consideration the necessity of engaging Russia to direct her utmost efforts on the side of Poland. received your Lordship's circular of I HAVE September 25th. in order effectually to clear away all The causes of jealousy between these two Powers. together with its inclosure. I have the honour to be. to send me the earhest intelligence of any steps which may be taken towards peace. 3. Tlie same to the same. &c. Allow me.146 CORRESPONDENCE. sense of their interests. British councils. November I8O6. All that can be done will be to prepare resolutely for the worst. &c. My Lord. conduct of the Emperor ^dll be materially influenced by it. and likewise your Lordship's despatch jS[o. I have requested Lord Morpeth. I have the honour to be. time is fast approaching when one. . present conjvmcture but as the Should that be the event. No information has as yet reached this Court respecting the part Prussia means to take in the . therefore.

November 10. Arbuthnot had succeeded in procuring the re-establishment of the deposed Hospodars. I My have the honour of acquainting your Lordship that on Saturday last Sir Harford Jones arrived here from Constantinople. 1806. The Hon. Vienna. I HAVE the honour of acknowledging the receipt of your Lordship's despatch of October 17. Burrell intending to set out this day on his return to England. The same to the same. and the opportunities he has had of observing the progress of events. 1806. In the mean time. &c. I have the honour to be. I shall reserve myself for the moment of his departure to communicate to your Lordship such observations upon the state of affairs at this Court as I have been able to make since the date of my last despatch. have enabled him to collect. L 2 My . Avith accounts that Mr. I have entrusted this despatch to his care. As he (Sir Harford) intends setting out for England whenever I can put him in a way to travel by a safe road. which place he left on the 20th ultimo. Lord. Mr. November 10.CORRESPONDENCE. Vienna. 147 Tlie same to the same. I beg leave to request that your Lordship would permit Mr. Burrell to wait upon you. Lord. and to give you verbally such general information as his residence at Vienna.

me. together with those of Mr. of supporting his representations. and surrender of Sicily. November 11. him to retrieve our affairs and of enabling by a timely display of the British power in those seas. a gentleman of distinguished merit in the will be delivered to service of the East India Company. your Lordship by Sir Harford Jones. This despatch. inform him in time of the fatal result Unhappily I had noof the battle of October 14th. and that the negociation had been broken off upon a point* by no means affecting any iimnediate interests of his Majesty's dominions. but directly and deeply affecting the very existence of the Ottoman Empire. &c. TJie same to the same. matters are approaching so rapidly to a * The occupation of Dalmatia. My Lord. Arbuthnot.148 CORRESPONDENCE. more than ever. Arbuthnot's judicious proceedings at Constantinople. . As it is much to be apprehended that the disasters which have overwhelmed the Prussian monarchy will also destroy the good effects of Mr. Vienna. Notwithstanding the importance of what is every day passing so near. Independently of the difficulty of obtaining any intelligence which I can warrant to be authentic. I have little to transmit to your Lordship for the information of his Majesty's government. thing to counterbalance the bad effects it would necessarily produce. I have the honour to be. except the information that Lord I took care to Lauderdale had quitted Paris. 1806. his Majesty's government will see perhaps the necessity.

to beheve that no reason any measures to that effect will be adopted. of my inquiry or observation. or of the perplexity and irresolution which appear to prevail in its councils. and risk her existence on the issue. It were useless. Recently. to trouble your Lordship mth accounts either of the dangers of every description which are gathering round the Austrian monarchy. by the irresistible assure his Majesty's government that Austria would take her stand. It is hoped. No man here doubts Bonaparte's views on Poland. Avhether on the ground of exchange or compensation. . indeed. It would be to mislead your Lordship greatly. or upon whatever cases of doubtful expediency I might call for your Lordship's both the one and the other "svill be decided course of events long before this despatch can reach England. that no proposition of sharing in the partition of the Pi^issian territories. I have endeavoured to find out some principle of fundamental national interest on which I might directions. wiU on any account be listened to. it is true. I see With regard struction of Austria if those views should be successful. advised as it is at present. or is so bhnd as not to see the speedy deto positive resistance. 149 crisis that whatever speculations I might hazard upon a present view of affairs. were I to offer any consolatory prospect as the result either All I can venture to promise for this Court. but the same poHcy which prevented their union with Prussia L 3 resist his progress. a movement has been made towards Galicia. that before Russian army may have But he can get there. is. Rather than dwell too much upon effects which never fail to accompany the sense of imminent peril.CORRESrONDENCE. therefore. until the moment when aU resistance wiU perhaps be vain. he is not hkely to meet with any impediment from the Austrian government. a arrived sufficiently strong to if no such army should be ready.

. there be any reason to despair of the resources of the Austrian empire in a distant or protracted war. that even -with the assistance of Russia. I am equally confident that he will be bravely seconded by his army. except in Poland. Under the circumstances of the present moment. I think it my duty to lay before his Majesty's government. unless they should be encouraged by some signal success on the part of E-ussia. I have heard that the Emperor has declared that if he should be finally forced to take up arms. therefore. But so great are the immediate difficulties of its government. my Lord. the keeping so large a force in Bohemia. Often since my residence here I have had occasion to witness the virtues which personally distinguish the Emperor of Austria. and so httle the abihty to provide against them. which is not taken without due examination. bears more the appearance of hostility towards France than of reasonable caution distinct . in order that if his Majesty in his wisdom should think fit to assist the . except in the instance I have particularised. that such will be his behaviour. your Lordship will readily perceive that no certain reliance can be placed upon the conduct of Austria. it was his determination to put himself at the head of his subjects and perish rather than submit to further insults.. 150 will. demand has yet been made on Austria but from the language publicly held by the French mission. CORRESPONDENCE in my opinion. This view of affairs. the time I am afraid is not very distant at which it may be expected. It has already been insinuated that in the state to which Prussia has been reduced. as is now assembled there. No to disarm for the safety of their frontiers. I should look "svith apprehension to the contest. I tnoU not doubt. as far as they are known to us. equally prevail against their opposing the French in Poland. by his subjects at large nor would therefore. and.

but its a chance for reaching you and more expeditiously. supported. who is returning from Bagdad. But as this great good had been effected partly by the fear of seeing a British fleet before Constantinople. and in the present calamitous situation of be made an instrument in her hands to occupy half the Russian forces on their own frontier??. The same to the same. it is greatly to be feared that all will be undone by the reverses which have attended the Prussian arms.CORRESPONDENCE. may . Arbuthnot implores the British government to In effect. November l6. and partly by the expectation that Prussia and the other continental powers would be able to put a stop to the progress of France. 151 House of Austria in a conflict which. nor more be expected from her than her condition will enable her to inevitable. that country will become totally devoted to France. if he be not support his representations. succeeded in forcing the Turks to re-establish the deposed His despatches. are now on the road to England in the care of Sir Harford Jones. Vienna. &c. perform. Arbuthnot on the 12th and 13th ultimo. is more may not be granted than may be found consistent with a rational hope of good. Mr. L 4 affairs. I have the honour to be. it thinking safe to send my regular despatches by the road by which you conceiving that there safely is will receive this letter. with the details of his Hospodars. negociations. 1806. My Not Lord. Mr. I now acquaint you with the substance of my last numbers. sooner or later.

why the Emperor did not give orders to his troops to march. I HAVE the honour of acknowledging the receipt of your Lordsliip's despatches. and 6. I have the honour to be. and distinctly stated to him the only grounds on which his Majesty could consent to grant pecuniary aid to Austria. but hitherto none have been granted. the uncertainty of the determination of Prussia respecting peace. He assented fully to the truth of aU the general reasoning your Lordship has so forcibly urged with regard to the pubhc danger. of which the three following are the chief: My — First. I8O6. Vienna. 5. French should meet with There will be no exchange of Galicia for Silesia. But in answer to my question. He assured me also. that this was the firm persuasion of his Imperial Majesty himself. November I9. The same to the same. That minister repeated to me the reasons which had prevented at the outset the co-operation of this government with Prussia. I have seen Count Stadion. from all I can observe.152 It is COKRESPONDENCE. In consequence of his Majesty ^s commands. my opinion. &c. and the unanimous sense of his advisers. that Austria will do nothing unless the great disasters in Poland. Lord. nor will Austria participate in any shape in the division of the Prussian territories. Bonaparte has demanded provisions and other succours. Should Austria declare . he urged a variety of reasons. Nos. and hkewise to the certainty that Austria would soon be compelled to have recourse to arms for her defence. and which I have stated in my former despatches.

Bonaparte would be at Vienna before they could come up. that Lord Morpeth had embarked early in the present month at Cuxhaven. My Lord. Secondly. as the more difficult to combat this arguments which seem best calculated In are those from which it is derived. Thirdly. The accounts by him wiU determine the Emperor as to what hne he will adopt. last instructions with respect to Prussia it appearing likewise that there exists no iimnediate connnunication with Eng• The battle of Jena. and the next day peace be made between Prussia and France. and it appearing to be very doubtful whether Having learned his Lordship could have received his . to return to England. it certainly is the design of Austria rather to give way apparently to the progress of events. that great part of the irresolution of Austria is grounded upon the very extent itself of the dangers by which she is surrounded. the distance of the Russian armies. It is the the present circumstances. &c. 1806.* A messenger is expected every hour with the greatest impatience. to oppose it feehng. the doubt what part Russia wiU herself take when she knows the full extent of the calamity. November 22. than openly to iDcar up against them. The same to the same. . Vienna. tlie destruction of this country is believed to be inevitable.CORRESPONDENCE. Your Lordship wiU observe with concern from this. 153 war. as well as from aU my despatches since the accounts of the Prussian disasters reached Vienna. I have the honour to be.

Petersburg. I land by which the object of them can be conveyed had intended to send the Honourable Mr. Since I had the honour of writing last to your Lordship. Wynne at Vienna. of unoccasioned a considerable degree has despatch easiness at the Court of Vienna. they will be It is to shall very speedily receive . Jenkinson. of whose zeal for his Ma- jesty's service I have had repeated proofs. be feared that. when the arrival of Mr. and his obliging offer to be himself the bearer of the communication. determined me to entrust it to his care. case. in the first place. that the extent of the Prussian loss had not produced the effect upon the Emperor of Russia of inducing him to call forth aU the resources of his empire to oppose the progress of the French in the Prussian territories. Petersburg. to his Prussian Majesty. It appears. unless Count Razamoffsky some communication of a more satisfactory nature from Russia. Wynne every information in my power with respect to the state of affairs at this Court. I have given Mr. the The urgency of the the distressed obvious necessity in situation of his Prussian Majesty of showing him that he is not abandoned in his misfortunes. the Austrian ambassador at St. I have again seen Count Stadion. who has received a despatch from St. will I trust excuse me to his ]Majesty's government for hazarding this step.154 COERESPONDENCE. It had hke- wise been notified to Count Meerfeldt. written sub- sequently to the tune at which intelligence of the This Prussian disasters had been received there. added to what it is impossible not to see must be the effect of his signing a peace on such terms as he is likely now to obtain. to head- quarters for this special purpose. that the Russian army on the Dniester had been ordered to march into Molda\da.

still 155 less disposed Court to enter into defence. 4. Warsaw was not occupied on the 17th of November. The Elector of Saxony. Berlin. I have the honour to be. than they are at present at this any measures for the common I have the honour to be. of the French commander.CORRESPONDENCE. &c. and appointed to the in that pro™ce. tification of the armistice between Prussia and France have yet been received here. The same to the same. for having refused passports to some French officers going to Vienna. My I Lord. . considerable part of the Austrian army is asGeneral Bellegarde has been sembling in Galicia. to justify the hope of such effi)rts on the part of Russia as are alone adequate to the present crisis. which. December 1806. I am sorry thence been removed from to say. Count Razamoilsky has heard nothing as yet from his Court. head-quarters. HAVE received your Lordship's despatch marked No accounts of the raseparate. recalled suddenly A from his government at Gratz. of November 11. were still minister at Dresden has Austrian The at at the desire. has been obliged to set out for Bonaparte's by the last accounts. I can obtain no account fit to send to his Majesty's government either of the number or disposition of the Russian troops already arrived on the Vistula. Vienna. whose country exhibits a command scene of devastation beyond even that of the Seven Years' War. &c.

I have the honour to be. Lord. 6. I have again written in the strongest manner to St. have stated this circumstance in my letter to Mr.156 CORRESPONDENCE. Jackson.000 men in the neigh- bourhood of the Vistula. telling him that all I . Lord. December 6. Imiiediately upon receiving information from Mr. on signing the armistice at Berlin on October IGth. We know of no other army out of her own territories. Mr. Vienna. of the King of Prussia having refused to ratify the armistice. de Talleyrand to Count Lucchesini. I lost no time in entering into further explanations with Count Stadion respecting the measures this Court proposed ultimately to adopt. Stuart of this day. unless Kussia can be induced to come forward in a manner very different from that in which she now appears to be acting. &c. 1806. The same to the same. Russia has not at this Nothing I find present moment more than 30. will. My can stir them from their present system.000 at Grodno. I have reason to believe. be productive of an oifer from this Court to Bonaparte of its My I mediation for a general peace. cautioning him against the such a measure may have in relaxing the exertions of the Court of St. Stuart at Petersburg. The communication made by M. Vienna^ December 1805. Petersburg. effect The same to the same. She has about 70.

may The same to the same. &c. Jackson at the Prussia's head-quarters. although it must be confessed that they themselves appear to take no proper measures for ascertaining the intentions of Russia or conciliating her assistance. extremely ill-placed. I learn hkewise that the order for their entering that province was the cause of a remonstrance on the part of this Court. 1806. CORRESPONDENCE 157 be able to effect here will depend upon Russia. to say no more of it. My I Lord. I am under the necessity of transmitting my despatches by such op- HAVE by Sir portunities as the circumstances of the offer. I have the honour to be. The entry of the Russian troops into Moldavia has given great uneasiness here. The refusal of his Prussian Majesty to ratify the armistice signed at Berhn. at length received your Lordship's despatches Arthur Paget's messenger. King of Since I had last the honour of writing to your Lordship. No exertion indeed ought to be omitted in order to induce the Emperor .. has not inspired any corresponding energy into the councils of this government. nothing has occurred to alter the neutral system of the Court of Vienna. Vienna^ December 14. It is still complained of that Russia does not speak out to them. on November 16th. moment may I forward this through Mr. AU ordinary means of communication with England being now completely impracticable. There is not that confidence between the Austrian and Russian governments which can alone save them both from perdition.

I am sorry to acquaint your Lordship that the army of observation in Bohemia is entirely broken up. and she will be compelled before long. will be j)ut to her at moment when It I must decide as France shall dictate. it to herself. I do not believe. that his Majesty's most earnestly hope . that any formal demand for * * * its dislocation has been made by France. my receiving timely notice But however disposed to temporise Austria may be at the present moment. to take part either with France or against her. the inevitable consequences of indecision must come upon her at last. has been made to me and I rely too much on the good faith and frankness which have hitherto characterised our mutual communications to believe that any proposal prejudicial to the interests of his Majesty or of his allies will . therefore. That Austria should even have the choice of these alternatives has ever appeared to me to depend upon the time at which that quesIf she should prefer putting tion shall be put to her. his utmost on the side of Poland but there is a wide difference between so doing and re\dving at such a crisis as the present any jealousies concerning the aggrandisement of Russia at the expense of the Porte for whose safety the strict union between his Majesty and Russia must offer the most ample security both to Austria and to the Porte itself. . With regard to other demands on the part of France. whether official or confidential. in substance if not in terms. she If she should it prefer waiting the convenience of France. be entertained mthout of it. indeed. I can only say that no communication of any such. indeed. In some shape or other her independence will infallibly be attacked. make his principal. — (and has struck me very forcibly. she may yet maintain a struggle for her a independence.158 of Eussia to efforts CORRESPONDENCE. .

in close and intimate concert with Prussia. . When to these views it be added that. the moment itself may and that consequently it is a most important object now to press Austria to come to some decision upon a question which otherwise will come upon her ])y surprise. firm determination of his Prussian Majesty to persevere to the last extremity in the contest. These considerations operating very seriously on my mind. first. the advantages of a previous understanding seem to attendant inconveniences. be such as infinitely to exceed the inconveniences of too free a communication with a power of which she may yet be suspicious. nor disapprove of what I have done in consequence of them) that since the rejection of the armistice by Prussia. if finally forced. and be but too glad to act. or when the dispersion of her forces and other embarrassments which we may hope for. accompanied by all its not be greatly distant . one neither dissent — last interval for deliberation is afforded to Austria will that it being now certain that the war . have led me to submit a proposal to his Prussian Majesty. some herself to advantage this moment of declaring must present itself that whether be when France shall exact some concession with which it is impossible to comply.. at a moment in which I have nothing to guide me but a general knowledge of the views of his Majesty's government. I have . manner and at a moment most advantageous to by putting into its hands the best means of defence on the side more immediately exposed to the enemy and secondly. by gi^dng it a pledge of the . is to bring this Court forward in a itself. the object of which.::ai CORRESPONDENCE. ministers Avill 159 take the freedom from the opinions I of expressing. as your Lordship will see. shall afford an opportunity palpably favourable for attacking her. con- tinue during the winter. Austria must act. as well as with Great Britain and Russia.

Jackson to lay the inclosed paper before the King of Prussia for his consideration and as I am sure of the co-operation of the Russian ambassador in this object. the final destruction of Europe without even a struggle on the part of Austria either for its preservation or for her own. de la Silesie qui pourroient servir de barriere a I'Autriche contre les operations de I'ennemi les forteresses de ce c6te-la. I have the honour to be. on se propose de consulter S. there is good reason to hope that if his Prussian Majesty should approve it. Cetteouverture suppose naturellementquela Grande . sous la garantie speciale de I'Angleterre et de la Russie pour leur restitution a la paix gen^rale. et afin de I'engager le plus tot possible a prendre un parti dans lequel elle pourrait autrement entrevoir plus de danger immediat que d'avantage. Inclosure referred to. an eifort will at least have been made for preventing what is now most emphatically threatened. Comme il parait de la derniere importance d'acc^lerer autant que possible sa determination de se mettre en etat de defence contre toute aggression de la part de la France. &c. Whatever may be the result of any negociation to which this proposal may give rise. therefore requested Mr. tout nous porte a croire que de moment en moment elle sera forcee d'abandonner son systeme de neutralite. 160 CORRESPONDENCE.. Prussienne pour savoir jusqu'a quel point sa Majeste serait disposee a remettre entre les mains de I'Empereur d' Autriche. one main difficulty in the way of Austria adopting a rational system of defence will be entirely removed. Telle que puisse etre la necessite dans laquelle I'Autriche se trouve actuellement de temporiser avec la France. M.

I have thought it my duty to press the minister in a much stronger manner than I have ever Last night I had a conyet done. while she is in with us. however. M. I hope to remove in my next conference. and by order Emperor of Russia has communicated to me His first conversation with Count Stadion has not been wholly unfavourable. Pozzo di Borgo is just arrived. December 18. under the special guaranty of England and Russia for their restoration at a general peace. 1806. M . Tlie same to the same. ce 12 Dec. ference of two hours mth him upon this express point. by way of barrier for her against France. As Austria can now no longer have any pretence for doubting the sincerity of Russia or even of Prussia. 31. Prussienne. 1806". Jackson to forward. decided national alliance and exphcit terms. to take a part. contains a proposal which I requested him to lay before the King of Prussia. I have offered. My despatch No. Vienne. dont les dispositions sont deja connues de S. Great difficulties are still in the way. shall not extend herself on that side.. the security of our good faith that Russia. which I have desired Mr. 161 Bretagne. It is that his Prussian Majesty should offer to put his Silesian fortresses into the My hands of Austria. devrait se servir de tons les moyens aupres de I'Empereur d'Autriche pour I'engager a y concourir. The principal one. Lord. It is a jealousy of the views of Russia on the side of Turkey.CORRESPONDENCE. Vienna. in the most the object of his mission. of the M.

The same to the same. In a word. and unsuccessful ductive. I proposed their relieving the fortresses of Silesia. I have the honour to be. and of others. Pozzo di Borgo upon this point. which I regret to say had become necessary between the two Courts since the advance of the Russians into issue. or the extent to which I had done it. that Austria would act in the spring. Vienna. The next difficulty is the state of their army. it was half assured. which I will venture to say will be satisfactory. 1806. This Court requires 300. I could not then explain either my motive for so doing. however. mentioned to your Lordship in my short ciphered despatch by Lieutenant Drachbrawa.000 men to be actually in the field on the side of Poland. The army cannot be ready to act until the spring. M. Moldavia. It was in vain that I represented that all Silesia would be conquered before then. Your I . December 30. Pozzo di Borgo's negociation has come It has been prosome of which may be highly useful in future. &c. Since I had last the honour of writing to your Lordship. These points arranged. half insinuated to me.162 CORRESPONDENCE. The minister affects to say that he has no more than sixty thousand men of immediate disposable force. My to a final Lord. The third difficulty relates to the numbers to be employed by Russia. of explanations. Pozzo's mission. the ixiinister has consented to my bringing on some explanations mth M. that I had supported the object of M.

as well from your as from Mr. left me no how to act on almost all the occasions to act. not in words alone. trouble your Lordship with too many will observe generally that the pretended moderation of Bonaparte never deceived this Court. however. to learn thoroughly how Austria intended embark in a contest with France. *jb to I ^ ^ •U> •3£' tT *it TV- Not details. it was the unanimous strongest opinion. in the situation in which Europe stood at the breaking out of the war between Prussia and France. to doubt which have occurred since my residence here. This question at the beginning was viewed by the different parties at Court in very opposite lights. receive with indulgence the account I have now the honour of laying before you. against her better judgment. that the sword. The question of entering or not into the war has been simply a question of convenience. It was not of less importance. Fox.ao. stood footing. of the part I have borne in his negociations. The question whether they should make common cause with Prussia. of vigour and decision. but after the battle of Jena. The instructions I received. upon exactly the same and was governed by the same mode of reasoning. to do nothing which should induce Austria. I hope. as the question whether they should resist him when he was insulting General Vincent at Paris and dividing Germany among his vassals.CORRESPONDENCE. Lordship. but in measures. On some occasions I have been surprised by tokens. so expressed to minister me in the would deserve death who should persuade the Emperor to draw his terms. 163 Lordsliip will. when Prussia was eno. M 2 .ed in hostile dis- cussions Avith Bonaparte.

Pozzo di Borgo. The mission of M. the avowal that this system of abstaining from all in- was grounded upon doubts of Prussia upon doubts of Russia coming forward in sufficient force. No. It was evident then. utmost. Pozzo is already well known . it would have been useless. and on both sides. ments arising from sickness and troops. as that Russia was not hkely to be conquered upon her own territory. I have only to say that such reasoning. namely. distress among his and obtained for Austria the respite for which she was so anxious. neither diminished the arrogance of Bonaparte upon the misfortunes at Jena.. into one of sooner or later. and Bonaparte his own convenience for this attacking her. together with other embarrass. that between Austria and France the again lowered his tone. good or bad. however. and consequently imprudent to attempt it. has been unsuccessful. and upon doubts of the power of Russia. Such was the situation of aiFairs upon the arrival of M. I need not trouble your Lordship with the reasoning which has been employed to prove to Austria a proposition so apparently clear. The submission resulting from these councils. as it had been all along. 28. and the march of the second Russian corps. Austria wished to take her own time for declaring herself. After this.164 COKRESPONDENCE. nor appear even to have much delayed the meditated execution of his views on Austria herself when the rejection of the armistice by Prussia. even were she disposed to exert herself to the terference persevering. if I had been ever so much inclined to urge Austria to a declaration. All I could do was to obtain from the minister what I have already had the honour of communicating to your Lordship in my despatch. question of beginning the war resolved itself simply.

to your St. the their actual state. Prussia's — when I fresh proofs of the constancy and fortitude in his misfortunes reached me every day. Pozzo and myself. and zeal resolved to support M. Pozzo. whom I soon found to be a man deservino. that the Emperor of Russia forces was disposed to come forward with the whole of his Empire. but also the facility of taking — them I confess that the moment did appear to at least declare herself to advantage. in an equal degree my political confidence and personal esteem. with what state of his army. that he wished to act in the most intimate concert and connection with Austria. I concurred. As it was greatly wished at Petersburg that I should aid it. The most perfect confidence ha\ang been soon estabhshed betAveen M. it was agreed between us that he should see Count Stadion. — when me him in the countries he I considered also the vast importfacility ance of relieving the Silesian fortresses. together with accounts which denoted that his affairs were by no King of means desperate was known of the . the fullest communications were made to me by that gentleman. and enter fuUy into the business first. therefore. humbly implore liis Majesty's pardon if my in this instance should have misled me.B i. and with the cer- tainty that he had left but an inconsiderable number had of in of French troops behind overrun. therefore. HHU X I J-J CORRESPONDENCE. When I saw. and that after com- M 3 . Pozzo to the utmost. relieving them. that had given the most extensive powers to M. 165 Lordship. entirely in the Emperor of I Russia's invitation to Austria. — when contrasted this with Bonaparte's advanced position in Poland. which Austria might to more advantage than she would ever be able to do at any to be that in — future period. and that his means of acting were in the to this effect he greatest forwardness.

which. combated his reasoning to the best of my power. and that now the question was reduced to a mere question of the numbers to be employed by Russia. would be ascertained to the satisfaction of Austria. Drachbrawa.. He condemned this measure on the ground. first. I observed to Count Stadion that the three causes which he had before assigned for the neutrahty of Austria. of its dividing the Russian forces. I was greatly concerned to find the minister totally wave them in the first insible and point my attention to the occupation of Moldavia by the Russian troops. 166 municating In tlie COERESPONDENCE result to me. of its being unnecessary for the restoration of the Hospodars and secondly. Pozzo had full powers to arrange them. no longer existed. . first by sho^ving that the restoration of the Hospodars amounted to nothing unless they were supported that upon the news of the French victories General Sebastiani had returned to his first demands. and the Turks to their fonner aggressions and that the army destined for the defence of Russia on that side was neither greater than she could spare. Intending to keep the discussion as closely as posto these points. nor more than she I . that he must be satisfied that both Prussia and Russia were determined to persevere to the utmost in opposing the monstrous views of Bonaparte. it I will now state more particularly. I should ask for a conference the ensuing day. . which I forwarded by Lieut. wanted in the critical circumstances of those provinces. declaration against France. which on every account could be more usefully employed on the Vistula. 32. No. and which had appeared to me so reasonable. I gave your Lordship an account in general terms of this conference. my despatch. as M. . and particularly so if Austria were to risk an immediate stance..

I Court. not only the security he possessed in the acknowledged personal character of the resulted Emperor Alexander. or even thought had been determined was more than I could say. d'ltalinsky's late proceedings at Constantinople. but that which from the fundamental principles of that monarch's pohcy. that his foreign system appeared now to be bottomed upon a close. Stuart. 1G7 With regard to the original entry into Moldavia. namely. But in order to sift this subject of grievance to the bottom. confidential. I argued that the entry of the Russians was but a consequence from this state of things. ever since General Sebastiani's arrival there. I acknowledged having long ago recommended in a of letter to Mr. that its being an injudicious distribution of the Russian As such forces. Whether any operations upon but at upon. this was a question simply mihtary. least my having recommended them was enough this scale of. and honourable union with Great Britain that the very basis of our alliance was a guaranty of the integrity of the Turkish empire and I went so fiir as to proM 4 . . at St. I reminded him that after the communications I had made to him of Mr. Petersburg. . and if so. In the other view he had suggested. to exculpate Russia from the charge of being stimu- lated to this measure solely by her own ambition. was purely in our own defence. he had himself acknowledged that the line we had been obliged to follow respecting Turkish affairs. to counteract its pointed out to Count Stadion. nothing had happened to render it less so.CORRESPONDENCE. to find out whether any lurking jealousy of the ulterior \'iews of Russia occasioned the present shyness of this effects. and at- tacking the north of Italy from Dahnatia. and that if originally necessary. the it pro- priety of getting possession of Belgrade (if could be done consistently with the faith of treaties). Arbuthnot's and M.

whether. Such was the substance of our conversation. however. that their finances were exhausted. for that the government felt comparatively easier on the Silesian frontier. of reheving the Silesian fortresses.000 men. Before it finally closed. Count Stadion repeated to me nearly the same language he had used on all former occasions. that it was morally impossible in for this express When we came — the present state of things to look forward to neuOn this I put it home trahty as a pennanent system. to the more immediate question. an event no less fatal to Europe than the complete and hostile separation of Austria from Russia might be the conse- quence. upon a balance of advantages and disadvantages. namely. although in relating it I have adopted a more regular form than either of us observed in explaining ourselves. that in the mean time they were pursuing with the greatest activity all measures of preparation and in^ATien I reasoned upon the necessity ternal security. Majesty's government .168 CORKESPOKDENCE. and their army still at such a distance from its true point of completion that it was unpossible to act. I again reverted to the jealousy which had been expressed to the \iews of Russia. I took upon me to offer in the name of liis any security Austria could expect or desire against any extension of the dominions of Russia on the side of Turkey. the loss of the Silesian fortresses would not outweigh any benefit he might expect from retarding the period of war ? He assured me distinctly that it would not. He admitted. disposable force of more than 60. mth regard and judging that if some method were not taken to remove it. to him. the propriety of Austria coming forward at the present moment. pose the accession of Austria as a party to the alliance and particular purpose. he answered that it was out of the question to think of beginning hosthat Austria had not an immediately tilities now. namely.

In the memoir which I have the honour of enclosing. Pozzo a distinct and formal disavowal in the name of the Emperor Alexander of any views against Turkey.COREESPONDENCE. other than This those of counteracting the designs of France.in this advice was o-ronnded on considerations so serious. have the honour to be. . 169 Although. has not been ***** mthout I we have hitherto been able to if M. however. the most explicit terms. as not to be very far removed from necessity itself. Count Stadion gave way so far as to accept the proposal with which I ended. despatches until the 1st of December (which I have already forwarded). Pozzo and myself to determine Austria to an immediate decision. namely. Arbuthnot. and from them I obtained additional grounds to justify the entrance of I have the satisthe Russian troops into Moldavia. it main point. disavowal has been given m Two days after tliis conversation. arrived from Mr. your Lordship will find many of the arguments which were employed both by M. namely. directed to the war in But with regard effect nothing. and indeed to reduce it to what is a reasonable feeling after efforts all —a desire to see the utmost Poland. Pozzo's mission. of Russia to the act. and which is drawn up by a Prussian officer of great merit. that of inducing Austria to should end here. I trust. even its use. my taking the part of mediator. and obtaining from M. convince your Lordship that my concurrino. &c. They will. faction to say that we have made such use of this in- formation as greatly to soften the first anger of the Austrian government. I could not prevail so far as to obtain an immediate renunciation of these apprehensions.

I My have the honour to be.* so unfavourable to the Russians as the French offiI can send your Lordship cial accounts represent. January 7. The same to the same. Our . Vienna. My accounts from Bucharest make me apprehend that. that these measures of vigour will produce any immediate change in the system of this Court. The same to the same. 1807. My Lord. Since the arrival of the despatches from St. notwithstanding the arrival of Admiral Louis at Constantinople. and the communication of their contents to Count Stadion.170 CORRESPONDENCE. not trust to until I see their armies march to re- lieve the Silesian fortresses. the Turks will declare war against the Russians. Petersburg. to which I alluded in my last. A Russian messenger has just arrived from Petersburg with accounts that the Emperor of Russia I do not expect has ordered a levy of 600. language rather more encouraging has been held it to us upon the I shall subject of Austrian co-operation eventually. &c. no details of it. The Servians have taken the town of Belgrade. January 3. Lord. as our only intelligence comes in last intelligence • Pultusk. Vienna.000 men. 1807. from the armies is of the It was by no means battle of the 26th of December.

The general Actions every day from the 17th to the 26th of December have been fought on the Bug and the Narew. The same to the same. 1 Russians. P. The next day a strong division of the French army under General Augereau. Vienna. and afterwards to accounts. marched on to Bialystock where the Russian magazines are. accompanied by Bonaparte in person. Avhich makes it appear that the issue of it was in many respects highly favourable to the quarters. great secrecy from shortly as follows : 171 result is — Warsaw. that unless they take them. it is to be feared that the Russians must risk an engagement to save them. days. On that day the Russian line from Sachochin to Pultusk was attacked. The exertions of the Prince of Plesse to reI respecting . 'h accounts of the battle of the 26th of December have reached us from the Russian headofficial but day after day something transpires from Warsaw. The French are in such distress for every thing. S.CORRESPONDENCE. it Ostrolenka. — The above account is in a letter of the 30th from Warsaw. Ill My No Lord. have very bad accounts to send your Lordship Breslau cannot hold out many Silesia. I have the honour to be. their army will be in great danger. At Pultusk by the French was forced. &c. 1807. which occasioned General Beningsen to retreat to Ilozau. On the other hand. January 10.

who was sent to Silesia by the King of Prussia. it is to be feared that without speedy succours he will not be able to defend either the country or the fortresses.172 CORRESPONDENCE. will Breslau contains almost all the arms and money fall.000 ducats. unless relieved from this side. ***** The same to the In short. place have lieve that important been unsuccessful. and the greatest apprehensions prevail that the rest of the fortresses. that the army he had collected there must absolutely be disbanded without immediate pecuniary have made use of the credit of his him an advance of 20. and so fatal would be the loss of it. I Majesty's government at Vienna to procure . &c. that I have felt myself obliged to risk a step Avhich admits of no justification except that of a necessity paramount to all other considerations. This sum is to be deaid. Vienna^ January 14. 1807. So great is the distress of Silesia. the Prince of Plesse. Lord. same. The accounts which daily reach us of the result of the actions of the 25th and 26th are most satisfactory. My They are productive here of the best effects. I have the honour to be. wholly destitute of the means of making an army. is Jena. Upon a representation made to me by the Count de Goetzen. which the former governor could collect together from the different depots in Silesia after the battle of The present governor.

The urgency and importance of the I hope. Im Lord. 1807. &c. for the value of which being 10.000 ducats in gold has been issued to Count Finkenstein for the service of his Prussian Majesty. Is consequence of what I have already had the honour of stating to your Lordship in my despatch of this day.) to the same. measure until I with this government to induce them to take the defence of Silesia upon them- I did not finally resolve upon had again made an selves. no other alternative was left me except that of agreeing to make the advance. I thought it most expedient to limit the advance to a sum sufficient to meet the immediate necessity. January 14. The same {^Separate. and its forhands of France. Vienna.CORRESPONDENCE. excuse service will. the sum of 20. have the honour to be. efi'ort But finding them obstinately bent upon doing nothing as yet. 173 it ducted from the first subsidies which this may be his Majesty's pleasure to grant to Prussia. or army disbanded. until I could learn his of seeing the Silesian tresses fall into the . me in the opinion of his Majesty's to implore for ministers. I am sorry that the ducat could be obtained on no My . and induce your Lordship me for his Majesty's gracious forgiveness for venturing upon a it step of this nature without having received his Majesty's express I commands. I have drawn bills upon the Treasury. A much larger sum was wished for but as I had just heard of Lord Hutchinson's arrival at the King of Prussia's head-quarters.526/. Lordship's sentiments. 195.

the object of which they keep a profound think is which I I still secret. continues to be viewed The jealousies arising out of this important subject. &c. him have wi'itten fuUy to Lord Hutchinson. much uneasiness. I rather think that in order to enable them to make the ministers are now waiting the result of General Vincent's mission to AYarsaw. and mentioning of . better terms for his Prussian Majesty. opportunity I shall transmit to your Lordship an extract from the Count de Goetzen's letter to Count Finkenstein. however. I HAVE notliing farther to communicate to your Lordship respecting the state of affairs here. its final decision. but the secrecy necessary to be observed in the transaction deprived me of the advantage of negociating the bills on the Exchange. but connected with a proposal to be the mediators for a general peace. apprising of all that is going on here. Vienna. and likewise Count Finthe first By kenstein's agreement with me for the repayment of be. January 21. nearly the whole of which provinces are with now in their possession. the money. must soon be discussed. and settled between I the Russian and Austrian ministers and myself. or not. I have the honour to The same to the same. expect that these jealousies wiU be brought to a point whenever the great question of the of Austria to our system receives their decision. 1807. My Lord.174 CORRESPONDENCE. except that the rapid progress of the Russians in Moldavia and Wallachia. accession.

I have the honour to be. I enclose this despatch to his Lordship under a flying seal. ] 75 what weight his communications with me may become in accelerating the determination of this Court. le 6. I my have the honour to be. the one a statement from the Count de Goetzen of the pressing necessity of the case. I8O7. Vienna. Having an opportunity of writing to Lord Hutchinson. Janvier. First Inclosure. in order that he may be the better possessed of the grounds upon which I acted in making the advance of 20.000 ducats to Count Finkenstein for the Silesian government. Extrait dune Lettre du Comte de Goetzen au Comte de Finkenstein. &c. The two enclosures which I have now the honour of transmitting to your Lordship are. . containing up between Count Finkenstein and a stipulation for deducting the any subsidies which his Majesty grant to the Court of Prussia. Reysse. sum advanced from may think proper to I alluded in These are the papers to which separate despatch of January 14th. January 23. ici. the other a My memorandum drawn myself. &c. * * * Nous n'avons pas ^t^ heureux et si nous ne sorames bientot secourus la Silesie est perdue.CORRESPONDENCE. The same to the same. 1807. Lord.

000 ducats en or pour le dit service.000 ecus a employer pour I'entretien de I'armee. en vertu des explications amicales qui ont deja eu lieu entre les deux Cours. qui avec les garnisons montent deja a quarante mille hommes. . Ne pourroit-on pas negocier de I'argent par le ministre d'Angleterre. et des engagemens ulterieurs qui devroient en resulter. les Les Soussignes. il sera fourni sans delai au Comte de Finkenstein la somme de 20. la quelle somme sera deduite des subsides que sa Majeste Britannique pourroit eventuellement fournir a sa Majeste le Roi de Prusse. et pour lesquels on pourroit donner des garanties. Sfc. Nous avons un besoin urgent d'argent. dont la cour est sans doute interessee a voir se former ici journellement des troupes capables d'agir des le lice moment ou le succes le cas d'entrer en nous faudroit au moins 260. ministres de leurs Majestes des points suivans: Rois d'Angleterre et de Prusse. sont convenus entre eux — Vu la necessite ou se trouve dans le moment actuel le gouvernement de la Silesie d'un secours pecuniaire prompt et efficace pour en defendre les forteresses contre I'ennemi commun. ^c. Mais la chose presse extremement puisque nous manquons presque de tout deja dans ce moment. Convention particuUere entre le Ministre d^Angleterre a Vienne et le Ministre de Prusse. surtout puisque Tennemi nous coupe tous les jours davantage nos moyens de subsistance.176 CORRESPONDENCE. Second Inclosure. et que la conservation des forteresses encore a nous depend beau coup de la promptitude de cet envoi des armees alliees les mettroit dans avec les Fran9ais? II d'argent. dont le manque peut nous obliger a licencier nos troupes.

177 arrangemens a prendre entre il ne seroit point question de les deux subsides. S.CORRESPONDENCE.000 ducats sera consideree comme emprunt. When I wrote founded. I HAVE noAv great hopes that matters are sufficiently advanced between Austria and Russia to promise a co-operation. will now state to your Lordship on what this opinion is My Lord. &c. . Vienna. II est convenu que la somnie a deduire ou a repayer (selon les circonstances) montera en argent souverains. The Archduke Charles is the person who has hitherto opposed aU measures of a warlike tendency. The same to the same. En cas que dans les d'Angleterre a 10. L. Tlie same to the saiiie. 1807. 1807. My Lord. Vienna. Vienne. En foi de quoi les Soussignes ont muni la presente convention particuliere de leurs propres signatures et du sceau de leurs armes. cette avance de 20. FiNKENSTEIN. last to your Lordship I had but a moment's time to say that there appeared to me great I hopes of Austria co-operating with us before long. L. I have the honour to be. January 24. S. KoBERT Adair. Janvier. 1807.526 livres sterling 19 schellings. January 28. ce 14.

by which your Lordship will perceive that either Austria has been very active in her exertions since the period at which I gave an account of the first negociations with M. but on the day on which I TrtTote last. With regard are given that to General Vincent's stay at the head- quarters of the French army. Pozzo and myself. and Galicia. About a fortnight place in her views. Orders have likewise been issued for the troops to occupy stations in Bohemia.178 CORRESPONDENCE. were communicated to him by the Archduke's authority. the strongest assurances it is for that of obtaining correct information of no particular object beyond what is going on there. Moravia. I cannot. Pozzo submitted a plan of mihtary operations to the Emperor.000 strong. Six weeks from the present time is given as the period at which all will be in readiness. dismiss my suspicions . M. late events in Poland have considerably shaken ago. together with an intimation that similar remarks had been transmitted to Count Meerfeldt. where they may be ready to act upon the first signal. The army at this present moment is 220. or that a change has taken his The resolution. of such a nature as to render her no longer afraid of acknowledging the extent of her preparations. Strong expressions of an inclination to co-operate Avere. thrown out both to M. a series of regular critical remarks on his military plan. who had also been put in possession of the sentiments of this government on all points which could come into discussion with that of Russia. grounded upon the eventual co-operation of Austria. and suggestions of a nature to remove obstacles. on which he was commanded by the Emperor of Russia to consult the Archduke Charles and to concert with him all measures which circumstances might render expedient. Pozzo. More consolatory representations were likewise made respecting the state and disposition of the Austrian forces. however. soon after this.

in the discussions for which her own interests might be hkely. No pains have been spared by me to set this part of the subject in its true . to place the reluctance to take I have still any step towards occupying Silesia. and myself. . 1807. HAVE your Lordship's des1 ' patch No. &c. she would seize with eagerness any opening that might be afforded to be the mediatrix of a general peace. I answer to it. or even a peace concluded at this moment by Prussia and Russia together. have formed our hopes of the co-operation of Austria. Vienna. January 28. I have the honour to be. My I Lord. that I have written eleven times to your Lordship. this instant received 9. the loss of which they know to be certain in a very few weeks. from the 24th of October to the 1st of December. my representations have been in- effectual. hitherto. to be con- Against these favourable appearances. N 2 I. sidered. &c. Such are the grounds on which Count Razamoffsky. CORRESPONDENCE that. light but. Whenever I can establish a safe communication with Lord Hutchinson. and often sent say. M.. under such circumstances. The same to the same. I shall not fail to inform him of what may be agreed upon. I have the honour to be. 179 although Austria would be sorry to see a separate peace concluded by Prussia. Pozzo. in have only time to i ' duplicates of my despatches.

and on what depended our chance of her co-operating with us and. was important. on the part of this an idea which I took Court. vember 1.180 CORRESPONDENCE. 24.. none of my letters of a date ulterior to the 24th of October have reached you. the liberty of stating should be removed by the inThe second. January 9. Nos. 28. Oct. I PERCEIVE with great concern that so late as the 30th December.. and that those means were pointed out to me by commercial men. first. Vienna. were necessarily very short) what were the dispositions of Austria. those despatches were sent round by Breslau. 1807. dated are. and 25. — depend. During month of December (as I trust it will have appeared long before this can reach you) I wrote five regular despatches. The same (^Private. I should have written more had the . dated Nofluence of British councils. All I can say is that I took the best means in my power to secure their conveyance. was no otherwise material than as it might prove to you that I was attentive to the main point on which the future conduct of this Court would greatly tinctly (although my letters . My despatches. My deak Lord. viz.Q. The former of these. even if not so late as the 7th of this month. as it contained an intimation of a growing jealousy. secondly. because you would have seen disthis delay . of the views of Russia.. totally lost. whose channels of cor- respondence are always the most secure and the most I am grieved beyond what I can describe at ready.) to the same. because so long a silence must have appeared to his Majesty's ministers as if I had neglected my duty. I fear. All communication with Hamburg having ceased. the continuance of the war by Prussia.

This was of so much importance that I thought it better not to send any vague report of their progress. therefore. N 3 .. 183 not those negociations begun between M. Drachbrawa. Stuart. that nothing confidential is ever communicated to him. My accounts from Mr. 30th. and the Austrian ministers. which was on Dec. would be most distressing did not fresh conversations with Coimt Stadion lead me to a different conclusion. planations with Prussia than such as related to the restoration of peace with his Majesty. leads me from Lord Hutchinson in the above concluimpressions relative to the disposition of . and I generally addressed I them to Sir Francis Vincent. my despatch. Pozzo.COREESPONDENCE. I have just received despatches both from Lord Hutchinson and Mr. My correspondence with the Count de Goetzen. &c. From what the former states. are of a discouraging nature and they this . that you will acquit me of neglect. I should think very ill of any chance of effecting a good understanding between Prussia and Austria but at the time of his writing. however imperfectly I may have 1 discharged my other duties. earnestly hope. and especially the fact contained in to differ sion. Early in January I enclosed my dispatches to Mr. myself. S. Thornton. am. through whom I always wrote very concisely. &c. but rather to wait for some result from which his Majesty's ministers might receive a correct impression of the probability of ultimate success. if I had no other guide. of which I sent you the first account by Lieut. in order that my letters might not bear a suspicious appearance at the different post-offices through which they must pass. which are of the 19th inst. Stuart. he probably had no occasion to enter into further ex. Bad Court have been given by ***** but the truth is. P.

He gives an account of the bad dated the 19th inst. and hkewise with regard to the basis which his Majesty's ministers would consider fit to be therefore to send adopted either for a treaty of subsidy. Stuart. he refused to listen to it. upon my opening the business to Count Stadion. I have also received despatches from Mr.. My King of highest degree. But as the Baron de Budberg. SmcE I had last the honour of writing to your Lordship. I am greatly in hopes that with temper and moderation we shall still overcome all difficulties in the way of a cordial union between the two Powers. 182 CORRESPONDENCE The sarne to the same. I have received from the Count de Goetzen. of which I gave your Lordship a more particular account in my last despatch. Under the present circumstances. effects produced by the first reception at Vienna of the overtures of the Emperor of Russia. and Austria should be induced to act. January 31. or to allow the Count de Goetzen permission to come to Vienna. that. If an union however should be formed. am sorry to inform your Lordship. who seems thoroughly the necessity of union at this important refers everything to the negociations sensible of crisis. still now going on at Vienna. and these to a conLet me entreat your Lordship siderable amount. your Lordship is already aAvare that she will want subsidies. himself to be duly direct authority to I enter into negociations with the Austrian government for the provisional cession of Silesia. and who empowered to make the possesses the who Prussia's confidence in the states offer. 1807- Lord. Vienna. al- . me some provisional instructions upon this point. or for a treaty of alliance.

My — — how I she will act. &c. which will probably bring the question of the co-operation of this Court We shall then know distinctly to a decisive issue. I HAVE nothing new to communicate by this post Matters rerelative to the negociation with Russia. when she will act. Petersburg. I should nevertheless feel greatly embarrassed if the order for marching against the enemy should be accompanied by demands. and cannot possibly mistake the spirit of your Lordship's instuctions. N 4 . M. Arbuthnot was still there. I have the honour to be. I have the honour to be. am sorry to inform your Lordship that the Porte information December 27. and whether Austria "will act. Lord. but I it appears that Mr.COKRESPONDENCE. from Constantinople. My from the Prussian minister. declared war against Russia on is When they arrive expect his despatches every day. who has received despatches of January 9. The same to the same. d'ltalinsky had left Constantinople. any long delay in coming to an understanding upon which might expositions of his Majesty's pose the object itself to the risk of failure. main precisely as they were when I wrote my two Li about ten days hence we expect last despatches. Vienna. I will forward them by a conveyance which I have reserved for an important occasion. February 4. 1807. &c. 183 the general dis- though I am perfectly aAvare of government. despatches from St.

I have the honour to be. on the principles which I stated to your Lordship in my despatch of December 30th. My I Lord. Lord. and on the 30th Bonaparte left Warsaw to put himself at its head. Vienna. I HAVE received information which am inclined not absolutely to discredit. The effect at this Court of the Turkish declaration of war has been rather unfavourable to Russia. We are naturally in the most anxious expectation of the event. &c. The same to the same. On the 28th of last month the French army made a forward movement. British Cabinet. February 7. and perhaps throw them back into the same situation in which they were immediately after to the terror inspired generally Added there exists here a the battle of Jena. The same to the same. very strong party hostile to Russia. as the success of all our negociations Avill in a great measure depend upon it. 1807.184 COKRESPONDENCE. Any defeat of the Russian army just now would prove therefore of most serious detriment to our affairs. 1807. My by France. Vienna. . that Bonaparte has proposed an alliance to this Court grounded on the affairs Turkey but I have also reason to know that the Emperor just now is inclined to refer all his differences with Russia respecting Turkey to the mediation of the of . February 7. &c. I have the honour to be. and bring the Russians to a general engagement.

were still at Bucharest so late as the 2 2d of that month. requesting permission for Mr. greatly embarrassing. great detriment if no English agent were suffered to All things considered therefore.. Summerer's last depatch to me was dated. 185 The same to the same.! I CORRESPONDENCE. for many reasons. 1807. On the other hand. and all my letters to him containing accounts of the state of affairs on the Vistula at the becrinnins: of January. My Lord. I AM still without any accounts from Mr. his Majesty's government might suffer reside there. Vienna. . and that he cannot resume them without letters of credence to Prince Ipsilanty. The despatch therefore which I received from your Lordship for Mr. I have the honour to be.. might be taken by Austria as a recognition of the new government established in those provinces. all communication with Constantinople had entirely ceased. Arbuthnot. on which day Mr. I have judged it most expedient to apply to Count Razamoffsky for a letter to General Michelson. but principally so on account of the objection to our doing any act which tions how to act. &c. and that he must apply to me for instruc- This circumstance is. dated November 2. Arbutlmot. Summerer also writes me word that in consequence of the change of affi^iirs in Moldavia and Wallachia his functions are at an end. Mr. and have the mortification to learn from Bucharest that for several days preceding the 18th of January. February 11. Summerer to continue his residence at Bucharest. and to correspond with me as usual until his Majesty's pleasure could be known respecting the propriety of sending an accredited agent to Prince Ipsilanty.

000 dollars for the same object. The accounts from the armies are important and General Beningsen has transmitted to favourable. 1807. These operations. which he can cross whenever he sees — Accounts withm this occasion. I have received a letter from Lord Hutchinson. to the 31st of January have hour been received from General Beningsen. I shaU use this authority. On the 31st he had succeeded in driving them from aU their positions. We and had undertaken nothing against Beningsen. obliged Bonaparte. it seems. The same to the same. and establishing himself at Mohrungen with his right to the Vistula.186 P. S. who were marching on to gain Konigsberg and the sea-coast. and arrived 28th. February 14. CORRESPONDENCE.000 ducats for the relief of Silesia. to break up his cantonments. to the great dis- army. but aume to advance as far as a total sum of 500. where he was on the satisfaction of his 5th. with extreme caution. My Lord. Vienna. on the 3d instant at Passenheim. stating that he had gained several advantages over the left Aving of the French army. who not only approves of my having advanced thorises the 20. and put his army in march from Warsaw on January He himself followed it on the 31st. during the ten days preceding which he had been continually advancing upon the two corps of General Ney and Bernadotte. Count Razamoffsky an account of his operations up to January 31st. He has gained the Vistula. however. have no accounts of what had passed betAveen . Since I had last the honour of writing to your Lordship.

But the situation of Bonaparte at Passenheim will appear embarrassing. This success if is of the utmost importance. My . P. drove him back. if not critical. I HAVE this day received your Lordship's despatches of January 13th. from the 1st of February until the 5th. in which General Essen obtained a great advantage. &c. place at On the 3d a more serious engagement took Wyskrow. On the 1st or 2d General Essen are considered. and drove the French beyond the Narew. S. Beningsen's 187 army and the corps of Ney and Ber- nadotte. No present aspect of affairs to engage operate with us. that general attacked the French under General Lasnes at Ciechanow on the Bug. 180?.CORRESPONDENCE. took 1. than that the of Baron Krusemarck's mission to Petersburg to say has not counteracted the measures which have been taken by the Russian minister and myself to this The affairs of Turkey ^vill form the most end. Vienna. I am still without information of any kind from I Constantinople. February 17. which were brought to me by Krauss. have the honour to be. as it will enable General Essen to act upon Bonaparte's flank he should continue at Passenheim. and took his magazines and some prisoners at Brock. Lord. for time has been lost in profiting by the Austria to coMatters are not yet sufficiently ripe me result more on this subject.600 prisoners and some cannon. when the successful operations of the second Russian army under instant. TJie same to the same. serious obstacle.

and that his despatches have been taken from him. have induced me to seek for the mildest interpretation of the phrase in question. I mean to see the Turkish charge d'affaires at this Court. the next post I will inform your Lordship more fully than the time will now permit me of my conversation with Count Stadion on communicating to him By his Majesty's proclamation of January 7th. unless immediately atoned for. General motives of policy." and whether I understood it to extend to Trieste and Fiume? Count Stadion at the same time took that occasion to inform me that measures were taking to open those ports again to British vessels. fluence. and represent that such a violent proceeding. Having already seen a copy of it in the Frankfort Gazette. will inevitably be resented in the severest manner. by his Majesty. . and a most anxious desire to remove as far as possible every obstacle in the way of Austria's co-operating with us. until his Majesty's pleasure on this point can be distinctly communicated to me. to ask an expla- nation of what was meant by the expression of " ports under the control of France. notice. I am sorry to inform your Lordship that there is great reason to apprehend that M. as the readiest and the clearest manner of solving all doubts upon the subject. &c. I have the honour to be.188 CORRESPONDENCE. As soon as I can thoroughly ascertain the fact. Pole has been arrested on his way to Vienna. I answered his question with respect to Trieste and Fiume by acknowledging that a distinction appeared to exist between those ports whence we were excluded by virtue of a particular convention between Austria and France. of which we had and those where France exercised a direct inI recommended itto him very strongly however (and repeated my recommendation this day) to take off the restriction. he had sent to me some days before.

It gives me great pleasure to communicate the following extract of a letter received hour by Count Eazamoffsky " Feb. for nitz has fallen. On communicating to Count Stadion his Majesty's proclamation of January 7 th. In consequence of a second application from Count de Goetzen. 14^. I have the honour to be. 189 The same to the same. &c. Vienna. Vienna. P. General The same to the same. I have this day made use of the authority given me by Lord Hutchinson. woidd infalhbly I H ( produce a still stricter enforcement of the principle of reprisal adopted by his Majesty for the protection of ill . that he his enterprise with a loss Beningsen has marched to Wittenberg. obstinate a resistance. and advanced him a further sum of 200. I8O7. Bonaparte attacked him Avith aU his forces on Feb. Lord. — : — mthin this I hasten to communicate to your Excellency the news I have just received from General Beningsen. February 17." was obliged to renounce of 25. 1807.000 I the Treasury to the am which I have also drawn bills on amount of 35. S. My Lord. I did not fail to observe that any connivance by neutral powers at the decree of blockade issued My by Bonaparte.087/. 8th near Eylau but he met with so . bd. who is now secretly at Vienna. February 24.000 men. 12th.CORRESPONDENCE. sorry to inform your Lordship that Schweiddollars.

as that British vessels may not freely trade thereat ?" I answered that the distinction contended for in the case of Trieste and Fiume was not noticed in your Lordship's despatch. the commerce of his subjects and as the terms on which we transact business together authorise a great degree of confidence. tion or The communication was received without observa-' comment of any kind. I had written on the first publication of it both to Mr. Leard to give 'me immediate notice of any steps that might be taken to that effect but I received satisfactory assurances that nothing had been attempted. require any. I thought it best to read to him so much of your Lordship's despatch as relates to this point. 190 CORRESPONDENCE. strong opinion having of late prevailed here A (derived. from false intelligence circulated less disposed government appeared than heretofore to persevere in standing up against the destructive progress of the French power. in consideration of the mutual good understanding which subsisted between us. but that I wished it to be understood by the Austrian government. Stanley and to Mr. that. . whether I continued to put the same interpretation as at our last conference on the phrase of " Ports so far under the control of France. In answer to a question from Count Stadion. I should at all times be ready to admit the most favourable interpretation of whatever measures restrictive of the commerce of his Imperial Majesty's subjects I might have to announce. and that even some symptoms of a renewal of negociation had appeared at Paris. It did not. I believe. I took occasion to at Paris). as hitherto the French have taken no measures to obtain any assistance from the Austrian government in forwarding the object of the decree. and the hopes of a still closer connection.. that his Majesty's . indeed.

and more resolutely determined. I have the honour to be. that never was her Majesty's government more firmly united. them. February 26. I wish I could add to the favourable appearances resulting from General Beningsen's operations. We are in the most anxious expectation of further accounts. I8O7. Lord. Tlte same to the same. to communicate this assurance to his Imperial Majesty in whatever manner he might deem it most likely to produce its proper — — effect. to resist the enemy's pretensions. Nothing had been received at Warsaw on the 17th instant from the French head-quarters of a later date than the 11th.CORRESPONDENCE. In a former despatch. 191 assure Count Stadion. who appeared happy to comply with my request. nor were the means of Great Britain ever more competent. than they were at the present moment. and to gain strength from those very causes which would appear rather calculated to remove than to increase and its dignity. I mentioned to your Lord- . in the words of your Lordship's letter. I HAVE the honour to enclose to your Lordship a copy of General Beningsen's letter to Count Razamoffsky of February 11th. and to re-assert its character But fresh obstacles seem to arise in the way of all vigorous determination. &c. I also earnestly requested Count Stadion. that they had produced upon tlie Austrian councils the effect of inducing its government to step forward in this decisive My moment. Vienna.

therefore. of all their measures. the general tendency correct.000 men they announced two months as the period when they should be ready to act and above all. but they suddenly raised the statement of the numbers of their disposable army from 60. the removed. . them ministers not only gave us assurances of their wish to co-operate.192 CORRESPONDENCE. and the deficiency of means on the part of Russia. There remained. it never could enter into the imagination of any one that the success of the Russian arms would be a motive for a change either of language or intention on the part of Austria. they entreated us to oppose at our respective Courts any steps towards a peace in which the general interests of Europe should not be included. which were admitted to be such as not to furnish of themselves a reasonable cause even of hesitation as to the part to be adopted for the common safety. ship that the difficulties in the way of a good under- standing between Russia and Austria appeared to be What I then stated was gradually wearing away. if no material reverse should take place in the intervening space. as well as of their conferences with the ministers of the allied Powers. were So far had we a right to consider actually removed. . Pozzo di Borgo. After such assurances (I may say such near approaches to an engagement with us as may fairly be inferred from the desire expressed that neither Great Britain nor Russia would make peace). it was natural to expect that. grounded on the want of sufficient preparation on the part of Austria. In any view of the subject. only the affairs of Turkey.000 to 220. The negociation to this effect had been conducted with so much ability by Count Razamoffsky and M. . would be such as to prepare the way for an avowed concert and a vigorous effort in the spring. that after the battle of Pultusk. that most of the alleged obstacles to co-operation.

therefore. even in the event of success. than the Emperor of Austria derived from his station as head of the power or influence from empire. nounced than confess. has clearly ascertained their expectations as to the best terms which they can expect for themselves. to it had yet been. and in which the rejection of all overtures for a concert with Russia was more decidedly proStadion and M. M. With persons governed by hopeless to argue. This. between Count last which took place week. Pozzo di Borgo. Pozzo. infallibly secure to us. W tSU •JV" * Neither the gallant resistance these last of the 8th. I me that I should do best to adopt the tone . it has appeared. Since the last discussions. at Eylau. but they say that he will derive no more real affect to consider this station (which they but as a title). 193 * ^ "O* is J^ TT ^ actually the fact M.CORRESPONDENCE. however. and which they must see is fast assimilating itself to that very policy which has caused the do'vvnfall of the Prussian trality monarchy. in M. or to partake in the great results which its declaration at this moment would is true. nor the important advantage heightened both in its conglory by being gained over Bo- sequences and its naparte in person. has produced any disposition in this Court to second the common eiforts. made by Russia during two months. from the unassisted efforts of Great Britain and Russia. They acknowledge that they do not look forward to any peace under such circumstances which shall not leave Bonaparte at the head of the confederacy of the Rhine. it a recent conference with Count Stadion. to these sentiments it is It is equally useless to represent them either the effect or the character of a neu- grounded on such principles.

to lower in some degree the hopes I had before given of the interference of his Majesty's councils. The changes of sentiment in this Court have lately appeared so frequent. The ministers now say. Bonaparte mere refusal to negociate. unless I see the Austrian army actually marching against the enemy. * * ***** * * * * * * This question. 194 CORKESPONDENCE It of leaving Austria totally to her o^vn politics. to say I had . I still have thought it expedient.. and the object against which all jealousy and every effort was to be directed. I addressed a few lines to your Lordship in cipher. shall attend most strictly to your Lordship's instructions with regard to this point. Austria I cannot believe she will do so on a will join us. that if should persist in refusing to negociate for a general peace upon a reasonable basis. for the purpose of obtaining from Russia the surrender of Moldavia and Wallachia at a peace making the whole of the arrangements on that head to depend upon their considering France and the French power as constituting the grand paramount mischief of the world. appears fit tHat these ministers should understand enter into that their refusal to any explanations which might prove that Austria belonged to the ancient federative system of Europe. This state of affairs naturally puts an end for the I present to any conversation respecting subsidies. therefore. that it is impossible to form any opinion whatever as to what may be their ulti. would place Great Britain and Russia under the necessity of attending to their own security in the new settlement for which the world appeared to be preparing. will speedily be brought to an issue. however. nor suffer a word to be said upon it. mate resolution. On the 6th of December.

No proposal. I believe. I am afraid that Mr. that I think sufficiently correct to authorise my recommending measures of reprisal to Captain Campbell. I learn that Mr. 195 great reason to believe Austria intended offering her mediation to Bonaparte. more especially as your on the present them Lordship is not likely to hear soon from Mr. Pole is still detained. answer. however. From other quarters. on the grounds of the communication made by Talleyrand to MM. 1807. Zastrow and Lucchesini. 2 i\ .* The Emperor of Russia's answer to the propositions him by Major Krusemarck.CORRESPONDENCE. from authority. Arbuthnot. that the mediation has been offered by General Vincent. and I can now state to your laid before Lordship. My The Lord. but my information concerning the fact is not yet consequence. I have the honour to be. &c. has yet been received to this The measures to which either its adoption may lead. who commands his Majesty's squadron in the Adriatic. Vienna. The same to the same. will be necessarily of such importance that I shall neglect no means of giving^your or rejection Lordship the earliest notice I receive of them. has encouraged them in these views. on signing the armistice in November. affairs of Turkey have now become of such it my duty to advert to occasion. February 26. Arbuthnot was still at Constantinople on the 24th of * Which was not ratified by Prussia.

but it seems to be the opinion of It is not for it may well-informed persons that a smaller force than ten sail of the line would not be sufficient. Lord. The junction of Austria. have made any further progress in I cannot entertain the smallest doubt. This is a most fortunate circumstance. Vienna. perhaps. &c. be no less evident to your Lordship that this can only be effected through the armed mediation of Great Britain.196 January. as a mediating power. It will. that in the present state of this question. I HAVE the honour of transmitting to your Lordship a despatch I have just received from the Danish minister at Constantinople. Russia could not now withdraw her forces without leaving the whole of the Turkish empire at the disposal of Sultan. March 5. your Lordship will be of opinion that the re-establishment of peace with the upon such terms as shall leave Russia no from French machinations on the side of Turkey. it CORRESPONDENCE. I have the honour to be. as may be possible to re-establish matters before the shall French Poland. 1807. from the contents of which your Lordship will be enabled at length to form some opinion respecting the state of our affairs My . The same to the same. will be the most desirable event. power me to say by what display of naval be necessary to support any plan of pacification which your Lordship may think fit to propose to the Divan. fears France. would also be highly desirable.

. I thought myself justified in delaying them for a few days until I could learn with certainty how to direct to him. me therefore additional concern to inform your Lordship of the loss of H. your Lordship some information and Germany. Arbuthnot's letter. particularly that part which relates to the fortress of Colberg. through Commodore Campbell.CORRESPONDENCE. nor can I discover by Mr. whether Mr. leaving behind them 3 several of their sick. and the attack which may be made from thence on the rear of the French line. 13th to Mr. M. Nautilus. which may be useful to his Majesty's government. I lost On recei\T. carr}T[ng despatches from Admiral Louis to Gibraltar and to Lord CoHingwood. Accounts from General Beningsen to February 19th have been received by the Russian minister. On the 18th it appears that they evacu- ated Eylau. I am yet ignorant. is not yet arrived. the result of which had been a loss to the French of about 1000 killed and 1000 I also transmit to relative to the state of Silesia prisoners. Wellesley Pole has been The courier he menarrested in his way to Vienna. and have sent duplicates by the Danish messenger returning to Constantinople. S. I inclose your Lordship the account which has been transmitted to me of that melancholy Danish minister's despatch event. that he had embarked on board Admiral Louis's squadron. From the 12th to the 18th of February there had been continual skirmishes and attacks on the French advanced posts by the Cossacks. and possibly to his Majesty's Government. Having myself heard a report just as I was about to forward your Lordship's despatches of Jan. It gives tions having sent to me. there 197 courier on February the 9 th. Ar]3uthnot.ng the no time in forwarding my packets by the way of Trieste. The did not leave Constantinople until the 12th.

namely." Count Stadion has also received the strongest assurances from Petersburg that the Emperor Alexander would negociate no peace without the thorough participation of Austria and also that no proposals would be listened to that came from Prussia alone. and in the different Corsican and other foreign corps employed by Great Britain during the last war. Count Stadion has just received the following formation in- Warsaw — from General Vincent. I8O7. He had . March 5. to whom your Lordship's and loyal his Majesty has been graciously pleased to extend his benevolence. Vienna. or her allies. re- ceived the Austrian proposal for mediation but had returned no answer to Talleyrand. they . Since the irruption of the French into Germany. and was advancing to harass the enemy in his retreat.198 CORRESPONDENCE. The same to the same. interdicting all correspondence with England. General Beningsen had received reinforcements. I have the honour to be. . that they shall not have lived in any countries subject to the arms of France. it has been impossible for them to comply with one material condition of their continuing to receive this allowance. I TAitE the liberty of requesting attention to the situation of those brave foreigners. in assigning them pensions in proportion to their rank and services in the army of Conde. Since the decree also of the 20th of November. &c. who is still at " Bonaparte has retreated to Thorn. My Lord.

and by authorising the house of Arnstein at Vienna to continue paying them until his Majesty's intentions in by dispensing.CORRESPONDENCE. In the mean tune. I have already given your Lordship an account of what I did in consequence of his request to be accredited to Prince Ipsilanty. respecting his situation at Bucharest. &c. Summerer. gary but I meet with great difficulties in my ap- plication to this effect. With regard to his claims 4 My . and that it mil be scarcely possible for many of them to sustain the expense of removing. Noguier's circular letter. Vienna. and his claims upon his Majesty's government. 199 have not been able to obtain payment of their drafts from the bankers at those to^vns and places in Germany which they had chosen for their retreat. with the condition of residence expressed in M. March 5. I am endeavouring to procure from this Court permission for them to reside in Hun. allow me to remark to your Lordship that several of these gentlemen are very aged and infirm. pleasure could be further • made known to me. The same to the same. 1807- Lord. I receive various applications different parts of the interior of upon this subject from Germany. and have judged I should best fulfil his Majesty's benevolent some cases. I HAVE the honour of enclosing to your Lordship some despatches addressed to me by Mr. Should it be the pleasure of his Majesty to require their immediate removal mto any other part of Europe not yet overrun by the enemy. I have the honour to be.

. indeed. be possible make another general attack. and my correspondence with him. From Warsaw. My The the French. successes of the Russian. industry. their correspondence has . 200 CORRESPONDENCE. Lord. ammunition. by accounts of the 4th instant. All the bridges on the Vistula have been carried away by an inundation. I am necessarily a stranger to them. and the disasters of army continue. but am liappy to bear my testimony to the zeal. are grossly deceived. in answer to the Austrian offer of mediation and Talleyrand has fairly owned that. 180?. &c. for Bonaparte to by all concurring acif it counts of the state of the French army. We . and provisions every where on the road and that his Cossacks had already brought in between 3000 and 4000 prisoners. I have the honour to be. Nothing but vague assurances of a wish for peace have hitherto been given by Talleyrand to General Vincent. stores. General Beningsen writes on February 17th that the French are in full retreat that they abandon artillery. Vienna. on government. so that Bonaparte may find himself reduced to the most serious difficulties if the reinforcements which are already on their march to join General Beningsen should fortunately arrive before the bridges can be re-established. The same to the same. All persons of note connected with the French were preparing to go off to Berlin. since Bonaparte's departure for the army. we learn that the greatest consternation prevailed there. . March 11. and perseverance with which he has executed the duties of his office since my arrival at Vienna.

I leaders of the military councils here seem to consider Bonaparte's retreat to the Oder. he is to consider the offer as rejected. is him. I8O7. Home brought me in person from Lintz in order to its being cyphered. may bring us in some little degree nearer to co-operation but the intentions on this head have varied so often. that I think it unadvisable to hold out any hopes of its taking place until their language shall be confirmed by some tinctly says that there Count Stadion disno other method of engaging the Arch-Duke Charles except through the refusal of France to treat for a general peace. COKRESPONDENCE. but even then. . if well improved. My Lord. ceased. if he should be compelled to it. The Russian admiral from Corfu on the 22d of February with eight sail of the line and 900 troops. in my opinion there must be other motives to determine positive demonstrations. which if he should not obtain. S. By the last post I forwarded a despatch to your Lordship which Mr. to join Admirals Louis and Duckworth. &c. This end of the business. and when all obstacles are removed. March 11. in the Adriatic sailed P. have reason to believe that a very good underThe standing subsists between Austria and Saxony. honour to be. It is 201 Count Stadion's intention to instruct General Vincent this day to require a positive and immediate answer. Vienna. as extremely favourable to any offensive operations which may I have the be undertaken from hence.. The same to the same.

likewise. 1807. CORRESPONDENCE. Count Stadion wrote to General Vincent (as I had the honour of informing your Lordship in my last despatch) to insist upon a direct answer from Bonaparte whether he. would accept it most or not. but he took care always to insist upon the principle of separate discussion and arrangement with each of the Powers at war. informing your HAVE at length the satisfaction of Lordship that a step has been taken by the Austrian government. Home is still at Lintz. which was sent off . to know that a safe channel of communication is now opened to her Royal Highness. I must inform your Lordship that in the preceding General Vincent. The reply of this government. Vienna. the result of which may prove of the beneficial consequences to Europe. Finding that the Emperor of Russia had accepted the proffered mediation of Austria for a general peace. M. afford some consolation to his Majesty in the midst of those anxieties which must so deeply affect his royal mind concerning the treatment experienced by the illustrious Princess his daughter. I have the honour to be. March 14. Mr. Talleyrand had entered into some unofficial explanations of the grounds on which mediation might be accepted by conversation with France. The same to the same. through which she may at all times acquaint his Majesty with her real situation. but he hopes soon to return to Ratisbon. I trust.202 It will. My I Lord. &c.

me. and without further stipulations and arrange- ments. contained a detailed basis of mediation of which the outline is as follast on Wednesday to lows 1. 4.CORRESPONDENCE. It were to expect more from the steadiness of this Court than I can trust to. which Stadion communicated these terms to easy to foresee will never be acceded to by France. 2. His answer was. The affairs of Germany to be the subject of general negociation and settlement Austria not feeling herself secure under the Federation of the Khine . howwhich may confirm these favourable dispositions. necessity of making the peace and general. I observed that nothing could be ^viser it is When Count than the system which the Austrian government seemed disposed to adopt. revision Italy The affairs of Italy to be equally the subject of and fresh arrangement. ever. I shall neglect nothing. although necessarily unofficial likewise. 203 General Vincent. consequently of admitting England as 5. Austria feeling that in its present state must be the source of con- tinual disputes. : — The affiiirs of Turkey to be settled precisely all according to the former treaties of the Porte with the Powers at war. that he had every reason to hope such measures would be immediately adopted uj^on the notification of Bonaparte's refusal to treat on the above principles. Poland to be left as before the war. The absolute a party to the negociations. were I to give your Lordship the same hopes which Count Stadion appears himself to entertain. 3. provided it were the intention to support it by vigorous and decisive measures. and will contrive to send a messenger to your Lordship with the earliest information I may obtain . simply.

that General sage in case of refusal. I cannot doubt As I that the presence of so considerable a force before Constantinople on the one side. S. and resuming the negociations and threatening to force the pasThe letter adds. and now transmit to your Lordship the enclosed abstract of its My contents have authentic advices from Corfu of the of the Russian squadron on the 2 2d of Februsailing ary. of Bonaparte's answer. consisting of eight ships of the line and a frigate with about 900 troops on board to join his Majesty's squadron under Admiral Duckworth. Lord. and the occupation of Moldavia and Wallachia on the other. I have the honour to be.204 CORRESPONDENCE. Count Stadion read me a letter he had re- ceived from Constantinople. dated February 18th. . Arbuthnot's terms. As the packet is too large to be enclosed to Mr. P. &c. Thornton. but that he did not believe The same to the same. and the conduct of Austria in consequence of it. I YESTERDAY rcccivcd a despatch for your Lordship from the Danish Minister at Constantinople. in order to his proceeding to Constantinople. . I have sent it to Lord Hutchinson in order to its being forwarded safely to England. Arbuthnot had on the 16th sent in a note to the Divan demanding the passage of the Dardanelles for his Majesty's fleet. will very soon oblige the Turks to accept Mr. dated February 26th. Sebastiani had received assurances from the Turks it. 180?. by which it appears that Mr. that they would resist. March 21. Vienna.

My No Lord. and a favourable opportunity now presenting itself.CORRESPONDENCE. that he had declared that the negociation was no longer in his Admiral Duckhands. however. It is known. 205 The duced effect at which this inteUigence has already proVienna has been most favourable to our I shall not neglect negociations. No military operations appear to have been undertaken by either the Russians or the French up to the 14th instant. S. Arbuthnot had making any impression not on that day on the Divan. Accounts have just been received from Con- Mr. and to throw all. P. succeeded in . Vienna. means have been taken to relieve them. the most important of them I have the honour to be. The same to the same. stantinople of the 3d instant. The remaining fortresses in Silesia still hold out. but in Admiral Duckworth's. March 25. improving it to the utmost. I have the honour to be. worth had retired from Constantinople further into the sea of Marmora. is further intelligence arrived from Constan- <l^ tinople since I had last the honour of writing to your Lordship. &c. 1807. &c. succours into Kosel.

&c. As this last sum makes a total of 500.206 CORRESPONDENCE. 55. Vienna. March 28. Od. requested A me to communicate its contents to the minister for foreign affairs. I ac- quainted the Count de Goetzen that I could assist him no further without positive instructions to that effect. The same to the same.000 dollars.105/. 1807. My Lord. by which Bonaparte offers to consent to the assemblino. I have advanced him a further sum of 240. March 25.000 dollars advanced to the Count de Goetzen on account of his Prussian Majesty. containing this intelligence. for which I have this day drawn bills on the Treasury for 42. on the 28th of February. . Russia. The same to the same. Prussia. and as Lord Hutchinson limited to this sum the pecuniary aid he thought necessary to be sent from Vienna for this particular service. for Lord Hutchinson negociating a general peace. and the Ottoman Porte. a Cono-ress at Memel. despatch from his Prussian Majesty. to consist of Great Britain. Vienna. France. who just returned to Silesia. was received here yesterday by Count Finkenstein. 1807- My On is Lord. the representation of the Count de Goetzen. to profit now offered of succouring the fortresses by the opportunity which still hold out. I have the honour to be. who being confined to his house by indisposition. will have already communicated conveyed to his Prussian proposal Lordship a your to Majesty by General Bertrand.

unless we should receive some specific assurance of her determination to come forward and to make herself a party either to the peace or to the war. and that even now. those negociations for a \\ uniting her interests with ours . or even suffer her to state her case at a Congress. the refusal of it (which now might be considered as certain) would afford her the fairest opportunity of neutrality . apprehending her eventual junction with us.CORRESPONDENCE. That under these circumstances it was worthy the consideration of Austria whether Bonaparte. I Count Stadion assented without difficulty to these and assured me that the principle he had . for that instead of discussing with Bonaparte the specific points of her proposed mediation. it was still with a view to the same principle of separation applied to Austria. That Austria having offered her mediation upon the basis already notified to me. and to the dividing her for ever from her natural friends and allies. That his first proposals were always addressed to his enemies separately. the question now was. when he affected a disposition to treat jointly in a Congress. I observed that it was evidently Bonaparte's object to prevent Austria not only from obtaining any advantages under the new settlement of the affairs of Europe which must be discussed and arranged at such a Congress. which could consist only of the Powers actually at war. whether he would admit of her interference at all. but from having any share whatever in the negociation of the continental peace. observations. I availed 207 myself with pleasure of this opportunity to the Austrian government the situation in which they might soon be placed by their of representing and of aiding to the best of my power common union and concert which have been so long depending at this Court. might not offer such terms as it would be impossible for us to reject. and her interests in Germany and Italy.

despatch of the 11th that he instant. My Lord. Vienna. P. I have the honour to be. and adds that the opinion. such plained to your Lordship in that my . A despatch has just as I ex- arrived from General Vincent. Summerer with respect to the supposed changes in the governments of Moldavia and Wallachia. respecting Mr. March 28. General Michelson has -written to Count Razamoifsky. that he had transmitted to Bonaparte. in answer to the letter which that ambassador -wrote at my desire on February 11th. What he tells me is highly important. I lose no time in acquainting your Lordship that I have been totally misinformed by Mr. acknowledges that he is himself thoroughly persuaded of the necessity of joint peace or joint war. was.208 CORRESPONDENCE. constantly been labouring to establish both at home and in his correspondence with St. to impress the Austrian government with the necessity of their adopting immediately a decided course. he expected an immediate answer. &c. that no peace ought to be the interests of all made which did not embrace Europe. M. S. with his usual zeal. Petersburg. stating that Talleyrand had received the proposal of mediation. 1807. with great satisfaction its had agreed general objects presented a just basis for nego- ciating a peace in which Austria might it participate. Summerer. and from whom Count Stadion Archduke must now come into the same The same to the same. Pozzo di Borgo is this instant returned from a conference with Count Stadion. in which he has been endeavouring. and has .

to Bonaparte's proposal to the King of Prussia. which is likewise expected very shortly. also will My Much depend upon Bonaparte's answer to their own proposal of mediation. Arbuthnot had not then succeeded in bringing the Turks to any terms. 1807. I HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship that this day the Emperor left Vienna to open the Diet at Buda. the communication of which is expected here every day. Until one or possibly both of these . had requested Ipsilanty to take on himself the provisional proclaimed that the nobility administration of the province. The same to the same. Lord. Letters of March 10th have been received from Constantinople. at which time the Russian head-quarters were at Bartenstein. &c. upon the answer of the Emperor Alexander. but and clergy of Moldavia.CORRESPONDENCE. 209 distinctly assured him that no innovation whatever had taken place in the administration of those principahties which are still acknowledged as forming part of the Turkish empire. Much will depend is now fast approaching to an end. General Michelson assures the ambassador that Prince Ipsilanty has not been Hospodar of the two provinces. The hesitation of this Court upon the great question of the part it will take in the transactions of Europe. but Mr. until either the return of Morouzy or the appointment of another Hospodar. I have the honour to be. finding themselves abandoned by Prince Morouzy. No material information has been received from the armies since the 17th of last month. April 1. Vienna.

for my despatches. but his warm approbation of them would immediately follow the determination of Bonaparte to listen to no modification of the affairs of Germany or Italy. To force him into measures contrary to his opinion or inclination. 210 CORRESPONDENCE. answers arrive. .. I can oifer no opinion to your Lordship as to the final result of the deliberations. April 1.) to the same. It is my opinion. Although I do not tria. I have most earnestly pressed the engaging him thoroughly in the ofifer of mediation upon the principle already . but I have reason to think he will come into it if Bonaparte's answer be not extremely conciliatory. Vienna. dear Lord. The Emperor is decidedly war if the mediation should be refused. which of late have been unremitting in the Austrian councils.000 men at Cracow. alarmed at this proposition. The same (^Private. therefore. has always appeared to me in the highest degree absurd I have therefore constantly objected to every step which had such a tendency but finding that not only his consent to vigorous measures. 180?. &c. and Count Stadion supports this sentiment almost to the stated in point of co-operating with us in the measures neces- sary to the great result at which we are aiming. with the Archduke Charles. My like in my public despatch to hazard an opinion as to the final decision of AusI what lain I think have no hesitation in acquainting you with The difficulty has always it will be. I have the honour to be. He of has proposed the immediate assembling of an army The Archduke is rather 80.

CORRESPONDENCE. When with Mr. to be the mediator of a general peace. that Austria will be 211 mth us at last either for joint distresses peace or joint war. without its appearing that any military operation had been undertaken against the Turkish capital. I had seen only a private letter from Constantinople of March 10th. I have no doubt the army would be carried immediately. Arbuthnot. Arbuthnot had not at that time been able to but I effect anything with the Turkish government have now the mortification to state to your LordI . It has been this day officially communicated to me by Count Stadion. p 2 . The same to the same. a trifling question for assembling the reinforcement of small fast-sailing vessels for our squadron in the Adriatic. Lord. But what me beyond measure as is the delay in hearing from Constantinople. If the contest were terminated there. by which it was evident that Mr. My had last the honour of writing to your Lordship. if possible. 1807. the British fleet. The Danish minister at the Porte to whom Mr. that Bonaparte has accepted the offer made by the Emperor of Austria. but I must beg of you to obtain. I have no time for more just now. Vienna. but lately his small squadron has been diminished. had repassed the Dardanelles. &c. and terminated we have a right to expect. ship. I have the honour to be. 'with orders to Commodore Campbell to hold one always in readiness for my despatches. that so early as the 3d. He is very obliging and extremely desirous of assisting me. April 4.

although he wrote an account of it to several persons in Vienna. the negociations with Russia had once more assumed a favourable aspect. . and such was the good understanding which began to prevail. Britisli Arbuthnot entrusted the concerns of the mission. I upon the In spite of those difficulties. Great Britain. could hardly fail of bringing us to that most desirable of all results — joint peace or joint war. and all British subjects are made prisoners throughout the whole of the Ottoman Empire. that their contents. and the Archduke Charles had himself begun to acknowledo^e the necessity of adopting a vigorous course. the nature of which have had occasion frequently to state to your Lordship. not having thought proper to send me any notice whatever of this event. Every thing was to depend upon those answers. whatever they might be. as likewise the Emperor of Russia's answer to the French proposal of a Congress.212 CORRESPONDENCE. Sorry am I to ac- quaint your Lordship that the news from Constantinople has thro"\vn everything back to its former state of uncertainty. and directs all measures. your Lordship will have seen how anxiously we were expecting Bonaparte's answer to the Austrian offer of mediation. All British property is confiscated. By my two last despatches. of the General Sebastiani is comtheir pletely master at Constantinople. The unsuccessful issue of this business has effect pro- duced likewise the worst possible councils of the Austrian Cabinet. and again given the ascendancy to those advisers whose system it is to separate Austria from her most larly hostile and who are particuto the renewal of any connection with faithful friends. when he quitted Constantinople. presides over the deliberations Divan. I must necessarily confine myself for the present to the relation of the fact and of its immediate consequences.

which time with Bonaparte's answer respecting the mediation. Bonaparte's retiring to the Oder and if that condition should be refused. Pozzo di Borgo brought the ministers yesterday to a trial. Petersburg with orders and full powers to M.CORRESPONDENCE. 1 807. preparing to attack the The same to the same. p 3 . Arbuthnot. arrived nearly at the same P. whether Austria would agree to put her army in motion? Count Stadion frankly declared that under the present circumstances he had no hope of being supported in such a measure. and to negociate a peace with the Turks. has been to preclude all hope of inducing Austria to assemble an army. to propose an armistice of which one condition should be. April 5. and is it appears that Bonaparte Russians. to act jointly with or separately from Mr. and according to the events which may have taken place. in concert secretly with Russia. 213 The first bad effect of that intelligence. . The armies are very near each other. a courier arrived from St. My Aeter I Lord. He is instructed to offer them peace on the basis of the perfect integrity of the Ottoman Empire. &c. Vienna. Upon this most material point M. had closed my despatches yesterday. I have the honour to be. S. He asked Count Stadion whether he was ready. Pozzo di Borgo to proceed immediately to Constantinople. The second is to render it extremely doubtful whether she will afford any very efficacious support to her mediation now that it has been accepted.

April 11. Lord. Pozzo In order to give additional weight to the efforts is about to make for the restoration of peace. April 5. which M. he is now thoroughly master of a most material the views of the Court of Vienna article among his means of negociation at the place to which he is going. In aU my conversations with Count Stadion on the subject of subsidies. — I am.214 CORRESPONDENCE. I have presented the question My . No man is so competent to give Independently of his great M. The same (^Private. Vienna. I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Lordship's despatch of March 7th. Arbuthnot to act with him. ever. I should humbly recommend that he be furnished by your Lordship with such recommendations to Mr.) to the same. &c. &c. Vienna. advice as abilities. and of his knowledge of the views of his own Court and of ours. that towards the success of the business I have my communicated to you in day. despatch of this my dear Lord. Pozzo di Borgo. therefore. 1807. 1807- I DO assure you. Arbuthnot. The same to the same. every thiiig will depend upon M. Do. as may ensure their co-operation in an object of so much importance to the common cause. I have the honour to be. Pozzo. let me request that you will send out instructions to Mr.

I have not failed to answer. was impossible and that I should it be furnished with the means of entering into such engagements with her. as might accelerate her declaration. 215 it exactly in the same point of view as that in which is by his Majesty's government. On the other and hand. I can venture positively to assure your Lordship that she would not if it But make war as for the sake of that aid alone. and from the very critical situation of the French armies on the Vistula. the certainty of receiving none might operate an inducement to the most p 4 fatal submissions. however. That matters were verging to a in. in order to be prepared with might receive. in the present state of her finances. which the neutral system of Austria could no longer be persisted appeared to me evident. . than the case immediately required) for some provisional instructions. that such assistance must depend totally upon the circumstances of the case when Austria should find herself actually engaged. an answer to the proposals I whether for a treaty of subsidy. Seeing. that such circumstances must embrace the principle on which Austria would become a party to the war. could not support a war. appeared to me to be desirable from the peculiar value of time in the present state of affairs. or for a crisis at treaty of alliance. although its to fix the period of cessation . but must look to Great Britain for assistance. should be thought that the certainty of pecuniary aid might indirectly operate as an inducement to Austria to declare war. under your Lordship's directions. I have never allowed him to consider me as having offered them by way of inducement to Austria to join us and whenseen .CORRESPONDENCE. ever it has been thro^vn out to me that Austria. I pressed your Lordship (with more importunity. perhaps. and the objects which she would propose to herself by it.

When I arrived at Vienna. or allow Austria to become a party to object at present is it. He has the entire govermnent of the army. such was the anxious desire of the Emperor. War could not be carried on with any prospect of success. and the direction of all military operations. therefore. With regard to to the influence public councils. and even prejudicial to those interests which we had to recover and to preserve. that to offer subsidies inducement to war would have been ridiculous. Knowing. have yet been opened to me. that subsidies are only considered by those who most see the necessufficient of them as the means of bringing forces into the field to act upon a plan of combined operations. of the I Archduke state Charles over the have to your Lordship that it is decisive. his power I have abstained from supporting any views tending towards a war undertaken without his thorough conviction and participation. 8. so little was it expected that Bonaparte would admit of a real negociation for peace. I be- Keve. 216 CORRESPONDENCE from submissions might lead her possibly to the most destructive connections. The measure of mediation has by the concurrence of many events become a measure through which his approbation of war under certain circumstances may No distinct views. Such were my motives for venturing to make the request contained in my No.. have been formed . with respect either to Germany or Italy. Even at the present hour as an such sity is the reluctance to hear of war. if begun against his consent. and of all his subjects to preserve peace. None. be looked upon as secure. of all his ministers. The great keep the Archduke steady to the point to which he has advanced. and to conduct the negociations in such a manner as to convince him at their close (should they not close in peace) that if to .

has issued orders to a great many regiments to be ready to march at a moment's notice. am unable to inform your Lordship whether anything has occurred within these few days likely to accelerate the motions Previously to his leaving of the Austrian Cabinet. that the government is afraid of making Galicia the seat of war. The same to the same. there will be an end not only of the greatness. It is with great concern that I inform your Lordship of the death of the Empress on Monday morning last. and hopes that the Galicia.000 recruits should be raised to complete the Hungarian 3dly. but possibly the existence of the Austrian monarchy.CORKESPONDENCE. 1807. That the insurrection should be rendered permanent and disposable 2dly. greatest objection. My The Emperor he has regained is deeply affected by her loss . however. . Vienna. The Archduke. 217 things remain on any thing like their present footing in Germany or in Italy. that 30. 1st. . where his presence of the highest importance. supposed that this last proposal will meet with the The chief propositions — . but is sufficient possession of himself to return to the Diet of Hungary. &c. which have been made to the Diet are. Lord. I have the honour to be. that Hungary should take upon regiments It is herself some proportion of the public debt. Vienna he had proposed assembling an army in By the absence of Count Stadion I but he lost the question in council. The truth is. April 14.

&c. Vienna. have the honour to be. . . Bonaparte has sent a message to the Senate. the armaments of a great Power in his neighbourhood oblige him to have recourse to that measure. 1807. I have sent I them round by Memel. My Lord. although he is strong enough to resist the Russians and Prussians. I have no reason. The same to the same.. By the absence of Count Stadion. April 22. I have the honour to be. &c. to believe that any material alin teration has taken place in the state of affairs since the offer of mediation. My Lord. The declarations of the Court continue to be most encouraging Emperor of Russia to this and although . and contain nothing but what I have already communicated to your Lord- ship in substance. 218 CORRESPONDENCE intended operations of General Beningsen on the Lower Vistula may fix it in that quarter. I am prevented from sending your Lordship any further information respecting the progress of the different negociations which the Court of Vienna is now engaged. de- manding the conscription stating as his for the year 1808. 1 807. April 14. Vienna. and reason that. The same to the same. however. I HAVE at length received despatches for your Lordship from the Danish minister at Constantinople but as they are only to March 16th.

I have the honour to be.. 1807. his presence at the 219 army is looked upon with some anxiety. I shall have enough on my hands in the summer. &c. April 22. have no intelligence whatever from Constantinople. but transmit this information to your Lordship in order that no time may be lost. there is the following sentence.CORRESPONDENCE. no fears are entertained of his being induced hj the I artifices of Bonaparte to enter into separate negociations. I HAVE the honour of acknowledging the 1. In a letter I have just received from Commodore Campbell. April 28. : My — 3£r. Lord. Adair to Mr. receipt of your despatch. I have the honour to be. Some troubles have arisen in Croatia. Vienna. . 1807. as by what I can learn from their preparations at Yenice. &c. but they are now appeased. No. The same to the same. to which I think it proper to call your Lordship's attention " I feel much obliged by your recommending the force here to be augmented. but am informed that the last accounts received at Count Stadion's office mention that his Majesty's fleet had returned to Malta. dated April 7. Vienna." I have suggested to Commodore Campbell the propriety of his applying directly to the Admiralty. Canning. Sir.

The only point effect. and honour by which I had on former occasions supported M. gave me by his Majesty's great satisfaction to be able to renew commands those promises of support and co-operation to Austria. can be seriously admitted by him. and delaying the declaration of this Court. under the present circumstance. Hudelist. whenever she should determine upon the adoption of a vigorous conduct.220 It CORRESPONDENCE. No hope therefore can be entertained that a basis so rational as that which Austria has proposed for a general peace. I have reason to believe that notmthstanding his of that proposal. is in every sense conformable to his past and present conduct. and took that opportunity of repeating all the arguments of policy. Pozzo di Borgo's negociations for a general concert. who officiates in the foreign department during Count Stadion's absence. I can pursue no course more agreeable to his Majesty. than that of keeping this government steady . I am induced therefore to believe that. of view in which I have ever con- sidered this mediation as likely to produce a good has been that of gaining through it the Archduke Charles to our side. convenience. The opinion you do me the honour of communicating me as that entertained by his Majesty relative to the probable non-acceptance by the enemy of the Emto peror of Austria's proposal of mediation. nor proceeded upon with any other intention than that formal acceptance of disuniting the allies. as there is none more consonant with the practical purpose of inducing Austria to join us. I lost no time in communicating them to M. which I have uniformly given her. none could be carried on with any prospect of success. he is now to enter into separate negoendeavouring actually ciations at the Imperial and Prussian head-quarters. without whose clear and decided opinion in favour of war.

CORRESPONDENCE to the views it 221 it has announced. his Majesty's Resident at Corfu. I have the honour to be. Having received no copy of the instructions sent out to Commodore Campbell. I HAVE the honour of transmitting which I to you three have just received from Mr. one of which is a letter from Mr. by an immediate junction with the aUies.000 men. of his proceedings after the passage of the Dardanelles. Arbuthnot another one from Admiral Duckworth and the third Sir Sidney Smith's relation inclosures . In this last you will perceive with satisfaction that a British force of 6. I have in my correspondence with that officer only been able to recom- mend to him. The same to the same. . containing a the proceedings of his Majesty's squadron in the Adriatic. Foresti to myself of the 6th and 11th instant.. I8O7. and pressing by every means in my power to follow up the rejection of the terms of the mediation (which will infallibly happen). I have also the honour of inclosing to you the copy of a note delivered to ciates in the foreign me by M. &c. Hudelist (who offi- department in the absence of serious complaint against Count Stadion). Sir. in regard to the neutral trade of the ports of Trieste and Fiume. Foresti. under the command of General Mackenzie Fraser took possession of Alexandria on March 20. April 29. Vienna. as much indulgence . I have likewise inclosed to you copies of two despatches from Mr. in general terms.

importance at the present mosuperior sense of the ment of concihating the Court of Vienna. I have not failed to state to him in the clearest manner that con- siderations of deep political interest weighed with me recommendation I had given him. my I have the honour to be. &c. The same to the same. Arbuthnot. I did not think proper to communicate any particulars to Commodore Campbell on this point. Sir. towards the Austrian flag as might be consistent with I did this from a the due execution of his orders. .222 CORRESPONDENCE. Pozzo di Borgo had received orders to proceed to Constantinople. Vienna. and admit the interpretation I hazarded in my conversation with Count Stadion on the 24th of February (the particulars of which in the despatch of that day). Arbuthnot for England would have placed M. Pozzo therefore in the situation of being able. I earnestly hope that his Majesty's government will concur in this sentiment. I mentioned also that he had been instructed to act jointly with or separately from Mr. according to the state in which he might find affairs on his arrival at the place of his destination. if not to act as a direct negociator for Great . April 29. In my separate despatch of the 5th instant. and to endeavour to negociate peace with the Turks. of what was truly meant by the Order of Council of January were stated in 7th.1807. I in- formed his Majesty's government that M. and of removing all obstacles in the way of her accession to the common cause and although for obvious reasons. The departure of Mr.

I also think it right to remark to you that the taking possession of Alexandria by his Majesty's forces.attention of his Majesty's to I need not observe how necessary it is to avoid giving Russia any just cause.CORRESPONDENCE. for jealousy in respect to our trans- actions in the Mediterranean. it should any operations in that quarter I humbly take the liberty of suggesting the propriety of giving without loss of time some satisfactory assurances to the Court of St. and this task would be rendered the more easy to him from his knowing that Great Britain had entered into the war solely for the purpose of supporting her point. As I have stated before. or any conquests we may make in Egypt at a peace. 223 Britain. On my may part I will endeavour to the best of my power to obviate in this quarter arise any misunderstanding which the success of the other one expedition or but in order to do this effectually. Petersburg to that effect. M. my duty to ac- quaint you that the failure of our attempt before Constantinople has produced (from causes of which I am ignorant) much discontent and ill blood between the British and the Russian commanders and negociators. it will be necessary for me to be able to say something positive and distinct. and may possibly produce embarrassment in our future operations. from the . the Emperor anxious of Russia. appears very likely to occasion jealousy. that I feel call ally. or even any It is plausible motive. the . be the intention to carry on in common with our As I cannot suppose it to enter into the views ally. of his Majesty's government to retain Alexandria. It is to this most particularly now government. Pozzo di Borgo is the failure of the . at least to enter into such explanations with the Turkish government as might remove the chief difficulties in the way of peace with us. There are two reasons which make me much wish to have this power.

as the negociator for Russia. 224 COREESPONDENCE only channel through whom at this moment we can have any amicable communication with the Porte. inspire some degree of confidence into this Court in the steadiness of that . The Charles absence of the Emperor and of the Archduke still prevents my being able to send you any its fresh information with regard either io the dispositions of this Court. of correspondence are time and explanation at a period and under circumstances is when prompt decision I have the honour to be. Tlie same to the same. with whom my means much open. May 2. and should you do me the honour to transmit to me your instructions in consequence. such satisfactory explanations as may induce him stiU to consider the British and Russian interests as the same. I trust.. &c. it seems to me useful that he be enabled to ascertain what advantages to the common cause might be procured by the retrocession of this conquest. I8O7. Should his Majesty's government see this matter in the same light that I do. and at all events to a decision as to the line to be adopted in the event of failure of the present pacific attempts. Independently therefore of giving him. and thus save so essential. or the further extent of preparations. Vienna. I could immediately convey them to M. Sir. The return of Baron Hardenberg to the councils of his Prussian Majesty will. Pozzo. Immediately on the return of Count Stadion I propose renewing my exhortations to a vigorous conduct on the part of Austria.

CORRESrONDENCE. or receiving the express and when his sanction of his Majesty's government to that effect. — Q . Majesty had no minister resident at the Prussian Court.) I was ready to take upon myself the responsibility of advancing the sum first demanded under the particular circumstances of the moment. I which has just been sent to me from Buda. of Prussia. I cannot feel myself justified in acceding to the present demand. &c. and diation this be seriously to be proceeded with. nothing can be more necessary to its success. HAVE the honour of inclosing to you the copy of a note from M. in the desirable. 1807- Sir. in fact. I have the honour to be. subject of further subsidies for the assistance of Silesia has been mentioned to me by Count Finken- but although (trusting to his Majesty's gracious forgiveness. . May 5. way in which success would be most all than the extinction of previous sus- Baron picion among those Powers who are to form it. Talleyrand to Count Stadion*. The stein. A. Vienna. the 225 The prevalence of opposite sentiments has hitherto been a principal cause of the difficulties in way of effecting a solid union and concert if among me- the remaining powers of Europe. from Talleyrand to General Vincent. with a * This note was. and a Congress appointed for settling the articles of a general peace. mthout either first hearing from Lord Hutchinson. Hardenberg's restoration to office therefore is in this view an important circumstance and I shall not fail to make every advantage of it in my power. the Austrian Envoy at Warsaw. R. The same to the same.

In replying to this communication. assurances of support and protection might be given to the inhabitants of those countries. except by coming to an understanding with her during a Congress) had induced me to recommend government that the negociations should be carried on in some town under her more immediate direction and influence. At that period it could not have been known in England that Austria. the Tyrol. containing a repetition against Great Britain. had offered a town in her own territories for that purpose. is far greater than would at first be imagined.. Talleyrand's letter. 226 desire CORRESPONDENCE that I would immediately forward it to his Majesty's government. would wait mth the most anxious expectation for the signal which the accession of the House of Austria to our alliance would hold out to them for rising in arms. it appears that Copenhagen had been proposed by his Majesty's government for the assembhng of a Congress. and in general all the interior of Germany. in proposing her mediation. Saxony. under any other circumstances. I should have done in terms of mere general civility. which. Bavaria. all suffering alike under the harshest oppression and measures might silently to this . The utility of this with a view to the almost certain result of a Congress. even Italy itself (where there is no French army of any consequence). The communication with leading persons in the countries I have named would be direct and rapid. of the usual false accusations By what Count Finkenstein has communicated to me within these few days. The importance of gaining Austria to our side (in which object I cannot too often repeat there seems little hope of success. Wirtemberg. Without implicating the British government in any ill-considered intrigues. . Switzerland. I could not possibly pass over in silence a passage in M.

I'Empereur Napoleon accepte pour lui et ses amicale de S. empresse de mettre sous les yeux de S. a ete entrainee malgre elle dans la presente guerre. le General Baron de Vincent lui a fait I'honneur de lui adresser le 7""^ de ce mois. Sa Majeste n'a qu'une que la puissance qui jusqu'ici paroit s'etre fait un systeme de fonder son elevation et sa grandeur sur les divisions du Continent. 227 be taken to bring them forward under the auspices of This advantage must be forethe House of Austria. qui. et le desir qu'il a de voir resserrer Q 2 . comme toute I'Europe le salt. E. le I9. &c. M. I'Empereur allies r intervention d'Autriche pour crainte c'est le retablissement de la paix si ne- cessaire a tons les peuples. I'Empereur Napoleon trouve d'ailleurs dans cette circonstance une occasion naturelle de temoigner hautement la confiance que lui inspire S. . S. I'Empereur et Roi la note que S. ministre des relations exterieures. Cependant un moyen par lequel on pent esperer de faire cesser 1' effusion du sang. M. I have the honour to be.COKKESPONDENCE. ]\I. In these sentiments the Russian ambassador as- sures me that he thoroughly concurs. or at any place very distant from the Austrian capital. I'Empereur d'Autriche. Tnclosure referred to. Aviil. S. ne doit pas etre neglige par la France. M. Le s'est Soussigne. 180?. Varsovie. ne cherche a faire sortir du Congres qui sera forme de nouveaux sujets d'aigreur et de nouveaux pretextes de dissensions. M. M. de Talleyrand au General Baron de Vincent. gone should the Congress be held at Copenhagen. et de porter enfin des consolations dans le sein de tant de families. M.

le General Baron de Vincent les assurances de sa plus haute consideration. Vieniia. a Le Soussigne s'empressera d'expedier cette reponse son gouvernement. M. E. 1807- Sir. May 5. M. 1807. contenant la reponse du ministre Fran9ois a par bons offices S. I'Empereur d'Autriche de ses pour le retabhssement de la paix ge- nerale. &c. Adair to Count Stadion. Le Soussigne. Inclosure referred to. et qui peuvent aujourd'hui.228 entre les CORRESPONDENCE. Dans ces circonstances le Soussigne s'interdit toute observation sur les presomptions offensantes contenues dans la note de M. le Comte de Stadion I'offre faite reception de sa note du 2*^^ Mai. Adair to Mr. (Signe) Le Prince de Talleyrand. Canning. . S. Mai. by which he informed me of Bonaparte's acceptance of the offer of mediation made by Austria. deux peuples des liens qui out fait en d'autres terns leur prosperite commune. I HAVE thought it necessary to transmit to you the answer to Count Stadion's note. Mr. re- sentimens au nom nouvelle a S. Mr. plus que toute autre chose. Le Soussigne a I'honneur d'accuser a la E. M. Vienne. consolider leur tranquillite et leur bonlieur. heureux d'avoir a manifester ces de son auguste Souverain. le 4. inclosed copy of I have the my honour to be.

CORRESPONDENCE. that he might safely promise his Sicilian Majesty that in any Congress which might assemble for the settlement of the affairs of Europe. May 9. M. Sir. I have been induced to take this stej) in consequence of information respecting the internal state of and the factions which prevail at the Court of Palermo and I have deemed it the more necessary from the consideration that neither the grounds on which Austria first proposed her mediation. communicating to him Bonaparte's answer to the Austrian proposal I also took upon myself to assure him of mediation. I likewise know that during the late negociations at Paris very false information was transmitted by Prince Castelcicala Q 3 . et les imputations injurieuses contre une . . Canning. 229 de Talleyrand relativement a la conduite et au systeme de 1' Angleterre bien convaincu que S. Vienna. to the Sicilian minister at this Court. Drummond at Palermo. I8O7. puissance amie. Le Soussigne casion. &c. et un manque si total d'egard pour son caractere de mediateur. Feeling the necessity at the present moment of keeping up the best understanding possible among all the allied Courts. nor M. the interests of his Sicilian Majesty would be an object of primary attention to Great Britain. Imperiale et Royale verra avec un deplaisir egalement sensible. Mr. Talleyrand's note of April 19th. I sent off last night a confidential letter to Mr. Adair to Mr. had been communicated Sicily. saisit avec empressement cette oc(Signe) Robert Adair.

was unable to concert with the Russian minister the necessary measures of defence or attack in either of those cases. except I have already stated. and that the Russian admiral had declared all the Turkish ports in the Archipelago and the Mediterranean to be what in a state of blockade. but that he himself. 230 to liis CORRESPONDENCE. Having likewise received despatches addressed to his Majesty's government from Mr. Foresti at Corfu. is that the Russians took possession of Tenedos on the 23d of March. As Mr. I shall take the first opportunity of forwarding them to you by Lord Hutchinson. together with a passage from the first instructions I had the honour of receiving from you. Sicilian Majesty respecting the views and dis- position of Great Britain. dated April 7th. &c. I have thought to lose a it right not to co- moment in recommending all to him operate to the utmost in this the views of Russia. I have the honour to be. Foresti's despatches are too voluminous to send by the post through Germany. All that they contain material. and that on the other hand a Russian force of about 6000 men had proceeded to attack the territories of Ali Pacha in Albania. To end I have transmitted to him an extract from Lord Howick's despatch to me of March 6th. in which he states that great preparations appear to be making from the opposite coast of Italy for an attack on the Seven Islands.. . taking upon myself the responsibility of an advice which appears to me to be consonant with his Majesty's unvaried dispositions throughout the long contest in which his Majesty has been engaged. owing to the Avant of instructions.

) Vienna. 180?. Adair to Mr. Drummond. Dear I LOSE Sir. May 8. has been officially communicated to the Commandeur RufFo. Believe me. Neither the note. &c. but I leave it entirely to your discretion to make what use of it you may think prudent for the preservation of the good understanding which so happily subsists between his Majesty and the Sovereign at whose Court you Sicilian Majesty. Mr. as I reside. Of course this letter is confidential. you the copy of a note communicated to me by Count which has just been no time in sending Stadion. May 7. and that he will Q 4 . ISO?. Pozzo di Borgo. nor I believe the measure itself of mediation. but you may safely assure his have myself assured the Commandeur. Before this letter can reach you I trust that you wiU have seen M. (Referred to in the preceding Despatch. Sir.CORRESPONDENCE. Adair to Mr. that his interests wiU form a subject of primary attention to Great Britain in any Congress which may be assembled for the restoration of peace to Europe. 231 Mr. Foresti. Emperor of containing Bonaparte's acceptance of the Austria's good offices for the restoration of general peace. Vienna.

12. 14. to inclose extract from the last despatch written to you an me by Lord Howick. but your No. moment answering so fully as I could wish your accompanying your despatches to Lord Howick. and 15. and I have the satisfaction of informing you that my very first despatch from Mr. announces the same vigorous determination in the new government to support the common cause. The instructions contains will deserve your attention the more particularly. contains at the close of it a passage so extremely material to the furtherance of his Majesty's service. with those important subjects. or the and that you are likewise prevented by the same circumstance from receiving through his channel the information connected projects of attack on Albania . as they were sent out to me for the express purpose of satisfying some inquiries I thought it my duty to make. but on which it was necessary that I should learn the sentiments and dispositions of government. I think it proper. or on the means to be taken for their defence. and particularly " his Majesty's constant and it . in regard to points needless just now to state to you. ment upon in offering it. therefore. Nos. 12. 13. Secretary Canning. to whom his Majesty has been graciously pleased to deliver the seals of the Foreign Office. and dated on March 6th.232 COKRESPONDENCE. you the best opinion in my power pre- You mention that your want of instructions vents your communicating with the Russian plenipotentiary on the political affairs of the Seven Islands. prevents my having safely received at the present all A great pressure of business my letter of April 17th. 11. that I cannot permit myself to lose a mo. Since that period his Majesty has been pleased to change his administration. have informed you of your despatches.

for want of sufficient instructions. I is likely to become a very embarto us but you may depend upon it that . Want of proper information of the fact (which ought to have been sent me from Trieste) has obliged me to defer any remonstrance against a proceeding so contrary to all notions of neutrality. I have the honour to be. Adair to Mr. in ear- recommending to you to co-operate to the utmost with the Russian minister in all those measures on which you appear at present to entertain doubts. From some information which has lately reached me. I take mllingly upon myself the responsibility of this advice. I am very much afraid that the Austrian Court is permitting the passage of French troops into Dalmatia in far greater numbers than is consistent either with the spirit of their Convention with France on the subject of Cattaro. it therefore. which I shall also mention having given to you in the strongest terms. in my next despatches to government. &c. Canning. Mr. invariable disposition cordial union 233 to cultivate and maintain the most and good understanding with the Emperor of Russia y I cannot hesitate nestly a moment.CORRESPONDENCE. . May 9. Whenever I obtain that information I shall not fail to act according to the instructions which already have been sent to me perceive that this rassing aifair notliing shall with a view to that possible case. Vienna. Sir. make me lose sight of the main object. 1807. or with the repeated assurances of Count Stadion to myself as well as to Count Razamoffsky.

and must be. Talrenew her connections with France.234 COKRESPONDENCE. I . 1807. at which is. Vienna. and almost any price. I have the honour to be. Austrian government. The same to the same. Powers before opening the negociations. that he had immediately and without waiting for my note of the 4th instant. Immediately on his arrival I had a long conversation with him on the present posture of affairs. to gain Austria to our side. It is another satisfactory circumstance that the insidious invitation to Austria at the close of leyrand's note. &c. as of the gross indecency of addressing them to the Power whose good offices to restore peace he had just accepted. It gives me great satisfaction to inform you that Count Stadion was himself so sensible as well of Bonaparte's unjustifiable expressions concerning Great Britain contained in his answer to the Austrian proposal of mediation. It is considered in no of its effect. by every effort. ordered General Vincent to remonstrate in the strongest manner against a conduct and language in every sense so imj)roper. Before adopting the more serious course of presenting an official note to the requested Count Razamoffsky to ask a confidential explanation upon the subject. to has totally failed other light by the Austrian Cabinet than that of being intended to sow mistrust and jealousy among the different M. Count Stadion returned on Saturday to Vienna. Sir. May 13. is A third consolatory topic that of the supposed ritories passage of French troops through the Austrian tertowards Dalmatia.

Austria has proposed the Elbe as the line If we could prevail on Austria to on this line.CORRESPONDENCE. he himself remaining on the Vistula. in the present weak state of the Seven Islands. even if my information of the demand be correct. would threaten the most fatal consequences. prevent the recurrence of an evil which. I trust. &c. but the views of the parties are so diff'erent. . or even to meet the wishes of the allies. that before a middle point can be arrived at. further than I have already had the honour of stating in my former despatches. 235 most positively denied by Count Stadion. I can perceive my conference with no symptom whatever of a disposition in the preponderating part of the Austrian Cabinet to enter into the views. Some correspondence has taken place respecting an armistice. These I am concerned to say are the only points of a favourable nature which I feel myself justified in representing as the result of Count Stadion. At all events the steps which have been taken in regard to this aifair will. a great advance would made in our afiairs. I am confident the passage has not been fact is The and this authorised. army in motion. But of this I see no I have the honour to be. insist of demarcation. and to support the proposition by putting her indeed be prospect. hostilities will most probably have recomthe menced. with such vehemence and apparent good faith that. and Bonaparte requiring that Russia should retire behind the Pregel. Kussia requiring that Bonaparte should retire behind Rhine.

further than the benefit which might be derived from the individual Much he admitted integrity of Baron Hardenberg. have the honour to be. . dated May 7. &c. were carrying on very actively at head-quarters and in answer to all I could say favourable mth regard to the appointment of Baron Hardenberg. He expressed his belief that negociations . May l6. Count Stadion is returned to Buda. The same to the same. the general tenor of his conversation. The military preparations go on with unabated I vigour. 1807- Sir. and the dismissal of Zastrow.236 COKRESPONDENCE. I consequence that I should have forwarded if I my de- spatch by a special messenger could have found any person of trust to go with it through Germany. In other respects as continue nearly the same when I had last the honour of writing to you. Vienna. My second conversation Avith him was even less satisfactory than my last. the communication of which is expected here every day but from . would depend upon the nature of the convention understood to have been signed between the Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia. HAVE the honour of enclosing you the extract of a letter which I have just received from Commodore The purport of it is of such Campbell. he replied that there was nothing to be hoped for from that measure. I confess I have no hopes of Austria stepping in the slightest degree at this moment affairs out of her character of mediator.

CORRESPONDENCE. to attempt its reduction. 1807. pro\T. with the addition of a few small vessels. By information I had that the French were sending a quantity of ship-timber from the island of Veglia was induced to run up there. Trieste. and 350 pieces off the island. making the garrison prisoners.S. and thrown all their strength on the small vessels. Finding the French had evacuated the island of Lusin. The proximity of Pietro di Nembo induced me.) to Mr. as it was a great shelter to the enemy's gun-boats. . The other two at Chiozza I learn are not sea-worthy. large brigs. and took from thence some Trabacolos laden with excellent timber for line-of-battle ships and frigates. two praams. four or five brigs. 237 Commodore Campbell (^Extract. it is a most excellent one. I think I could. as also to secure any thing we might send into Lusin. The enemy have not now a soldier on any of the Dalmatian islands. Unite. May 7. and could be kept by a few hundred men against a large force. their make the situation of army in Dalmatia very unpleasant by cutting off their supplies. They have desisted working on their frigates and line-of-battle ships. tliey are very active in building gun-boats. I was induced to enter the harbour to refit my ship . I went there on the 28th with the Weazle. and succeeded in getting possession of the fortress on the 30th without any loss. Adair.M. With and praams. Inclosure. regard to the preparations at Venice. They Avill have a formidable flotilla early in the summer — about forty gun-boats. I to be shipped off.ded we kept command of the sea. which were on the coast ready to Venice. H. and one heavy frigate.

I have the honour to be. to be produced at whatever time the Court of Vienna might be desirous of seeing him assume that procally established between the character. I HAVE the honour of acknowledging the receipt of your despatches of the 28th ultimo. Vienna. I HAD yesterday despatch. 1807. that his Majesty had been pleased to nominate the Earl of Pembroke to be his plenipotentiary at the Court of Vienna. Vienna. Sir. I shall most probably re-despatch Lieutenant DrachI As brawa in a day or two. together with their inclosures. 180?. fail The same to the same.. and likewise that the Earl of Pembroke would be furnished mth credentials as ambassador. Canning. when I the honour of receiving your Count Stadion will return this day will not fail to communicate to him his Majesty's consent that embassies should be reci- two Courts of London and Vienna. Adair to Mr. May 20. &c. Sir. &c.238 CORRESPONDENCE. I have the honour to be. if such should be the wish of his Imperial Majesty. 4. May 23. have no doubt that I shall receive some communication from Count Stadion respecting the progress of the Austrian Court in its mediation. No. to Vienna. . Mr. In obedience to his Majesty's commands I did not immediately to notify to the Austrian minister.

. was stiU. 239 Tlie same to the same. his Imperial Majesty. Vienna. I made the com- munication in the very words of the despatch. . that as the intercourse between the two deliberation. 4. relative to the establishment of embassies be. nor be considered by his Majesty as any want of attention to his royal wishes. &c. Sir. who. aU circumstances considered. May 27. tween the two Courts of London and Vienna obviate all and to possibility of mistake. No. I have the honour to be. the ministers respectively with a higher would in no sense tend to diminish the good understandhig which subsists between the two Courts. it was hoped that the Emperor's declining the proposition of investing character. after mature more expedient that the two Courts should continue on the same footing on which it had stood for so many years.I8O7. I received for answer from Count Stadion that this question having on former occasions been brought under the Emperor's consideration. and by an observation from Count Stadion. of the same opinion. This answer was accompanied by professions of the most amicable dispositions on the part of the Austrian government. I Immediately on Count Staclion's return to Vienna communicated to him the purport of your despatch. it had deemed intercourse between the countries during the period of their strictest alliance and concert had been conducted by envoys.CORRESPONDENCE.

No. The accession of this i | l . The same (^Private. Sir. On this occasion I endeavoured also to learn what might finally be expected from Austria in the situation to which our affairs are now brought. The moment Count Stadion arrived from Buda I had an interview with him for the purpose mentioned in my despatch. I INTEND either despatching a messenger to England |^ in three or four days. The same to the same. it tertained a hope of their acceding to simply and at once. ISO?. is as yet finally resolved upon nor will anything be determined until Dantzic be either taken or relieved. with great truth. is proposal of mediation Things are not going on at The Prussian answer to the It is greatly censured here. 1807. Pozzo di Borgo and myself were so ineffectually | * labouring at during the winter.) to the same. all to my satisfaction. |. . or writing to you by the return | |i of Prince Starhemberg's. 37. almost called impertinent. May 29. &c. except through the mediation. Vienna. May 2?. and as a result from it. . M. Sir. April Court.. Nothing. however. | I.240 CORRESPONDENCE. and which we saw at last no chance of bringing about. which I forwarded yesterday by the post. to the Convention of the J-fth of Indeed I never enis still at a great distance. Yours. Vienna. therefore. An agreement substantially of the same nature between Russia and Austria was the very thing which f.

with regard to the future condition of Germany is called vague and unsatisfactory. moffsky received the also. censured both in substance and in foriji. is not more favourably considered. The Conitself. at the same time. CORRESPONDENCE 241 It will here be proper for me to inform you that about ten days ago.).. I will venture positively to assure you. and an increased unwillingAVliat is proposed ness to come forward. never * was in his contemplation at the time The Convention of Bartenstein. he said. accompanied by an instruction to press Austria in the strongest manner to accede to It was in consequence of the above Convention. R . I lament to inform you that the King of Prussia's answer has given great It is dissatisfaction to this Court. I see nothing as the result of these communications but a more than ordinary degree of shyness on the part of Austria. the altered first tone of Count Stadion himself After his return from Buda (on which No. my despatch that he thought peace icoulcl he the best thing that could This phrase struck me the more from its being coupled with a sort of explanation of the basis of the mediation which. or that the allies themselves will adhere to vention them. Count Finkenstein received the King of Prussia's answer to the Emperor's offer of mediation. In short. the answer of Emperor of Russia. hapjjen. The demands of the allies are deemed too high for it to be expected either that Bonaparte will comply mth them. 3. o.ives Wliat me the most uneasiness occasion I ^\Tote is. too. together with a copy of the Convention * entered into on the 2 (3th of April between his Prussian Count RazaMajesty and the Emperor of Russia. these despatches that Count Stadion was sent for from Buda by the Russian and Prussian ministers. in the course of our conversation.

above all. Xo. to exact on these points such concessions from Bonaparte as the violence of his character would never suffer him to listen to. engaged as a mediating Power in the discussion of interests so dear to her as the state of Italy and the Federation of — — the Rhine. the prospect for Europe is calamitous indeed In this point of view it is much to be lamented that the answer of the Prussian Cabinet was not a simple acceptance of the Emperor of Austria's proposal. so spirit far at least as affording additional aid to her own views. " You must recollect that the Peace of Preshurg is the out in all our negociationsy point from which we must set If Austria can be got to act on no higher principle than this. the five articles as in my despatch. In order to try was proposed. Considered with reference to its ostensible object. obtaining a secure frontier for her.! 242 it CORRESPONDENCE. It seemed not difficult. the allies never could have been entrapped through it into a disadvantageous peace. as an instrument of bringing Austria forward. and that. how far lie was disposed to adhere to this basis (viz.). mth good management. and enabling her to recover a great portion of her influence in Germany. to give such securities as might easily be suggested for the maintenance of peace. 18. while. Austria would have fallen into her true place . and. if she be not thoroughly impressed "with the necessity of preserving what remams of the federative system and if her mediation be not directed to this great end. to induce Austria. Count Stadion immediately answered. the mediation might have been used with the best effect. On his refusal to make such concessions. I remarked that both in and substance the proposed Convention between Russia and Prussia (for it had not then been actually signed) offered more favourable terms to Austria than she seemed disposed to ask for herself. such a Convention must be attended with the most beneficial effects to Austria.

have the honour to be. and the most determined support of the House of Austria. I shall not hesitate to urge every motive which may be derived from a confidence that the most vigorous prosecution of the war. nor will any be given until the fate of Dantzic shall be decided. or to give some intelligible answer to the various propositions which have been made to it. I can no longer speak from authority. of those whom he has at I all ranks and and particularly any time honoured with his confidence. S. however. I shall send a copy of this despatch to Lord Pembroke. totally despair. I will not yet. &c. since your communi. in order that use of it his Lordship may make such as his o"wn judgment and the instructions you may send out with him. and without any vioIt is to lence to her pacific inclinations. cation of his Majesty's pleasure to cessation of me respecting the my powers at this Court. may suggest. P. be feared that these hopes are nearly destroyed by the Prussian answer. it engaged in and would have found herself naturally.COREESPONDENCE. or to tell me to what extent they mean to support the propositions they have made themselves and although. in the 243 new struggle. In the mean time I shall not fail to do every thing which depends on me to determine this Court either to accede directly to the Convention. R 2 . justly. No positive refusal to accede to the Convention has yet been given. is the sentiment and the resolution of descriptions of his Majesty's subjects.

and May 10. unless means can be found of helping him to escape from his prison. I have the honour to be. Vienna. ordering them to propose to this Court its immediate accession to the Convention of the I reserve — th of April. &c. myself until such answer shall be given to write more fully to you. and to require a cate- gorical answer to the proposition.244 CORRESPONDENCE. and I propose sending oiF Lieut. The same (^Private. I . Drachbrawa through Germany with my letter. let me entreat you to send out orders without delay to Lord Pembroke to furnish the means of letter The effecting it. or perhaps the justice (considering by whom he was employed) of the British nation. de Vaudreuil which accompanies my despatches relates to the unfortunate Marquis de Riviere speedily about to be sent to Cayenne.) to the same. Other pacific symptoms appearing likewise in these despatches. 1807. Sir. June 3. 1807. I have received despatches from the Danish minister at Constantinople of April 29. The Porte seems very pacifically inclined towards Great Britain. from M. If you should deem this an object worthy of the generosity. Vienna. Sir. The same to the same. the Grand Admiral's orders being to avoid attacking any of his Majesty's ships. May 29. Despatches were received two days ago by the Russian and Prussian ministers.

Pozzo di Borgo's mission. whom I suspect to be friendly to France. Je dois cependant vous prevenir que jamais sa Majeste ne separera sa cause de celle de I'Empereur de Russie jamais . and that. Mr\ Adair to M. a la mission de Constantinople. J'ai re9u hier les depeches que vous avez eu la complaisance de m'adresser pour Britannique. Minister at Vienne. 245 have in consequence written to the Danish minister to inform him that Sir Arthur Paget was coming out. but did not think proper to mention it to the Danish minister. I have the honour to be. Hubsch. &c. cet avis qu'ils prennent leur parti au plus vite. qu'on trouvera moyen de s'entendre. Monsieur. Arthur Paget. ne fera mettra son elle la paix sans que allie les conditions qu'y ne seraient acceptees et Que les Turcs se reglent sur remplies a la lettre. Le tems est precieux pour eux. et qu'ils ne negligent aucune ouverture paciiique qui pourrait leur etre faite de la part de I'Empereur de Russie. Danish Constatitinople. d'apres ce que vous me mandez des dispositions apparentes de la Porte Ottomane. 1807. ce 1 Juin. as his Majesty would never separate his cause from that of the Emperor of Russia.CORRESPONDENCE. le gouvernementi le Sa ]\Iajeste \4ent de nommer Chev. I alluded in this to M. R 3 . car je leur suppose assez de bon sens pour etre revenus de illustre . On pent done esperer. the Turks had better in the mean time listen to any overture of peace which might be made to them by Russia. autrefois son Envoye Extraordinaire a la Cour de Yienne.

is that Austria "udU in the end accede to the Convention. Bonaparte is preparing for a grand and deci- . Count Razamoffsky. 1807. The Court. Adair to Mr. as I am informed. as I learned. ou meme sur le Danube. Agreez je vous prie. as well as from the conversations he has had with Count Stadion lately. une armee Fran9aise se reunir a eux sur le Dniester. they must make the best terms they could for themselves. Canning. he pressed his Imperial Majesty in the strongest manner to accede to the Convention of the ^^th of April. &c.246 COREESPONDENCE. Sir. Mr. the loss of which must be her own his Imperial Majesty that destruction. great question is still in deliberation at this The Emperor returned on Monday to Vienna. He also took occasion to state plainly. that would consent to join the allies. De I'autre cote ils mourront de faim dans deux mois I'esperance de voir d'ici. as well as that of Europe. June 10. By information received from an authentic channel. but he fears it will be too late to do any material good. and that she could not even risk a battle. represented to under the present circumstances Russia could not possibly do more than defend her o'WTi frontiers. although not in any unless Austria manner which could be misconstrued into a menace. Vienna. The Emperor's answer was. Monsieur. and yesterday Count Razamoffsky had an audience at which in obedience to his last positive instructions. still very general. The impression on Count Razamoffsky's mind from this audience.

I have been in and anxious expectation of learning the answer It is still of this Court to the Russian proposals. orders are issued for assembling an army. is The extent activity in of the preparations of Austria. and by cutting oif their communication with Gahcia oblige them to evacuate the whole of Prussian Poland. It is intended by the ministers to despatch Count R 4 . article of providing subsistence for Tlie same to the same^ Vienna^ June 17. I have the honour to be. If he should execute Austria may consider Galicia as lost. and retire behind the Niemen. It supposed that his plan is to turn their left wing. I have heard nothing more from Count Stadion. again Emperor is about to leave the delayed . the Russian and Prussian ministers have daily fixed next week as the period beyond which they cannot delay communicating to their respective Courts the success or failure of their efforts.CORRESPONDENCE. it now. especially in the an army. sive attack 247 on the whole of the Russian army. are conenough to justify better hopes than I can siderable But until I hear that yet venture to give you. On the subject of the mediation. Since "waiting my last despatch. in Avhich he was disappointed by the resistance he met with at Pultusk. 1807. it would be only misleading his Majesty's government to place the prospect of co-operation from this side in a stronger point of view than I have now done. and the the war department. Sir. but as Vienna. &c. This was his plan last winter.

and well dis- I posed towards active measures) to the allied armies. Bonaparte at indefatigable in was designed against It Copenhagen. not only of the state and disposition of the Austrian forces. Upon the success of that action. a great deal will of course will be depend. and the expectation of a decisive action between the grand armies. further force was to follow. by shomng him the utmost confidence. have no intelligence on which I can depend respect- ing his progress. The French General Gardanne on his way to Persia. — Vienna that this . relied As Count Stutterheim's reports upon by the Archduke Charles. I wrote to Lord Hutchinson on the 7th instant (ordering the messenger to deliver my despatches to Lord Pembroke in case Lord Hutchinson should have left head-quarters). as it is from him that his Lordship mil be able to obtain the most complete information. have delayed the Austrian answer for so many days. in order to verify the statements which the Russian and Prussian ministers had given in of the number and military disposition of the combined forces. and of the first operations of the British expedition *. The diminished state of the French army A joined by a considerable I number of the inhabitants. A.248 COREESPONDENCE. Stutterlieim (a very intelligent officer. The fall of Dantzic. * is is now at Vienna. but also of those causes which have so long operated to prevent Austria from entering into the confederacy. much the general cause would in my opinion be essentially promoted in the Neapolitan dominions has encouraged the Prince of Hesse to make a descent at Reggio with about 4000 He has been men. and of their readiness for immediate action. was not dreamt of R. and took occasion to recommend Count Stutterheim to his particular attention.

. The Danish minister at Constantinople having given me no account of the deposition of the Grand Signior. and his cousin Mustapha placed on the throne. among others of the Reis Effendi and the Bostangi Busha. on the Passarge. The same to the same. were sent to the Janissaries by Sultan Sehm. but nothing short of his deposition would satisfy them. Vienna. I am not able to send you any accurate de- We . Sir. have been obliged to evacuate Wallachia. It is said that they have sent for the heads of the Grand Vizier and several others at the army. 1807. CORRESPONDENCE. Important accounts have just arrived from The Grand Signior is deposed by the Janissaries. I am sorry to inform you that affairs are going on The Russians very ill indeed on the side of Turkey. &c. Russian successes on the 5th and 6th instant. . Constantinople. The Russians are thus entirely separated from Czerni Georges Austria is greatly alarmed for her frontiers and this is another difficulty we have to contend with in our endeavours to obtain her co-operation. S. his efforts to establish the 249 French influence in that part of Asia. Nothing has occurred here since writing my last have received the accounts of the despatch. The heads of several of the chief officers. the Turks having crossed the Danube in considerable force. and we are in anxious expectation of the result of the general engagement which it is supposed has already taken place. June 20. I have the honour to be. P.

It now remains to be seen whether M. the Grand Signior. will be able to profit by this opportunity to make peace. whether the war. &c. but no one declaring in his favour. made some slight resistance. to the deposition of the his having no children. his following reasons having addicted himself to Christian vices and adopted : — Christian manners. I have the honour to be. We expect despatches from him every day. Avhich was resented by sisting in his attempt to introduce the that formidable body. Before descending from his throne. namely. Borgo. respecting this important revolution. it appears to have been entirely produced by the Grand Signior's per- European disIt began by an accidental cipline in his armies. insult offered to a Janissary. Accounts differ as to one important point. who assembled Grand Signior instantly in for the four arms. By all concurrent information however. the lieutenant of a having acted as Christian Prince in investing the French ambassador at Constantinople with the order of the Legion of Honour. and the deposed Sultan was the his authority and to do him acknowledge first to homage. and particularly the war with Great was placed upon Britain. French engineers.250 tails CORRESPONDENCE. Majesty's . Pozzo his di of whose mission I apprised government on the 5 th of April. and proceeded. has been sufficiently felt at Constantinople to have assisted in jDroducing these events but I have the satisfaction of informing you that Count Stadion's despatches mention positively the sending away of the . his cousin Mustapha it. under the authority of the Mufti. — and his — his having increased the taxes. and I shall forward by a special conveyance through Holland whatever material intelligence he may transmit. as I understand.

all when I wall again press upon his consideration those motives for immediate decision which you . I mentioned that the Russian and Prussian ministers had determined to press for an answer within the course of the present week to the proposals which have been made to Austria by their respective sovereigns. 180?.CORRESPONDENCE. in which I mentioned my belief that fears for the safety of Galicia operated considerably on the mind of the Archduke Charles. 41. &c. I HAVE tlie honour of acknowledging the receipt of your despatch of the 9th instant. I will enter more at large into the motives which appear to me chiefly to have produced this deplorable inactivity. I will At pre- only refer you to a former despatch. I have the honour to be. sent. In my No. Some days however elapse before we obtain a definitive answer.clearly stated. the definitive answer of Austria. and until the success of one or the other be I am afraid nothing "svill persuade Austria When I re-despatch Lieut. Drachbrawa with determined. Vienna. stir. I am to see Count Stadion this day. 251 Tlie same to the same. Couriers are following couriers with accounts of the operations of the adverse armies to . Sir. I am now confirmed in this belief by its having been made ahnost a condition of Austrian co-operation that the main body of the combined army shall have reached the Bug. June 24. . have so and so forcibly urged will still in your shall despatch.

^Separate. however. &c. ] 807- Sir. 1807. June 27.252 COKKESPONDENCE. I WROTE on the 24th to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of the 9th instant. June 24. speedily to get over this have the honour to be. and above all the effect which it has produced at this The fatal intelligence is Court. * The same to the same. it off instantly to M. and of the the of Vincent General total defeat and dispersion of the Kussian army. The same to the same. and for that reason some slight hopes may still be entertained that General Vincent's statement from Warsaw is exaggerated. render the period so extremely critical that . as at Constantinople. Although the Russian official accounts have not yet been received. The information contained in the concluding part is of your despatch that I shall send I become so material in conse- quence of the recent occurrences at Constantinople. Vienna. Sir. Pozzo di Borgo. I nothing can be I hope. at length arrived from battle of the 14th. Hubsch. and likewise to Inform you that I expected very shortly to send off Lieutenant Drachbrawa with the definitive resolution of this Court.) * Vienna. difficulty. the degree of truth which appears in the substance of his report. am just at this moment embarrassed about to him. the means of conveying it trusted to M.

I gave you an account of two of them in my despatches. and a complete resignation to events. but I could make no further progress. and 38. to no project seemed preposmight adopt that of carrying terous or impossible. therefore. In communicating the intelligence to me. and for the preservation of that peace for which they have made so many sacrifices. by the tenor of ahnost all my late conversations with Count Stadion. The consternation of the Austrian government is extreme they begin ah^eady to tremble for Galicia.CORRESPONDENCE. might once have been entertained of the co-operation of Austria through the effect of our representations and other measures. I read him yours Nos. Petersburg. Count Stadion said most distinctly that he feared there was nothing now to be done but to make peace. and that Bonaparte. 33. this feeling may subside I cannot pronounce — most Into what probably into a confirmed stupor and inaction. his army into the heart of Russia. I observed that these fresh successes would lead probably to fresh pretensions on the part of France. Whatever hope. (being thoroughly convinced that if Austria were to . Three days ago. He had then received some information which led him to anticipate the calamitous events of the 14th. Count Stadion agreed that this would give us one chance more but his belief was rather that Bonaparte would . But in order to leave no means unattempted. of the 9th instant. it appears for the present to be completely at an end. whom immediately offer peace. He admitted fully the truth and this conclusion I To am led justice of almost all the reasoning contained in it. 253 I think it my duty to send off Lieutenant Draclibrawa immediately with this despatch. and attempt to dictate the law even at St. and lost so many : opportunities of retrieving their affairs.

he imparted to me this intended interview. as mthout it. I was ready to take upon myself the responsibility of guaranteeing any sum that might be wanted to put their army To this offer he was silent. charged to convey personally to his Imperial Majesty the sentiments and views of the Emperor Alexander and the King of Prussia. Bonaparte would probably begin first by insisting she should disarm. brother-in-law to KadziviU. I recapitulated to Prince Radzivill. accompanied by every inducement to come forward derived from the fresh dangers which are gathering round the Austrian monarchy. when it took place at Laxemburg. instantly into motion.254 CORRESPONDENCE. favourable an opportunity of conveying truth to the ear of his Imperial Majesty was not to be neglected. for some reason or other. arrived at Vienna. Some days ago Prince I have not stopped here. all the arguments contained in your despatch. whither he was summoned by special invitation from the Emperor. appeared to be most pecuharly necessary at the present moment. and like- So wise the topics it was his intention to urge. . therefore. If any success should have attended this effort. now slie would have a better chance of safety than she can hope for three months hence. delayed until yesterday evening. and I renewed most him — wannly the offer of pecuniary assistance. I urged him to represent to his Imperial some sign of Majesty that some forward motion life on the part of Austria. His private audience was.) I assured Count Stadion that if the delay of declare herself even Lord Pembroke's arrival kept back any resolution which the Court of Vienna might otherwise be disposed to adopt on account of subsidies. and entreated to lay them before the Emperor. As I am in the habit of much confidential intercourse with Prince Radzivill. the King of Prussia. provided the army were but once fairly put in motion.

the effects of this terrible calamity might yet possibly be retrieved. but I hope that by what I have already written. both to Lord Hutchinson and Lord Pembroke (and particularly to the former) respecting this officer. that although our prospects are unfavourable to nearly the greatest possible degree. exist . . they will soon discover whether this be or be not the this if it from him the most earnest the Emperor of Russia object of it. the case desperate. and that. fatal. but I have now strong reason to believe that he carries with Court to to make peace can be had on any tolerable terms. was to obtain accurate information of the numbers and condition of the allied forces entreaties . &c. Could Austria be convinced of this. although the speedier her decision the better. she Avould gain more in point of position by the forward movement of the French armies than she would lose by the disadvantages consequent upon a partial defeat of those who would be her allies. I will add a postscript. 255 which I shall know before sealing my despatch. I have the honour to be. Such a mission would naturally be concealed from me. Under this supposition. You will see by what I have now the honour of communicating to you. considered with a view to military operations. delay would not be absolutely advanced. are those districts into which the French have now is nothing in the scale of ultimate success. The object in view.CORRESPONDENCE. Such being the situation of affairs. when he first received orders to proceed thither. Count Stutterheim left Vienna yesterday on his journey to the Russian head-quarters. is not absolutely A considerable Russian army may yet exhausted as and the mere loss of territory.

Vienna. . I have the honour to be. and that his Lord- ship intends seeing Count Stadion this evening or to-morrow. July 15. &c. &c. Robert Adair. I have the honour to be. I have delivered up to his Lordship the ciphers and official correspondence in my possession. Tlie same to the same. Sir. 180?. 1807. The same to the same.256 CORRESPONDENCE. in obedience to his Majesty's commands. I HAVE the honour to inform you that Lord Pembroke arrived here yesterday. I day presented have the honour of informing you that. Sir. Vienna. The Earl of Pembroke having this his credentials to his Imperial Majesty. July 4.

— It — .MEMom. ovit dated the May and I had brought no letter of found myself. s and the usual audience of . 37. is a question of government. On applying. as well as minister plenipotentiary. the sovereign who should nominate to it. succeed him. He brought out with him those of ambassador extraordinary. in which the sovereign accrediting requests that confidence may the bearer of accredited. but he Avas received only in the The objections on the part of the Austrian government to receiving his Lordship in the character of ambassador. placed in an awkward and somewhat difficult situation. in consequence of the refusal to admit him in his higher character. appointment two parties are necessary namely.. latter capacity. it must be observed that the recal for me. the appointment was not complete. 7th of are . To explain this. UNTIL THE CESSATION OF DIPLOMATIC INTERCOURSE BETWEEN ENGLAND AND AUSTRIA. a minister of a higher character shall be appointed to seems that in this case the Austrian whether right or wrong. in which character I had been received at the Austrian Court. and he by whom the person nominated was to be received and that until such reception and recognition on his part. are a simple autograph letter. therefore. credentials of minister plenipotentiary. Lord Pembroke presented his credentials to the Emperor on July 15th. considered that to such an precedent and practice. stated in as he my No. for my passports. 257 FROM LOKD PEMBROKE S ARRIVAL AT VIENNA. it by the sovereign to be given to whom he is or until until he shall be recalled. .

having surrendered the correspondence and cyphers to Lord Pembroke. and cheerfully obeyed but. should consider me as the regular resident minister. to quit Vienna without taking but such a step would have been contrary to all usage. and having no knowledge of easy one. 258 leave. obvious that the situation in which this was neither a pleasant nor an government had put an end and ordered me to give up the ci23hers and correspondence to Lord Pembroke. but of my audience. this embarrassment there was one way of escape indeed. He added also. that knowing nothing officially — my being either recalled or superseded. arisen — refused and — the me in my dis- case in their judgment not me consequently the tinction above mentioned. and on my observing that the character in which I had hitherto acted was extinguished by the appointment of an officer of liigher rank. namely. and unworthy . on the other hand. offensive to the Emperor. It will be objection placed me. their abrogation. and consequently that no such letter was necessary. o^vn to My my functions. That was easily commanded. except on a rupture of pacific relations.) I was asked for my letter to the Emperor announcing my recal. that I might not be removed from his Court. the government to which I was accredited. continued to recognize pubhc having capacity. invariably granted on the amicable termination of a diplomatic mission. the distinction above noticed was opposed to my request not indeed of my passports. (after aiEMOiK. acting in conformity to the credentials which I had delivered. Out of leave .. which I was distinctly told by Count Stadion could not be granted me. on a special of the fact of still he mission. Lord Pembroke having been received only in the character of plenipotentiary. who had graciously intimated his wish through his minister at London.

Canning. They do not. more especially since my having learned that the Emperor had done me the high s 2 . abstaining in the meantime from all political intercourse. or until this rank. 259 the station I had occupied as representing the policy of the English government. and Lord Grey. necessarily revoke mine. I find myself me placed in a situation of extreme awkwardness in regard to the general business of the mission.) I must still be considered as accredited until I present letters of recal. Now to quit Vienna without taking leave. Lord Grenville. Fox. It appears that his Lordship's credentials as pleni- potentiary are not considered here as conferring a rank beyond that of minister plenipotentiary. July 10..) "Vienna. and with a kindness of to manner I shall never forget. to WROTE on the 4th give you notice of Lord Pembroke's arrival at Vienna.JMEMOIK. I addressed the following letter to Mr. " (Private. and took the resolution of remaining at Vienna until I should receive his answer. "Dear " I Sir. under the direction of such men as Mr. I cannot have my audience of leave. therefore. and in that character alone that this Court Avill it is receive them. but as he has brought me no letters of recal. 180?. after his having read the copy of the letter to be presented by Lord Pembroke. Under these circumstances. would be to the highest degree improper. Court shall consent to receive a minister of superior I am also informed by him. that without such letters. or with the ministers of any of the other Powers. and (as I am informed by Count Stadion. inst. whether with the Austrian government. delivered the duplicate of your despatch No. 3. that politeness for which he is His Lordship with well known.

I resumed my correspondence with Mr.260 MEMOIR. Canning on the 15th of September. his Majesty that I honour of expressing his wishes to I should remain at his Court. and it was intimated to me that our diplomatic relations were at an end. the power of . a few days previously to will appear in its place). " (Signed) Robert Adair. ceased when such a peace as that of Tilsit was signed. therefore. the peace of Tilsit had been concluded between Russia and France. 1808. To early in his in- tention of returning immediately to England. Lord this letter I received . In consequence of this proposal. the utility of an English mission at Vienna. thank you. &c. " Beheve me. no man can more fully understand or more sensibly feel than yourself. are continued until The despatches thus resumed which (as it the 2 2d of February. the nature of which of view. on the non- acceptance by his Majesty's government of a mediation proposed by Austria for what. as far as the old continental system was concerned. and the business of the mission proposed to me to carry on until his Majesty's pleasure should be made known respecting the recal which I had solicited." Prince Star- hemberg had been recalled from London. and the hard terms on which the peace was extended to Prussia. to relieve me as soon as possible from this all its points embarrassment. was called " the maritime jDcace." will m no answer but Pembroke notified to me September. lation or are too Avell known to require recapitu- comment.' By that act. During the interval of its cessation. In effect. in the phrase of the day. The circumstances under which it had been negociated.

to force matters into a state which might consolidate and render it permanent. Her situation was this At the moment of her rupture with us. holding out her hand to France as the Power most likely to assist the new prospects opened to her by the recent treaty and in pursuance of her altered politics. was not yet in actual alliance with France and although he had yielded to the fascination of sented larger and wiser views. were uoay beginning to take another direction. was not the business of England. which required to be watched cautiously in their commencement. much was yet wanting to give steadiness It to their incipient connection. and with it practically the protectorate of the republic of the Seven Islands. a new element was introduced into our differences with Russia. than which nothing was : — . In any other case we should immediately have set about to do her all possible mischief in the Mediterranean and every where else and have begun by seizing her ships. and all that Europe had to do was to submit. 261 Napoleon was rendered confessedly predominant. But the other side of the j^icture pre- Russia. The Emperor of notwithstanding his unjust anger against England. s 3 . MEMOIR. and Constantinople was the point around which they were gathering. Napoleon. Wars of resentment never enter into the plans of English statesmen and in this case for England to . — — more easy. and against all right and public law. .. she had a large fleet in the Mediterranean she had a numerous garrison at Corfu: on the question of Turkish politics she had changed sides. she had agreed to surrender to France the military possession of Corfu. and wait The interests of the world also for better times. therefore. But mth this new direction. and touched with the tenderest hand.

with the Turks since their establishentirely for the sake of Russia when ment in Europe she was our ally. which subsequently were acted upon. assist France in executing her projects in the Mediterranean. opening some views upon this subject. the ill consequences of which were sure. Independently of all other mischiefs. must have become deeply and immediately the sufferer by a real alliance between Russia and France. be had gotten ourselves into a war it remembered. all preparatory respondence. had been sent from England with a commission to restore the peace. As we our only war. proceedings against Russia the very reverse indeed was the policy that was followed. to fall upon those who were parties to would have been the summit of political imit. will be found a despatch . 262 MEMOIR. good offices were rendered to the Porte and her Peace with Russia was almost indispensable subjects. prudence. if not absolutely their victim. if left to their own operation. and not without success.. there could be no reason for persistSir Arthur ino. Considerations of this nature forbade any hostile Austria. unopposed. several the Alexander Ball. On the other hand. subjoined in the Appendix. The progress and — — failure of his negociation may be traced in the cor- While it was going on. 1808. Sir Arthur did what he could to promote it to her. . therefore. those towards Turkey were now to be attended to. it could not be permitted that Russia should. With our altered relations towards Russia. and General Sir John Stewart. to Sir letters. have put forth her strength merely to punish an act. in it when she had ceased to be so. Under the date of the 23d of January. Paget. if by any effort of ours it might be This matter is the subject of possible to prevent it. nor that Corfu and the other islands should be quietly transferred to that Power. Lord Collingwood.

Pozzo di Borgo. renew his negociation. This was the landing of the garrisons of the Ionian Islands at Venice. or to close * See a Despatch from M. dated September 15th. The very first despatch to Mr. then blockaded by a British squadron under the escort of Admiral Seniavin's fleet. Kurakin. of setting At Vienna. The landing of 5000 Russians on the Continent of difficult it how Italy. was with a view to this danger. Appendix. at least of her not opposing it — up a maritime kingdom in the Adriatic. Count Razamoffsky His successor was Prince had been displaced.* Meanwhile the peace of Tilsit. had been recommended to the consideration of Sir Alexander Ball. was to avoid a rupture. notifies an act on the part of Russia of a nature not only to justify but to provoke hostilities with her. among other of its consequences. It will appear from the unsatisfactory conference with Prince Kuraldn on this point. if not of the co. which had so lately been co-operating with us at the Dardanelles. was by no means an indiiferent matter for about this time there appeared strong symptoms on the part of Napoleon natural enough when assured.f MEMOIR. Canning. considering the facility of adding to their numbers from the interior of France. on whose entrance upon his functions all to intercourse. had necessarily altered the footing on which the English and Russian legations stood towards each other at Vienna. — It operation of Russia. No s 4 . 263 and on my being appointed. ceased between the missions. I followed the same course. except that of common civility. Appendix. matters before this fatal treaty. t See Letter to Commodore Campbell. that the project already alluded to for getting possession of Corfu and the other islands. at first continued much as immediate demand had been made to occupy Trieste and Fiume. some months afterwards.

She was afraid that any attempt to reestablish. Braunau was at length surrendered. this long expected despatch as to her future course truth — that . with anxiety for intelligence from Paris before taking any determination but I will bear testimony to this she waited with a firm determination to abide the struggle. ever. and a fresh concession exacted from Austria since its signature. by which a On this military road was granted for their passage. cantonments. The march of French troops through the Austrian territories into Dalmatia was regular and continued and soon afterwards came the Convention of the Isonzo.264 MEMOIE. even for the purposes of peace. Towards the end of October. . a condition which. . had arrived. well aware of the possibility of these and even worse and assuredly was in no condition to resist them. and on learning that some Russian ships of war had been admitted into Trieste. therefore. Austria was the Austrian ports to British vessels. . a good understanding with other Powers. condition. with this demand was to be when it should be made. however. Avould draw down upon her the vengeance of Napoleon for even the evacuation of Braunau. had been delayed by him under pretence that the Austrian army had not been sent into or independence. in fact. Her situation. By the 7th of October. exactions. in execution of the treaty of Presburg. therefore. expected Compliance. It was not of a nature to increase the fears of Austria as to territories an immediate attack on her howand so much so that she positively refused to take any steps towards bettering it. was one of complete paralysis . was an additional article to the treaty of Presburg. It was easy in this state of things to foresee that my mission was about to close. She waited. should it become unavoidable unless by the sacrifice of her honour.

officers as I could confer with. the Commandeur Ruffo (minister from Naples). were essentially proper to be provided was to make some arrangement for securing to the officers of the disbanded Condean army the payment of the allowances made to them by the British government. for to establish reasons which will be well understood. this . Two The first An arrangement. these payments was entrusted to the Comte de la Farre. who resided at Vienna in the supposed character of agent to Louis XVIII. was not surprised afterwards to learn that four days before the date of the above despatch. instruchad been sent to Prince Starhemberg to offer the mediation above alluded to and I began immetions . it right to come to an explanation with the minister as to the situation in which we were standing^. thought No. Count Hardenberg (the Hanoverian minister at Vienna).MEMOIR. and which had hitherto been effected under the authority of the English objects for. My I 50. beside these concerns.000/. Bishop of Nancy. But. sterling. diately to make provision for an event that was no longer doubtful. of the 31st of October. In the possible. being the amount of two years' allowance for With the consent of such of the the whole corps. contains the result of this conference. the superintendence of minister at Vienna. there was a matter to be ascertained of immediate importance to the common welfare. to which. and in which it was necessary that England should see her way. if not . I drew bills on the Treasury of England for 12. I 265. the Austrian could not be a party. Pozzo di Borgo. for purpose was entered into with the House of Arnstein and Eskeles to carry which into effect. The next object was communicating minister mth some method of and England.. and M. therefore. It was effected through Count Razamoffsky.

1808 and having. either to accept any extension of territory at the expense of Turkey. comprising the fortress and territory of Belgrade. I — — any participation in the projects attributed to the alliance. My correspondence with England closed at the end of February. was a . in my final interview Avith the Austrian minister. was much the same as that with which the possession of the Isle of Wight by France would be reo-arded in London. MEMOIR. dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. what part was Austria to take ? It could not be doubted that in any great scheme of partition she would be offered her share and that share. new . therefore. on my way to . Trieste. brought forward the subject. the asked for .266 projected. and received from him the most distinct distogether with the expression of his desire claimer of that I would communicate it to my government tempting acquisition. to cross the military road granted to I French by the Convention of the Isonzo. or to and I well countenance such projects in others remember the warmth with which he assured me that the public feeling with which the possession of Moldavia and Wallachia by Russia would be regarded at Vienna. and obtained an Austrian escort. and the no less positive determination under no circumstances.

1809. September 15. The Commodore. entertaining doubts how far their being suffered to enter Venice would be consistent with the blockade of that port. consistino^ of three sail of the line and three frisrates. Sir. Having stated the object of my desiring . had anchored off Pirano on the coast of Istria and that the Russian commander had acquainted him that he I . Avith 5000 Russian troops on board from Cattaro. that nothing should be done until he could receive instructions from Prince Kurakin at Vienna.COERESPONDENCE. 1807. Vienna. 267 DESPATCHES CONTINUED FROM LORD PEMBROKE'S DEPARTURE TO FEBRUARY 21. THINK it necessary to acquaint you without delay that two days ago I received a letter from Commodore Campbell informing me that a Eussian force. The Russian commander also signified to land to Commo- dore Campbell his intention of sending on the transports under the escort of a frigate. the result of which I have now the honour of communito see him. Canning. It was agreed accordingly. Adair to Mr. Mr. cating to you. had orders them at Venice. represented to the Russian commander that it could not be pemiitted imless he went with a superior force. By terview the Commodore's desire I had yesterday an in"svith Prince Kurakin on the subject. having under convoy a number of transports.

that the Russian Commander should land his troops at Garda (Avhich is immediately opposite Pirano. and under the convoy of a by force their entry into oppose to frigate only. or marched along the high road to To this proposal I requested Prince KuVenice. Venice. upon his honour. which important station has been put into the pos- . but merely a measure of convenience and arrangement. mentioned that Commodore Campbell. It was not my good fortune to persuade Prince Kurakin to adopt this suggestion. from whence they could easily be conveyed by inland navigation. be made acquainted with a transaction which may lead to the most serious dis- More Russian cussions between the two countries. had proposed a middle course. ships are expected every day with troops from Corfa. without loss of time.268 I CORRESPONDENCE. If he should come with his whole squadron. It appears to me fit that his Majesty's government should. drawn sendino. namely. mtli a view to avoid even the appearance of a misunderstanding with a Power which had been so long and so closely connected with Great Britain. : An answer so little satisfactory occasioned my to in writing immediately to had earnestly solicited in a case so Commodore Campbell (who my advice how to proceed him. rakin's consent. recommending Russian Commander should persist by sea.troops as closely as possible to the spirit of his instructions. then to deliver him a strong protest in writing. against so flagrant a violation of the right of up blockade. the landing of the troops at Venice was with no hostile intention. if the new and difficult). and likewise that he would immediately issue the necessary instructions to the Russian Commander. and only twelve miles distant from it). He alleged his want of powers and I could only obtain from him a declaration that.

I have the honour to be. Under the present apparent relations between Russia and France. as it is more probable. you will see that there is some reason to fear that a part of the Russian fleet has been ceded to the enemy. I trust it you will consider the advice I have thought my duty to give to Commodore Campbell. and would require to be seriously resented by us but I think it prudent to avoid any steps Avhich may increase the number of our enemies. Of this nature. and as one which his Majesty's government would by no means suffer to be carried into effect through the abandonment of the blockade of the — — — port of Venice. or whether. I could not help looking upon the assemblage of a large body of troops in the North of Italy as a measure extremely suspicious (to say the least of it).. for Venice. &c. appears. and considering our many just causes of alarm from what has already transpired of the secret the meaning conveyed articles of the peace of Tilsit — in the limitation to one month of his Majesty's acceptance or rejection of the Russian mediation the the known determination recent surrender of Corfu of Bonaparte to attempt every thing to get possession and the too probable apprehension that of Sicily he will endeavour to force this Court into his measures. Foresti to Commodore Campbell. necessity. It has not yet been in my power to ascertain this fact. CORRESPONDENCE session of France at Tilsit. except such as are dictated by the most imperious possession . are destined and by the inclosed letter from Mr. . Either of these acts near very to positive would approach hostility on the part of Russia. 269 secret by virtue of the it engagements All these troops. Russian ships have been used in transporting the troops which were to take of Corfu.

might be made as strong far my information to Sir Alexander It will be for them to determine whether there be any thing sufficiently dis- Ball and General Moore. tinct in it to call for immediate operations without waiting for orders from home. which may be depended upon. and Ithaca may be carried by a coup de main. Zante. The same to the same. exertion. Not which. I apprehend. September I9. and endea- vouring to ascertain what strength will be wanting to drive the French from the forts. Sir. I learn that Corfu may be taken by blockade. but that Cephalonia. Vienna. In the meantime it mil be of great use for me to know the sentiments of his Majesty's government with regard to a regular enterprise of this nature (provided nothing .270 CORKESPONDENCE. their importance to Great Britain in the present world there can. At Cephalonia there are 300 vessels and 7000 exThe harbour of Argostoli is reprecellent sailors. possession of them. I shall send all and able to contain from it there is a fortress. am pursuing this line of information with diligence and secrecy. the largest fleet. and to retain In general. My extreme preceding despatch has been delayed by the difficulty of finding a trusty person to take charge of it through Germany. I have obtained information doubt. be no Since yesterday. that a very general state of the disposition prevails among I the inhabitants to seek his Majesty's protection. with a httle as Gibraltar. sented to me as safe in all seasons. This delay affords me an opportunity of soliciting the attention of his Majesty's Government to the Of situation of the Republic of the Seven Islands. 1807.

One of them is now at Vienna. Your despatch of the 5th instant. I cannot perceive. Vienna. I have the honour to be. and will wait here for your answer. September SO. Sir. Information has been received here of the occupation of Tuscany and the Ecclesiastical States by Bonaparte is Venice. was opened by me. however. September 24. 1807. The same to the same. I have the honour to be. that awaits it. that he has speedily expected at given orders for fitting up a palace for his reception not far from Udina. Sir. addressed to the Earl of Pembroke. opinion in the Inlands : — rely .000 men. also. between Udina and the Tagliamento. they Avould be content to become British subjects. It appears. The same to the same. Vienna. in consequence . 1807. &c. and for tracing out a camp to hold 80. 271 can be done by a sudden blow). and what engagements they will authorise me or any other person to enter into with the leading persons in the republic. His description of the state of public is shortly as follows they on the generosity of England to maintain their constitution as it was settled and guaranteed to them in 1802 but rather than have the French. &c.CORRESPONDENCE. any increase of preparation on the part of this country to meet the danger which the French.

particularly of those who command in Italy. in which that minister assured me in the no propositions had been made either by Russia or by France to Austria. or abstain from bringing forward these. from whom he ex- He pected more distinct information on this point than he was then enabled to give me. he in- formed me that no variation had taken place in them That their reciprocal communications were civil.. answered. that most shut her ports against British vessels. he did not flatter him- France would long remain quiet. rest appeared so little probable. of his Lordship having left Vienna. and perhaps still more extensive pretensions. the French were not in sufficient force there to attempt it. sudden attack on the side of Italy. what he thought would be the course which France intended to pursue towards Austria. that in a few days he should have a courier from Count Metternich. As to their subsisting relations with France. and I immediately proceeded to execute the instructions contained in it. and he promised that he would duly inform me whenever he should know With regard to any any thing positively himself. also. that France had not yet made any requisition for the possession of Trieste and Fiume. I then asked him to tell me confidentially. At the same time that he gave self that me these assurances. For this purpose I had an interview mth Count Stadion. to distinct terms. since lea^dng her long at since the peace of Tilsit. He assured me. and in general he thought that the pretensions which France . 272 CORRESPONDENCE. although he was not ignorant of Bonaparte's views in that quarter. or to assent to the principles of maritune law which Russia appears disposed to re-assert. nor uninformed of the pubhc language of his generals. and apparently even amicable dispositions which Austria was endeavouring by all means in her power to cultivate.

is. and all accounts agree that the composition of them is superior to any- member thing which she has brought into the field for years. would be deferred until Bonaparte's arrival at Venice. and Italy to contend against. or rather than assent to the meditated changes in Italy and Germany.. and that if she is doomed to fall. My reasons for thinking so are derived from the evident impossibility of Austria sustaining a war. &c. more than Count Stadion or any other of the Emperor's Cabinet can tell. without the hope of succour. four armies can be assembled at a very short notice. Germany. I many have the honour to be. she will not fall without a gallant resistance. possibly even with the dread of hostility. and to the possible transfer of the Duke of Wurtzburg to Tuscany. which versation. from Russia. I fell naturally within our con- am sure that he expects that this of the sea-coast of the Adriatic will speedily demand be made very and I am also inclined to think it will not be vigorously resisted. 273 might feel disposed to urge. in which she ^vill have France. I firmly believe. . By the arrangements already made. AH that can be said for the present is. CORRESPONDENCE. From the manner in which he talked on this and other matters. Whether other France risk a possible demands on the part of will be rejected by Austria — whether she will war rather than recognise Joseph Bonaparte as King of Naples. that Austria is not unprepared for the worst.

274 CORRESPONDENCE The same to the same. 1807- Sir. informing him that the negociations were then going on. the Russian general . and that it was supposed they would have a favourable issue. Information has just reached which. &c. I have the honour to be. me of a circumstance coupled with what you must undoubtedly have heard from St. that on the commander conveying the troops from Cattaro to Venice. and that Commodore Campbell has remonstrated strongly against the proceeding. and as the packet is too large for conveyance through Germany by the post. September 30. however. In consequence of the death of General Michelson. October 3. dated from Tenedos August 6th. and addressed under a flying seal As they contained no account of to Lord Pembroke. may not prove unimportant in its efi'ects. The same to the same. sailed for that port with his whole force. From Commodore Campbell. I YESTERDAY received despatches for his Majesty's government from Sir Arthur Paget. which took place about the time when the armistice was negociating between the Russian and Fiiench armies. any progress in the negociation with the Turks. I learn that he had received intelligence from Lord Collingwood's fleet of September 4th. Vienna.. the Russian HAVE the honour of informing you. I have forwarded it to Lord Granville Leveson. Vienna. Petersburg. 1807- Sir. I 21st instant.

Commodore Campbell is obliged T 2 . The same {Separate. Sir. &c. If the politics of the Russian Cabinet could be judged of by any rule of reason. Tilsit. and in consequence of positive orders (as I am assured) the Russians have now refused to execute this article of the treaty of courier passed through this place to the above effect. learn that tliey have sold all their military stores to the enemy.CORRESPONDENCE. October 3. Vienna. Petersburg to learn the Emperor's pleasure. or to hope that any good will I just result from this apparent misunderstanding. I have the honour to be. with intelligence supposed) You already know that on Au- gust 14th the Emperor Alexander wrote to Bonaparte complaining bitterly of the delay in evacuating the Prussian states.) to the same. A French two days ago for (it is Paris in great haste. and of the heavy contributions imposed on them. but their own conduct in the Adriatic forbids me to entertain this belief. officer 275 next in command to Wallacliia until the return of a courier him refused to evacuate who had been sent with despatches to St. The answer was received on September 13th. and that the Russian commander who convoyed the garrison from Cattaro to Venice has now sailed for Corfu to assist in establishing the French in that and the other islands. 1807. the probability would be that the order for the nonevacuation of Wallachia had been given in consequence of the conduct of France towards Prussia. I AM sorry to acquaint you that by orders from Lord Collingwood.

inclosing him a memoir practicable. for This intelligence disconcerts for the present any plan an attack on those Islands by a small force but I . On September 25th. 49. but. to quit the Adriatic with the squadron under his command. I sent Mr. . shall nevertheless pursue the object mentioned in all my be despatch No. on Cephalonia. it measure when that shall judged Lord CoUingwood is apprehensive of an attack upon Sicily. For the ship of war will be present. if a sufficient force could be spared for such an enterprise. and the inter- course between the coasts of Italy and Dalmatia and the Seven Islands will be completely re-established. 49. left in no Enghsh that sea. and collect in order to facilitate the the information I can.. Some movements in favour of the English have already taken place at Zante.. It appears relative to the present state of the Seven Islands which had been drawn up and put into the person alluded to in j)anied it with a letter.276 COERESPONDENCE. Summerer with desj)atches to Sir Alexander Ball. and I have recommended most strongly to my correspondent that no manifestation whatever of the public sentiment should be made until matters are sufficiently prepared for a concert between the inhabitants and a ticularly my hands by and I accomrecommending an attack par- my No. gentleman are first to attack Cephalonia and Zante. and then to form the blockade of Corfu. &c. by what Count Stadion tells me. the French are by no means in sufficient force to make the attempt. but they have been suppressed. British force. which must in the end belong to the Power which possesses the dominion of this The operations recommended by the sea. I have the honour to be. therefore.

51.1807. 't 3 . Having learned that the in order to ascertain courier expected from Paris had arrived. the nature of still those objects which are at present under discussion with France.. that he was at liberty to connnunicate through Count Meerfeldt to the Russian government the views entertained by his Majesty of the perma. namely. namely. and the reduction of the Austrian army. what course France appeared likely to pursue towards Austria. Vienna. on whatever point they may turn. which you have so forcibly urged in your despatch to Lord Pembroke of August 7th. "with as much unable to state them to you precision as I could wish but I learn . are likely for the present to satisfactorily. the restoration of Braunau. but that " tant Men que mal les affaires s'arrangeront. in order to reason with him on the policy of coming as soon as possible to a good understanding with Kussia. No. October 7." As he informed me that he expected very soon another courier from Count JMetternich. But I gave the conversation a more general turn. although not His expression on this point was remarkable. On this ground I could advance but little and when I mentioned to him. I again waited able to do in upon Count Stadion. Sir. 1 thought it I repeated the question in When my as well not to question him closely respecting the two points to which this expression of tant Men que mal most probably refers. and that the discussions.CORRESrONDENCE. according to the tenor of your instruction to his Lordship. 277 The same to the same. more exactly than I had been my I former conference. am from him in general that no fresh pretensions have been advanced. he answered that he could not exactly tell. end amicably.

I I can scarcely hope that any since received. I have the honour to . By stantinople nothing accounts of the 11th ultimo received from Conhad been concluded between Sir be. I am informed that the matter immediately in ag^itation between Austria and France is the sur- From is render of Braunau. and that no jealousy of Russian aggrandisement ought to stand in the way of a more close connection -with her whento ao.278 CORRESPONDEKCE. more favourable answer has been have also been informed that the number of Russian troops on their frontier nearest to Warsaw has of late been augmented.ree to ever there appeared a reasonable degree of stability in her councils. nent and unalterable policy of Europe. Arthur Paget and the Turkish ministers. thothe present moment roughly satisfied that its efi'ect would be to -widen the breach which exists unfortunately in the European . that he would surrender Braunau as soon as the Austrian army should be put on the footing of peace. and this to such a degree as to occasion very strong remonstrances on the part of General Davoust. communication to me. Bonaparte was. All I immecould get him was the fact that the interest of the reraaining states of Europe was still the same. another quarter on which I place much reliance. he answered by a direct refusal to take any step of that nature at feeling. &c. as he declared. system. and the different regiments were From Count Stadion's retired into cantonments. and more especially to expose Austria to the diate vengeance of Bonaparte. and that the Duke of Wurtzburg charged mth the negociations for this purpose at The answer which was at first given by Paris. to unite Russia still more closely mth France.

1807. Baciochi. and added to the garrisons of Corfu and Cattaro The whole Russian force lately landed at Venice. I have the honour to be. Vienna. are no accounts from Constantinople which can be depended upon.000 men. the truth of those which I had mentioned T 4 . I think it right to acquaint you that a very strong report is current here that the definitive arrangements respect- AiiTHOUGH I ing Italy are at length settled as follows Venice to Milanese to be incorporated with France be the capital of a new maritime kingdom to be called and the dominions of the Kino-dom of the Adriatic o — : — the — the Queen of Etruria to be given to M. Sir. Vienna. have no certain information. but from his answer I am led to behe has none. Nothing of moment has occurred at this place There since I had last the honour of writing to you. &c. that the Russian prisoners I am in the interior of France are to be marched into Italy. Sir. October 17. 1807. He told me that his reason for doubtino. I mentioned this report to Count Stadion.e to the same. informed. The same to the same. 279 T%e saw. partly with a view of discovering whether he had himself any authentic information on the subject of the inlieve that tended changes. but cannot entirely rely upon my authority for the truth of it. October 14. in Italy would then amount to about 80.CORRESPONDENCE.

on the 2d instant. of Corfu. and I have the satisfaction of acquainting you by a letter just received from Commodore Campbell. The estabhshment however of a naval power in the Adriatic by the enemy is a design so probable in itself.280 CORKESPONDENCE. would easily fall into our hands. that no assiduity on the part of those who are intrusted with his Majesty's interests in this part of the world ought to be spared to counteract it. dated Lessina. and that it was scarcely probable that if he accepted them. agrees perfectly in the necessity of our becoming masters of this island but he says it will now require a blockade and a siege to . is uninit clear from this answer that Count Stadion indeed any if arrangements. be feared is. it appears that our cruisers are indefatigable and very successful in preventing the entrance of rethat inforcements into Corfu. that Sir be able to spare a small force before the French can throw in a sufficient body to The only thing to take complete possession of them. projected the of formed be yet agreed upon. in which he acknowledges the receipt of my despatches to Sir Alexander Ball (mentioned in my separate of the 3d instant). to favour the French but at all events so far. to whom I sent the above despatches under a flying seal. Commodore Campbell. the dominions allotted to him would be inferior in extent or I think value to those given to his other brothers. he thinks. was. that they will contrive to get the assistance of the Ivussian admiral for that purpose. that fresh proposals had been made to Lucien Bonaparte to establish him in Italy. The others. so great a progress is already made which in one and by his possession of Dalmatia. is more than I can iind out . . Whether it be in his instructions or not. My attention will be unremittingly directed to this object. take it. I am in Alexander Ball may great hopes therefore. and of the adjacent islands.

and that they are only prevented by the menaces of General Sebastiani. I have also reason to believe that some hostile demonstrations against the Turks on the part of France are apprehended by this Court. The post from Constantinople of the 3d instant has brought no accounts from Sir Arthur Paget I have however the best reason for believing that the . Sir. if it has not already been notified. The same to the same. Peters- burg. The demand of a passage for French troops through Croatia. 1807. I shall again enforce 281 upon Prince Kurakin's attention (which I have the means of doing very efficaciously) the necessity of Russia observing the most exact neutrality in the Adriatic if she wishes to avoid a rupture with Great Britain. October 21. M. in clear informing him of the above circumstances. and I took the opportunity of writing to Lord Granville Leveson. Vienna. is certainly expected to be made. and I fear will be granted. &c. Pozzo di Borgo is arrived at Vienna after the unsuccessful termination of his mission to the Porte. I have the honour to be. &c. Turks are most anxious to make peace Avithhis Majesty. .CORRESPONDENCE. I have the honour to be. A courier was despatched yesterday ^ to St.

282 CORKESPONDENCE. The same to the same. any representations I might make to the Austrian government on this subject would be . containing stipulations for the eventual partition of their empire in Europe. he had been beheaded. Sir Arthur Paget had profited by this disposition to sio-n an agreement with them by which a mutual good understanding was essentially re-established. with safety to the Turks. of the 3d instant. the Emperor of Russia. Sir. through the influence of the French ambassador. Vienna. followed by other will be they and passed. which The march of French troops into Dalmatia by the Ten days ago road of Trieste is becoming serious. October 24. Russian mission. 180?. be openly avowed. been transferred to Paris. about 800 supported by the longer no Being detachments. . but according to some private advices received here from Constantinople. The secret of this transaction was betrayed in consequence of by the Dragoman (Suzzo). it does not appear that any progress had been made in the negociations for peace either -with his Majesty or with Dragoman of the Porte had been beheaded together \vith the extraordinary fact that the negociations for peace between Russia and the Porte had. These advices state that the chief The beheading follows : — the of the Dragoman is explained as Turks had obtained information of some secret articles of the treaty of Tilsit. 1 AM still without any accounts from Sir Arthur Paget. The knowledge of their danger having disposed them to conclude peace mth his Majesty. although it could not.

283 I and perhaps even prejudicial. October 31. have the honour to be.CORKESPONDENCE. I have the honour to be. on October 27th. — . 25. SlE. How Austria I HAVE no other information to transmit to this post except that a further corps of 1. or the capture of Corfu by his Majesty's forces. on the 2 2d instant.200 can suffer this can resist it is it is still difficult to conceive. may become necessary to ascertain distinctly what degree of succour his Majesty's enemies will be per- mitted to derive from the resources and position of the Austrian territory. that in the event of peace with the Turks. fruitless. Having been informed by Mr. Vienna. &c. am aware it however. Count Stadion had sent instructions to Prince Starhemberg. &c. 180?. The same to the same. Vienna. The occupation of Bosnia. The same to the same. Stanley that two Russian frigates had been suffered to enter the port * Four days before the date of this. R. October 28. ISO?. and even Belgrade. you by French troops were to pass by Trieste into Dalmatia. by their armies seems at no great distance.A. viz. but how she more I so. to offer us the mediation alluded to hereafter in my separate of Nov.* Sir.

of Tilsit had . of which I had the honour of transmitting you an account in my despatches. Having first obtained an acknowledgment from It is nicate to Count Stadion. rendered a compliance with almost any demands she might make absolutely He told me that the peace of Presburg was made with a view of saving Austria as an independent nation. involving not only sacrifices of territory on the part of Austria. 284 CORRESPONDENCE. but that the peace necessary for the moment. Nos. that they must now consider only how they To this system he could preserve their existence. respecting the re-opening of the Austrian ports to Russia. I can no longer doubt that arrangements are on the point of being concluded with France. as fol- He assured me that Austria had by no means be- come the ally of France. with the deepest concern that I now commuyou that from what passed at this last interview. I asked him (although in terms the most amicable) in what manner I should represent these facts to his Majesty's government. and likemse that no orders had been issued for the admission of British vessels. but the sacrifice. of her independence. although the preponderance of that Power. and 53. I asked immediately for an interview with Count Stadion. lows : — in substance. of Trieste. and of the 7th instant. Count Stadion's answer was. in order to learn from him whether orders had been issued for the re-admission of the British flag into the ports and harbours of Austria and I thought it expedient likewise to take the oppor- tunity to ascertain whether any fresh engagements had been entered into between the Austrian government and that of France since my conversations with him on the 30th ultimo. 51. virtually. rendered their situation so much worse.. and the immediate dangers to which the country was exposed by it.

as appeared. their internal situation was another motive for sub. It cannot. will be limited only by the wiU of Bonaparte. . to be passing through the Austrian territories. I did not omit on this occasion to inquire concerning the march of so large a body of French towards Bosnia. Count Stadion informed me that he would communicate to me in a few days the extent and nature of the sacrifices which had been exacted by France. I thought it most expedient to close the conversation. that the occupation of that province by the French is a matter concerted with Russia. by the accounts I had received. Having ascertained that this short delay would afford no additional advantage to the enemy. after this be doubted that the sacrifices on the part of Austria. mission. there were Powers ready to avail themselves of any fresh embarrassments to He added. on the contrary. I think.CORRESPONDENCE. Such being the circumstances. also. from the peculiar stress laid by Count Stadion upon the word " Independence ^^^ at receiving a notification . It is Count Stadion's opinion. said 285 they were reduced by the certainty. that if war were again to break out with France. in any designs he might entertain upon the property of his Majesty's subjects at Trieste and Fiume. that which Austria might be put. they should and he receive no assistance from any quarter hinted that. and he joined me in apprehending that Belgrade also would soon be in their possession. of what nature soever they may be. nor should I be the least surprised. reserving any observations I might have to make upon what Count Stadion had told me to the period he had fixed for his more detailed communication. and with which they should be under the necessity of complying but he told me that it was not then in his power to state them to me more distinctly.

Vienna. Count Stadion would pro- bably find France.286 that tlie COERESPONDENCE. relative to the engagements which have recently been entered into between this Court and Bonaparte. 1807. without any limitation as to number or time. The exclusion of the ports and harbours restored to Austria. return of a courier from Paris with the ratification of Until then. although it has not been given me by Count Stadion. or contents. a fresh * convention I HAVE may has been concluded. . indeed. sacrifices. is British flag from the Austrian to be continued. Sir. In return for which Braunau is to be There is an aiFectation of not communicating this its convention. it difficult to assure me that the above concessions comprised the whole of the I demands of be. November 11. functions of a British minister at this Court I have the honour to be. is to be ceded. According to this information. by which a free passage is granted to the French troops through Croatia. Gradesca. at length received some information which be depended upon. &c. have the honour to &c. The same to the same. * The convention of the Isonzo. officially to me until the it. had ceased. and a portion of territory in its neigh- bourhood.

therefore. I yield to them with the greater readiness. Vienna^ November 11. 1807. The result has been. Sir. Since my intervicAV with that minister on September the 14th. as there is reason to believe that he will soon be prime minister at St.CORRESPONDENCE. Bonaparte has persuaded the Emperor Alexander to devote himself to this object. Most powerful reasons have been urged to Prince Kurakin. I have some hopes that they are improving." is considered by Russia as the sole obstacle to j)eace with us. that yesterday he sent M. only inform you that finding my attentions not answered as they ought to have been on his side. I judged it right to observe at least an equal. If the sentiments of the Russian Cabinet towards Great Britain may be guessed at with any degree of probabihty by the conduct of Prince Kurakin towards myself. Petersburg. on which occasion I was under the necessity of stating very freely my opinion (always guarding it with the qualification of its being my individual opinion) respecting the new system Russia seemed disposed to adopt. Pozzo di Borgo (who is rendering us the most essential service) to make all the advances I could desire towards establishinoo an amicable intercourse between us. trifling details It Avere useless to trouble you with . to convince him . Through a channel on which I can confidently rely. and a still more marked distance on mine. I learn that what is called in the cant phrase of the day. on matters merely ceremonial I will. and as it is certain that at this present moment the Emperor Alexander listens to him more than to any other person. I have had no intercourse mth him whatsoever. " the liberty of the seas. 287 The same to the same.

Lord Collingwood was off with ten or twelve sail transports. which are stated to be about on a secret expedition. which he considers as modern diplomacy. These reasons. the masterpiece of Tlie same to the same. not only of the impossibility of ever extorting from Great Britain her assent to the system which goes under the name of " the liberty of the seas." but likewise of its total inutility to Russia in any view either of pohcy or of commerce. Syracuse on October 28th. transmitted to St. but that he hopes for the best. 1807. I have the honour to be. I have. November 18. waiting for the fifty in . of course. Sir. although not of a nature to be justly appreciated by Prince Kurakin. He already confesses that he cannot comprehend what France is about. is not likely to be executed by France in any of its essential articles. of the line. and which mention the arrival in those ports of several vessels from Malta and Sicily.288 CORKESPONDENCE. sailed from thence on October 26th By accounts which have reached Trieste (without having landed). I know. are. an additional motive for accepting and returning his civihties. me both from and Fiume. he has alleged that many things might be explained through us which could not be explained through Prince Romanzow. &c. Pozzo for his wishing to be on good terms with me. As among the reasons mentioned by him to Mons. Another great point is the convincing him that the peace of Tilsit. Vienna. Petersburg. it appears that our troops from Alexandria. whose arrival at Messina I mentioned in my despatch of the 7th instant.

and their settlement under his Majesty's protection. Reports are already circulated ot his having this last taken Corfu. as in every and particularly when we look forward u . The reduction of the fortress of Corfu will. It is expedient that this person should reach Lord Collingwood innnediately but if he Avere to proceed openly to the fleet. and who since that period has been occupied in carrying on such correspondence in Zante and Cephalonia. to the militar)^ stores before they left similar case. I am be the work of some time. therefore. who sold French an immense quantity of it. as follows: — Fiume and make the best of his way to Zante. furnish him with the necessary Lord Collingwood. No. 49. he should re-embark and contrive to get taken by some of Lord Collingwood's cruisers. several detachments of French troops have been intercepted in their way from Otranto.. Li this. For whatever difficulty his Majesty's vigilance forces island. 289 number. may experience in obtaining possession of this we shall have to thank the Russians. although by the of our cruisers. therefore. I have thought my despatch. who will be able to o^vn information with what he may re- afraid. stantly become the forfeit. issue of the enterprise and the most successful would scarcely afford him an adequate indemnification.CORRESPONDENCE. his whole property would in. as may f^xcilitate the expulsion of the enemy from the whole of those islands. I shall passports to ceive compare his from this gentleman. is probably prehighly expedient to send off without delay to Lord CoUingwood the person whom I have already had the honour of describing to you in Although intelligence it mature. is What we have that he should concerted. embark at and that after having seen and concerted his measures with the leading persons there and at Cephalonia on whom he can depend.

&c. accompanied with information that he was about to quit St. and assimilating its admmistration as much sible . to the future condition of the world under as possible to that of Malta.290 CORRESPONDENCE. in short. I have the honour to be. &c. TJie same to the same. 1807. to secure the confidence and attachment of the inhabitants of the Seven Islands will become highly important. we can only preserve by the greatest degree of management and conciliation. YESTERDAY received a despatch from Lord GranLeveson Gower containing a copy of the note presented to his Lordship on the 8th instant by Count Romanzow. Petersburg without delay. especially if a good understanding be cultivated with Ali Pacha. I ville . any posarrangement with France. and the commercial advantages to be derived from it in peace. that whatever footing we may obtain even by conquest. and. The assistance which this sort of possession would afford to his Majesty's arms in time of war. are of a nature too obvious to require demonstration but I learn from my informant that a great party spirit prevails there. Sir. Vienna^ November 25. I despatched a messenger to Lord CoUingwood with this intelligence a few hours after it reached me. It has been suggested to me that the connection with Great Britain would be best maintained by preserving the Republican government. that Russia and France have each their several factions. I have the honour to be.

291 Tlie same to the same. Sir. 31. Oct. and that in the present condition of the Austrian monarchy. if his mediation to restore peace which he had again offered. and the almost hopeless state of Europe. He informed me that this demand was accompanied by a threat of immediate war if not comphed with. were rejected. On the this occasion his Excellency acquainted me for time* that a distinct demand had been made by France that Austria should make common cause with her.CORKESPONDENCE. I thought it necessary to see Count Stadion in order to learn from him what were the regard to its intentions of tliis Court with future relations with Great Britain. Count Stadion assured me that no concession which his Imperial Majesty had been called upon to make during the whole course of his reign. in order that I might take the necessary measures for protecting * See the preceding Despatch. I8O7. u 2 . On my urging him however. Vienna. this transaction to excused liimself for not having communicated me at an earlier period. In consequence of the communication made to me by Lord Granville Leveson Gower. the Emperor had found himself compelled in some degree to yield to it. to give me due notice of any determination which might be in view. and put an end to all diplomatic relations between our two countries. With expressions of the most lively sorrow (which I have no doubt are sincere). by all those considerations of He amity and common interest which still subsisted between the two countries. affected him more deeply than the measures which had been extorted from him upon first this occasion. November 25.

I have thought it my duty to transmit to Lord Minto* an account of the principal transactions which have taken place in Europe since the Peace of Tilsit. &c. I have the honour to be. he not only promised me the most unreserved confidence in this respect. Vienna^ November 28. . I was also assured in the course of last week. L. Gower's despatches. from my having had frequent occasion to notice within this last year the activity with which the enemy has been carrying on his intrigues with the Court of Persia. * Governor-General of India. 1807. It has appeared to me the more necessary that his Lordship should be apprised of these events (especially of the change of system in the Russian Cabinet). Gower. Sir. The same to the same. The accession of Russia to the system and views of France appearing to be likely to extend its effects to the remotest countries.292 CORRESPONDENCE. See Appendix. and I have inclosed for his Lordship's information a copy of Count Romanzow's note of the 8th instant to Lord G. that the intention of attacking the British possessions in India through Persia had been seriously resumed. L. L. but expressed his wish to concert with me the means of keeping up a sincere and friendly understanding should Austria after all be obliged to submit to the hard necessity of suspending her ostensible intercourse with his Majesty's government. and of Lord G. the jDersons and property of his Majesty's subjects. and previously to my receiving Lord G. Gower' s answer.

result. Count Stadion has at length imparted to me the despatch which he wrote to Prince Starhemberg on October 27th. as have not been disappointed on learning the my despatch of October 31st will evince. the alliance of France with Russia. The same to the same. when the subjugation first of the European Continent. Sir.Mi 1:' COERESPONDENCE. 1807. conveyance to I the Governor-General Sec. Vienna. I with regard to the success to be expected from such u 3 . The communication being confidential but not ofiicial. have removed the material obstacles to My whom despatch was inclosed to Sir Alexander Ball. I contented myself Avith stating my opinion details. consideration it Visionary as may have must aiford matter for serious now. and its success. I have John Coxe Hippesley. December 5. although it was impossible for me to know the precise this sity of . After reading I it over by Count Stadion's permission. could no longer wonder at his reluctance to communicate to me the full extent of the submissions which government thinks itself under the necesmaldng to the enemy submissions of which. I requested to forward it by the most exat peditious Calcutta. in which the Emperor of Austria renews to his Majesty the offer of his mediation to restore peace. appeared at that period. 293 A seen plan for such an attack was undoubtedly formed life during the it of the late in the possession of Sir it Emperor of Russia. have the honour to be.

As no peror is courier has yet arrived from Paris. the de- parture of Count Stadion for Buda. 1807. will prevent my receiving any official communication from him until his return on the 17th. which. By accounts of November 18th from Corfu. On his road from Venice to Milan he fell in with a corps of Russians encamped somewhere near Verona. The same to the same. Vienna. December 30. did not embark at Trieste until the 4th instant. &c. I have the honour to be. The same to the same. owing to contrary winds. &c. where the Em- gone to close the Diet.294 CORRESPONDENCE. and of the degree of estunation in which he holds his new allies. if it produce no immediate good effect on the conduct of the Emperor Alexander. an offer while Great Britain continued to enjoy a remnant of her ancient spirit or independence. I HAVE just received information on which I can depend respecting a transaction in Italy. . nor was Lord CollingAvood in those seas . Sir. and I am also sorry to learn that the messenger I despatched from hence on November 24th to his Lordsliip with an account of the Russian declaration. Vienna. December 12. 1807- Sir. no attack had then been made on that island. will at least afford him ample proof of Bonaparte's dispositions. I have the honour to be.

and for which provision had been made by the Commissaries Bonaparte became appointed to regulate their march. Vienna. have the honour to The same to the same. insisted on their instant departure. This intelligence has. inquired why they staid in Italy. he replied that he was acting under the orders of his Emperor.CORRESPONDENCE. HAVE the honour of informing you that the marriage between his Imperial Majesty and the Archduchess. &:c. I I know. 1 have the honour to be. that he was responsible to no other Power. and that if attacked he should defend himself rasse de ces harhares-la. them Bonaparte flew into a violent At the passion. been received by be. was celeI brated this day at half past six in the evening. Mary Louisa Beatrix of Austria. January 6. The Russian commanding officer explained that he was following the route assigned him. &c. Sir. 1808. and exclaimed " Qalon me cUbar- These commands having been signified to the Russian commander. still more violent upon this answer. Prince Kurakin. " to the last extremity. u 4 . 295 These troops were proceeding towards the Austrian frontier in their sight of way to their own territories. that he would not stir from his ground before the hour appointed. and gave orders that they should be told instantly to continue their march.

or the Neapolitan envoy. but I am informed that it has hitherto been the usage. to call first to the British envoy and that if any deviation from this form has at any time taken place. Sir. together mth what followed them. my duty A material place in the deviation from the ancient form took admission of the ambassadors to the Hitherto the nuncio had enjoyed the unquestioned precedence over all other foreign ministers. sadors of Russia and France entered the presence- chamber together. . in consideration no less of the respect and veneration due to the person of his Majesty. The same to the same.296 CORRESPONDENCE. it has only been in favour either of . and the ambassadors have been called in. in consideration of the family connection of the two Courts. is fixed. by what I have since learnt. some circumstances occurred with it wliich. At the supper of their Majesties. it is not usual for ambassadors to appear but the ministers of the second order are placed on his Imperial Majesty's right-hand. who from time to time signifies by his grand master his desire to speak with one of them. the Saxon envoy. than to the rank held by the British nation among the Powers of Europe. January 9. At the Court which was held by their Imperial Majesties immediately after the celebration of their nuptials.1808. mth to this honour regard to the priority of their admission . the nuncio and the two ambaspresence of their Imperial Majesties. It is undoubtedly true that no order or etiquette . Vienna. On the present occasion. as the oldest member of the corps diplomatique. I think to acquaint you. The Emperor. addressed his conversation solely to the ambassador of France. each in the order of his arrival.

after what had passed on the preceding evening. if I pleased. required that. to present the English gentlemen who After some discussion between Count Stadion and myself. took my leave. it is impossible for her to make. which. I . he would say so in writing. the grand master called successively to his presence the envoys of Bavaria. tively been For a moment for I was in doubt whether it was fit me to remain longer at the ceremony.CORRESPONDENCE. and admitted attended me. I preferred a different course. I have the satisfaction of informing you that the . after the Saxon and Neapohtan envoys had respec- honoured with the notice of the Emperor. and that in a manner sufthat there ficiently distinct to attract the general attention. 1 297 was. con- sidering that a step so marked as that of retirino- suddenly from the circle. I should be the first envoy spoken to by their Majesties. which was after the Prussian envoy had retired. and Prussia. surprised and hurt to observe that. and that. which was the day fixed for the presentation of strangers. and told him that. immediately after the ambassadors. I waited upon Count Stadion. would have put me under the necessity of exacting a reparation. but. with this view. . in the present melancholy state of the affairs of Austria. The next day. Wirtemburg. in the course of which he repeatedly assured me was nothing intentional in the circumstance of which I complained. and waited patiently until my name was pronounced. it would be impossible for me to attend the circle unless I received some marked reparation for a neglect which I could not help thinking intentional and that. he agreed to grant me the reparation I asked. I then further made a point of his arranging this matter himself with the Emperor and on receiving his promise so to do. therefore.

not my power to transmit to you any interesting in- formation immediately relative to this country. Vienna. every opportunity of testifying to me how deeply she and how gratefully she remembered. Although in in the present situation of suspense it is respecting the Austrian offer of mediation. I was spoken to by both their Imperial Majesties. Sir. may perhaps deserve the attention of liis Majesty's government in the present very critical situation of our relations with the Continent. and that immediately after the Kussian ambassador. I have the honour to be. and before that of France*. took of their Majesties' health and happiness . 1808. the course of the evening. in Archduchess of Milan. — R.298 CORRESPONDENCE. A. I must not omit reporting to you that her Imperial Majesty expressed. the notice with which she was distinguished by their Majesties during her residence in England. which in any other times would scarcely have called for a detailed communication. and with Austria in particular. felt. and admitted to present the Enghsh gentlemen to the Empress. I receive from time to time various articles of inteUi* This was an attention on the part of General Andreossy. the warmest and the most particular wishes for the long continuance and that. &c. the with whom I had the honour of conversing. The same to the same. January 20. personal to myself. on this occasion. promise was faithfully kept. . These circumstances.

any information. That he would accept no kingdom. however general. and for his sudden have the honour to be. which it may not be wholly unimportant to communicate to you. That he would not attempt anything against his brother. was destined for Lucien. 1808.COllllESJb'UNDENCE. Conceiving that. Of this nature is what has just reached me from a quarter on which I can depend. 299 gence. 2. The same to the same. in the present state of the intercourse between Great Britain and the Continent. I manifested during his whole stay in Italy. Sir. The ill success of this negociation may partly account for the ill-humour Bonaparte return to Paris. relative to Bonaparte's interview with his brother Lucien. The following is the substance and sum of his answer to Bonaparte's proposals: 1. &c. . including the city of Rome. That he would never consent to annul his marthat — riage. together with the most considerable portion of the ecclesijistical States. It appears certain what is called the kingdom of Etruria. Vienna. relative to the senti- ments and dispositions of Russia may be usefal to his Majesty's government. I think it right to acquaint you that great dissatisfaction continues to prevail at Petersburg in consequence of the non-execution of the treaty of Tilsit by France. January 23. 3. but that he thought it necessary at the same time to declare to him that he totally disapproved all he had done for these last four years.

me to be the mediator of a peace (if the opportunity should between Turkey and Russia. It is known here to the Eussian embassy that France. My and making due allowance for zeal. the gigantic plan of uniting the whole Continent in active operations against Great Britain may be counteracted and finally of Tilsit. Majesty's disappointment defeated. A. they are be depended upon as far as they go. and France only. prevents the conclusion of the Turkish peace. Much of Bonaparte's conduct in Italy has been offensive to Kussia and a considerable impression has been produced by a declaration which he " That no treaty thought proper to make there now subsisted between himself and the Emperor Vienna such as may . was grounded on this state of . things. Canning my suggestion adopted. and that. authorising offer) and which Mr. and to submit to your approbation a measure* founded on the concluding * The clause in my instructions when going on my mission at to Constantinople. and the cession of Moldavia and Wallachia. It is hoped from these general symptoms that the time is not distant at which an attempt may be made to dissolve the relations which subsist between these two Powers." From Paris we understand that Bonaparte's pre- with his Majesty is caused. — R. sources of information on this subject are at . not only by the difficulties he finds in reconciling the Emperor Alexander to the non-execution of the treaty tended anxiety for peace but by the necessity of obviating his Imperial on finding that the rash declaration of November 8th has produced no other effect than that of involving the Russian empire in a war which no man believes she can sustain for twelve months. In my next despatch I may perhaps be enabled to speak more fully on this point. : — Alexander.300 CORRESPONDENCE. at any rate.

I ment of our amicable have the honour to be. 1808. January 27. Sir. however. Although fully prepared for this issue to the offer of mediation of October 28th. which may eventually lead to the re. &:c. and in the evening I saw Count Stadion. who communicated to me the state of affairs as they then stood between his Majesty's government and that of Austria. You must be aware. I am persuaded that it must be the wish of his Majesty's government to consider Austria as a Power to whom every facility should be afforded of resuming at a favourable moment her amicable relations with Great Britain. same time that he feared that in a very few days he should be under the necessity of presenting a note to me declaring the at the He informed me motives which had led his Imperial Majesty to put an end to the relations subsisting between the two countries. The same to the same. how little can be effected towards this object l)y my mere personal and unas- .CORRESPONDENCE. without any instructions as to my conduct in a situation so full of difficulty and responsibility. 301 part of his Majesty's declaration of the 19th of De- cember. I will be extremely painful to must confess that it me to receive an intimation of this nature. The courier from Prince Starhemberg arrived yesterday from London with despatches of the 10th instant. Notwithstanding what has passed.establishrelations with Russia. Vienna.

February 22. on leaving Vienna. and that no plan of future correspondstill less any provident arrangement with a view of counteracting the enemy in his designs on Turkey.* * Letter to Count Stadion. and I know that he has complained of some pretended intrigues by which his demand has been resisted. Tlie same to the same. 1808. you will observe that if his Majesty's government had listened to his offers. I have the honour to be. S.302 sisted efforts. . or of preventing the ence or confidential intercourse. and even for the renewal of those more general relations mth other Powers which the present crisis has suspended. sador received four days ago a fresh order to insist upon the expulsion of the English mission. &c. Vienna. January SO. Coupling the date of Bonaparte's message to England of the 3d instant with the probable date of Andreossy's first orders. I have just heard that the French ambasP. of Notwithstanding the present discouraging aspect affairs. CORRESPONDENCE. and if Austria had obeyed his commands (both of which were sent off at about the same period). I shall not quit Vienna without an en- deavour towards the future re-establishment of our intercourse with this Court.. can take place. with Great Britain. Sir. and Austria in a state of positive hostility. consolidation of a continental league Britain. he would have been by this time in a state of amicable discussion. unless his Majesty's asrainst Great under the sanction of government.

It is hoped that may be brought about by prevailing on the tensions to Emperor to depart from his preAYallachia and IMoldavia. maturely weighing the danger of permitting Bonaparte to establish himself at Constantinople. It is not difficult to see that the re-establishment of anj^hing that bears the resemblance of a good understanding between this country and Russia. it appears that the iirst measure in any degree practicable must be to induce Emperor Alexander to conclude the long depending Turkish peace without the intervention of France. in his corre- spondence with his Court. On this measure it is hoped that the grounds may be laid for rene^ving amicable explanations between the Courts of Petersburg and Vienna. 303 After discussing this subject under all its views with the persons by whose assistance alone any plan of this nature can be effected. and from the increasing dissatisfaction which that minister expresses against Bonaparte. the motives to which are so obvious since the recent arrangements in Poland. may be convinced of the necessity (at least for the present) of supporting and upholding the Ottoman empire. It is also hoped that a peace concluded separately with the Turks may lead to a change of system at Petersburg with regard to any further partitions and that the Russian Cabinet. include the return to a certain degree of amicable dis- . must . The expectation of success in this endeavour is derived principally from what has passed at Paris between Count Tolstay and the French government. and to be content with some augmentation to the security of his frontier on that side.CORRESPONDENCE. The terms of such a peace would be immaterial comthe pared for it -with the importance of taking the negociation this peace out of the liands of Bonaparte.

and to animate the exertions of every ancient cause. There can be no doubt that Bonaparte's views lead to the formation and consolidation of a grand continental confederacy. and that it must at all events materially influence the conduct which Austria may adopt after the departure of the British Legation from Vienna. consisting of all the states under his influence. or to dis- enemy on the shores of Italy or to assert and preserve our naval superiority in the Adriatic.304 positions CORRESPONDENCE. is yet considerable enough to deserve the attention. or to embarrass. Austria will be summoned to furnish her I contingent both in serve men and money. as a point of considerable advantage. although not suflias the any of the Powers of Europe that entire freedom of action of which the cient of itself to recover for peace of Tilsit has deprived them all. finally. in concert with Ali Pacha. for such eventual disposal of them at a peace system of policy growing out of the new state of the world may then require. on the part of Russia toward us. even after a peace. liberty again take the of calhng your that I this view attention to the occupation of Corfu and its dependent islands. to subsist. whether to prevent the conquest of the Morea by France. man who remains faithful to the It is for this reason that the gentle- . against Great Britain and that to this con. how useful the friendship of Russia need not obmay prove in enabling her to avoid this last of disgraces^ A man material share in the protection of the Otto- emj^ire may be borne by Great Britain independently of any communication or private underIt is with standing with either Russia or Austria. forced into one common bond of union. The attainment of these objects. the assemblage or subsistence of any large French army in the neighbourhood of Albania. or quiet the . federacy.

you that I this day received an ofiicial note from Count Stadion. . will leave Vienna for Petersburg as soon as I receive from Count Stadion the notification of the termination of my mission. February 6. but he is desirous for many reasons that they should be reserved for verbal communication. X . therefore.COIIRESPONDENCE. and that he had the Emperor's commands to send me passports for my departure. acquainting me that Prince Starhemberg had quitted London on January 20th. It was you more in detail my his intended operations. 305 man in * to whom I have often had occasion to allude will be principally measures in contemplation. The same to the same. In consequence of this communication I shall remain no longer at Vienna than will be necessary for me to learn how I can quit the Austrian territories. I have the honour to be. as I will not yet abandon the hope of receiving some instructions from you which may serve as a guide for his conduct as my correspondence. that all diplomatic between Great Britain and Austria must be considered as broken off. and * M. Pozzo cli Borgo. Vienna. I confess that I am anxious for his stay here until the arrival of the next and final courier from Prince Starhemberg. &c. and who concerned in ^ving effect to the well as my own in this eventful intention to have stated to moment. Sir. after having failed in his endeavours to induce his Majesty's Government to enter into neI HAVE the honour to inform gociations for peace with France intercourse. 1808.

and even accompanied by such particulars that the fact would appear scarcely doubtful. have the honour to The same to the same. Putting all these considerations together. Count Stadion the other day what he was to understand from the rumours in circulation. official corre- bring away in safety the cyphers and spondence entrusted to I my care. and adding . of the matter and on his askino. very generally believed here. but on inquiry I find them to have been accidental. According to this account. and that the Turks were the aggressors. What makes me doubt the fact of the actual signature of the alliance is the great anxiety Bonaparte has all along shown that the Russians should evacuate Molda\ia and Wallachia. his reiterated and lately renewed personal assurances to the Turks that not a foot of their territory should be "wi'ested from them. February 7. and above all his not being ready himself for any Prince Kurakin attack on Albania or the Morea. also knows nothino. that a triple alliance between France. he received for answer that they were totally devoid of truth. and it has been me on such authority.000 men under the immediate command of General Bellegarde. Some hostile incursions have already taken place on the frontier of the latter province. Sir. Austria is to furnish an auxiliary army of 60. and is to have Bosnia and part of Servia for her share. Vienna. Russia. 1808. It is stated to and Austria. is already signed for the partition of the Turkish dominions in Europe. &c. . be.306 CORRESPOKDENCE.

and if he by these means to always in his power to own him an equivalent on the for side any augmentation of territory he may permit her to acquire on the Turkish of frontier. and his repeated complaints Tolstoy has lived to his Court of the impossibility of getting Bonaparte it to execute the treaty of Tilsit. has occurred to the communicate on and other matters. he has force Austria to grant part. or consent that Austria shall have Bosnia and Servia alternative the first part of . . X 2 . however solemn and exphcit. or see the House of Austria in possession of Belgrade while for his it should fail of inducing Russia withdraw her troops. CORRESPONDENCE. to 307 them the extremely bad terms on Avhich Count mth the French government ever since his arrival at Paris. and especially from the possession of Constantinople by France. and within these two months have renewed them (especially to so weak a Power as Turkey). Bohemia or Galicia His promises to the Turldsh ministers.. if there did not still exist some difficulties in the way in a of the final accomplishment of his projects which are increased by the continuance of a Russian position that army may be said to command Constantinople. cannot it is true weigh for much yet it is singular that he should so repeatedly have made them. it were needless to offer you an opinion but there is one consequence attached to the attempt. With regard to the general consequences likely to and to Great Britain in particular. from the partition of the Turkish dominions. that Bonaparte may be pressing Austria forward at this moment with a \iew I persons with whom occasionally these to make her the instrument of inducing Russia either to to evacuate the territories in her possession. ence in Servia. result to Europe. an Russia will which he expects that readily accept rather than lose her influ.

I greatly fear that it will not be in my power before my departure to arrange any sure . and that whatever number of troops may be employed in reducing them. to will shortly take the liberty of adverting. they may become our most useful allies if any thing serious against our Oriental establishments be to be apprehended from the side of This speculation I am induced to hazard as Persia. 1808. an additional motive for the occupation of Corfu. &c. the duty I owe to his Majesty -will not allow me to be insensible. they may There is delay for a long time the conquest of their country. Sir. although I am not honoured with your instructions. After which receiving from Coiuit Stadion the note of I yesterday gave you an account. some months at Constantinople. may maintain themselves at the last sell Driven to the other side of the Bosphorus. and other parts of the Mediterranean. and they dearly to the confederates. I called upon him for the purpose of obtaining explanations with regard to several matters to which. 1806. 308 CORRESPONDENCE as well as to the success of the enterprise. Vienna^ February 7.. which I selves to the last no doubt that the Turks will defend themman. Malta. The same to the same. and for keeping up a considerable military force in Sicily. I have the honour to be. concerning which I received instructions from Lord Howick in the month of De- cember. There is a matter most materially interesting to his Majesty's paternal feelings. If succoured is by a British force (and when the danger evident and imminent they can scarcely be mad it enough to refuse it).

more especially as the precarious and scanty means of subsistence which he has hitherto enjoyed are speedily about to be diminished. it is promised to me that they shall not be molested. and until the signification of his Majesty's pleasure can reach Vienna. with regard to the gallant remains of the Condean army. two countries. and to prepare the interests of the The great although they X 3 . With regard is. if not wholly suppressed. that ***** will remain at Lintz. separated for the present. wiU as far as be may possible be left in such a state as to ffiulitate any overtures to an accommodation. had put an end to all inSix weeks ago I gave Trieste of this impending The arrangements which I am making provisionally. If accidents should preexplaining personally to his Majesty's go- vernment how greatly I am indebted to him for the furtherance of an object which they must have warmly at heart.CORKESPONDENCE. will receive from this government every facility which it may be in their power to afford. zeal of the Bishop of am assisted in such a way by the humane and disinterested vent my Nancy. notwith- standing this assurance. I beg leave to recommend him to your protection. and that every attention which the circumstances can admit will Jje paid to his correspondence. however. 309 plan by which his Majesty may receive information on so interesting a topic all that it is at present in . In these arrangements I as to exceed all praise. to explain to the English at this place how little they could rely upon any security for themselves after Austria tercourse with Great Britain. my power to say. as the Austrian government does not consider what has passed to be a declaration of war. notice to the merchants at event. to the persons and property of his Majesty's subjects. I have thought it my duty.

that the recent marriage of his Imperial Majesty is an event propitious to views of this nature. All that remains for me now to acquaint you with. On this subject it is impossible for me to enter into much detail. however. He answered that the Austrian government would grant me every accommodation in its power.310 Avay for CORRESPONDENCE. my that I must more particular private feelings were On patches for being informed by Count Stadion that no desme had been given to any of the couriers passed from London to Vienna during the who had on the subject of the mediation. and knew of no means which his Majesty's government might have provided. In the course of the same . It will suffice for your present information. any return on the part of Austria to a just and energetic system of policy. since it was neither late intercourse likewise that he consistent mth his Majesty's dignity that I should re- main here after the note which he had delivered to me. and I feel so anxious that clear in the judgment of my public conduct my sovereign. is that the Austrian government. has shown every attention to the British Legation which the circumstances admit of. for bringing away in safety from a country surrounded by the enemy the cyphers and correspondence entrusted to my care. are so new and embarrassing. I asked him how he proposed that I should leave the Austrian dominions. and with this view he ofi*ered me an Austrian frigate to convey me to Messma or Malta: but he suggested at the same time the necessity of my having a passport from the French ambassador. desirous no doubt of testifying to the last their respect for his Majesty. nor possible for me to quit the country in safety while the enemy were masters of the Adriatic. if should stand trouble you with a statement rather than would be justifiable alone concerned. Those circumstances.

I have the honour to be. I should be under the necessity of destroying the cyphers and correspondence. I trust that you will see the necessity I was under of sending off a letter to Sir Alexander Ball. in order that if. or offering any other vessel (if their frigate should not be in readiness). CORRESPONDENCE day I received 311 a message from the Archduke Charles. which accompanied my I have the honour to be. Vienna. &c. and to give me a guard for my better security. Sir. 1808. &c. if one could be spared consistently with the due execution of his Majesty's service. and considering was to be hoped that the cruisers from Venice would respect even a flag of truce. my answer. The same to the same. but accompanied with the same suggestion as to the passport. placing the frigate entirely at to equip my disposal. as likewise of the note from Count Stadion. I HAVE the honour to inclose you copies of Count Stadion's note to me of the 6th instant and of passports. explaining my situation to him.. X 4 . after all. I think it my duty to state these matters to you. and requesting the assistance of an English part of his Imperial Highness' s how little it frigate. February 21. Having judged it highly improper to accept this offer. if they knew the English Legation to be on board. his Majesty's government may be convinced I had no other choice left me except that of submitting to sail with them under the protection of a French passport.

de ce mois. que toutes communications diplomatiques doivent etre regardees comme rompues entre I'Autriche et I'Angleterre. Adair to Count Stadion. Count Stadion to Mr. A. ainsi qu'aux personnes composant sa mission. Adair. Adair. et il n'a pu apprendre qu'avec la peine la plus sensible la . ministre des affaires etrangeres. que les instances de M. renouveller. &c. Janvier. le Prince de Starhemberg non seulement sont restees sans effet. lui a fait I'honneur de lui adresser le 6. afin de Tengager a donner la main a des negociations de paix sur des principes conformes au vceu des Puet il ne lui a pas cache des issances y interessees lors les consequences qui resulteroient du refus de la Cour de Londres de donner suite a ces propositions . le Soussigne se voit. Stadion. et que son auguste Maitre lui a donne I'ordre de delivrer a M. M. Adair. E. R. I. prendre a S. Le Soussigne a re9u la note que S. Le Soussigne. Mr. le 6. 1808. Adair dans son tems ]es demarches dont M. Inclosure B. &c.. M. ministre des affaires etrangeres. Le Soussigne a I'honneur de Vienne. (Signe) Fevrier. mais que ce ministre a deja quitte Londres le 20. le Comte de Stadion. dans le cas d'annoncer a M. a communique a M. le Prince de Starhemberg a ete charge par S. Un courier arrive de Paris venant d'apamicales. les passeports necessaires pour leur depart. quoique avec un veritable regret. aupres du Cabinet Britannique. 312 COKKESPONDENCE Inclosure A.

Count Stadion to Mr. Le Soussigne s'empresse de le prevenir en meme tems.. ministre des affaires etrangeres. le Comte de Stadion tons ses regrets du parti que la Cour de Vienne s'est decidee de prendre en mettant iin aux communications diplomatiques entre deux Puissances appelees par leurs interets nmtuels a conserver entre able . Inclosure C. La note que M. 1808. &:c. II saisit cette (Signe) Vienne. N'ayant re^u de la part de son gouvernement aucun eclaircissement ou instruction quelconque sur les motifs qui auraient determine le Cabinet Britannique a ne pas se preter aux ouvertures faites par M.laise. Adair. en date du 10. &c. Robert Adair. Fevrier. E. lequel que pour le cas oil le batiment Anglois sur . mm^'^nvmT' COREESPONDENCE resolution 313 cle la Cour cle Vienne d'interrompre toute communication diplomatique avec celle de Londres. ce 10. Adair a fait I'honneur d'adresser au Soussigne. Adair attend pour se rendre avec la legation Anglaise de Vienne a Trieste. ne lui etant parvenue qu'hier. et qui paroit destine a les augmenter encore d'une maniere et pour un terme incalculable. attendra les passeports que son le Soussigne Excellence a bien voulu promettre de Ano. le Soussigne se borne a exprimer a S. de ce mois. — elles I'liarmonie la plus inalter- parti dont la suite ne pent etre que de per- petuer ce systeme de desunion qui a deja cause tant de malheurs a 1' Europe. Dans ces circonstances si affligeantes. lui expedier pour la legation occasion. &c. le Prince de Starliemberg. il croit ne devoir pas tarder de lui transmettre ci-joint le passeport que M.

le Soussigne priant M. il y trouvera un batiment Autrichien convenablement dispose pour les le recevoir a son bord avec personnes attachees a la mission.4 d1 CORRESPONDENCE. de meme que leur suite. 1808. le Stadion. M. Adair de vouloir bien agreer 1' assurance de sa consideration tres distinguee. (Signe) Vienne. . et que les prises d'avance precautions necessaires seront pour faire respecter de toute fa9on le dit parlementaire dans son trajet. Fevrier. tarderoit d'arriver a Trieste. 20. Adair compte s'embarquer.



&c.) Dresden. Your receipt of this letter will ascertain whether I have chosen a safe and expeditious method of communication. Adair to Sir Sidney Smith. It Dear Sir. gives me great satisfaction afford to think that the situation to Avhich his Majesty has been pleased to appoint me at Vienna may the opportunity of corresponding with you occasionally. R. . as well as Russian limits I Connivance with the conduct of Austria to the utmost know to be necessary in her present situation but I request your most particular instructions as to the extent to which it can be shoAvn in the possible event of the capture or : detention of British vessels. June 28th. 1806. {Extract. Mr. Smidt. By Sir Arthm^ Paget's messenger. June 2d. Vicuna. or of the adoption of any measure affecting British property. you will have received the account that in consequence of the definitive refusal of Russia to evacuate Cattaro the ports of Trieste and Fiume are shut against British vessels. Fox. and of co-operating Avitli you hereafter in some me measures for the public good. Adair to Mr. 1806.APPENDIX. Adair. Mr. &c.

I beg of you to command me in anything you may think of advantage for the King's service. was despatched from St. is going off immediately. although in my opinion it will fail of success. Petersburg on the affair of Cattaro. that he will approve all my voluntary exertions for the success of his Majesty's arms and councils. and see what can be done. but from my near knowledge of Mr. and concluding notlaing withI shall of course be immediately apout mutual consent. Fox and M. I think common benefit. Commandeur de Ruffo's despatches for his Sicilian Majesty. As the Neapolitan courier together with the who is the bearer of this. devise any let method of safe coiTcspondence. It is with pleasure I inform you that by despatches of the 14th of this month. With regard to terais. I in return the fullest am in the habit of receiving from laim and most candid communications of all for the the Emperor Alexander's views of these views. where he arrived on the 17 th. and your answer to it may possibly suggest some method by which you can hear regularly from me in future. I have not time to inform you in any detail of the situation in which I have found our affairs at this Court. Fox. Yarmouth has returned to Paris. who for the restoration of a general peace. d'Oubril. de Rochefoucault. will immediately you know. has had passports for Paris from M. I must apprise you that I have no precise instructions upon the subject . Knowing how much . I learn that the Emperor Alexander adheres to aU the principles of negociation laid down in the recent correspondence between Mr. Fox to act wnth the Russian ambassador in the strictest union and confidence. to co-operate Avith him. Talleythe cliief of which is. and if we can . that of listening to nothing rand without mutual communication. I must content myself with communicating to you that having been instructed by Mr. I can at the same time answer for it. One it important for you to know. d'Oubril's success or failure.318 APPENDIX. I have reason to believe that shall we make the restoration of Hanover and the evacuation of Dalmatia indispensable conditions of peace. and In addition to which Lord is now on his journey thither. prised of M. It is that of endeavouring once more to open negociations with France M.

upon.s.APPENDIX. Fox's correspondence with M. Talleyrand. namely. 319 you must occasionally take upon yourself in the command with which you are entrusted. (Signed) R. to has proposed a personal interview. A. I mentioned to you in that letter the intended negociations between Russia and France for the restoration of a general peace. without waiting to consult the government at home. if a reasonable basis could be agreed to you the terms on which I mentioned I likewise it thought likely we should insist as constituting such basis . It is with great regret I now inform you that by a letter . Adair to Sir Sidney Smith. &c. 1806. which it is material break off. The King of Sweden has rejected the Emperor Alexander's mediation between him and the King of Prussia. Mr. whom he Believe me. for you to know. and likewise Lord Yarmouth's being at Paris to co- operate in that object. but the ports in the Baltic are not blockaded. With the Kinn. &c. Vienna. it has appeared a point of duty with me to send you all such information as should reach me. July 29tli. and I added that the Emperor Alexander had given us the most positive assurances of his adherence to the great principle of negociation laid down in Mr. that of concluding no peace except by mutual consent. Our policy is to keep this unhappy country from being exposed to a renewal of its sufferino. If the negociation should the season for acting will come. A Sicilian courier carried my letter with the Commandeur liuffo's des- patches to General Acton. WROTE to you on the 28th of last month. and also with regard to those where you think you can do better alone. and then you will instruct me confidentially with regard to those points which you would wish to press upon Russia. My dear I Sir. of Prussia we are in a state of war.

point of Sicily. Swedish ISIajesty. stlU less under those of aiding in the forcible dispossession of its lawful sovereign of the re- mainder of his dominions. &c. Fox has been ill. and had opened the at the same time I have received a cypher negociations from England of which I inclose you the copy. dated Stralsund. He brought me a confidential letter from Mr. Minorca. by which Russia engages to obtain the consent of the King of Xaples to receive Majorca. Swedish Pomerania not to be attacked. I have heard that Lord Yarmouth had delivered his full powers at Paris. &c. I have entrusted this letter to ing through Vienna on his private secretary to his Mr. Yours ever. I understand. July 1 6th. Thus you see we are once more left alone to carry on the contest. IMr. The conditions are: 2. I conclude from this that France has given way upon the . Since I began my letter. Matthews. 320 I have received from sigTied at Paris APPENDIX. This conduct of Russia I can only attribute to the change which has lately taken place in the administration at Petersburg Prince Czartorisky having resigned his office in consequence. The immediate evacuation of GerThe reciprocal guaranty of the independence of the Ottoman Empire. (Signed) R. wdio is passMr Matthews is General Armfelt. and in the service of way to Sicily. follow. 3. A. and Ivica in exchange for Sicily. Lord Yarmouth of the 21st inst. which I trust we shall do to extremity rather than subscribe to suiFering France to gain possession of Sicily under any circumstances. A secret article. 1. . but on the 18th was very much recovered.. it appears that a separate peace between Russia and France was on the 20th. Pierrepoint. — many. of his having advised a more vigorous line of conduct than the Emperor Alexander was disposed to . 4.

which are to form a new federation under the protection of France. Gen. 1806. but was then ignorant of what I now communicate to you. Rhine. Yarmouth. Art. Hohenzollern. right to give THINK it in you the earliest intelligence of the great changes which the Cabinet of St. Your very obedient Servant. Comte de Leyen (who have found means to be peculiarly favoured). with the exception of the Houses of Salm. July 2a. Due d'Aremberg. Fox yesterday. And this determination of France is to be notified to the diet on the 15 th of this month. and WestjAaha. The arch-chancellor is to be the head of the union he is to present a plan for its organisation. Vincent is so good as to send this letter by a courier he means to despatch to-morrow. official. St. 3. 4. Nassau Weilbourg. The dissolution of the Germanic Empire. and conclude an alliance defensive and offensive with France. are to become dependent upon the greater sovereign states. Prince d'Isenbourg. Art. Paris. Nassau Usingen. Dear I Sir. I do not give you these details as as I consider to but as being such be very accurate. Art. . Cloud has determined to make Germany . and reside at Franlcfort. Adair. With great truth and regard. 2. The arch-chancellor will receive an augmentation of territory. indeed it has not been many hours determined upon. The small immediate states situated in the circles of Bavaria. 321 Lord Yarmouth to Mr. by which you will see that the consti- tution of the empire is entirely destroyed. I have the honour to be. possessions of the Dear Sir. Article 1. I wrote to Mr.: APPENDIX.

but it strikes me that the proposal to back to Austria would have the best effect. to augur some distant hope of bringing about an understanding between Austria and Prussia. through Austria's mediation. and must feel almost an equal interest with Austria in resisting many of good understanding between Austria and Prussia might pave the Avay. as well as of eveiy other subject connected with his mission. and particularly the footing they are on with Russia. and who. . be likely to was this far as point in the negociation with so you get ever If France. Fox. to Sir Arthur. consulted in the arrangements. who is perfectly master of this. the re- trocession of Dahnatia to the House of Austria? it As a in barrier to the Turkish Empire. the joint guaranty of those Powers for Hanover. {Extracts. In my despatch of July 3d. do you not think that it : — would be judicious to propose. I see enough of the effect wliich the formal abEmpire will rogation of the old produce here. Before I close this letter. to a reconciliation between England and Prussia. even if it of reconciUng Austria to the Russian plan which . and I will add in my postscript whatever it may be worth while to say. in the first instance. for I conclude Ave shall not think of accepting the guaranty real A . although I am afraid that much cannot be done. At present.APPENDIX. I Now to other matters Russian that the scheme about Dahnatia you mentioned to with great viewed jealousy by this Court. which will not be for twentyfour hours. July 18th. after all they could not dislike so much as its being in the power of France. some account will probably Ije received from Ratisbon. tlie " I LEAVE all farther explanations respecting the state of Court.) Vienna. is very much liked by the Emperor. let people say what they will. which I greatly doubt. Adair {By Sir Arthur Paget') to Mr. and if matters should be favourable. 1806. Mr. would be best perhaps the hands of Russia give it failed. This last Power has certainly not been their consequences.

dear Sir. A secret article. by Mr. and to act in all things in concert with M. 4. Lord Yarmouth was not to appear in any diplomatic character unless a reasonable . that on the 2 2d of June. &c. 323 These things. conditions — 1st. d'Oubril. Arbuthnot. A joint guaranty of the independence of the Ottoman Empire. which were broken off in April. a sepa- rate peace between Russia and France was signed on the are 20th inst. of France for Hanover. open negociations for a general peace and that Lord Yarmouth. K. if you have time and tune that Czartorisky is out. The 2. It is vices I have with great regret that I now inform you that by adthis day received from Lord Yarmouth. Talleyrand tending to a renewal of the negociations with us. I had already written to you by the post of the 18th. who in liis way from Verdun to England had passed through Paris about the beginning of the same month. who passed through Vienna on his way to England. returned to that place on the 17 th of June with orders to listen to what might be proposed to him. 1806. Russia engages to obtain the Y 2 . are better health. 3. Morier. Mr. I suppose. letter of the RECEIVED your 27th ult. the immediate evacuation of Germany. Adair to Mr. &c. and had there received overtures from M. You know. d'Oubril went from hence to Paris in basis of peace could first be agreed upon. July 29th. order to M. and much more. on the 21st He arrived here on the 19th. by which Swedish Pomerania not to be attacked. upon the cards. My I inst. A. &c. inclosing a letter from Mr Fox's office. I understand that the reason is liis having advised firmer counsels than tliis You know by Emperor is the willing to follow.APPENDIX. Vienna.

A. Most truly yours. I have heard. You give. therefore. and the King of Naples determined to hold out. M. Aug. is once more left alone to carry on the contest. Vienna. so low as the 18th covered. A. 16th. S. advice. dated July 28th. Mr. but I am happy to say that all serious alarms are now over. it THINK material to the public service to acquaint confidentially with the result of you some conversations I have had with Count Stadion. 1806. in consequence of instructions I received from London. much for sending me the Constantinople They are indeed highly interesting. as far as they relate to Russia.324 consent of the APPENDIX. Those instructions. for the present. and receive in exchange the Balearic Islands. (Signed) P.. the 21st letter. Fox has lately been extremely ill. K. inst. as you always have given. I and since my writing the former part of this have received the inclosed communication from it England. and as far as to the Court of Vienna. directly. but not from Lord Yarmouth that he was to produce full powers to open a negociation on inst. Mr. he was very much re- I thank you very despatches. of the power of France in the Mediterranean. Sicily. are stated to me in consequence of they relate be a summary of what have been sent to you. King of Naples to abandon Sicily. to promise assistance in to . dear Sir.. d'Oubril's separate treaty. the best Believe me. Adair to Lord Granville Leveson Gower. Mt I dear Lord. I conclude from that France has given way about R. by accounts from England. and as there seems every reason to hope that Sicily is in a good postm-e of defence. Great Britain. we have to fear no further extension.

they will not be so resolute explain to you and this is. and warning him of the dilemma in which Austria. that there is a point beyond which they are determined not to yield. it Upon the signature of the preliminaries by D'Oubril. and this is. Count Stadion assures me indeed. that he would insist upon Austria not remaining neuter. and the consequent renewal of the Under these circumstances far consider how continental war. that I have reason to portance to upon another point of nearly equal imthemselves. but most certain that he would demand a passage for his troops through Bohemia and Moravia. would be nearly the same thing as the military occupation of those countries. notwithstanding all her pacific inclinations. after what we know of French armies. and of more importance to the neigh. Another point of my Instructions relates to the Court of y 3 . It is since this conversation that I have had it communicated to me that consequently the ratify the treaty. the passage of French troops through their territories.. I take part with her in the war. lost no time in speaking to Count Stadion. on this latter point that I have chiefly to write to you still at present. I can see no reason to believe Austria will depart from her pacific system. I find so much discouragement much to prevail among those on whom the chief reliance for a vigorous conduct would indifference naturally be placed. and but another word for forcing Austria to These things considered. fear however. It seemed probable too. case the increasing 325 force her demands of Bonaparte should once again to take up arms for her It Is own defence. that except in the last necessity. I will why I think so. it may be material for you to Russia ought to press for a more particular explanation of the intentions of this Court. in the event of the disavowal of D'Oubril. and so among the rest. that Austria did not feel herself in a condition to refuse the passage of troops to the French government. Now this. the further cession of territory to France. appeared to me that he had exceeded his instructions Emperor Alexander might refuse to and that then Bonaparte would seize the pretext afforded him to })Our his whole army instantly into Germany. bouring Powers. might eventually be placed. APPENDIX.

of D'Oubril's preliminaries. its and to Denmark. Something surely may be grounded on these dispositions. have heard without doubt from M. I hope you have received my letter * by estafette of the 11th July. Arhuthnot. not only to pardon Prussia. giving the Elector to understand however that such a time might come. A. and a counter-federation has certainly been proposed by her to Saxony.S. A. Great dissatisfaction at the conduct of France in the arrangements concerning Germany appears to subsist in Prussia. in substance highly favourable to the project. * This letter containing a copy of Lord Yarmouth's of July 3d (see supra) was entrusted to a Russian courier. but he seems is to have no hope of Prussia while Hangwitz at the head of affairs. is the ratification. but to assist her if she could be brought to act on any reasonable system. . A. 1806. R. August 25th. &c. Dear Sir. P. both here and every where else. It will be additionally satisfactory to you to learn that he has done this entirely from his own sense of will You that the Emperor of Russia has disavowed M. Saxony has proposed to this Court accession to the confederacy. but declining to act just now . I have stated this also to Count Stadion.— 326 Berlin. Adair to Mr. especially as I have reason to think that we are ready. &c. although they had little to thank Prussia for. to Hesse and has received an answer Cassel. It related to the projected change in the Germanic Empire. Believe me. and that then. or not. and refused to ratify the preliminaries he signed on the 20th of July at Paris. APPENDIX. but never reached its destination. Mr. R. Vienna. indeed the subject of chief interest. they would stand by her to the utmost if she should be attacked. I have nothing further at this moment to trouble you with . d'ltalinsky d'Ouliril. H.

that if he allows the confederacy .APPENDIX. test. you will easily account for the doubts which exist as to the ulterior objects of the plan. be properly supported. The success of this enterprise may be greatly accelerated if we can get any assistance from the Porte the reverse. This measure to that of the is given out to be a counter. This matter however must now be brought speedily to the imtil is difficult . inviting those Powers to put their armies inmiediately upon the war establishment. one so well informed and vigilant as yourself. and the only one the King consults.federation Ehine. of a measure now in agitation for uniting the northern states of Germany in a defensive and separate league. It however to advise them just at this instant to a contrary conduct: much will depend upon the success. Bonaparte is not a man who will suffer it long to be in doubt who are his friends and who are his enemies and I think it may reasonably be inferred. go on. The worst part is. Every eftbrt must now be dii'ected to recover Dalmatia from France. and to Denmark. This honom-able and decisive conduct will infallibly produce a renewal of the war on a very extended scale. and who is sanguine of success. I sent home by a courier yesterday a plan of operations against the enemy in that quarter. when it can be discovered. and offering to furAll this sounds very fine but nish herself 200. or will Y 4 . You will have more difficidty than ever to encounter in your very laborious and unportant situation but I trust that you will be efficaciously seconded from home. to Hesse Cassel. Prussia has proposed it to Saxony. that they may go on from concession to concession. to own forging. . It is not difficult I effect of the France has drained the country of all its resources. and still more upon the character.000 men. wliich had been given me by an officer who knows every j)art of the country and coast. 327 what was due to the faith of his engagement with Great Britain. Avhen I remark to you that Hangwitz is still minister. The neutrality of Austria cannot long be preserved. and without waiting for any representation from us. if the Montenegrins . am afraid to anticipate the immediate renewal of the war in this part of Europe. if France should succeed in getting her I need not say more to to declare openly against Russia. it is either an instrument of his be rendered one for his use.

was to be given to his son with the of title King Our part ! of the negociation at Paris has in point of fact . &c. Fox was then better. King out England. A.328 APPENDIX. Mr. it is most probable that both he. that Sicily. (Signed) R. and even the of Sardinia. I have not heard lately from Paris but as Lord Lauderdale would naturally do nothing until the ratification of D'Oubril's treaty. Believe me. and the remainder of the Russian mission. viz. and D'Oubril having signed. with infinite pleasure that I inform you that the of Emperor d'Oubril's Russia has not only refused to ratify M. August 25th. treaty. an article by which the present King of the Two Sicilies was to be utterly set aside. and Ivica. but that he has utterly disavowed him. Minorca. 1806. he refuses any peace withThink of Bonajiarte having proposed. the miserable indemnity stipulated for Sicily. but they are all so wide of Bonaparte's claims and expectations. that you may consider the renewal of hostilities as certain. Adair to 3Ir. despatched by the state to letter of the is an opportunity of writing to you by a courier Commandeur RufFo to Palermo. My last advices from London are of the 8th instant. . Elliott. The Emperor has indeed sent fresh proposals to Paris. Mr. The Emperor demands the evacuation of Dalmatia and Albania by France. will leave Paris at the same time. I will you more distinctly than I could in my short 24 th the important event to which I alluded. and his physicians had great hope of preventing the recurrence of his malady. at least. that event not having taken place. and some indemnification agreed upon for Above all. Dear Having now It Sir. alleging that he transgressed both his instnictions and his powers in signing it. Majorca. Vienna. shall remain to the King of Naples. &c.

We did not. have no doubt that both he and what remains of the Russian mission at Paris will be ordered to what I have it stated. trust to this. Lord Lauderdale of course could do nothing except provisionally until the arrival of the Emperor's answer and that answer being we had disavowed. . Immediately on my hearing of M. of wliich I is dare say you have heard something. I thought it my duty to warn this Court of the possibility. and to enter into a defensive league. indeed. or into fresh and still more painful humiliations to avoid it. Bonaparte and on a renewal of hosis tired of the peace of Presburg tilities with Russia. On the other hand. pretences will easily be found to force . The treaty however goes on but slowly its character is not yet men. to imme- 200. that Prussia has proposed to the Elector of Saxony.000 arming with great celerity. that He acted so notoriously contrary to scarcely a doubt of his being however. I leave directly. but sent out the strongest remonstrances to St. Prussia herself furnishing in fact : understood . and I lament resistance. the object of Avhich professedly to form a counterpoise to the Federation of the Rhine. a measure in agitation. unhappy country. All we know of it is. of their being called upon by Bonaparte to declare either for or against him that he would insist here upon knowing who were his friends and who were his enemies and that he would accept nothing as a proof of friendship which did not leave the whole resources of this sacrifices. Prussia is upon a war footing. Petei'sburg. . d'Oubril's signature. The terial state of affairs however must now experience a ma- change all over Europe by this stoutness of the Emperor The continental war will probably be renewed Alexander. . either into a war directly. as Count Hangwitz is still the minister . in the event of his being disavowed.APPENDIX. In this event the neutrality of Austria has no chance of being long respected. The case supposed has is now hap- to say that nothing prepared for The state of the unless they can contrive to army and treasury is such. Austria at his disposal. his instructions. upon a very extended scale. that ward off the blow a little longer is the worst consequences are to be apprehended. pened. and to put their forces diately Denmark. to Hesse Cassel. 329 been suspended ever since D'Oubril's signature of the preliminaries Avith Russia.

My K. Smith. and the reciprocal interest of our countries must enforce. great suspicions are entertained of I have hopes of procuring its ulterior some light into this but before my information can reach me. Believe me. Having no time to write to Sir Sidney. and his physicians had great hopes of preventing the return of his malady. notwithstanding all our misfortunes. APPENDIX. Fox was then going on as well as possilile. If not. it will probably be developed by the course of events. matter . myself mutual inclination has created. of the cause of Europe. it will clear up it in my mind all doubts respecting its nature. (Extract. His Holiness has been threatened with the loss of all his dominions unless he consents to join Bonaparte in a perpetual league against England. Count Stai'hemberg to Mr Adair. He might serve the common cause efficaciously. as the courier is : now waiting for this last advices letter. The Pope's nuncio was with me some days ago. I have been entreated by the nuncio to keep this communication secret. A. &c. and should go on in defiance of him. 29th.330 at Berlin. &c. The nuncio assured me he had refused on this I did not hesitate offering him an asylum any where under our protection. may I take the liberty of reits questing that you will communicate contents to him ? from England were of the 8th inst. I dear Sir. but it is fit that you know it. 1806. Mr. objects. &c. I should not even yet despair. and likewise Sir S. dear Sir. which both bear the stamp of that intimate friendship and confidence and which I flatter you promised me. .') London August. if any means could be found of securing his retreat to Sicily. CANNOT let my messenger go without thanking you My for the two letters you wrote me. If Bonaparte suffer the league to be formed within the reach of his army.

whose feelings. far behind them. I entreat you to preach firmness and courage at Vienna. where I can depend upon Mr. Thornton's taking the greatest care of them. and exhort them to prepare their utmost energy for the great day of vengeance which will certainly present itself sooner or later. but expected it. Sept. 331 My between the British ministry and our subsidies. Pitt deration and all his colleagues at any period whatever. Believe me. He seemed to think that there was no My . Arbutltnot.APPENDIX. Mr. it must be looked for in the closest intimacy and union of plans and principles with Great Britain. Having no messenger in waiting I was obliged to forward them by my valet-de-chambre as far as Hamburg. I am afraid I trespass a great deal on your time. &c. Adair to Mr. It would be quite unnecessary to recommend them to avoid for the present the renewal of hostilities. monay. even partiality for Austria. I had a letter from Lord Lauderdale on the 11th. Mr. dated September 1st: he had not then heard of the non-ratification. &c. (Signed) Stakiiembekg. Mandeville arrived here on the 4th Inst. If something is still able to restore the House of Austria to — its former power and glory. leave Mr. despatches chiefly relate to the agreement entered into me about the remnant of Stadion I seize this opportunity to repeat again and again to Count how many reasons we have to be completely satisfied with the conduct of the present ministers. ISOfl. but I was anxious to avail myself of this good opportunity. &c. and brought me your letters and despatches for government. Vienna. dear Sir.

332 APPENDIX. a man believes in her striking a blow against France. Whether he will extend his moderation to the Powers with whom he is actually at Avar. the loss of both their armies in those Your account of the battle with Begnier on the 4th of July was quite new to me. Believe me. Be that as it may. or they will risk quarters. but I cannot trust to A the writer's accuracy. You will soon hear of an attack on Cattaro by the French. The difficulty of getting intelligence from the South of Italy. As the conduct of the Emperor Alexander. that this Northern confederacy wears a more Prussia is serious appearance than was at first imagined. and. (Signed) . to chance whatever of getting the French government to listen any thing reasonable. that all immediate apprehension of his demanding a passage for his trooj^s through Bohemia has subsided. &c. arming in good earnest. story is just now circulated of General Stewart's having There is a defeated Massena in the early part of August. has persuaded Saxony to arm too. They are so pressed in Calabria that they must endeavour to disengage themselves from the Montenegrins and Russians. A. remains now to be seen. and renew the negociation upon the terms proposed by Russia. Nothing can be more warlike than both But somehow or other. The only reason which gives a colour to a contrary speculation is. not her language and her posture. It is so changed in this respect. has accordingly in some degree adopted that tone towards Austria. &c. R. is inconceivable. Bonaparte perceives that it will require a lower tone than he has lately adopted to get rid of the He embarrassments this new confederacy may cause him. especially that part of it in which he refuses to hear of any terms without England. there was every reason to expect a speedy and an unsuccessful end of the whole. letter in town from Pisa to that effect. especially since the ports of Trieste and Fiume are shut to English vessels. would put him upon stronger ground. I will not fail to let you know the moment anything of a decisive nature occurs. what is more. &c.

L. d'Oubril's arrival moment which sucfrom Paris prevented my early acknowledgement of yours by estafette. Aug. Gower. 333 Mr. a Power which naturally would view with jealousy such an extent of her frontier exposed by the probable conquest of provinces. Petersburg five weeks ago. the request of a guaranty on the part of Russia has been liitherto coldly received and it has been alleged that the Emperor will wait . I feel it incumbent upon me to communicate to you such details as may render you master of the views of this Court towards that of Vienna in the [)resent crisis. until events shall develope the sincere intention of the Court of Berlin to oppose France before any proposition from thence (while Hangwitz is in office) will ho. however. d'Oubril's treaty. and directed to Lord G. The administration now in office commenced their career by a determination to cultivate the friendship of Prussia. and at all hazards to prosecute war against France to the south- ward. and very material changes in the opinions and foreign politics of the Russian ministers have taken place since that period. these senti- ments appear. Uncertain if the counter-federation planned by the King of Prussia is not a scheme originating at Paris. not only on the shores of the Adriatic. Stuart St. to have given way to the expectation of organising such a resistance to France in the North of Europe. dated 1 8th August. of which in the course of time she herself might have hoped to obtain possession. Sir.). S. as may prevent the further progress of the enemy's encroachments in that quarter. 30th. but by advancing a great part of the disposable force in Poland against Turkey without regarding the remonstrances of Austria. Petersburg. Since the refusal to ratify M. As the ambassador left St. At the same time they have received strong assurances of support in and it has been hinted that in the present state of affairs I should do well to cease my instances on the case of hostility. An ceeded unusual press of business at the M. to Mr. Adair. 1806 (N. sanctioned. . I am this day honoured with your letter.APPENDIX.

Budberg asserts that every feeling of interest and honour will induce the Emperor to support the Court of sistance in his power. or at least the perfect neutrality. Vienna with the most effectual as- The march upon with the offer of troops to Dalmatia. It results from these causes that the aid. is I beg you will observe that the above reasoning rather what I have heard from M. Sir. she to the is the left wing of the mass opposed in the latter case common enemy. is asperity wliich was remarkable no longer weighed in the language of this government. General Budberg therefore assures me that no measure will be pursued which can in any way commit the Court of Vienna. when the passage of troops destined to act against Russia shall be refused. than any which can be urged from hence. or remaining a tranquil spectator. and even will be necessary to 100. communicate whatever can be although I have not the honom* of your personal acfail to quaintance. Yoiu: most obedient humble Servant. I do not find the minister apprehensive that France may require a passage through Bohemia and Moravia. for the same purpose. which was formerly with justice the cause of so much complaint. line to Hanoverian question until the shall be adopted by Prussia be fully decided.000 watch her movements. that whether actively fighting against France. I shall not useful. of Austria wiU become highly necessary. Should the French government actually commence hostilities against Austria. and is merely the abstract of my despatches to the office for the last six weeks. at the time they refused every conciliatory on the part of Austria. With great truth and regard. I hope you is will be as- sured that so long as the business of this embassy conducted by myself. M. Budberg than my own opinion. If you conceive a regular correspondence will contribute to the advantage of the Bang's service. I am.334 APPENDIX. . Charles Stuart. He argues that the preservation of the Austrian provinces in Poland are a French stronger motive to induce her to withliold her consent.

de me les faire connoitre. de ce que les ordres dont elle daig- me munir. Thornton a Hamde Potsdam conclu sous des circonstances Prusse et la Russie. les autres objets devroient ne me restc vous venez de m'ecrire. .) to Mr. de Sept. je ne man- du Roi mon maitre. &c. le * J'ai re9U la lettre dont vous avez bien voulu m'honorer en date dii 19 de ce mois. quoique I'esprit doive sans doute etre le meme. Agreez I'assurance de toute la sensibilite avec querai pas de cote de vous informer des intentions laquelle j'ai mon re^u les temoignages de votre estime consideration la et de votre avec confiance laquelle et de la plus distinguee J'ai I'honneur d'etre. A. Monsieur. M. (Signe) * Hardenberg. En attendant les ouvertures ulterieures que vous me faites esperer. Adair. M. 335 Baron Hardenherg {Copy. a Tempelberg. et je me trouverai infini- ment heureux de vous a etablir la plus parfaite union de principes et de mesures entre nos deux souverains. 1806. Persuade qu'il ne pent exister dans ce moment qu'un seul travailler avec grand but pour tons facilement s'arranger.: APPENDIX. aussitot qu'il aura plu a S. — R. d'autant plus que des pour-parlers ont ete le entames entre bouro-. &c. Date eflTaccd. but it must have been about the 24th. Le traite Baron de Jacobi et M. &c. Monsieur. Mais il faudra toujours s'occuper d'un nouveau projet de traite. il les deux. servir de base adapte a I'etat actuel des choses. tant pour les subsides que pour les autres objets. et d'attendre nera Depuis huit jours le Roi est a I'armee done que de rendi*e compte a S. tres difFerentes entre la ne pourra guere aux arrangemens a prendre entre nos deux cours.

Bonaparte smooth to Austria. and of my hopes as to the other. fait vous m'avez fils aine du Comte de Carlisle. My even with Hangwitz but. Stuart. le Baron. Adair {Copy. jour ou j'ai eu I'honneur de vous ecrire. and. Substance of a Letter from Mr. minister. de vous rendre compte aussitot que je I'aurois re^u. That I had received the new cypher. de repondre a la lettre que rhonneur de m'adresser de Tempelberg. &c. (Signe) R. a ete nomme le par sa Majeste Britannique pour traiter directement avec Cabinet de Berlin des grands interets qui ont motive notre correspondance.) to Baron Hardenherg. ce 16 Oct. J'ai I'honneur d'etre. That Prussia might be got to act. dont je ne manquerois pas. M. the French to Lord Lauderdale. &c. dated Vienna. since the Prussian armaments. Sept. Adair to Mr.336 APPENDIX. Je m'empresse. J'espere tout de cette demarche de mon gouvemement. 30. 1806. in the present state of our relations with the one. Mr. Vienne. if Hangwitz continued would they go on against reverses ? instructions and the conduct of Russia agree exactly . 1806. &c. Ainsi j 'attends to uj ours la reponse a ma depeche en date de ce jour-la. cependant j'aurois prefere que le Lord Morpeth n'eut pas quitte Londres avant I'arrivee de mon courrier que j'avois expedie le 19 Septembre. A. . in her present good dispositions. et de vous communiquer I'heureuse nouvelle que le Lord Morpeth. Since the non -ratification (of D'Oubril's plenipotentiaries civil treaty). Importance of estabhshing a correspondence between the British legations of Petersburg and Vienna. Monsieur le Baron.

1806. 9th. Oct. Petersburg requires nothing farther from Austria at the present moment. in the latter province. and I am happy to assure you that the communication of its contents to the Russian minister. Inclose a letter to of. negociations for peace. advice to Austria to preserve Lord Douglas. together with the assurances received from the Austrian ambassador. have been productive of the happiest effects. Mr. My dear Sir. I have the satisfaction to inform you that an army of 64. requesting liim to make Count use of all the influence of the British legation to retain at RazamoiFsky Vienna. I flatter away by repeated reprewhich renders politic the sacrifice of every other consideration to the more essential object of advancing the moment when war is to commence in the North of Germany and your letter was an evidence in favour of the language I have constantly held during the last three myself. I HAVE been honoured with your obliging letter by a Russian messenger. will their left flank. on the three main points understanding with Prussia her neutrality. Z .APPENDIX. 1. 3. by showing that liis Court is fully determined to defend her own frontier by assembling an army so placed as to prevent the Russians being turned.000 men. St. been very materially done sentations of the necessity . A. Petersburg. The jealousy wliich the progress of affau's in Turkey had already created between the two Imperial Courts has. . Tliis government hopes that a demonstration on the part of Austria. in case such an operation should be threatened on the part of the French. Stuart to Mr. 337 2. has orders immechately to march to Silesia to support the Prussians and cover Bohemia. prevent any hazard from operations of Bonaparte on General Meerfeldt has endeavoured to satisfy them on tliis point. under the command of General Beningsen. months. The Court of St.

Ch. Your obedient.. 1806. Vincent Avill put you in possession of all my I had not a thought conprivate letters to our lost friend. I mean my correspondence with Count Hardenberg. it is England having reached me since that of the only from your despatches. Your own judgment will determine afterwards the value of now exhibits. On right to acquaint the ciation being apprised of Lord Morpeth's mission. In the sad scene that public Office. Mr. post from life this. to the great disappointment of this government. Vienna. With great truth and regard.338 Major Krusemarck is APPENDIX. dear Lord. Oct. Stuart. is generally supposed that this mission is a manoeuvre of de Hangwitz. that you will not wish to lay open to you. as any measure from hence will. that I learn of your appointment to the Foreign I heartily rejoice at it. arrived empty-handed. cealed from liim . On the present occasion I shall only call your attention to one point. Sir Francis what I may say. A. It who expected many com- M. . with the liberty of speaking out. munications by his conveyance. nor have I one on public affiiirs wliich I do All I ask is. as he did. is something to be pleased with. I have been a great deal occupied. brought by Donaldson. My No 19th Sept. to Viscount Hawick. however. humble Servant. and ever will be. indulge me. Emperor He Prussian councils. I thought it Count with the fact that a regular nego- had been commenced between our two governments. by which that minister hopes so far to conciliate the likely to remove him from taken. on which you will see. 17th. by my secret despatches. at least. be misorders are sent to urge an immediate change in the as to avert office. I am.

APPENDIX. about three men hy sea from Zara to Ancona. wliich. apprising hiui generally of the of things here. If a general war should break out. This I shall shortly sul^mit to your consideration. It was high time Aveeks ago. Nothing further occurs to me just now. where they were marched to reinforce the army . approve of my sending off to Lord Morpeth a will confidential letter. Switzerland and the Tyrol. I have already established a personal correspondence with Constantinople. to get Razamoffsky to be re-established as ambassador here. and operations in. and Dresden. Cattaro is still in the possession of the Russians. and such a man will. Count Finkenstein is pressing them much too hard. the result of which would determine intercourse. as men must have risk then. recommended by actions of distinguished and acknowledged merit. At some moment to say to of comparative leisure I shall have much you upon the subject of correspondence. I another and a very extensive plan for a correspondence with. You state I hope. to transport 14. if the French have one great reverse in Germany. thi'ough the North of Italy. It was necessary from what I know be represented to hmi of the dispositions of Austria. He is thoroughly in the common interests . will break out in spite of all attempts to hold it mean back. I know Razamoifsky's faults but they have been greatly exaggerated.000 Russian admiral suffered the French. in the time. as the against Calabria. wlio seem z 2 . I trying to establish one. There is at this hour a great deal going on in Switzerland. with . will be greatly wanted in the prosecu- tion of the long struggle of wliich we have the prospect. excejot to inform you that your squadron is arrived off Venice. Emperor Alexander. 339 whether they could agree upon those matters which had given occasion to our My use of next suggestion to you all is the importance of making the the influence we may have with . apprising you. that I have rio dealings with any but approved men. am Stockholm. Sicily but tliis will be attended with expense. Petersburg. Hamburg.lives.

as to raise their army to a proper degree of force. among the to you. 15th. King of Prussia has Emperor to join him in measures against France and that the answer has been that the extreme distress of the Austrian finances. and the absolute necessity of gaining time.000 each and eveiy exertion . but that they would send 70. (Signed. A. My The deae Lokd. 1806.340 APPENDIX. K. announcing your mission. This resolution has been to the notified to M.) A. ation that this coqjs d'armee of 70. and Anterior Austria of from 25. and I have accurate private informah-eady 90. messenger Donaldson arrived here the day before yes- terday with despatches from Lord Hovrick. (Copy. You will observe that theu' troops are to left occupy a position which covers the wing of the Prussian army is and protects and Silesia . Vienna. Oct. It is to care about nothing else. my dear Lord.000 to 30. I request you to accept my most sincere congratulations on the choice which has been made of you for this important charge.000. that the confidential over- made the strongest terms to the . to Lord Morpeth. again strongly given out it.000 men. &c. &c. so It is well that they do much. and communicating tome a copy of yoiu* instructions. that the Austrians are preparing to storm Believe me. Sec. I cannot say will how much it gratifies first me.000 in a fortnight's time will be upwai'ds of this Besides there are armies in Styria : 100. as well to put them in order. 3Ir. de la Rochefoucault as well as Prussian minister. prevented them from departing at present from their neutrahty. applied in his present You tm-es have learned. I can assure you from the most attentive personal observation that Austria can do no more.000 men into Bohemia in order to make their neutrahty respected.

beyond her by the desire of I leave my dear Lord. and full possession of the King's confidence. and that the total ruin of her House and Empire would be involved in its bad success. our lost and lamented friend. the immediate junction of Austria might afford infinite advantages. there Independently however of their great pecuniary difficulties. entirely to your discretion and will judgment to determine upon the use you just make of this in- formation as a motive for inducing. that all mistrust of Prussia would be removed if she would give proper satisfaction to his Majesty on the subject of Hanover. and their and perseverance in the King notwithstanding the confidence they place in his honour and in his present dispositions. is 341 war establish- silently making to get up to the complete ment. there is a most other. A. is is which it and this of the utmost consequence that their deep distrust of fear of the want of steadiness good you should know. fearful responsibiHty in advising its being undertaken. Count Hangwitz. On the it must be considered that this would be the last war in which Austria could ever engage. its being divulged to France confidential Hangwitz and Lombard are the King's This brings me anxious to have to a point on which I am extremely your opinion after you shall have had * I have not been able to recover from the hrouillon of this letter the precise words of the paragraph which follows next . were which perhaps the only way in which it could produce any effect. is one obstacle to their joining cordially with Prussia. as I have done.APPENDIX. z 8 . there would always be the risk of as long as advisers. but the substance of it is a distinct declaration from the Austrian minister to me. I will only observe that if it it is the secret of the Austrian government. Prussia to accede to the demands of his Majesty. that whenever she chose to act Great Britain would support her to the utmost. and that communicated is to that of Prussia plainly and directly. and perhaps decide the fate of the war. — R. Indeed when we reflect that Hangwitz has the conduct of it. * ****** it. but to assure her. Under these circumstances the course I have adopted for is the present as follows : —never to urge Austria strength. This point I find it most difficidt to touch. On the one hand.

with fresh proposals. Have and the goodness to forward my messenger to England Believe me. I make no difficulty in saying. Havino. but occasions may occur by which you may let me hear from you. Dresden at present seems the safest centre of communication. more to add. . &c. I shall of make me think course use able. of distinction wherever he might be. &c. On the other hand. R. I shall not in future have to trouble you much at length. if he (Hangwitz) is really acting fairly. stated how matters stand here. The success or failure of your mission it will be most material for me to know.. you will have a right to demand a communication of such proposals. to will greatly detemiine me in the line I mean to take when the time comes for ulterior explanations with this Court. likewise if Hangwitz should be playing any tricks with Talleyrand. time and opportunity to form one. but if I hear removal of Hangwitz any thing from you to that they are pushing their objections to him too far. passed through Mayence. and risking the loss of this. my now best endeavours to get them to be more reason- I have 80 nothins. Regular correspondence will be impossible. If the fact should turn out to be so. &c. for the Both Austria and Russia wish as a preliminary step. 342 APPENDIX. and I am most positively assured that on the first month a Prussian officer find Bonaparte. perhaps the last opportunity of forming a solid union against France. your opinion. A. What is really the truth about Count Hangwitz ? Is he in earnest in his present system of resistance to France? or is there any "dessous des cartes " in his game ? Observe of this that Talleyrand and Clarke are in Bonaparte's camp.

If the King of Prussia can get any tolerable conz 4 . 25 th. dear Sir.. the left of the Prussians under Prince Hohenlohe was turned. by the end of All we can is. that the King of Prussia had resolved upon attacking with the whole army on the 14th. after more or less fighting on the four succeeding days. disaster appears to have succeeded disaster. The army appears to be completely separated. Since this dreadful day. liis The Elector of Saxony has made his peace and withdrawn troops. killed and prisoners. to Mr. even at this day the full extent of the is not known with sufficient accuracy. and 184 pieces of cannon. began on the 8th. Oct. The Prussian army has been completely defeated. collect here (for we have no detailed official accounts) that. The battle fouo. The Queen was at Stettin. I SEND back me to the heart to say with the and it Mr. The fact is undoubtedly so. Of Prince Hohenlohe and the Prussian left wing there is no intelligence. dorff Just now an account is come that Marshal Mollenand the Prince of Orange have been taken prisoners with a corps of 6000 men at Erfurt. nearly ruined.APPENDIX. Arbutknot. The result was I cannot a most complete. although we cannot understand how they came there. and The French will most probably be at Berlin Hostilities this month. 1806. Morier's messenger. In general Ave reckon here the loss of the Prussians on that day alone at 24. and is since mischief dead. The King is supposed to Ijc either gone or going to Kustrin. Vienna. and I fear irreparable. defeat. give you particulars . from whence they will probably fall back on Mao-debury. What remains of the centre and the right wing were by the last accounts at Halberstadt.ht near Naumbero.. Colomb most afflicting intel. 343 Mr. and that on the morning of that day he was not only attacked himself. My grieves ligence. The Duke of Brunswick was wounded. A.000 men. but attacked in such a manner as to give the enemy the was full advantage of surprise.

this is indeed a life of troubles Believe me. Russian army of 64. I have heard from very good authority of his demanding the Elector of Saxony's daughter for his brother Jerome. now This Court perseveres in its neutrality but Europe is in such a state that nothing with the least semblance of system. for peace. I wrote to you last I had only time 9. or what he has been able to effect. The views of Bonaparte on Poland are now evident to demonstration. seem to be of the utmost importance. Lord Lauderdale has quitted Paris. Nov. &c. But the Emperor must send three times that number if he wishes to would not surprise A save Poland. &c. as far as I can see. Mr. in the present disastrous moment. A. or for neutrality. My When more fully dear Sir.! 344 ditions (of APPENDIX. to Mr. in whom it is intended to revive the kingdom of Poland. are continuing with . It may be useful for you to learn that the point on which the negociations broke off was our insisting upon the evacuation of Dalmatia and Albania. acting it well. Vienna. my dear Sir on which . A. and thus to carry into effect the double project of surrounding Austria. Austria feels her danger to the greatest difficult part to act. to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of October I will now enter upon one or two points. side soever we turn ourselves. which I confess there appears little chance) it me to hear that he had done the same. &c. Her armaments. 1806. likely for some time to be arranged. Fare you well. seems . Stuart. degree. I do not know where Lord Morpeth is. whether for war. which. She has a most she is and. (Signed) R. and erecting a barrier against Russia on that side of Europe.000 men under General Beningsen is by this time not far from the borders of Silesia. 2d. notwithstand- ing the deplorable state of her finances.

unless own in an equal degree. such that of such a disaster. they have themselves here under the necessity of again issuing orders to attack the place. otherwise I foresee a most fatal misunderstanding between the two is very tender subject to touch upon Courts. . that no temptation of advantages on the side of Tm*key will prevail upon the Cabinet of Petersburg to divide its armies. therefore. and perhaps restore our affairs in the East of Europe. . especially too as the Turks can derive no succour from France. shall come forward cliief force with her on that vulnei'able side of her empire. But let her seriously contemplate the consequences of another Austerlltz in Poland. I own I have scarcely nerves to contemplate the consequences On the other hand. I really do not see how Austria can act otherwise than she has done in this unlucky business and . perhaps. a all I can say is.APPENDIX. the concerning Cattaro. provinces. There is another matter which has fallen under my It obseris vation here. feehng her Even then her danger will be but little diminished. Russia. The demands late of France have been so peremptory successes. This is. so as to leave Poland in a state of jeopardy. and to deprecate its producing any renewal of coldness between the two Courts. redoubled activity. it would be one on something of the following outline : The great body of the Russian forces could then act on the side of Poland. and which gives state of the affair me serious concern. added to her and the rupture of Lord felt Lauderdale's negociation. Let me therefore take the liberty of recommendinoit to you to prepare the Russian ministry for such an event. I do most fervently hope. Is the internal state of the Turkish Russia can have no reason to apprehend offensive operations on that side. that it one which requires the greatest address in managing. If I might venture to suggest a plan of operations suited to the political A^iews which present themselves at this mo- ment. 345 and I trust that before Bonaparte can which tinie he will hardly call upon Austria to disarm) they will be completed to the full totally destroy Prussia (before establishment. that.

produce their due effect upon the Russian Cabinet. I wish. It does not occur to fied as I me to add more at this moment . (Signed) R. after considering it. best officers here. who know every affairs are inch of the ground. as. . it is impossible that they could maintain themselves there wliile we are masters of the sea. it is the opinion of the with the Montenegrins. Petersburg. therefore. This would be more much particularly to be regretted. Believe me. &c. A. that is every man the French sent to Dalmatia if sure of falling into our hands. with a view to the success of the matter you will find in it. you will see in a moment the importance of what I allude to. you would make such use of its contents as you may think prudent. however. and ignorant of my long and intimate connection with him. I cannot answer that others will co-operate with me who are strangers to me. our but commonly well managed in that quarter. I will not. will.346 APPENDIX. conclude my letter without recom- mending another point to your management. . but to the common I must in many instances interests of the allied countries. this object becomes not only of the greatest importance to me personally. far better would it be that it were so than that France should establish herself in Poland thi'ough any illtimed jealousy on such an inferior object. that you would open the letter I inclosed for him when I wrote to you on the 30th September and that. and all the military positions in Saxony. if Cattaro were even suiren- dered to the French. as I see that the same system governs our councils which but although I can prevailed dxu'ing the life of Mr. &c. act entirely from myself. and friends Indeed. &c. satis- am that the imminent perils which threaten this country when Bonaparte shall be in possession of Dresden. as no time ought to be lost in it. which individually I can venture to do. as I should regret to see the fortress in the hands of France. Separated as I now am from my usual channels of communication with England. with the aid of your representations. When you read what I have written to Lord Douglas. Konigstein. Fox act largely on my own view of affairs. should Lord Douglas not already be arrived at St. .

intimate when mutual concert is to be desired against This task has not been easy. for although on the most footing with Meerfeldt. 347 Mr. My dear Sir. which is the consequence of a Court intrigue before and which it is not in his power to however. He will. and to delay. in the hope of effecting such an arrangement of the affairs of Turkey as may harmonise the interests of the two Courts. 26th. Stuart to Mr. Razamoffsky in his present station. ought to determine the Russians to fix M. should never have existed. The army in Moldavia has been accordingly diminished to 40. structions to treat on every subject which can. the person who wiU deliver this letter. to prevent the embassy of Prince Kurakin. Nov. and honoured with the entii'e confidence of the Russian minister. office. directing him to request my interference with this Cabinet. 1806. in the present . However. Petersburg.000. Baron Budberg frankly told may be me that he condemned the measure. and who has ample secret inhe came into revoke. endeavour to parry the mischief by sending to Vienna Count Pozzo di Borgo. and General Meerfeldt has communicated to me the substance of letters from Count Stadion. Every argument tending to show the important aid which rendered to our cause by the Court of Vienna. if possible. A. The state of affairs in Prussia then compelled me to urge the necessity of reducing the means employed by this go- vernment to the South. for the purpose of directing the great mass of theii' disposable force towards the Vistula. the ambassador's remonstrances upon the declaration respecting Turkey were by these means sufficiently softened to induce the minister to specify in writing that no intentions of aggrandisement influence the conduct of the Court of Petersburg towards the Porte. and the remainder of Michelson's corps has orders to march to the Prussian frontiers. St. or. I HAVE received yours cLated the 2d of November. irritability on the one side and quick feelings on the other have created obstacles which. in my opinion. and create a good understand- ing at a period the enemy.APPENDIX.

On these grounds I therefore suppose you will not hesitate to support an undertaking. . Cattaro and every minor consideration be sacrificed to obtain that The number of troops to be employed on either side end. mutual will. declaration. His therefore likely to conciHate all parties it remains only for me to re- quest that you will treat him with confidence. Stadion. if possible. Your Chakles Stuakt. I deem it expedient that a frequent communication shall be maintained in future between the two missions. and to disregard the probable future neuwill A trality of Prussia. and assist his exertions deserves. As your letters from England must pass through Petersburg or Trieste whenever the present state of the Continent shall be known in London. depend. Arbuthnot.348 APPENDIX. Razamoffsky. it is hoped. and Budberg selection are equally is intimate with M. I inclose extracts of my despatches respecting Turkey and a copy of the Russian declaration on that subject. by all the influence the nature of his employment His journey will remain a secret to every one except those whom he is immediately charged to negociate. Meerfeldt. I am aware that in this transaction we must both act in a great measure without positive instructions from home but where the means of communicating with the office are cut off. I am with great truth and regard. faithfid obedient Servant. Pozzo di Borgo. and if a favourable opportunity shall offer to take a part in the war. will bind both parties not to conclude a separate peace. interest the two Courts. My dear Sir. it must depend upon our judgment to do whatever we may deem most beneficial to the interests of government. moment. . which I have likewise forwarded to Mr. upon which the feasibility of the measures suggested in your last letter must in a great degree with . It is the great object of this government to persuade Austria to arm. be determined by a convention.

land without proper powers). informing that his Majesty had rejected the proposed armistice in and had put himself entirely into the hands of the EmHe added that it was most anxiously hoped by his Majesty that the intervention of Russia through the medium of her minister here. 1806. when the precipitation of Prussia in rusning into this war before any concerted plan had been settled. It . the 3d instant I received a letter from dated at the head-quarters of the King Mr. Vienna. G. At no time since my arrival here have I omitted an opportunity of laying before the Austrian government the imminent peril of its situation under the ascendency of France. and decisive of her own destiny upon the least failure. and the most vigorous co-operation on the part of the British government. for interference the this Court. and that my zealous co-operation with both him and Count Finkenstein. and it has rarely happened to us to differ except on points comparatively trivial. would be used in order to engage this Court to come forward. and of informing you of the present state of affairs at this Court. spoiled all our operations. as you must acknowledge. the choice of the moment most difficidt of all questions for was a question very unpromising with a view to success. I have added to these representations assurances of the strongest support. My discussions with Count Stadion on this. have been minute and confidential. Jackson.APPENDIX. to Mr. 6th. His letter contained further a request from Count Woronzow that I should make the above communication to Count RazamofFsky. if she decided in favour of interference. rendered. Matters were coming to an understanding from which the most beneficial consequences to Europe might have resulted. With the best wishes for Prussia. 349 3Ir. of Prussia. A. Dear Sir. and I may say on all subjects of a common interest. the extent and suddenness of the disasters which befel her arms in the first days of the campaign. Dec. before even the first elements of a concert had been formed (for I must observe that Baron Jacobi himself appears to have returned to Engperor of Russia. Petersburg gives me an opportunity of writing to you. On me toto. Stuart. The departure of a courier for St.

the . and when she asks why . and I must confess justly. By all I can learn. what is it in comj)arison with the immense force collected. to weigh most decisively against any immediate effort on the part of Austria. Where are they stationed?" and. she is gone as an European Power. It is only three days ago that I received the advice which I have abeady alluded to as contained in Mr. there are of Russian troops at General Beningsen's head-quarters at Pultusk little more than 15. putting all these together and with the remains of the Prussian army. and still collecting from all parts of Germany. negociations for peace as well as for an armistice have been going on between Prussia and France. at the moment I am writing. appear. In answer to all I can say. has repeatedly urged Austria to come forward. 3d. and I have said much on former occasions as well as on the present. the possibility of a peace between Prussia and France . At Grodno. 2d. to oppose them ? It is really dreadful to think of this. " Tell us what Russia will do.000 but. and the same to Razamoffsky. gers that prompted was the strong and deep sense of these stupendous danme to write to you as I did on the 2oth of October last. I have no satisfactory information to give them on this important head. Next spring she will be attacked by 400. indeed. two others. unfortunately. it will be replied that Austria is surrounded. we hear of Buxhowden with an army of 70. and cannot.350 APPENDIX.000. it is replied to me. Depend upon it. This danger I should think must now be . Austria does not It assist her. . by orders from his Court. These points premised. founded on these three following reasons : — 1st. there are no more than 6. I come to the immediate circummoment. the distance of the Russian succours. my dear Sir. first is without further force but the and more especially the last. ignorance of the intentions of Russia . as well as France. IVhere are her forces ? What is their eifective number ? Of these reasons. The answer has been in the negative.000 men at Praga. Since the 23d of October.000 men. that unless Russia puts forward the whole forces of her empii'e immediately. and without the loss of an hour. Jackson's stances of the present letter. During these negociations Count Finkenstein.

Nothing eifectual is to be done here unless Russia will come forward with her whole force. letter of the 23d November by the courier. that of perishing as we have lived. to the great but whether we shall enjoy the last consolation and brave. . I did not. 6th. and I have reason to think that Count Meerfeldt's orders are to press this point equally. or of the celerity with which it is advancupon them. I am fully rewarded for his detention by the service which the communication he has brought me may enable me to render His MaLarge. A. I am. you for it. let For God's me request in his you again and again aware of ing left to press these points upon those Imperial Majesty's councils who may not yet be thoroughly its extent. &c. His Prussian Majesty may rely upon will allow my assiduity in doing every thing for his service. Dear I Sir. A. — with honour. to Mr. of course. Count Razamoffsky has done the same. know of your being at head-quarters. 351 sake. I have written by a special courier to Mr. we have but a few moments in which to make our choice. before this. &c. Vienna. 1806. to set all considerations of Turkish politics aside for the present. Stuart again to-day. I have frequently urged Russia to do this. Have the goodness to answer my letter as soon as possible. His Majesty will. Wynne have received a proof of it to convey to him some very important communications.APPENDIX. Dec. and RECEIVED your am greatly obliged to jesty's government. Jackson. Mr. in my having requested Mr. utmost zeal and which my duty me. Indeed. (Signed) R. not merely whether we shall resist or not. evident to Russia herself. and bear down with all her powers to the Polish frontier. in the strongest terms to this effect.

me from Pul- that Mr. that this paper is strictly confidential. Sir. it reaches you in safety. I will this matter should appear to be of a nature to require that. an object for his deliberation. &c. I have now to request your attention to the inclosed paper. &c. The same to the same. has guided and in proposing such if only observe that me in the step I am now taking. and of this you will likewise assure his Prussian Majesty. not even to his tents. 12th. and a speedy answer to its contents. By the time you will receive this letter. It gives me great pleasure to hear of Sir Harford Jones' safe arrival so far on his journey. Dec. difficulties in own minister. Vienna. if he should still be at head-quarters. any confidential communication be made to me. return you HAVE again to my thanks for your attention in I received very safely your letter of Novem- ber 27th. 1806. I am. and that imtil his pleasure shall be made known to me.352 that I APPENDIX. to cause it to be laid before his Prussian Majesty in such a manner as to obtain an early consideration. Wynne. there can be no harm in sending it through Count Finkenstein. A. dear &c. (Signed) R. I have not yet received the letter you mention his having written to tusk. . I send you some letters for him which have been received here since his departure. Wynne will and after communicating it to Mr. A. it is most likely have ari'ived. in return. respecting its conclear A most anxious desire alone to the away all possible way of procuring him effectual and inune- diate assistance. and whether Sir. &c. You will observe. I shall open myself to no person whatever. (Signed) R. I am. may know how to direct to you. Dear I writing to me.

A A . they have the greatest doubts and suspicions of the Austrian government: I am by no means certain that an absolute promise on the part of that government to come forward with their whole force would induce this Court to put the Silesian fortresses into the hands of their old enemy: some days ago. would not wish to accept of their mediation that the King of Prussia had connected his interests with Kussia and England. of this despatch is Mr. I have not yet been enabled to See Inclosure. Konigsberg. Jan. Should there be any occasion. P. . Walpole. I supposed Count might have received the proposition with great he said that no good could satisfaction quite the contrary be expected from Austria. I have little doubt that you could prevail upon him to return to me indeed.* In the present temper. for his own part. determined to stand or * fall. 1807. A. My believe dear Sir. The proposal is entirely my the original if it . OOO give a copy of the Inclosed. and with those two Powers he was that the . that he was certain that they did not mean to give any effectual assistance to the Prussian monarchy: that he.APPENDIX. I opened your last despatches of the 14th of December to Lord Howick. S.) Hutcliinson to Mr. 1st. it would by no means be prudent to deliver it. I mentioned to Count Zastrow that I had reason to believe the Austrians Avere in. You may own. he has already promised so to do. The bearer clined to offer their mediation for a general peace. Lord (Copy. p. and wholly without the participation of Austria. and have written to his Lordship on the subject of the note confidential which Avas inclosed in your letter. 1 60. and likewise should be wished otherwise it would be better perhaps only to show it. R. : . A. with whom I you are already acquainted he will give you the best account of every thing which has passed in this quarter. on whom he could rely.

his co-operation with me would be invaluable . sign a treaty of peace with Prussia. the Russians at this ci'itical extremely unfortunate that moment should have no ambassa- dor or any man of consideration to represent them here . and I do not believe they are in immediate want of A great sum of money was brought from Berlin. and the French following them. and the generals of the army do not worth their while to correspond with him at all. plainly state . but entirely without weight or power. as we pro- mised to give at different payments to the amount of three millions. . though the Prussians did nothing. who are frequently very remiss in furnishing think him with any. all their old jealousies against Austria. but always waits for instructions from liis Court. who will make themselves masters of great masrazines of stores and provisions which they have had the imprudence to place here. as he can never act from himself. this demand entirely inadmissible. They have required by that treaty that the treaty of the Hague in '94 should be taken as the basis. I believe to to hazard a proposition which would be revolting in the greatest degree to the pride of this Court. By the second secret article they ask the immediate payment of five hundred thousand pounds there are a variety of reasons against complying even with this demand it was : . The pretended victories of the Russians are great exaggerations. it the amount of between two and three millions sterUng. certainly a very worthy and a very sensible man. of which twelve hundred thousand pounds were actually paid. I should deceive you excessively were I not to state to you it and directly that I have a very bad opinion of the and posture of affairs here. The King of Prussia has written a strong letter to request the Russian generals would re-occupy their former positions otherwise all this line must fall into the hands of the enemy. Thus circumstanced.354 APPENDIX. refused after much discussion to Jacobi in England. large demands is for the future. They have sent me a project in which they take care to mix the question of They have made very subsidies with the affairs of Hanover. ******* would be highly imprudent and would awaken It is money assistance. they have nobody here but a charge des affaires. and Avere probably nothing but affairs of advanced and rear guards. the Russians retiring.

Ko- nigsberg. he was. A A 2 . obliged to join the Prussian corps. and that affairs went on tolerably well all I do not. If that be the case. Dear Sir. therefore. to remain with his army without an express permission from the Emperor of Russia. but have received no answer from either of them. Count Zastrow both suppose that Marshal Kaminsky has abandoned the of the army and returned to Petersburg certain it . and their own frontiers. and all the country between these two and those with the magazines they contain must fall into the hands of the French. I wrote both to him and to Count Woronzow on the day of my arrival here. Lestocq's ance. The Marshal refused to allow Colonel Sontag. command is that he has never sent any report to the King. days. P. ances. I do not think that the Russians are willing. as far as I To judge from appear- am able to estimate the consequences of the military events which have lately happened. believe him. full retreat A it was no such thing.S. Colonel Sontag army We is this instant arrived from General he does not bring any intelligence of importprobably shall be obliged to leave this in a few . I have the honour to be. it is not known exactly who The Russian charge des affaires and has the command. APPENDIX. Mr. (Signed) Hutchinson. Dantzic. and that the King would be obliged to retire from this place in a few hours afterwards General Riichel told me few days. places. however. or have strength sufficient to re-occupy their former positions. a British officer. Count Zastrow 355 told lue yesterday that the Russians were in towards the Neimen. Your most obedient humble Servant. The greatest misunderstanding prevails among the Russian generals .. Walpole will give you the best accounts of what has passed here.

until such time as your Lordship's sentiments can be known. by the impossibility of keeping an army together. * Vienna. of the deplorable state of his Pi'ussian Majesty's and of the imminent danger to which their fortresses there are exposed. Jan. taken upon myself the responsibility of advancing 20. but as I have reason to believe that 20. to Lord Hutchinson. 14tli. after maturely weighing the nature and to him urgency of the service.e a safe and ready channel of communication with you.000 ducats will be enough to meet the most pressing danger. I have judged it expedient to limit the advance to the sum above mentioned.356 APPENDIX. under an agreement signed by . The best effects have certainly been of this for * Written previously to the receipt of the previous letter. Mr. having been notified to me by Count Finkenstein.000 ducats. letters to I shall continue in the meantime addressing my your Lordship. A. My Lord. the hopes of Austrian co-operation. With regard to what will most chiefly interest your Lordship in my correspondence. being essential to the pubUc service that you should be informed of what is transacting both here and in the South of Europe. him in the name of his Prussian Majesty. is made to me by Count Finkenstein. Count Finkenstein earnestly pressed me 260. . by such opportunities as may offer themselves. a dissolution of the Silesian army. for which I must reserve the credit I possess at Vienna. that this first be deducted from the subsidies which it sum shall may be his Majesty's pleasure to grant to Prussia. de Gotzen. A. 1807.000 dollars. The fii'st matter that I have to communicate to your that in consequence of a representation Lordship. There are likewise other possible contingencies. Your and it Lordship's amval at the King of Prussia's head- quarters. namely. at the earnest request of the Count affairs in Silesia. namely. I take the liberty of requesting your Lordship to point out to m. I will state at once that it depends upon the success of the allies. I trust that your Lordship will approve the application money. — R. unless instant pecuniary succours be sent I have.

1 allude of course chiefly to such communications as tend to exhibit in a favourable point of view the resources of Prussia. I am not sure whether Major Krusemarck's last mission to Your Lordship St. can maintain themselves are entreated earnestly to discourage at respective Courts all propositions tending to peace. Certainly I shall not be the first which determines me not to them of it. and the stability of her councils. who are alone informed of these dispositions. must become in the view of determining Austria to declare herself. and the same reason tell them of his journey. that of marching into Silesia and Saxony. The Russian Minister and myself. efforts to engage this Court in a common sanguine even now. therefore. but it seems impossible to make the government understand it. Austria will join us. I will not. namely. I will send you from time to is As it possible that in obtaining A A 3 . makes me our likewise request of your Lordship to send me the earliest information of his return. however. your Lordship may find much difficulty any intelligence from the interior of Germany by a nearer way than Vienna. and of the continued resolution of allies. of which I will not permit myself to doubt. but the language is greatlyaltered Avithiu these allies few days. which time I had to send an account to government of the failure of the Emperor Alexander's alliance. be too fall Should Bonaparte back upon the Oder without follow him. Petersburg is yet known to tell to the ministers here. I its am being in the power of the Russians to afraid this go^'ernment has not energy enough to take the only step Avhich would enable them to follow him. The importance letting the of this step. to prosecute the war to the utmost. will. our This is at going far beyond what I could have expected a fortnight ago. together with the danger of French get possession of the Silesian fortresses has been demonstrated again and again to the Archduke Charles. Any advances towards peace in that quarter may be attended with the worst effects. Hitherto I ha\e seen but little chance of Austria coming forward at all. 357 produced here by the result of the actions of the 2oth and 26th of December.*~LiMM.Jt ^ APPENDIX. I am assured that if the without experiencing any further disaster until the spring. perceive of what infinite use any comnumications Avith which you may honour me.

commuand who nications with Capt. . have I do my best to keep Mr. and a disposition to have recourse to arms prevail in GerIn Hesse a formidable insurrection has actually many. If that event should take place. who has a sloop in the Adriatic always ready for I have the honour to be. I have constant off Trieste. to concert the necessary measures with you in person. time such reports of what is passing as I receive through Generally speaking. I have no doubt but that he would be named at your desire. &c. Campbell. our ambassador at Constantinople. Arbuthalmost turned their heads. if Mr. A. with the greatest difficulty that the Turks can be prevented from declaring in favour of France. I will not risk misleading your Lordship by statements which may this prove exaggerated. except to mention that it would be of essential benefit to the public service. my accounts cannot reach Constantinople so soon as Genei'al Andreossy's. It is could receive early intelligence of events in Poland. especially in Poland. With great truth and regard. but as the French are between the Russians and Vienna. great discontent confidential channels. I need scarcely suggest to your Lordship the utility likewise of sending me such intelligence as may be made is use of for the common benefit here or in Sicily. Arbuthnot.358 APPENDIX. Your Lordship may depend upon hearing from me whenever Court shall agree to join in the common cause. but as I do not know accurately the extent of it. not well informed. &c. If you should happen to know any one in the service with whom you would more like to confer than another. my despatches. I mean to suggest the propriety of despatching an intelligent Austrian officer to your Lordship. broken out. (Signed) R. I have now nothing further to trouble you with. and General Sebastiani's account of Bonaparte's successes.

and thinking. Pozzo's messenger. 19th. that I must freely confess I had in some degree given into the same mistake. were extremely necessary. which appeared to be meditated by France would be resisted. Positive instructions from Count Stadion had induced General Meerfeldt to bring forward a peremptory representation respecting the non-execution of the orders said to have been sent from hence for the evacuation of Cattaro. as you do. Count Razamoffsky remained likewise silent as to the probable future dispositions of the Austrian government. Petersburg. the refusal of Count Stadion to declare that future aggressions on the neutrality of that Power. the general cold reception of the overtures from hence. A. I HAVE been favoured with yours by M. the silence of the ambassador here. St. and the reserve maintained towards Razamoffsky. Stuart to Mr. the Court of Petersburg with indulgence an unfavourable answer to the proposition transmitted through Colonel Pozzo di Borgo. and the language conveyed in your former letters held out hopes so contradictory to the assertions of General Meerfeldt. such a change to be improbable. My dear Sir. from my knowledge of the persons in power at Vienna. but created a suspicion that an inclination to join the enemies of the alliance might possibly exist. and before I proceed to relate what passed after the arrival of the communications sent by that opportunity. though perhaps not to expect Avas not prepared to receive always entirely credited. The evasion of every question on which this Court thought an explanation from that of Vienna indispensable. A A 4 . I must state a circumstance which has materially influenced the sentiments of this Court towards Austria. 1807. This demand being unsupported by the reports which it was natural from Count Razamoffsky. not only damped the expectations of the Russian ministers. 1 assure you my assertions that the panic created by the late numerous successes of the French was the principal cause from whence the answers lately received are to be traced.APPENDIX. 359 Mr. Jan.

and why this government hesitate to give it up. and the force to attain those objects are employed now further therefore remains but to hush well known. Court must. with a similar overture on the part of the Prussian Court. The public outcry against Austria is loud and unrestrained : the personal irritation of every one in the employment of that . of M. and has observed. however. nothing up the clamour created respecting Cattaro.360 APPENDIX. were submitted to the Austrian ministers. The arrival. answer which they experienced when M. and to reclaim a but that no endeavour will be omitted to conciliate Court suffering from the erroneous line of . I am willing to believe that. Why the Court of Vienna should press this subject so ur- gently. General Budberg in particular has frequently expressed uneasiness concerning the line of conduct which the Austrian government may think proper to adopt though with much temper. The insinuation on your part. enabled that impoi'tant subject. and yourself go hand in hand. that it was possible the Court of Vienna might propose her intervention. as the active enemy The ^dews of the Emof France. be very great but whatever may be the reports on this subject which reach Vienna. Peters- burg. Count Razamoffsky. Pozzo. or contrary to the interests of Russia. will prevail on the spot. induced his Imperial Majesty not wholly to reject yet the Pozzo di Borgo's propositions the offer. provided M. no other feelings but good-will towards Russia. under such cu'cumstances. are . that however . policy she has chosen although at the same time it cannot be expected under such circumstances that for much consideration of Russia. and though I me shortly after to ascertain the real sentiments of the Russian government upon am assured that terms incompatible with her own honour or derogatory to the con- nection with England will not be listened to at St. Kruseraarck. their interests should bias the proceedings whether on the side of Turkey or elsewhere. peror respecting Turkey have been satisfactorily explained in writing : the objects of the war against France. reproaches from hence will only irritate or increase evil. their determination may the be fatal to their own existence. to bring about a peace between the belligerent Powers was not followed by any proposition from General Meerfeldt or his government.

the case. limited indeed My powers of granting subsidies are mention the sum which I am at liberty . as the principal task of an English agent here must now depend upon the which you transmit. May I beg you to forward the inclosed letter to its destination. and I anxiously wish to hear from you. I close my correspondence with many thanks for the interesting communications I have redetails I beg to be ceived. . you to of the 14th of January. which I hope will continue long enough to prevent his departure for some months. and althouo-h he admits the principle. I do not think he entirely acts conformably to his opinion. and the : writing on the subject the better I have said this to the ambassador. P.000 ducats I shall Count Fiukenstein. every negociation on this subject will be exclusively arranged at Vienna. not easily explained. with the greatest truth. there exists no reason why Austria should be suspected of unfavourable . matters being there in the best hands. I hope. the day I think that under the circumstances of did perfectly right to advance the 20. but at all 361 ii-ritating events the fewer less de- mands brought forward. A. intentions towards the allies. Memel. My dear Sir. 1807. Lord Hutchinson to Mr. 26th. and as the Marquis of Douglas is expected daily. Your most obedient humble Charles Stuart. remembered to Pozzo.S. and I lament it for these questions being either set aside or satisfactorily answered. I remain. because she has refused to take an active part in their support. Prince Kurakin has the gout. Servant. My I dear Sir. Jan. RECEIVED your despatch before yesterday. however.APPENDIX.

I still think it right to acquaint you that a negociation for peace is on the tapis. that Krusemarck brought the consent of the Emperor which of Russia. 1 am any thing extremely happy that they have agreed to sign. and that Zastrow has written a letter to Talleyrand. otherwise I should have furnished with difficulty the sum of money which Electorate. and not you it is impossible that I could think of suffering fortresses to be surrendered. but to perform the duty of a negociator Avithout any communication with my own government. by which Prussia jiledges herself to ask for that guaranty. I should be unwere I unwilling to take upon myself . require. and without being able to know what are their opinions on the present existing circumstances of affairs worthy their confidence however. I fear it will be unavailing. as Kussia is unwilling however.000 payment of the Silesian army and I promised to write to you to furnish Count Finkenstein with money to the amount of that sum. I can do no more. Though I suppose you are already informed of the result of Krusemarck's mission directly from Petersburg. and to give up all pretensions to the future possession of that There is also an article relating to the guaranty of Russia. and not yours that I am responsible to the English government. nor can I require to consent further on the part of this government. . and nothing remains for me to do. disbanded for such a paltry consideration as seventy or eighty thousand pounds. Count Zastrow that I would advance 500. and an army to be . inclosing one from General Budberg to himself. I came here with full powers accredited to a king. particularly as this government has agreed to sign the treaty Avhich relates to Hanoverian affairs. every degree of responsibility. Avill understand me that it is entirely my act. In this expectdisappointed.362 to give in cypher. states that Russia had no objec- . and I was even told not to make use of these limited powers unless the occasion was urgent. I now authorise you to pay. in different payments as he may right to promise dollars for the . I expected to find at the head of ation I liis whom am army. Avhen I see that the public I therefore have thought it service absolutely requires it. You . APPENDIX.

I visions with great chaussees convinced that in countries abounding in proand towns. tion 363 to enter into a joint negociation with Prussia and England. provided the Russian army is conducted with any ability. I cannot be persuaded that the situation of Bonaparte and his is army is so desperate as represented . In answer. he read me the despatch of Count Finkenstein. I know him so well. and have sense enough to avoid great general actions. the French have a real superiority over them. that nothing can . The seasons and the nature of the country may throw obstacles insurmountable in his way. where the intended Congress is to meet. As inclined to believe that Russia. When I told it to Zastrow. dated the 19th of January. that I had that moment received a despatch from Petersburg. I do not at all say that he may not be baffled in his designs against Poland. I did hope that the negociation Avhich had been entered into from mistaking the views of that Power. and to be candid with you. always with a proviso that the Russian generals are not blunderers. that I am sure negociation. might not be persevered in. and that Austria might be induced to co-operate with the allies. I thought it right to mention to Zastrow. wliom I believe be a very direct and honest man. to he was not acting. every thing is contained in it which I find in yours. I am very France will never succeed against Russia in a contest on Russian ground. and is the intention of Austria to do nothing . expressinoa wish that neither England nor Russia should enter into any negociation refusal of Austria to enter into the war. and states as forcibly the determination of Austria to come forward in the spring. and much a military man. which stated that the Emperor of Russia never would have agreed to the proposed had he not been influenced by the absolute I added that as I knew from you that the disposition of the latter Court was changed. In short. and names Lublin in Gallicia. At the same time that I make this acknowledgment in favour of set limits to his ambition. am The intelligence I get here is so bad. it did not make any impression on his mind. which is at least as strong as yours.APPENDIX. but that he really felt that it was. I have the same apprehension. except the declaration which you and the Russian ambassador received.

In the present position of the French army. with the exception of the French their soldiers are excellent. prodigious resources from Gallicia. . the subject in order to let you into an opinion. and march an army thi'ough Silesia into Bohemia these are all military reasons Avhich ought. nothing would be so easy for liim as to make an attack on the Austrian hereditary states. and not to act till the army of Bonaparte is thoroughly committed in The Archduke Charles is certainly a great the Polish war. but there I is nothing which ought to lead me to imagine that there is not an equal proportion in that of the Russians. to : . . and will induce Austria to be cautious. they never have been able to give me an exact statement of the position of the French army. I think it right to communicate to you. perhaps better than those of any other I should nation. on the contrary. and moving from right to left when. or rather the He might draw embarrassments of his present situation. nor do they appear at all to have penetrated into the military views of Bonaparte. to the dangers of their position. or into the probable plan of the campaign. or rather a conjecture of my own. and might be glad of an excuse to abandon them. let officer. I have always understood. . but and reliance on have the greatest hope cannot you stated to wliich have just I the observations that have escaped their generals. and they have many men of merit in their army nobody persuade you that there does not exist more military talent in the Austrian than in any other service in Europe. with the exception of Ney's corps. I wish most anxiously that they would act am sure I them. and by that means extricate himself out of the difficulties. They appear have moved a great deal more than the French they have been constantly advancing and retreating.364 be relied on : APPENDIX. tion of England. dare say there are many sick in his army. at least as good. but in the utmost . with the excepThe Russians. which may not be at all founded. I do not understand that the French. I have entered into this part of are miserable in the extreme. taken care of than those of any other nation. that it is not at all impossible that Bonaparte does not mean to persevere in his designs against Poland. and that they are perfectly alive . The French hospitals are better have been much in motion.

as I shall now be enabled to know something of the real condition of that army as yet I have been in a state of most perfect . When I asked him for an explanation. we must see them that we came to act as soldiers. Zastrow tells me that . I was obliged to use this language. : I shall direct those gentlemen. that English state. who Avould undoubt- that their officers should be countenanced and respected in the allied army. should see them in their present was a duty which I owed to my own country. to communicate immediately with you. and write to you in the utmost confidence.T- APPENDIX. I should therefore be very anxious to hear everything which is passing there. and government here are highly pleased with the determination which I have taken it was absolutely necessary. . as that will save a great deal of time. and that as probably we were to pay them. he objected in the strongest manner. I beg you will do the same. edly remonstrate. had prevailed which had been represented to the Emperor by General Tolstoy. because Marshal Kaminsky would not allow Colonel Sontag to remain at the Russian head-quarters he was obliged to go to General Lestocq who commands the Prussian corps. and that the freest communications may pass between us. I hear nothing from Germany but throuo-h your medium. if they find it necessary for the public service. that 365 when I told the Russian charge des affaires that I the brother and Sir Kobert Wilson to Russian army. I should make the I told him that . strongest complaints to my government. I take the liberty of a friend. . confidence. and not as spies that the character of British officers was well known that there were no men more anxious all over the Continent to acquire reputation than they were that we came for the pui'pose of risking our lives with our allies and if the o-entlemen whom I sent were not received with the respect and attention which they so justly merited. which may ignorance. and that he knew it M^ould be very disagreeable to General Beningsen and the chiefs of the Russian officers it me in confidence that the greatest disorder army. he said that he must meant to send my tell in that army. I am sure that the King and insist . . without any disguise. be of importance in case any very extraordinary event should take place. .

nor was it even known to them. My hopes. and of the degree quest for a letter to you. letter will an officer of great be presented to you by Lieutenant Schemerit in the Austrian service. My proposal was certainly not imagined in concert with the Austrian government. done most effectually already. Feb. and from so many make no scruple of complying with his re- Of his talents. A. . by the Mr. Your most obedient humble Servant. {Copy. I have now to thank you your letter of the 30th Dec.) to Lord Hutchinson. Lord Douglas arrived at Petersburg the 23d. intended negociations will not paralyse the military I should doubt it. Vienna.* He did not arrive here until Thursday 29th of January. and with his own means. I confess. of service to be obtained from them. (Signed) Hutchinson. you will be the best Of his zeal his journey will be a proof. that I me so strongly. With much regard. Mr. Walpole. A. who has been recommended to quarters. I am happy to think you were already arrived at Konigsberg time enough to act as you did. but there is no saying how far this would have been believed by that of Prussia. My dear Sir. takes it entirely from his own for feelings. 3d. My dear Lord. 807.360 the APPENDIX. respecting my despatch and the inclosure. but perhaps the season has it operations. — B. as soon as I and have anything of importance to communicate I will undoubtedly send him. I have the honour to be. He is quite disposed to return to you. were grounded upon the existence of * The present Lord Orford. as he underjudge. This pelar.

367 more liberal dispositions on the part of Prussia. P. Walpole to you as soon as I receive some despatches which I am daily expecting from St. The fact is. I perceive by the tenor of your letter that I have ventured a very hazardous step in advancing the 20. but they have M. and will contrive some means of forwardins.) to Mi-. especially when you hear that it has been of infinite service to the King's affairs in Silesia. Believe me. My I to inform dear Adair. d'ltalinsky to leave Constantinople quietly. AVAIL myself of this opportunity by an English messenger you of what is passing here. I expect his despatches every hour. On the 3d of February Bonaparte put himself at the head of his . &c. &c.APPENDIX. Things have taken an unexpected. I am sorry to say that as yet Austria has discovered no disposition to listen to the proposal.000 ducats. with a view of deceiving both Austria and myself. that in the course of my correspondence with the Count de Gotzen. Mr. Arbuthnot is yet there. Memel. 8tli. Feb. dispositions of which I cannot even yet entirely renounce the hope without supposing the Count de Gotzen to have acted not only without authority. A. I have received from him direct authority to offer the occupation of Silesia to Austria. but I still hope you will not condemn it under the circumstances. I will send Mr. A. S. Lord Hutchinson (^Copy. suffered The Turks have declared war against Russia. and certainly an unfavourable turn. (Signed) R. Petersburpf. them to England when they reach me. but intentionally. 1807.

They are now convinced themselves of the imprudence of these movements. It was supposed here that Beningsen would have made a most obstinate stand at Allenstein. which was lately formed by the King of Prussia at a great expence by the pax'ticular desire of Beningsen. Beningsen are entirely separated the consequences of these unfortunate events have been that some cannon. and marched to attack the Russians near Alabout 3 o'clock on that day there was some cannonading. he was then sure " de son fait. and an affair. particularly that of Seeburg. baggage. and said that as he had taken an aide-de-camp of Bernadotte's with the whole of the disposition on the night before the intended action. and Lord Howick by the first opfrom her Majesty the Queen portunity. and he has now taken a position between AUenberg and Welau. but if he remains where he is I think one must Bonaparte will endeavour in the first instance take place. from thence to Landsberg.368 APPENDIX. and the common cause. to lay down their arras. took place. ceive no other punishment for If they should re- reputation. whole army. I know it is not General Beningsen's intention to risk a general action if he can avoid it. I was persuaded of the danger of placing the whole force in such a troiiee. to turn his left flank. against the Russian army's making the movement which they did to cover Konigsberg. he retired to Guttstad. their The armies of Essen and retreat is a miserable one indeed. and if the Russians are beaten. half their army would be obliged lenstein : . which threatens to take in flank any corps of the French that may move on to Konigsberg. he wrote to that effect to Count Zastrow. I have received your despatch of the will forward the inclosure to 23d of January. if any misfortune happened. in which only a few battalions and squadrons were engaged on each side. I rather hope that he will not make a stand I always remonstrated strongly in his present position. in which the Russians claim the advantage however. . it will them but the loss of military be fortunate indeed both for the Russians themselves. I send you Inclosed a letter . and magazines have been lost. finding that the French were endeavouring to turn his left. General Beningsen." but with all this anticipated certainty of success he retired as soon as he was attacked. where.

et s'il pen. A. en forme de corps francs destinees a des diversions absolument Retranches par I'ennemi a un petit coin de la Silesie. qui nous accourent en masse.000 ducats * sans laquelle nous n'aurions pas ete en etat ni de pourvoir pour le moment au si besoin des troupes reglees. nous ne nous pouvons procurer qu'a grands frais. mais bien d'armes et d'habillement que la main. qui ne manquaient pas a I'ennemi mais bien a nous. pour ne pas intimider notre troupe qui commence a devenir tres brave. Hutchinson. B B . tomberaient encore dans son pouvoir par manque de necessaires. et ce corps de Chasseiirs de mille hommes que nous avons leve depuis les jours. Your most obedient humble Servant. ce 7 Fevrier 1807. nous ne manquons pas d'hommes. et I'epee a Le manquement de canons disponibles contre un ennemi qui ne fait point de patrouille sans une batterie nous reduit a des surprises. my dear Adair. qui sont d'une importance evidente pour le succes des opei*ations des armees alliees. 176. Glatz. le reste absolument devaste par ses troupes de brigans. Monsieur. et de I'approvisionnement des forteresses encore dans notre pouvoir. ni a la levee de troupes necessaires pour notre existence.APPENDIX. 369 have the goodness to which you will forward to Ratisbon. See Despatch of Jan. Je ne puis me refuser la satisfaction de vous temoigner ma grande reconnoissance de ce que vous avez bien voulu nous procurer la somme de 20. sans pourtant oser trop nous exposer. with the two Inclosures. (Signed) Le Comte {Copy.) de Gotten to Mr. have the honour to be. 23. bien garnies de troupes et de canons. qui s'augmenteront tous augmenter a * I'incroyable. 1807. que Ton pourroit facilement ne falloit pas tant menager I'arp. Mais quel dommage pour resses si la suite des operations si ces forte- formidables. of Prussia to her I sister. comme aussi cette cavallerie de deux mille chevaux.

si I'ennemi dans sa retraite inondoit ces contrees. I'ennemi gent que nous ne pouvons plus tirer de la partie envahie par ? Et pourtant ce n'est que par la que nous sommes probablement en etat de sauver le Comte de Glatz. my exertions can be useful to him or Apropos. combien je vous dois etre oblige. presente bientot Je desire que I'occasion se ou je vous pourrois teraoigner en personne I'estime avec laquelle J'ai I'honneur d'etre. By some mistake in the Foreign Office I am only in possession of cypher *. suggested that idea to me. &c. : . Lord Hutchinson (Copy. A. despatch of the 3d of February by Lieut. Memel. the goodness therefore in future to use that cypher. . arrived here on the 17 th. I doubt. particularly an Enghsh gentleman. qui par les montagnes qui I'entourent doit etre notre dernier asile. which I wnll fill up as occasions may require. My Your merit. whether not. Schepelar That officer appears to be a man of I will do every thing in my power to serve him. you must send me two or tlu-ee blank Austrian passports. &c.) to Mr. dear Adair. 1807. from any other man. that I wonder they do it if no other means can be devised. however. discovered that this government had Having Austria made an offer to to put the remaining Silesian fortresses into their hands. in your zeal for the service of Prussia. par ce petit tableau de I'etat dans lequel nous nous trouvons. ce qui est tres vraisemblable. &c. but . on the subject of couriers. 27th. Monsieur. et il est necessaire qu'il ne nous manque pas d'argent. Feb. I took the opportunity of saying that you had long since. you ought to take some measures that those passing between you and me should not be stopjDcd on the Austrian territories the delay may be of the worst possible consequences it is so easy to distinguish an Englishman. Vous combien sentirez.370 APPENDIX. (Signe) Le Comte de Gotzen. so that what you have written have at the conclusion of your letter is to me unintelligible .

but they would not listen to it even for a moment. she never can think of doing it after the remaining Silesian fortresses shall have fallen into the hands of the enemy.000 to 10. . that I. and the policy of Russia on this occasion reside. I send you an account of the battle of Preuss Eylau. will probably never be strong enough to force the enemy to abandon it with Mecklenburg and Pomerania on one flank. Jealousies. with the now feeble assistance of Prussia. It is a very extraordinary thing that. The Russians certainly repulsed the French in every attack they say they were victorious. The Silesian fortresses once in his hands. Everything. who was present. I then repeated to them again how nnich they were obliged to you for all your conduct on the subject of the troops and fortresses in Silesia. had not thought it expedient to lay your communication before them. written by my brother. and in- subordination prevail in their army beyond all imagination. There are 800 wounded Russian officers in Konigsberg. victory.APPENDIX. if now is ever she means to engage with France the time to recover her glory and posis most unfortunate is undoubtedly a reasonable cause of jealousy to the Court at which you certainly a The Turkish war event. with Saxony in their rear. they cannot gain a at the moment . therefore.000 privates what has happened is a proof that though the Russians may repulse the French. notwithstanding all our united efforts to preserve so valuable a part of the Prussian dominions. and to concentrate himself be. There is now every appearance that the French are going to behind the Vistula retire or because Bonaparte means to give it is difficult to leave this from want of provisions his designs on Poland. I never was told that any such offer had been made to Austria. certainly sessions. I am apprehensive that he means to ascertain. part of the world. It appears to me to be clear that if Austria does not declare now. B B 2 . they may subsist for ever. Beningsen has requested leave from the Emperor to resign. or at least profit by one. whether it is up hind the Oder. The loss of men on both sides has been immense. and from 8. faction. and Silesia on the other. I think the army of Russia alone. and I only discovered it by accident. 371 from delicacy to them. Zastrow tells me that the offer was not only rejected. . now de. pends on Austria again.

(Signed) Hutchinson. . I have now only to repeat to you again that every thing depends upon Austria. we are not even in aUiance with Prussia I signed a treaty of jieace. . There never has been any question as to England indeed. assure the Austrian government. an aide-de-camp of Bonaparte. and that he should not be stopped on the frontiers. my dear Adair. but Bertrand made a verbal declaration. but notliing more. to the General Bertrand.Fi 372 APPENDIX. If you should wish him to come. The offer I believe was only in general terms it has been rejected. If you should find any disposition in the Austrian government to act. ceive them as to the situation of military aflPairs in this country and the probable designs of this Court. and particularly the Archduke Charles. The letter was only in the usual style of compliment. he is a man of great military talents and experience. brought Bang a letter from the French Emperor on the 15th. and they should desire further information on the state of things here. who is at present with the Russian army though not an officer. in which he leaves the decision entirely to him in this negociation. in my name. that I never will de. I will send my brother to you to Vienna. I saw the letter of the King of Prussia to the Emperor of Russia. Yours sincerely. and to restore his Majesty to his dominions. and is as capable of giving military opinions or making military arrangements as I am. that his master was willing to enter into a separate negociation with Prussia. has constantly served with me. both to Zastrow and the King. . Let me know whether you can make out my cypher. : : . It is unfortunate that they have no minister here probably it would not be advisable that they should send one it might give cause of suspicion. only take care that no time should be lost. I am. but you may therefore.

7th. was vigorous and able. Mr. and through a sea of sand. and two others in the same valley. B B 3 . having taken the direction of Jankova. owing to some mistake. The different marches of the Russian army from Morungen. neighbourhood of AUenstein. The enemy. Frauensdorf. and made rather an . which the enemy had approached. to Preuss Eylau. 373 Inclosure referred to in the preceding letter. On the 4th the enemy failed in his attempt to dislodge us from two different parts of our very extended position at Jankova but on the evening of that day he pushed forward a corps.right but all of which were on the approach of evening abandoned by our troops. against a much superior force. obstinate reconnoissance. Monday Feb. the Russian The defence of the rear-g-uard of army during the four following days. which we left on the 3d instant. and Landsberg. in the acquainted with. over which he had to pass in approaching from Lands- We had taken up our position on the morning of the and had originally occupied this village. the enemy having driven first rear-guard. Konigsberg. of the 6 th at Landsberg. or dispirit and weary his troops by night marches. Wolsdorf. 9th. at the same moment placing himself in a situation where it was evident he must fight should the enemy wish it. . in order to avoid as long as possible the evil moment which was to decide the fate and interests of all the Powers of Europe.APPENDIX. Hutchinson to Lord Hutchinson. when night prevented his attempting any thing. towards ova. who had advanced a corps along the range of hills in our front. immediately pushed for berg. showed himself for the he took possession of that village which lay at the front of our position in a valley separating us from a range of sand hills. you cannot but have censured. On the evening in the time in force on the opposite hills to our camp. My dear John. the more so as General Beningsen had declared that it was his object to avoid a general action. 1807. On the following evening at Preuss Eylau. you are ah-eady The first movement to Jankova. where we arrived on the 7 th.

therefore not commanded by and consequently could not be enfiladed by our cannon. from which he was at length driven with considerable loss on both sides. but of which he again took possession during the night. extending along our front. which.374 APPENDIX. and at daybreak yesterday morning this battery was opened against the town. and advanced nearly to the battery. enemy appeared in several lines on the opposite hills further back than this first corps. this village having been a second time abandoned by the Russians. whilst our batteries were making a tremendous noise to little purpose. to head-quarters to be dressed. After some time the enemy annoyed us much by the fire from several heavy pieces of ordnance. placed on the commanding points of tlie opposite hills and at length availing huuself of the smoke and a snow storm. consisting on the whole along the front line of The whole of the Russian and nearly one hundred pieces. and particularly annoyed us from the villages by their tirailleurs . owing to the general retired who commanded behind the camp there being wounded. and who had The . in consequence of the valley I have mentioned and from the nature of the hills opposite. particularly that of Preuss Eylau. however. . At the same time the : . left another general to his place. but on the left at some little distance. having. and with gi'eat quickness. from which they were driven with considerable loss. position of the Russians from right to left extended about one English mile. these villages. posted at some distance opposite in one of the ravines which . Prussian artillery amounted (as they inform us) to seven Several guns were placed during the night hundred pieces at that point of our position which overlooked the town of Preuss Eylau. there were woods and ravines. when they fell back on a strong corps of troops. he attempted to it. after a little time a strong column of infantry issued from the town. The front was strong. they had brought up also on different points some guns. though not attacked. from which the enemy had to descend. he had to encounter a very formidable range of batteries. I believe. which he had most judiciously. and from front to rear nearly as much to the right the country was open for a considerable way. ! ran nearly parallel to our front. in his ascent from the valley to the Russian position. had little effect. he could not approach with an extended front besides. fill how- ever.

the advantages were all on the side of the Russians. notwithstanding the ocean of snow through wliich they had Avere literally cut to pieces which and that down hiU. for several hours getting his troops through the different defiles and woods on our left) appeared in the rear of the iq). as I informed you. has been most heroic. and from whence it was. and in all the affairs of rear guards. B B 4 . when at last his cavalry had the boldness to advance. in charging through ground where they were exposed to great disadvantage. to his batteries. I supposed. been. experienced how impossible it was to in front . by the Kussian cavalry. The enemy again had recourse from which we suffered much. where. : and hitherto the enemy had completely failed he had. notwithstanding their losses from this and other attacks from liatteries. personal observation. there were sand liills and wood. we could have been apprised immediately Not so the left. in a short time. as also some corps of cavahy. At about one o'clock. notwithstanding. but where. There had been repeated requests made to the Russian chiefs to be most active in watching the enemy's movements in this direction. who had certainly lost many to wade. the attack us with success country was open for a consider- able distance. where at the moment they were not attacked. about five hours and a half from the commencement of the action. reach our first 375 line with two strong cokimns of infantry.APPENDIX. where it suffered much. men by the intrepidity. withstanding our success. and did actually reach our lines. I doubt not. and gloriously so. The sharp-shooting and discharges from the batteries still continued to do us some mischief. left. some pieces of artillery.. and I was assured that every necessary precaution had been observed the distance from the extreme left to where the serious attacks in front were made did not admit of . Still I say. though At this instant the enemy (who had covered with glory. however. during the whole of the day. they were always successful. that is. perhaps inconsiderate rashness of their cavahy. so that of any advance from that quarter. whose conduct then. very early on our right. with certainly vast where he had already succeeded in bringing difficulty. &c. all the advantages were to the Russians. driven by our cavalry. not- some of the Russian corps of infantry fell back from the left. but by the hour of twelve.

and did not arrive before three o'clock by this time the enemy had taken up a strong and formidable position on our left flank. however. having placed himself in a most formidable and menacing position. He never ceased occupying our attention in the front with his light coi'ps. in accomplishing which I cannot but think he displayed great military proficiency. be prevailed upon to advance to the point of the left which was thus threatened. but by the time Lestocq arrived he had made it a very strong one. The enemy could at first. particularly the rear of it. and from whence he succeeded by his fire to convert the heroes of the morning Into the very cowards of the evening for neither cavalry nor infantry. or in part to re-occupy his former position in front. It extended beyond the extremity of our left flank. which the enemy from the opposite hills soon perceived to be deserted. where troops which should ! — found necessary to request of General Lestocq. to advance towards the front to impose by the appearance of his infantry upon the enemy. advance. and in consequence again attacked. in this most unlooked In this most extraordinary revolution for and cruelly mortifying reverse of fortune. when attacked in the rear of the left of its camp. which he placed on the summit of the ridges. which were brought up from other quarters. and which he could not have accomplished but by the best organized troops. by his guns.376 APPENDIX. could now. and other corps in line. The enemy did not. But Lestocq was at this critical moment three British miles from us. who was supposed and reported to General Beningsen to be actually in the rear of his camp. the whole of this space was filled with tirailleurs. have been compelled to abandon his new position . but fortunately without success. in the rear of it and when a panic once seizes troops your experience informs you how sadly distressing is the situation of the general commanding. he only cleared that part of our position. by which he deprived us almost entirely of the hitherto commanding advantage of our situation in front. having also pushed some troops towards the right of our front who threatened us : . which I said was without cause falling back. . artillery. from the exertion of the troops. without much loss. which were about equal distances from liis centre. occupying two small woods.

though many of the men had been a long time without food.shooting from and against the woods. . dm-ino- the front of the line was engaged. The Russian chiefs were early cautioned not to permit this. but there was no light for aiFair nated in an some valuable all lives were lost. in which I think he showed most signal talent. while the Russians advanced against him at the other extremity. and executed with the greatest precision and abOity. that provisions were wanting to the whole of the army. at the same time in a position very menacing to us. by which right. however. to cover the retreat. The army had not been well fed for some days I cannot say. this. or that the French advance in any direction. The enemy appeared inclined to advance through our camp from left to ever. and had in every instance foiled the enemy in his attacks. and gained the superiority over him. At night the enemy opened a battery upon us rather on our right. as I have The day closed. I don't hear that Lestoccj has been attacked. leaving the enemy in his before stated. during which they had sustained great fatigue and privations of every kind. occasionally. I allude to his new position. We were still in possession of the field of battle. though certainly tlu'catened with a very formiit dable attack. and the thino. lea\ang Lestocq. They had fought well for some days. with I suppose about thirteen thousand men. and dm'ing the greater part of tliis day they had displayed the most undaunted courage. this time. except in manoeuvring. which he conceived as a great general. and also towards his centre. which avc did durinothe night. I should mention that. though they say (Wilson of the number !) that . The Russians are at about nine miles from hence and ten from where they fought. they say much more. who had taken up a position as I have stated. The artillery ammunition had been suffered to be most unnecessarily and uselessly expended. Lestocq's affair of last night was very trifling. yet notwithstanding it was resolved to fall back. 377 Lestocq came into our camp by our right. new position. and most likely to be driven from in the morning. but I don't give entire credit to camp accounts how: he immediately directed liimself hj our rear to the left. which we were informed was done by the corps of Bernadotte. as also in a mutual exchange of great guns.APPENDIX.termiof sharp. and advanced in two lines upon the right of the new position of the enemy.

from half past six till half I don't take any account of a few bloody night past five. and that they know.(Wilson and mine) obligations to Beningsen and his offivery good horse of his. The Russian army. and the resistance which a very supenumber of his troops met for several days from a very small rear-guard of the Russians. was badly wounded in two places.378 he had his horse shot French may not have great able. should he wish to persevere. wliich. what we witnessed in that way was dreadfully affecting indeed. at least in a most are for the moment nearly disorganized Not unlike that Avhich one astonishing state of confusion still I believe and doubt sees occasionally in a Turkish army number of men. are capable with a little assistance in from Avell led the way of military heads. The loss on both sides yesterday must have been very considerable. He certainly ought to feel gi-eatly mortified by the frequent and decisive repulses he rior experienced yesterday. I think I may at least present A . APPENDIX. of opposing effectually the further progress of Napoleon in these parts at least. for undoubtedly the Russians have not the smallest dread of them. and that you have no objection. — ! . who are really a very fine set of fellows. when on by this said gentleman.. I fear. The all action of yesterday destroyed several. &c. scenes which followed. through have been ruined. to make another very formidable resistance to M. I still am of opinion that the real Russian gentleman. I don't think I can offer to pay for it but should the black mare be in good condition. on the other hand. and soldier his native strength and undaunted disposition. All the villages we passed will never be perfectly well. cers are great. Kind regards to the party. I fear the wounded are sadly off. which I rode yesterday. — mais supposons cela! Though the lost in the long fight of yesterday a still then* loss must have been considerand the dismay of the troops great indeed. . as might have been expected. her Ladysliip to him as a return for his horse. Om. not that a sufficient number can be collected. Bonaparte. As I said before. though not as much as it shoidd have been. to enable the superior officers. who appears naturally proud and brave. and possessed of the most indignant feeling against the French power. considering the number of hours we were engaged.

Dear I has given us Sir. J. AM to thank you for all your letter of the 17th January. as England. dull and tiresome. C. 1807. cannot be in the least depended upon. According to a secret letter from England. what I saw yesterday.APPENDIX. . I have been most tedious. Your most faithful and obedient Servant. R. and I trust and hope the effects of the considerable check the French have met with will give a general turn to their affairs. I think in a few days we shall see you. thanlvful I shall be for I have only to say so how to make to me. you must well know. I have the honour to be. o79 i past 5. With great truth and regard. from nature of our attack. being entirely under the direction of the French. They sailed this day under the convoy of the Tigre. good as we are always a long time hearing from any communication you are I hope you received my letter of the 21st January.000 men under the command of General Eraser to occupy Alexandria in Egypt. and I fear. Messina. Mar. Fox. A. I have sent 5. which here the greatest satisfaction. and that the Powers on the Continent will not lose this opportunity of re-establishing their independence. General Fox to 3Ir. from a wish to put you in possession of our position and the I believe the Russian strength. I have come into Konigsberg for the night. 6tli. to exceed what I stated it before. but shall return to camp in the morning. Monday niglit. and the Continental Gazettes that we are likely to receive here.

was both a gentleman and an ****** officer * * * he passed six weeks on his journey. alas those who are at a distance always imagine themselves to be better informed My last accounts from England than those on the spot. as I have not heard that he does. but as the messenger. little doubt that he been as but entertain can there is a privateer known to be out from Stettin. 1807..) to Mr. and continue some time there the King of Prussia will accompany him. and perhaps Custrin. The Emperor accompanied by Novosilzow and Budberg I cannot tell you whether Lord Douglas comes or not . . arrived here several days ago. act on the left bank of the Oder. : . I that another messenger left London on the 7th of March. or is interesting. though he probably command of the army. has taken. guards arrive on the Memel to-mon'ow as soon as the whole line have joined General Beningsen. but. Memel. despatches from England. besiege Stettin. unluckily for me. and amused himself I see by the English papers for a fortnight at Copenhagen. My dear Adair. 80 there is nothing new . or rather an army of British and Swedish troops should assemble in Pomerania. April 1st. A. I requested ! them to send out my despatches by a cutter. I think it rio-ht to acquaint you that I have proposed to the government of England. me the earliest information of military events. Lord Hutchinson {Copy. that a large body. he purposes to make an attack on the French position. which left Yarmouth roads on the 27th. and merchant ships. Bonaparte has still his head-quarters at Osterode. I should rather The first di\asion of the Russian suppose the contrary. which is a very bad place with a small garrison. where they say he has constructed The Emperor does not a magnificent house for himself. 380 APPENDIX. and I shall so that you may depend on having from follow his Majesty arrives here to-morrow he : . the treaty which I were only of the 20th of February signed on the 28th of January had not then been received . 1 HAVE waited a long time for some intelligence worthy I have at length received of communication to give you. the take mean to will o-o to the neighbourhood of it.

.APPENDIX. placed in a situation where they might render the most essential services. They have got it into their heads here. nor inclination to enter into Entre nous. and if pressed and paid. I have forwarded all your letters and papers to Garlike. as you know. the Elbe. : . fifteen thousand so that the whole might compose an army of forty thousand men. but at least twenty-five thousand. . . authority. England a very laudable design of sparing the public purse I enter into it most heartily I am glad I have done so. . as to the intentions of the Austrian government but I am without any authority from you to assure them that it is in the contemplation of the Court of Vienna to give that assistance. and to act with the allies. wliich is. The Cossack war still continues. Believe me ever. I do not give any countenance to this idea it would be neither right nor honest to act in that manner. a most excellent place in summer. founded on accounts from Troppau and Cracow. Hutchinson. and they have the army. which must lead to misconceived plans of military operations. so that Nothing new from of course I conceived it was for myself. I have read Count Gotzen's paper over and over again I have neither power. that the Austrians are at length determined to take a part in the war. My dear Adair. till I have assurances from you that something is likely to be done in your quarter. 381 and by that means open the communication with Berlin. taken a number of prisoners from the enemy. and not to foUow false Illusions. and end in ul. wliich is very great. would undoubtedly be decisive. and Avas put into my hands by an Ignorant master of a vessel. The Swedes can give ten thousand men at least. Including the German Legion. . but which I closed again Immediately it came alone. I think we can send thirty thousand men. Till so desirable an event happens. Yours most (Signed) sincerely. in the present crisis. which. and with a most excellent retreat in case of misfortune behind the river Peene and Stralsund. and the rest of Germany. there appears to me to be in such schemes. it is better to rely on our own strength. timate disappointment. I send you a private letter which I opened by mistake. I satisfy myself with saying that they may be better informed than you are.

frost is now entirely breaking up . accompanied by the King of Prussia. Memel. there can be no doubt that it in their contemplation so to do. If Bonaparte offered any basis which could be accepted. A. : the country will be one sea diffi- of water the roads almost impassable for cannon. Baron Budberg is to be Novosilzoff came with the Emsix or eight days. Nothing can be more uncertain than the posture of our every thing depends upon events. The . I had nearly forgotten to mention to you that Baron Hardenberg is. with the army for a great while Bonaparte is still in his old General position. The position of the French is a strong one.382 APPENDIX. and cult for cavalry. or is likely to be. and particularly upon the favourable intelligence which you may send us from your quarter. My dear Sir. I defy any man alive to predict. but we are de: termined to make no sacrifices to purchase a peace for There has been nothing doing of any consequence Prussia. Beningsen talks of attacking the French when Ms reinforcements arrive I believe it is only talk. . with Prussia and Russia. . "What is to be done there whether we are to enter into a negociation for is the doubt peace or continue the war. to write you a few lines. Baker. I take it for granted that you have got from England a copy of the instructions sent to Lord Douglas on the 6th of March . 1807. I am is sure they would negociate . minister for foreign affairs. and defiles. I see amongst the Russians a great hesi- tation whether they shall attack or not. This was chiefly brought about by the efforts affairs . marshes. in a country full of lakes. Lord Hutchinson {Copy) to Mr. where they will remain two or three days. nor does he appear willing to quit it. Strogonow got here yesterday. and then I rather think they will both proceed to the army. where they would have every advantage. and then went. you see that we consent to enter into a negociation. The Emperor remained here only tAvo or three days. a joint one. April 5th. and I am told Czar- toriski is expected. to visit the Russian guards at Georgenburg. I AVAIL myself of the opportunity of Mr. as here in peror.

Yours most (Signed) truly. ''^^ A.000 Count de Gotzen. Vienna. amounts to 87. Believe me ever. according to the rate of exchange at Vienna. but go to the head-quarters. my instructions so to do. SHOULD have informed you before this. on his Prussian Majesty's This account just previous to his departure from Vienna. which. I should not imagine there was any serious danger for Dantzic.719/. Russia herself wish for negociation. of dollars to the my having advanced a further sum had found an of 240.000 dollars. ****** ****** We Since writing to you last. 31?'. My dear Sir. as I was ordered by This change has rather a warlike appearance. to Lord Hutchinson. until which period the negociations continued. but you may depend on it things are just as I that if the French are reasonable. which I dare say will be soon. I have nothing direct from Arbuthnot but it appears that on March 4th. You shall hear from me as soon as I am in possession of any thing worthy of communication. and there are many reasons which ought to have the tendency to make them to be. 1807. .. I think I shall not stay many days longer here. makes in all 500. APPENDIX. if I opportunity. they and stated may possibly negociate. I My dear Lord. as things cannot remain long in their present state. . where there must be discussions on several important questions. for which I drew bills on the Treasury at three different periods. but I gave 6b 6 my assistance. ^ AprU 6tli. we have had but bad accounts from Constantinople. 5s. Hutchinson.. Prussia will urge Russia.. Duckworth repassed the Dardanelles have now therefore without having effected any thing. of the Emperor. 9f/.

which. a Turkish war to carry on. I can only simply state the fact. &c. Vienna. It is with infinite concern that I have now to inform your Lordship. The perfect integrity of the Turkish Empire is the basis on which he to is to negociate. I refer confidential nature. produce fatal consequences to the common cause. April 3d. my dear Lord. of you to him for other matters of a which I have made him master. the official copy of the Emperor of Austria's invitation to his Majesty to accept his good offices for the restoration of peace . or of the admiral commanding the squadron. Arbuthnot. if not speedily finished. (Signed) R Mr. considering that the pretensions of Austria are nothing less than a thorough revision and re-settlement of the affairs both of Germany Italy. and I fear. having scarcely a moment to write. may to proceed instantly to Constantinople to make peace. that his Majesty's fleet repassed the Dardanelles on the 4th of March. I should be astonished at his having done so. As I am for the present utterly unacquainted with the motives which occasioned this determination on the part either of Mr. and. &c. My Lord. A. 1807.384 APPENDIX. I send you. together with . and that in the mean time he hopes to strike some important blow against the Russian anny. however. to mediate for a general peace. by Walpole. will oifer You the know by this time that Bonaparte has acceded of Austria. the reinforcements he has received will but too surely enable him to accomplish. were it not evident that he calculates upon the advantage of at least a month's delay before Austria can declare against him. A. I have great satisfaction in adding. that orders have just been received here from Petersburg by M. Pozzo. which. &c. Believe me. without having attempted any thing against the city of Constantinople. to the Marquis of Douglas.

that I could not but conclude Count Meerfeldt had misunderstood you. Petersburg have been retarded. His Majesty's ministers have also been regularly apprised of the support I have given to the negociation for a general concert now carrying on by M. Fox and from Lord llowick. that much about the time of the ar- rival of this intelligence. it . representations were received from the Count de Meerfeldt. At Vienna all the original alarms upon the subject of a Turkish war protracted to an indefinite time. I cannot find words sufficiently strong to exj)ress to your Lordship the mischief which all this has occasioned to the general system of our foreign relations. have been British subjects declared prisoners of is Sebastian! renewed. would henceforward be regulated more accordino. the effects which have attended at Vienna. Not only were his Majesty's intentions to support the King of Prussia to the utmost distinctly communicated to me by very first government. It happens most unfortunately. : war General completely master of the Turkish Empire.APPENDIX. likewise. Pozzo di Borgo. and that her plan of policy to principle of separation it. to whom it had been represented by Count Meerfeldt. in which you are supposed to have declared that Great Britain had now very little to do Avitli foreign affairs. C C . I could not help answering that this statement differed so widely from the whole tenor of the instructions I had received both from Mr. Petersburg. I think it right state that these representations of Count de Meerfeldt were grounded upon a conference with your Lordship soon after your arrival at St. tending to impress this Court with an opinion that the British government had adopted a totally new system with regard to those relations. o85 both at Constantinople and At and all Constantinople all British property has been seized. and the approaches to a good understanding with the Court of St. and I have the satisfaction of knowing that my conduct has hitherto met with their approbation. but I have been authorised from the to promise the most liberal assistance to Austria herself in case of necessity. to the from the Continent than of union with When this was told me by Count Stadion.

awkward whatever mistake it may have arisen. you Avill see what have been the principles and the views on which that conduct has been regulated you will find them to have been strictly conform. I have resolved and impede the progress of upon sending off a person immediately. to those w^hich I have Mr. I was more hurt or surprised by I the receipt of your letter of the 3d of April. and as we are upon the most friendly terms. St. K.386 APPENDIX. with a view of correcting an error. &c. that. however. Petersburg. DO not know whether My you public business. ought to be corrected with the utmost promptitude. A. tliinking deepest importance to the cause in which it of the we are so closely united with the Court of St. &c. this subject. Petersburg. feeling. &c. able to the principles and views of I dwell particularly uj^on this topic. I have the honour to be. from in a very situation. Stuart. A. I had no sooner received your letter than I repaired to General Meerfeldt. and consequently no doubt your Lordship under similar circumstances Avould have yourself adopted. The Marquis of Dour/las to Mr. It has this day been officially communicated to me that Bonaparte had accepted the Emperor of Austria's mediation for a general peace. I thought I could not do better than show him that part of it wherein you state that. April lltb. that the oj)inion Count Stadion has imbibed may place good Sir. Fox. If your Lordship Avill take the trouble of reading my correspondence with Mr. that no misapprehension whatever should subsist with regard to the fundamental which actuate his Majesty's present adand in order that the earliest opportunity should be afforded to Count Meerfeldt of correcting the intelligence he has transmitted to liis Court upon principles of policy visers in regard to foreiorn affairs. in consequence of an official communi- . 1807.

nothing more in contradiction to the policy evidently manifesting itself through all Europe. and I send this eclaircissement to you. that I hope has not yet been able to do any mischief. or intended to alter. and mine. at the C C 2 . I find there some hypothetical remarks and conditional inferences of mine. and reasoned the point of co-operation with the General. that leads even to a suspicion that Great Britain has altered. Great Britain. assuring him how much he is mistaken as to the views of the English government. moreover. and nothing more diametrically opposite to every feeling and opinion of my own. thing more upon this business. General Meerfeldt is to write by this courier to Count Stadion. insinuating that if the satisfying pecidiar views. It is altogether erroneous. than of union Nothmg can be more contrary to the system of with it. that England had little to do with foreign affairs. and in re- ply to satisfy me showed me the two despatches that he supposed were alluded to. not feeling that his despatches had given to any ground not a little Count Stadion for similar conclusions. their conduct. the system of policy she has so long and so strenuously espoused. far from appearing to alienate the British government from Continental concerns. General Meerfeldt. it was more than probable that England would lend her assistance in support of It is unnecessary that I should say any these pretensions. but I can discover nothing. I have more than once expressed her extreme anxiety upon the subject. and wherein he has reported some conversations we have had together upon general subjects. wishing you to read it to the minister at Vienna. according to my opinion.APPENDIX. I have communicated to Lord Howick this strange misconception. or the acqumng lost territory. appeared surprised at the contents of your letter. and that her plan of policy would henceforward be regulated more according to the principle of separation from the Continent. to correct a misunderstanding. and I am persuaded Count Meerfeldt will be ready to do me the justice to acknowledge that. cation from him. would induce Austria to take a decided step. nothing more adverse to the disposition of government. Count Stadion had expressed himself as being impressed Avith an opinion that the British government was disposed to adopt a new system with regard to her foreign relations. grounded 387 upon a conference with me.

I have expressed to the government here. in consequence of Lord Howick. and personal views be fully understood. Would Austria suo-ffest a general view of future and conditional arrangements in Germany? It is evident that the present system of things has not only destroyed the relative situation of individual possession. that she was resolved to make common cause with them. a wish that Razamoffsky should use every argument in his power to persuade Austria that his Imperial Majesty has no views of aggrandisement upon the a letter from frontiers of Turkey . : This subject naturally leads Austria.388 APPENDIX. and assist in restoring to Europe some relative equilibrium. and assured the Austrian government through your means that Great Britain felt the same unabated interest towards the Continent that has characterised her whole proceedings. but Empire itself has assumed a novel character with these various changes of limitation. I should have rejoiced to have heard the mediation of Austria announced in another style. without which no pacification can be either satisfactory. and I cannot refrain from observing that appears to that could personal ani- mosities be laid aside. secure. on my part using every delicacy towards feelings that must be wounded. With such a document there ought to be an accompanying clause to serve as guaranty of her intentions and her consequence. same time adding that I am persuaded no evil consequences can ensue. an union might be brought about. she nevertheless must be awake to these sentiments. and perhaps would be candid enough to confess them to you. having immediately myself contradicted it in the most unequivocal terms. I trust I may expect to hear shortly that Count Stadion's erroneous conception of British policy is done away I should be glad were I to hear likewise that Austria Avas so firmly persuaded of the loyal and honourable proceedings of Great Britain and Russia. The jealousy and pride of Austria will never permit her to avow her views or admit her mortification to Russia. this has been suggested with a hope of destroying that jealousy which you must discover at Vienna . at this me me to the co-operation of moment it so desirable. Having said thus much. or permanent. in which case I would convey them to this Court.

The courier that brings this letter not's (Avho I am. I send you herewith a letter I have received from England Mr. with the greatest truth. There is a probability of some agreement with Sweden. Arbutliwas forwarded here with desjjatches and whom I was requested by him to take care of). for akhough I despair of seeing Austria in the field of battle. should one ever be in agitation. as a place too distant bably for is not new to you. Garlike has persuaded. My good Sir. Your most obedient. This proof the British government. If you should not have heard from home upon the subject of a congress. and as he Avill be nearer his master at Vienna than at St. should it first fall to your lot (as it is most probable) to hear that such a thing is in agitation. or rather alarmed the Danes into an acquiescence. and must request in Mr. Douglas and Clydesdale. and it is not impossible that some British cavalry may appear upon the Continent. Petersburg. Arbuthnot's name that you will take him under your protection. I have resolved upon forwarding is a man of Mr. I send you this information. upon many occasions. As he wishes to get away from here.APPENDIX. c c 3 . nity of conveying him sooner than I to Vienna. as. by which an additional force will be on foot to distract the attention of Bonaparte. me to object to Lublin. M. He wished to exclude the English from that port. I have made use of him as my messenger. it As you to it will probably have an opportushall. however. or even Hamburg. You will have heard of the discussions with Count BernstorfF upon the subject of Husum. perhaps it may be satisfactory to you to know that Lord Howick has desired from the seat Copenhagen would be preferred. you will be enabled to state with certainty the wishes of Great Britain upon the occasion. humble Servant. yet is it is a satisfaction to remove every plausible pretext that critical brought forward to justify their inactivity at this moment. 389 to find out if Be so good as the Eussian ambassador has exerted himself upon this subject. Arbuthnot.

which contains so explicit a declaration of the sentiments of govern- ment respecting Turkish aiFairs. May I request that you would have the goodness to communicate it to Baron Budbersr and I should also think it would not be amiss to The despatch is in answer to one read it to Count Meerfeldt. from me. I desired this. both which we respectively reside. I beg your Lordship in return will command my services here in all things.390 APPENDIX. — never ceased presenting the question to the Austrian government since my arrival here. together with the strongest recommendation to Mr. I RECEIVED several private letters. may prove of the utmost consequence to the success of the negociation which Colonel Pozzo di Borgo is instructed to open with the Ottoman Porte for the restoration of peace. April Stli. depends upon it the present safety of the world. be sent out to me respecting the entry of the Russian troops into Moldavia and Wallachia. and likewise for your expressions of personal civility towards myself. Mr. by the My packets and your Lordship's three last Russian courier: I am greatly obliged to you for them. Arbuthnot to concert with M. Herewith I inclose the extract of a despatch I have just England of the 7th of March. which at one time wore a very formidable aspect. and the existence of anything like a federIn this point of view I have ative system for the future. Lord. Your at Lordshi])'s ideas respecting the importance of bring- ing about a thorough good understanding between the Courts thing. Every now and hereafter. 1807. it is my intention to furnish him with a copy «of this part of it. are most correct. Vienna. and I have taken upon myself in . A. for the purpose of allaying those jealousies on the part of Austria. to the Marquis of Douglas. in which I expressed a wish that some distinct manifestation of the opinion of his Majesty's government should received from . As I have reason to think that this despatch. Pozzo the best means of assisting the generous views of the Emperor of Russia. in order to make use of the authority of the British Cabinet at this Court.

I trust. completely at an end. There still exists here a doubt. That you may be fully aware of every thing I have done in consequence of C C 4 . Servant. Count Meerfeldt has entirely omitted to state. May 14th. however. Petersburg. more instances than one to 391 interpretation to give a wide my instructions. or any qualifications whatever of a declaration so discouraging. In returning a second time to explanations with Count Stadion upon this point. and matters are which I find some difficulty in combating. The Marquis of Douglas St. Believe me. 1807. A. It has revived with additional . A. concerning the views of our government in regard to its Continental relations. or to make any sacrifices. without such qualifications as the circumstances of Europe naturally suggest. it appears that . Your most obedient (Signed) R. pain the subject upon which I last addressed you attributed to to have appears to convey an idea that the opinions erroneously me by the Austrian ambassador here. The jealousy concerning Turkey ftist is now. verging to a point at which we shall either force Bonaparte to a general peace. . I am confident that your Lordship can never have said this.APPENDIX. With the greatest esteem and regard. I find that the Count de Meerfeldt has rejaresented your Lordship's conversation with him (which I dwelt so much upon in my last letter) in a j)oint of view still more likely to discourage the formation of a general alliance than I had at first thought for he not only represents England as generally wishing to avoid the renewal of her connections with the Continent. CANNOT allow an instant to escape me in acknowledging because your it letter of the 8th of April. but these. My good I Sir. my Lord. continue some weight at the Court of Vienna. but so indiflferent to its fate as not to be Avillmg at a peace to surrender any of her acquisitions. in order to obtain better terms for the Powers that may be at war with France. or have the assistance of Austria in a general war. to Mr.

and every inference I have been able to draw from those instructions received. If his prepossessions you say) are considered at Vienna to be very strong. for I have frequently attacked him upon the subject with such prepossessions. whom I am personally upon terms of intimate persuaded could never have intended to have given an erroneous intepretation of any conversation we have had together. General Meerfeldt. that is hypothetical). they are neither analogous to those of his Britannic Majesty. and I again aver that every instruction I have received from England. of a particular tendency. But I will not enter into discussions of this nature. I am to suppose that opinions (as it is not for the policy of that Court prefers at this moment an ambassador Should such sentiments be congenial to the feelings of Austria. and his Britannic ambassador. I my desj^atch occasion. whilst they establish her glory and equity. will hardly question her actions. he doubts her words. so far from appearing to carry with them the appearance of alienation. would be his make every sacrifice in favour of his was consistent with the dignity of crown and the with I interests of his people. or can intend to relax from those principles of co-operation. With respect to what are the views of England. as it it is little different subject and although from what I wrote to you upon a former may yet possibly act upon Count Stadion's mind to Lord Howick upon the a corroborating proof of the opinions of his Britannic jNIajesty's Majesty. . most decidedly bear the character of union and co-operation. friendship. General Meerfeldt has been totally in an error. Let him examine the line of conduct she is pursuing. nor to the protestations of his representative here. am Of the character and leaning of his political me to say any thing. Count Stadion. I have always are tending : declared (although the observation disposed at a peace to friends and allies. to maintain the honour and independence of Europe.392 APPENDIX. and what if her policy upon the Continent of Europe. herewith inclose an abstract from . so far from not being willing to make sacrifices. Of this General Meerfeldt can bear witness. this misunderstanding. which. and ask himself if it is possible to suppose imder such circumstances she can feel indifferent. and that tendency inimical to any connection between Russia and Austria. I must add one word more his Britannic Majesty.

she might look with greater confidence and security to that indemnifica- medium of the coalesced Powers than throuffh any other channel if she only desires the permanent tranquillity of Europe. I fear that we have to combat against personal as well as public impressions. Nay. that neither suspicion nor surmise may yield a pretext for inactivity. To do more. if persisted in.APPENDIX. present crisis ought to be and Austria. I hope it was not necessary. would prejudice all the operations . and mitigating all recrimination. the expedition you allude to anticipates I cannot lately arrived from Sicily I am any thing there very favourable but some accounts that sorry to say do not forebode for the future. . and encouraged a different system. suaded. Your reports from the Mediterranean are a subject of con. cern : I feel quite grieved that there should be so considerable a depot of military force in a part of the world where there is so little use made of them. she must communicate that conviction she feels and manifests herself of the essential benefits naturally resulting from a friendly and confidential intercourse. 393 of Austria's inactivity. find the sentiments contained in the same similar to those honourable ones that animate his conduct. but Great Britain. of the allied Powers. I have gone further by suggesting that if Austria wished to be indemnified for what she had tion through the lost. The extract of the despatch you have inclosed shall be communicated to this government and to the Austrian ambasHis Imperial ISIajesty will. and therefore will be satisfied . I am persador without delay. tell What . What are the feelings in Austria I cannot tell but I really do not see any thing like rancour on the banks of the Neva. I do not know why I have added so much to what I Avrote to you upon a former occasion. may do much. whether active or passive. maintaining the impolicy of the one they had of late adopted. by softening unpleasant recollections. and yet I am aware that too much cannot be done to correct an error that. I am glad to find that you feel in full force the great advantages to be derived from a more cordial understandinobetween the two Imperial Courts. the surest means of obtaining it would be by establishing a relative equipoise upon the Continent. at this made fully aware of these loyal proceedings on the part of Russia.

April 13th. D. Vienna. A. Canning since He his appointment to the situation of Secretary of State. You Petersburg. S. {Copy. Mr. I am extremely sorry to hear of the delay in the messenger's arrival from England. are As you that is now probably better informed at Vienna of all going on upon the Continent than we are at St. I have just learnt that Lord G. tended their line too far for the small nmnber of troops they had to defend it. Your most obedient humble Servant. has desired that I should notify to this Court that the change in the administration would make no change in the sentiments of his Britannic Majesty. Mr. I received yesterday your letter of the 1st instant. would be maintained in full vigour. but that the same line of friendship. 1807. My good Sir. Thornton wrote to me on . I shall not attempt to send you any news. will probably have heard of the check that the Swedes have met with : this is a subject of particular grief to me. and of all young gentleman who was sent out to me in the by whom I expected lettei's sorts from England. as I repose the greatest possible confidence both in the Sovereign It appears that they exand the soldiers of that country. The loss is however not very great. I have only received a few lines from Mr. although 500 or 600 men is an object of importance to a Power Hmited as to finance and population. and policy. as I have reason to believe that he accompanies a capacity of private secretary. Douglas and Clydesdale.) to Lord Hutchinson. L.394 APPENDIX. I should inform you that P. AND C. Before I seal this letter. My dear Lord. I am happy to have an opportunity of assuring you of those sentiments of regard Avith which I am. Gower will shortly be here to conduct public business instead of Yours. candoui".

and that by the advice of the agent. the same who was in England. Thank God. that there is much of the old leaven still existing. and you will suit each other admirably. I thank you sincerely for your communication respecting the military measures They it are exactly recommended by you to government. If the pacific party appears to have obtained any ascendency. I suspect some bad views in encouraging expectations of an opposite nature. and will I think first be very much guided by the complexion of the it de- spatches from thence after takes place. my dear Lord. I am made very happy too by your information that Baron Budberg accompanies the Emperor Alexander. me that he has Whence then can Are there in the Prussian councils still such determined advocates for the system which has destroyed the monarchy. Hart. I say.APPENDIX. however. Austria has never given either to Count Finkenstein or to any person in his Prussian Majesty's service. consequently. IS ovosilzofF. he to the pacific party. He is a strictly honest man. if ever But I am afraid that should embark in the alliance. the whole faction . must Count Finkenstein has they come? this very day assured given no cause for such sanguine hopes. I have heard nothing about him since. if he be very strongly inclined The Cabinet here wait with much anx- As to M. which. he had proceeded to Flensburg in order to embark there for Konigsbei'g or ]\Ieniel. as to seek to raise the hopes of his Majesty to the highest pitch in order to take advantage of the disapj)ointment ? moment of And do these advocates await the Emperor Alexander's arrival to gain him to their side by artfully urging the necessity of forcing the Cabinet of Vienna to an immediate declaration. and. de is iety for the result of the meeting at Memel. both of mind and character. to separation if it should be much longer delayed ? I am afraid. or at least the good opinion of his master. what Avould most suit this Court. although certain to come at last (barring treachery and gross blunders). and that you will find occasion before long for the exertion of all your powers. is not so near as his Prussian Majesty suftbrs himself to believe. moment. and that he appears to possess the confidence. 395 the 23d ultimo to tell me that this gentleman had landed from one of the packets at Husum. that Count Hardenberg is near his Majesty's j^erson.

you all remain stout and have no doubt that we shall arrive through the joint peace or mediation at that most desirable of all results — joint war. except in the above cases. and must follow depart from mediation. These preliminary indications may lead to a quicker result than would follow from a negociation entered into and broken off. and avoid any appearance of forcing her hand ? I am sure Baron Budberg thinks so. It is here that I expect the Austrian declaration one moment before. the Archduke Charles. I learn for instance that gone from Bonaparte to the senate. of separatists here will immediately go to work to destroy even the small approaches that have been made towards a better system." or some such expression. demanded through the Austrian territories for an army into is A Dalmatia. is sure of being refused. on the contrary. counsellors to your particular vigilance. this but not view of the subject should force is it on. nor of the means of convincino. unless circumstances foreign to . This . but that " on s'arme autour de moi. but. Pozzo di Borgo on this which has been most temperate and subject. namely. I If. They may lead to the demand of explanations as to what going on in Hungary. calling some message for next year's conscription. where I understand that a proposal has been made to the Hungarian nation to render the insurpassage may also be rection permanent and disposable. I see nothing to make me my opinion. were accompanied by persons of a more eager character who may conceive a little britsquerie towards Austria would Let me recommend such bring us nearer to our point. and telling his faithful people that he can manage the Russians and Prussians very well.396 APPENDIX. that Austria will not be led into active measures except through the failure of her Now as this is all we are likely to get from Austria. know nothing . because I have seen a great part of his correspondence with M. Avhose influence on the I have not the great question of war or peace is decisive. Be assured they of the Cabinet of Vienna. all of But I should not be surprised if the Emperor judicious. do you not agree with me that it Avill be much better to take it. war of course and the conse- quences resulting from them. resolute.

&c. and died after a short illness. This. the whole of the night. A. After the last sad moment he gave way to the sensations natural on so severe a loss but I am happy to say . I cannot let them fail for want of sufficient assurances of support. to take their leave. which very often prescribe of themselves the readiest way out of the I difficulties they appear to create. and combined operations be thought of and proposed. He introduced all his children to her bedside. you of the death of the Empress She was taken ill in consequence of a premature delivery. I under- stand that matters are going on there mucli better than was at first expected. him of the same opinion. for I have always abstained from making any. Believe me. He returned from Buda the day preceding her decease. &c. and a due tenderness of the I feel it possible. I am extremely glad to find that you are to accompany his Majesty to the army or its neighbourhood. under the necessity of risking much. however. that I may be public purse. must always be decided by the circumstances of the moment. solicitude durino. . The Emperor is most deeply afflicted by her loss. &c. but if hostilities do actually commence. and pushing responsibility to its utmost verge. that he has recovered sufficient possession of himself to retiu-n to the Diet at Buda. and latterly Avould not suflTer the word subsidy to be named previous to an actual commencemejit of hostilities. least 397 doubt that on comparing notes with Baron Budberg. where he is to go to-morrow. my dear Lord. at 7 o'clock yesterday morning. of course. Avith the utmost composure and fortitude. and attruly sorry to inform am tended her with the most affectino.APPENDIX. It is not that I am embarrassed by any promises. You shall hear regularly from me on all matters that occur at this place. (Signed) R. My instructions from England are of the same nature as you will find yours with regard to subsidies.

three for about weeks we have been very army the with inactive. I shall think myself entirely at liberty. agreeable. likely to be soon taken. (Signed) Hutchinson. was made to throw a body of troops into the and to . May 6th. sensible man. who is married Louisa of Prussia he is a particular friend He is a veryof mine. Lord Hutchinson to Mr. The bearer of this to the Princess would be impossible at the present for which I consider as entirely a military one but should any serious negociation for peace be entered into. On the 15th of this month an attempt place. or when the camj)aign is drawing to a conclusion. who have no idea the ministers themselves. so you may open I am at present with yourself to him in the fullest manner. cannot believe that such a cause could have created such a ferment Believe at such a moment. May 19th. 1807. and I have a great regard for him. and such is our want of provisions that we are : likely to remain so for a long time. and desire leave to retire. : of religious persecution. My dear Adair. I fear. As for anything which has passed or is Kkely to pass in England. A. me to With be. Bartenstein. My dear Adair. I hope you have received the letter which I sent to you I have been by Prince Radzivill about a fortnight ago. The same {Copy. my situation. I have no information. and perfectly in the confidence both of the Russian and Prussian governments. letter is Prince Kadzivill. Bartenstelu.} to the same. as I have few correspondents those few never write to me but on subjects of private business but there appears to have been a division amongst The Russians.398 APPENDIX. . Dantzic is. the army. so that it me to resign . 1807. My dear Adair. great regard truly yours. .

1807. and wUl leave us to carry on the war or settle the peace by ourselves. and a man of considerable reading and understanding. here illegible. the Continental peace be settled without the concurrence of Austria as a party to it. namely. 3fr. reduced to silence myself from another Before this can reach you it is most probable that all this till I man in his senses can doubt. great regard truly and sincerely yours. formerly in ours he is an officer of great merit. now. This letter will be presented to you by Major Baron Tuyll of the Russian service.-«-— j-r^y^^^m^ APPENDIX. to Lord Hutchinson. moment to say HAVE nothing at this find in my two short letters of the more than you will 5th and 16th instant. . The Kussians on one side. (Signed) Hutchinson. But I have they are deaf. May 19th. I most sincerely hope successfid than I have been in conciliating * MS. I fear now that no such object will be found. A. am hoarse. the Prussians on the other. 399 open the communication with the sea. Both attacks were made on the right bank of the Vistula along the [ ]* which is a long narrow neck of land between the Vistula and the sea. < '«?7^-^«-'-<r. I do not like the Prussian answer to the Austrian mediation. were repulsed Avith the loss of about 2000 men. however. as we are not ripe here for what you propose. killed and wounded. Vienna. The consequence may be that Austria retirera son epingle du jeii. an accession to your Convention of the 26th of April. My With dear Adair. Believe me to be. My I dear Lord. and till he Lord Pembroke may be more will be at Vienna. she will be eventually That if the sacrifice.yi ^< ^ I IV «_ m . It ought to have been a simple acceptance of the proposal. The good of the proposal was that it might prove a means of uniting the three powers in some common object. no told them I am cause.

Vienna.S. I have repeated the most positive assurances of sup- and endeavoured to persuade them that the political common with our Continental system. There is one subject. A. &c. or perhaps the justice of the British government. Inclosure referred to. 1807. R. The same (^Copy to Mr. I am. Lord . I inclose you three packets. which I have thought it most prudent to reserve for private communication. the receipt of your letter of April 28 th. which accompanies my despatches. (Signed) port. — R. events in England had nothing in P. until Lord Pembroke's arrival at Vienna. — Private. let me entreat Pembroke to furnish the means of efFectins it. unless prison. Believe me. A. as he me. WROTE a few lines to you the other day to acknowledge I have now only add that you may rely on me. however. I inclose what I have to say upon it in a separate paper. Court to the views of the present ministers. There are two from tells the Bishop of Nancy of great importance.) May 29th. I have not been successful. The letter to Monsieur de Vaudi-euil.400 this APPENDIX. Ever since the change. &c. means can be found of helping him to escape from his If you should deem this an object worthy the geyou to send out orders without delay to nerosity. Deak I to Sir. On public aifau's my despatch will teU you every thing I know. or perhaps put to death. &c. for a continuance of the same endeavours to promote his Majesty's service which you have been so good as to notice and to approve. A. Canning. dear Sir. speedily about to be sent to Cayenne. (Signed) R. relates to the unfortunate Marquis de Riviere.

401 The same to M. D D i . Arbuthnot had left Constantinople. Vienna. together with all the conquests we might make upon them. and must have been received there by the 20th of the same month. Pozzo di Borgo. makes me judge it expedient to forward to you without loss of time an extract from a despatch. 1807. as soon as you heard of the revolution at Constantinople. it is greatly to be lamented that the new ministers (into whose hands it came officially) did . to send you out such recommendations to Mr. able." That despatch was sent to England the 5 th of April. Arbuthnot as would ensure his cooperating with you and also that in my private letter to Lord Howick I used these strong expressions among others " M. and written expressly for the purpose of obtaining full powers for you * to assure the Turks they might have it again. which I have just received from England. importance of the moment in which you will most probably have to open your negociations at Constantinople.: APPENDIX. without losing a moment's time as you might then have been not send . dated the 9th of this month. June 29th. to offer peace in our name upon the same terms as you were authorised by your instructions to propose for Russia. Pozzo di Borgo is now thoroughly master of all the views of his own Court. — me out the necessary authority for you to act upon. as well as of ours. You will remember the despatch I wrote home as soon as you received at Vienna the Emperor's orders to proceed on your present mission. and of the amicable dispositions of the Porte towards Great Britain. I i renewed my applications to Government in a despatch dated the 29th of April. in order to give additional weight to your efforts. Dear The Sir. I hope * Mr. As events have turned out. and likewise of those of the Court of Vienna a most material point among his means of negociation at the place to which he is going. The instant I heard of the taking of Alexandria by our troops. You will recollect how strongly I recommended it to the English ministers. as the price of peace with Kussia.

Pozzo a bord di Borgo to Mr. . . je crois. des priacipes qui . si les evenemens militaires arrives dans le Nord. n'avaient tout-a-fait change et les dispositions des Turcs et. ne me . le du vaisseau Amiral le Tverdoy pres Tenedos. I am. La lettre que votre Excellence m'a fait I'honneur de m'ecrire en date du 29 Juin avec I'extrait de la depeche de S. Sans les malheurs arrives en Pologne. et I'effet qu'il quables que j'ai Imperiale la Cabinet Britannique. laissent aucun doute que la nature de ma mission doit avoir entierement change. et je ne doute que cru de cette demarche. Je n'ai encore re^u aucun ordre de ma Cour. M. n'ajoute a la consideration que Ton a deja a la distinguent. son intervention aurait beaucoup contribue au succes de la negociation. . II s'est annonce au Divan en sa qualite de plenipotentiaire. que j'ai pu me menager a Constantinople. . &c. de la part de votre Excellence. &c. M. Le zele avec lequel votre Excellence s'est employe pour le succes des ordres et des intentions de avait produit sur le ma Cour. E. J'attends avec anxiete de savoir a quoi m'en tenir. (Signed) R. aurait beaucoup contribue a accelerer la conclusion des affaires ici. A. ni aucun renseignement sur les determinations qui ont ete prises en consequence de ces evenemens mais les communications meme imparfaites. but it is still to be regretted that he did not set sail before the beginning of June. 1807. Mr. sont si remarmon devoir de soumettre a sa Majeste depeche de votre Excellence. and believe that Sir Arthur Paget's voyage has been accelerated in consequence of what I wrote. Canning.402 APPENDIX. ma Cour . A. secretaire d'etat au departement des aiFaires etrangeres. le plan meme de la pacification qui devait etre traitee par moi. ^S^ Monsieur. le Chevalier Paget est arrive 17 ici le -^ JuUlet.

With great respect. There was a strong report of several Russian ships being Mr. I HAVE great satisfaction in congratulating your Excellency at the on your re-appointment Your Excellency will perceive the unpleasant situation I am Court of Vienna. and several others on shore. S. Monsieur. however necessary or proper expected. De POZZO DI BORGO.chest on their drove way to Corfu. I shall immediately be obliged to quit these seas. although one is hourly seeing the most extra: ordinary occurrences should such a thing take place. M. Foresti mentions it in a letter I had from him but I can scarce suppose a thing of the kind can happen. A. Commodore Campbell H. Sept. I trust you will be able to arrange with their minister a mode as of debarkation that will be satisfactory to it all parties. Sir.battle ships and four frigates coming from Cattaro with troops. DD 2 . I shall be careful to have it forwarded. Unite. to Mr. A frigate will be Pembroke . 5th. also a transport with clothing. and are daily .APPENDIX. J'al 403 I'honneur d'etre avec la consideration la plus dis- tinguee. 1807. votre Excellence Tres humble et tres obeissant Serviteur. given up to the French . going to Malta in a few days with Lord should you have any thing to send that way. might be to prevent their being landed at Venice. report has just reached me that one of our frigates has : A taken General Bertham's staff and milltar}. with the force I have resistance would be vain there are three more line-of. by the accompanying letter placed in with respect to the Russian troops landing at Venice. Your Excellency's very humble Servant. Patrick Campbell. I have the honour to be.

The inhabitants is. any subsequent attempt for dislodging them will be almost impracticable. and can scarcely conceal its indignation at the peremptory terms prescribed to them for evacuating these Islands. The Bocche di Cattaro is already evacuated by the Russians. and occupied by the enemy. Dear As it is Sir. . and should they not be ai'rested on their passage to their will. I have thought expedient to freight and despatch a vessel from this port. Every arrangement has been made for the reception of the new protectors. of great importance to his Majesty's interest that you should be informed with the utmost despatch of the new political arrangements. Corfu. as these would be wholly undeserving of were not the probability of their reality amply sup- ported by the realisation of events almost incredible. and perhaps in Russian ships. Mr. Aug. Such reports notice. to whom they were yesterday forwarded. Foresti to Commodore Campbell. the articles of which I have reason to believe may it not reach you so directly by way of Trieste. 12th.404 APPENDIX. it is said. new possession. The Russian garrison here is in the deepest consternation. The French troops destined to occupy Corfu are expected The ceded here hourly. which are now under execution in virtue of the peace just concluded between Russia and France. it is said. which amount almost to a surrender at discretion. who will know by French protection anticipate with terror experience what and disgust the change that awaits them. are to proceed to Chioggia. which after their arrival be declared as French Departments. Russian ships. in addition to the greater part of the Russian squadron now in the Mediterranean. For this purpose I cannot do better than refer you to the inclosed copy of my despatch to General Fox and Lord Colling wood. There is every reason to believe that the Russian ships there and at Curzola have been ceded to the enemy. 1807. where the Russian crews will be debarked in order to return to Russia overland. in oi'der to affairs in acquaint you with the actual state of the Adriatic and in these Islands.

AITENDIX. &c. by the promptest and most vigorous measures. nor can it be supposed that the Russian government would see without exultation every foreign impediment to retard the execution of the harsh stipulations it has agreed to respecting Corfu. particularly without a port in the Adriatic or Ionian rendered most I critical. The will violence of the French party so appears again in all its force. For this purpose I have to recommend to you to detach immediately a frigate. &c. to cruize in the channel of Corfu. I am now awaiting the answer from the Senate to my demand respecting the new system they seem to have adopted. and to frustrate nothing but an equal celerity on the opposite party can avail. The rapidity of the enemy's movements for accomplishing the show any kind of regard as their enemies. (Signed) Spiridion Foresti. Whatever may be latter Avould the present relations between his Majesty and the French government. the possession of the islands by the greatly enhance their pretensions and claims. than the possession of common cause. &c. if it be the means of promoting the interests of his Majesty in this island. seas. I hasten to conclude with assuring you. of the utmost consequence to his Majesty's government. To less prevent this operation might produce a diversion not Cattaro produced to the favourable to his Majesty's interest. No longer wishing to delay the measures that you may be enabled to take for the public service on this occasion. 405 The appearance of the slightest effectual support might rouse theiu to the most successful resistance. would be often arguments must refer you to the inclosed letter for further expediency of preventing. Nor is it long coerced here reto be exi)ected they for those who are publicly But every personal sacrifice will be light to me. known it design of occupying Coi-fu cannot be exceeded. And in the event of the war being protracted. and with whatever in support of the absolute means can be collected. the situation of his Majesty's ships on the Adriatic station in the winter season. To prevent the enemy obtaining the quiet uncontrolled possession of this island so Important to their views at this is moment. the occupation of Corfu by the enemy. or any disposable part of the force under your command. at this most momentous crisis. 3 DD .

The Commodore.^ St. and this letter goes by the courier he sends. I do not their entering it. Patrick Campbell. 5th. A. on the . Sir. 1 have pointed out to him. know how consistent as I cannot permit them. with 5000 troops on board from Cattaro they are now anchored in Pirano Bay. 1807 I YESTERDAY sail fell in with a squadron of Russian men-of- war.406 APPENDIX. I have the honour to be With great respect. which would prevent any unpleasant circumstances happening. may I request your Excellency would have the goodness the subject. that by landing them at Grado. 14th. or they might be marched opposite to Venice. to Mr. Unite. which is immediately opposite Pirano and about twelve miles distant. As it is quite a novel case. having under convoy a number of transports. informed : me he is ordered to land them at Venice as that port far it is is in a state of blockade. coast of Istria. Lord Granville Leveson Gower (Secret and confidential. the main road passing within a few miles of Grado. A. but he waits from my representation for instructions from Vienna. Commodore Campbell to Mr. Your Excellency's most humble Servant. they could be sent in Trabacolos by the inland navigation. M. Sept. as I imagine Majesty's ministers to to favour it me with your opinion on would not be the wish of his give any offence to the Russians at this moment. otherwise than their going with a force superior to mine. Sir. H. as I find the Com- modore only means to send a frigate to escort the transports there. Petersburg. You have already been informed that the mediation of this Court had only been conditionally accepted by his Majesty's . Sept. of three of the line and three frigates. S. who I waited on this morning. 1807.

as a preliminary to our acceptance of it. E. but accompanied by a sort of assurance that the secret articles contain no stipulation hostile to England I am disposed to : give so far credit to this assurance as to believe that the Emperor is not bound by any article to shut the Russian but at the same time I have though the Emperor may not be bound by any engagement to adopt measures of decided hostility. reason to think. Le Soussigne a eu I'honneur de mettre sous la I'Empereur note et a fait hague que S. lui . for foreign affairs * * Count Romanzolf is appointed minister his feelings are certainly not Anglican.). I was instructed to demand. la copic M. et par les liens du sang et par ceux d'une longue amitie. the communication of the secret articles of the treaty of Tillsit. ravir Lorsque le ministere Britannique a con^u le dessein de au Danemarc toute sa flotte. and from find no difficulty in forwarding to Vienna you will probably him this information. 407 government. Gower Sept.: APPENDIX. le Lord G. L. and from pretty good authority. l-i 1807. : speedily as possible to the commander of his Majesty's naval force in the Adriatic. I have received a direct refusal. I have heard. lorsque pour cet efFet il a envoye dans la Baltique des troupes nombreuses et une D D 4 . {inclosed Mr. Gower. that he has promised to connive at and favour the establishment of a maritime league against Great Britain. I am with great truth. I a vu avec une peine infinie tons les malheurs qui viennent d'accabler un monarque auquel elle est attachee. &c. &c. Le Comte Nicolas de Romanzow to to Lord L. that the Islands composing the Septinsular Republic are to be delivered to France. A. les yeux de de la capitulation de Copcnparvenir S. and that the Russian ships of war are to convey the French troops to Cattaro and Corfu it appears to me to be of importance that this intelligence should be conveyed as ports against British ships. (Signed) Granville Leveson Gower.

Sept. suffered to enter entertainino. silence.408 flotte considerable. 1807. &c. on the coast of Istria. prie S. M. and that the Russian orders were to land commander had acquainted him that his them at Venice. The Russian commander also signified to Commodore his intention of sending frio-ate. se regai'de comme . et I'Erapereur se doit a lui-meme comme aux interets de son empire de ne s'y pas montrer insensible. by which he informs me that a Kussian force of I Campbell. I had yesterday an interview . Mr. By the Commodore's desire. E. des sentiments de I'Empereur son maitre. sail three of the line and three frigates. represented to the Russian commander that it could not be permitted unless he went with a superior force. I'ambassadeur de S. B. garant de la surete et de la tran- quillite de la surete I'etre mer Baltique a quelle epoque la tranquillite et de cette mer a-t-elle ete troublee comme elle vient de la ? aujourd'hui M. to Lord Granville Leveson Gower. Venice would be consistent with the blockade of that port. Tout ce qui vient de s'executer Test en efFet. M. apres avoir instruit Le (Signe) Le Compte Nicolas de Komanzow. from Cattaro. James jugeoit lui-meme que ce qu'il entreprenoit etoit directeraent contraire aux interets de la Hussie. accordingly. il I'a fait sans en prevenir S. Vienna. Ce extreme reserve pent servir de preuve que le Cabinet de St. having under convoy transports. Campbell on the transports under the escort of a The Commodore. with a number of 5000 troops on board. It Avas agreed. that nothing should be done until he could receive instructions from Prince Kurakin at Vienna. M. had anchored off Pirano. Soussigne. I. RECEIVED some days ago a letter from Commodore who commands a squadron of frigates in the Adriatic. A. APPENDIX. My Lord. doubts how far their beino. &c. cette S. loth.

I mentioned that. the result of which I think it highly necessary to communicate to your Lordship. against a proceeding so contrary to every principle of neutrality. obtain from him a declaration upon his honour. and that he would issue the necessary instructions to the Russian commander. for appears. and only at twelve miles distance from it. then to deliver him a strong protest in writing. been All these troops. in virtue of the secret engagements at Tillsit. To also this proposal I requested Prince Kurakin's assent. An advice answer so little satisfactory occasioned my writing im- mediately to Connuodore Campbell (who had solicited my how to proceed in a case so new and : : so difficult) a despatch. a viz. or marched by the liigh road to Venice. Power so long and so cordially connected middle course had been proposed by the Commothat of landing the troops at Garda.— APPENDIX. it put into the possession of France. which important station has. us. More Russian ships are expected every day with the troops from Corfu. to resist it by force. drawn up as closely as pos- your instructions. It was not my good fortune to succeed in persuading I could only Prince Kurakin to adopt this suggestion. but merely a measure of convenience and arrangement." to me to be necessary that your Lordship should without loss of time be made acquainted with a transaction which may lead to very serious discussions It appears between the two countries. that the land- ing of the troops at Venice was with no hostile intention. Having stated the object of my calling upon him. of which the following is an extract " All I can recommend you to do is this If the Russian commander should persist in sending these troops by sea. and — If under the escort of a frigate only. which is immediately opposite to Pirano. in order to avoid the appearance of any misunder- standing with a with dore. 409 with Prince Kurakin on the subject. and of his ally the sible to the spirit of King of Naples. but under the present apparent relations between . and thence either to get them conveyed by inland navigation. are destined instructions for my guidance on an occasion so novel and so unexpected. am absolutely without I Venice. and so directly prejudicial to the interest of his Majesty. he should come with his whole squadron.

His conversation. M. I endeavoured to disas possible. Sept. more perhaps than any other part of proves the existence of a general plan of partition between Russia and France. what was at the bottom of this afraid. and considering the many just causes of alarm from what has already transpired of the secret articles of their peace. by what fell from him. that I may be wrong in drawing any distinct conclusion from his silence and embarrassment on points where I pressed him but. as he carried me about from south to north and from west to east at almost . giving an account of the surrender of Corfu to the French. &c. as fatal treaty my public letter to you. Vienna.410 APPENDIX. I cannot attempt to give a regular report of this strange conference. the term of one month assigned for our acceptance or rejection of their mediation. A. is so desultory. My Lord. that all your prognostics (as they were communicated to me by Lord Pembroke) are on the point of being verified. The same to the same. In my conversation with Prince Kurakin on the business contained in cover. to say the least of it. Russia and France. I have the honour to be. &c. I INCLOSE you the copy of a letter which Lord Pembroke received a few days ago from are already in full possession. the conduct of his master corroborates every suspicion liis own language is calculated to inspire. will be the first victim in point The rest will follow in their turn. and one which the British government would on no account allow to be carried into eiFect through the abandonment of the blockade of the port of Venice. the recent surrender of Corfu and the known determination of Bonaparte to attempt everything to get possession of Sicily. Foresti. of which the Ottoman Empire of order. I cannot help looking upon the assemblage of a large Russian force in the north of Italy as a measure extremely suspicious. it is true. 1807. &c. I am afraid they This it. unhappily. . 15th. much and I am much . effect of the treaty. (Signed) R.

was perfectly true. and twenty other matters totally foreign Among other things which to the object of our interview. and asked what harm Russian troops could do to us in the north of Italy ? He asked also whether the Emperor Alexander had not even given new proofs of his friendly disposition towards us by the offer of his mediation to bring about a peace? I answered to this latter question that Avhat he affinned respecting the mediation. escaped him. and made me no answer. . He then began talking of the conduct of Great Britain in the Baltic. what Russia meant to do after the expiration of that term ? Was it not true that she meant to force us to make peace ? At this he was visibly embarrassed. In reply to what he had objected concerning our suspicions of an old and faitliful ally. he obhis : — jected to me the injustice of entertaining suspicions against an old friend and ally. it was the clumsiest every question I put to him. however. attempt to battre la campagne I ever witnessed. Three points. . I pressed this point still further.APPENDIX. I then asked him in my turn. He was quite silent to all this except what regarded an attack on Sicily by Russian troops and to this he replied that the Emperor would never attempt anything against King Ferdinand. . was a kind of renewal of the principle respecting . but that the Emperor had given us only a month to consider of it. and that Bonaparte was determined to get Sicily if he could. I said (taking it for granted by his silence that Russia did actually entertain the designs I have mentioned) that I would accept the pledge of his word of honour for the absence of all present hostile intention in landing Russian troops at Venice but that if the mediation should come to nothing. I should judge to be certain. their presence there would be very convenient for whatever operations the allied Courts of France and Russia might think necessary to give effect to their engagements. 411 In short. from way of receiving and noticing what I said to him AVhen he gave me his word of honour that the troops were not to be landed at Venice with any hostile intention. I then said that I would not conceal from him my opinion that no Continental Power would be free from the influence of those engagements and I begged him to recollect that we had not abandoned the King of Naples.

. or profiting ****** will probably send off to the troops landed at Venice will either by one Count Stadion Count Meerfeldt as soon as we know the issue of this business. the 14th. &c. A'Court. Believe me. during the roar. or in some hostile manner against Austria.S. He would have had me to understand that as Commodore Campbell's force before Venice was inferior to that of the Russian com- mander. I am still incredulous respecting . By what you will post of such importance. Russia will declare against us : — . I should collect (if I had been conversing with a man at all informed of the views of his Court) three things as certain 1st. &c. Foresti's have seen that the cession of Corfu to France was already known to me. — and 3d. and by Mr. 1807 My tion dear Lord. that attempts peace. &c. From what I have here detailed. (Signed) P.412 APPENDIX. that be employed in rendering disposable a larger French force for the reduction of Sicily. 30th. blockaded ports contended for by the neutrals. but I confess that I could not have believed that Russia Avould have pushed her hostile inclinations against us so far as to lend her ships and her flag to put our enemy in possession. of a military letter. by Trieste. — will be made to force Austria to join the continental confede- racy. I intend either despatching another courier to you. Sept. I RECEIVED. I wrote to you on the loth. that if we don't make 2d. left Vienna on The same to the same. to proceed to England Lord Pembroke. A. R.. &c. and your desj)atch and inclosures am extremely obliged to you for the informa- you have sent me. Mr. on the 24th of the 14th. Vienna. the entry of the latter with his fleet could not be considered as disturbing the blockade. inst. the cession of a part of the Russian navy to France but . I contented myself with saying that we had not yet received this law into our naval code.

and have desired the latter to forward a copy of it to General Moore. I trust he will protest in the strongest terms against this pro- With Miolis are arrived there. Commodore Campbell has quitted his station. I have of course written home to too precious to wait their ansAver. and the vessels there and at Zante. the troops from Alexandria would be more than sufficient to reduce all the Islands before the French could fortify themselves in them and settle They cannot attack us for some time in their government. and employ them to great advantage against the enemy in the South of Italy. perhaps not this whole winter. which was to have been relieved by the French. regard to Corfu. are obliged to remain where they are. Mediterranean can spare a force sufficient to make the attack. With the aid of a Turkish peace. But if the . The difficulty of communication will delay this enterprise. . or whoever commands in Sicily. . and obtain the superiority there at any price. If Sir Arthur Paget.: . I received some information respecting the internal state of the Seven Islands. about 1200 French under General second division from Otranto A appears to have been prevented from landing by two of our frigates which blockade the harbour consequently. we must exert ourselves to send a the Adriatic. I have accordino-ly transmitted my information to Comm^odore Campbell and Sir Alexander Ball. the rest of the Russian garrison. its success is certainly on the cards. which he has orders to do without Russia. too. which gives me hopes that with a little exertion we may render ourselves masters of them. if we could get j)osSicily session of Cephalonia. we could raise a considerable number of Albanians. has sailed for that port with his whole fleet consequently ceeding. The state of aifairs in this quarter just now is as follows the Russian commander who convoys the troops from Cat- taro to Venice. whether fleet into it 413 be so or not. could make peace with the Turks. APPENDIX. Russian squadron employed in conveying the troops from Cattaro to Venice should return from executinof that service . Soon after I had despatched my messenger to you with the account of my conversation with Prince Kurakin. if our government but time is commanders in the . and indeed may possibly prevent its taking place otherwise. for instance.

my dear Lord. &c. and even amiNo cession of the sea-coast of the Adriatic has yet cable.S. Pembroke.414 before APPENDIX. I am afraid gives . moment 2d. is not restored. I able to say something distinct shaU in a few days be than I can at present. A. Petersburg may more or less tractable manifest. With Braunau regard to general politics. nor likely to be but otherwise the communications between Austria and France since the peace of Tillsit have been. dated the . (Signed) P. revived at the present moment. me no you can give me no hopes that Russia will support them in a refusal to comply with these or any other conditions. as according to the dispositions which the Cabinet of St. and I shaU of course be very anxious to hear from you. and continue to be civil. &c. &c. . send it. received a letter from Lord on board the ISIelpomene off He incloses me one for you. except by a messenger or other safe conveyance. demands is more than they know themselves. nor any requisition been made to Austria to assent to the principles of maritime law attempted to be Count Stadion. I shall be most happy in communicating regularly to you everything of importance which may occur during my residence here. we can establish our superiority in the Adriatic. assurance that these demands will not be made hence indeed by his manner I am sure he extime some What they will do in consequence of such pects them. but desires me not to Trieste. however. I am. I should be disposed to be on the subject of their proceedings in the Adriatic. I have this R. I am afraid the frigates wiU be obliged more to quit their station too. been exacted.

In the mean time it may perhaps be some of them by a coup de main can be settled. 1807.000 excellent seamen. I conclude from their hands you would wish to receive every inform- of ation concerning the internal situation of that island. 25th. having in consequence of the Peace of Tillsit been ceded to the French. which at my request has been drawn up. and intrusted to me by a person on whose accuracy. The name of reveal. It Could we prevent the resource. I have already despatched a messenger to to learn the sentiments of his Majesty's England in order government with regard to the expediency of a regular expedition for the reduction of these islands. It would be most useful if we could carry and keep Cephalonia. intelli- gence. and good faith I can depend. ah-eady been put in possession of it who appear to have beino- by Russia. all with zeal and fidelity against France. The Island of Corfu. and disposed to serve us 5. * ' APPENDIX The same to Sir Alexander Ball. It is with this view that I take the liberty of writinooccasion. Avhich might facilitate an enterprise for such a purpose. Sir.000 or 6. or whether all things considered. to justify his being exposed to the least risk of discovery. where there is no fortress at present able to make any possible to get possession of before the French government resistance. enemy from availing himself of this would be worth almost any effort. and its dependencies. to you upon the present and of transmitting to you the inclosed memoir. it be advisable to undertake it. I do not hesitate may be of any under the present mysterious rela- .. and the importit ance to Great Britain of wresting manifest. as this gentleman I am not yet at liberty to he would suffer too much from the unsuccessful issue of any enterprise for the liberation of his country. As far as my opinion on this last point value. i f lenj iii ^ww u-mi ji i i 'i . Vienna. are at this At Cephalonia my informant assures me there moment between 300 and 400 vessels.jgj y j. the service will be for yom* prudence to determine whether you can spare the necessary force for it. Sept.

His object is to join Sir Arthur Paget. it would be expedient to lay it before his Lordship. Summerers. A. 8z:c. together witli the memoir it contains. Should any other method strike you by which such an you wish any further information from hence. you will always find me most happy to contribute every assistance in my power. &c.416 tions APPENDIX. The same {Private. and take his opinion upon the matter R. will have the honour of delivering to accompanying despatch.) to the same. Same Sir. which place he has been compelled to quit in consequence of the war in Wallachia and Moldavia. &c. A. and to add to it such observayou may think the project deserves ? I am. to declare decidedly in the affirmative. P. or should secret correspondence within the islands. was his Majesty's Resident at Bucharest. After having read and considered the despatch of which Mr. under whose authority his situation places him. If the Earl of Pembroke should be still at Malta this letter arrives there. and for this purpose I take the liberty of recommending him to your protection. Sir. . (Signed) E. who you my he is the bearer. between Prussia and France.S. date. when of it. (Signed) R. may I request of you to forward the latter to General Moore. I have the honour to be. A. or to set on foot any enterprise might be rendered successful. or tions as whoever commands in Sicily.

Sir. while we had the superiority at sea. as thereabouts. E E . . By a Russian man-of-war brig that arrived at Trieste from Corfu two days before I sailed. They will find it now we have several cruisers I he the am fearful may be. in daily expectation of reinforcements. 417 Commodore Campbell H. I LAST night received your Excellency's despatches for Sir Alexander Ball by Mr. particularly Corfu. a difficult matter to get any over. With great respect. the Captain informed me the French had not above two thousand men on the island. it not have in his will have well established himself. Sunniicrers. Your Excellency's very humble Servant. The other islands would at present be easily wrested from the enemy Corfu would require a blockade and siege. 1807. I perfectly concur with your Excellency in the importance these islands would be of to Great Britain. and by that time Sir Alexander Ball. Campbell. I sail with the transport in a few days. Lussin. who shall be forwarded to Malta by a transport that sails in a few days.APPENDIX. I have the honour to be. M. will greatly facilitate any attempt that may be made on it. it As there are now cruisers to be constantly kept off there. Unite. will enemy until however much inclined power to make any attempt he receives instructions from home. Oct. 2d. P. but they were . A. it would be easily kept. as it is the key to the Adriatic and if once in our possession. to Mr. and will cruise off there for near three months. S.

but on what the hope is France. but that the peculiar relation in . I cannot help. and the defection of Russia from the common cause so destructive of all prospect of union. my duties are now reduced to the task of watching the course of events. Petersburg and its wretched poUtics.calamity. as to your situation with regard to distinct. could do nothing for the general unless you gave your cause of Europe. I dear Sir. that she and Prvissia the first by themselves. 10th. and that the winter may yet be passed at Vienna. to pass by Avithout troubling and communicating to you my views . It is supposed here. Russia. Mr. founded I know not. A. you having yourselves over and over again refused coming to an explanation with her last winter. Oct. no man can be more thoroughly disgusted with them than I am. and that the disposition to concede to the utmost. being still of opinion that your Court ought to show less aversion towards Russia than appears to me (and with some justice) to be felt. for a long time. can form any that are far I affairs. With regard to the Court of St. She was bound to you by no alliance. to say the truth. CANNOT suffer an My opportunity which I know to be safe. On the other hand.418 APPENDIX. Vienna. Nay more. and which I have reason to fear will be the last I shall possess you with a on the present few lines. that Austria will be left quiet some time longer that the business of the North of Europe. reduced as Prussia was by events of the campaign. Pozzo di Borgo. will avert the impendino. and would not continue the war assistance. that (I grieve to say it) you have noiv no other course to pursue except that of submission. 1807. of the last winter have been so great. and of being ready with the feeble succour I can afford when- As there is The errors ever the opportunity for offering it shall arrive. Russia gave you fair notice through M. has far less to answer for towards you than she has towards us. no use in my expressing a contrary opinion. especially having no power to prevent the evil. you ought to consider that not only the aggrandizement of France since last autumn. to Count Starhemberg. however. as as of posture sino-ular And first.

one of the grounds on which I speculated for a chance of gathering together the fragments of Europe. : sented that the British troops should evacuate Alexandria and this I should do for your sake. I should have insisted tht she should evacuate AVallachia and Moldavia. indeed I may . would have been as follows ing the extreme jealousy which Russia feels with respect to a British establishment in Egypt. and of finding himself on his arrival obliged (in a manner) to negociate against her. Petersburg ought to do. There never.. that Sir Arthur Paget's instructions were the most judicious that could be devised but the immense difference of being sent to negociate in concert Avith Russia. notwithstanding the many motives for jealousy and mistrust which subsist between you both. I was sanguine enough to hope that two other events might come. was a situation in which two Powers. supposing them even to have been separated by centuries of hostility. and to mould them into some resemblance to that system under which Europe In aid of this chance enjoyed so many years of prosperity. and of once more (at what period events alone could determine) attempting to give them a consistency. in short. and became a case in which a minister must make instructions for himself. as far as at knowthis distance I can judge. say that I know. I confess. almost obliges you to choose between her friendship and her enmity. before I con- I have no doubt. 419 which you are made to stand towards Russia by those articles of the peace * which concern Poland. I have no hesitation in saying that my conduct. ought to come to an understanding with each other more quickly and more unreservedly than your Court and that of St. This situation of your affairs with regard to Poland was. and to take away one of * OfTillsit. Paset mig-ht before this have been able to make that sort of arrangement with them which the change of circumstances between his quitting England and his arrival at The Constantinople rendered it expedient for him to attempt. APPENDIX. I was in hopes that Sir A. was such as no instructions could meet. EE 2 . first was our peace with the Turks. on each of which I will now take the liberty of offering you my opinion.

the causes which contributed last year to prevent your unit- ing with Russia. of including England in any and peace Avhich it was intended to render permanent secondly.420 APPENDIX. . but as safe as you can be under any treaty made with him. that I can see the most distant chance of getting round to our old habits. . I will not say you would have been safe. offered her mediation to Great Britain. and to consolidate the treaties of Presburg and Tillsit (bad as they both are) with that which she hoped might be concluded between us and France through her intervention ? If Bonaparte had consented to any proposal from Russia to this effect. on a truth equally admitted by France. that I confess I would have been seized by your Previously to the Court and turned to some advantage. Russia. and detaching Russia from her jDresent monstrous association. grounded. hopes that it . Great and Prussia had in substance accepted yom* mediation for This acceptance was the restoration of a general peace. I confess. It is only through these means. then at least he must have comf)letely developed his views to the Emperor Alexander. by the consent of France. If he had rejected it. on a necessity which appeared to be recognised even by France herself. what could be more obviously your policy than to endeavour to engage Russia to extend her guaranty to the Continental peace. France. and to build some reasonable project upon hereafter. After the treaty of Tillsit Russia. November 8th. first. * See Lord G. and her guaranty for the preservation of the maritime peace to be concluded under her auspices. Leveson's letter next following. required some further security for her frontiers on the side of Germany and Italy than she now possessed. and the good by the Emdid peror Alexander towards Austria in the communications made by Baron Budberg entertain last winter. Another chance of recovering our arise so naturally out lost ground appeared to of the circumstances which preceded will testified all the peace of Tillsit. namely. Observe that I am no advocate for this mediation but being offered and not rejected by us *. as you know. that Austria since the federation of the Rhine and the other arrangements made by the peace of Presburg. treaty of Tillsit. and given us a foundation to work upon. Britain.

Whatever is settled. for I cannot suffer myself to entertain a 421 moment's hope that French either the ill-humour of Kussia at the continuance of troops in the than remonstrance.APPENDIX. The manner of the Russian admiral's putting the French in possession of Cattaro and the Seven Islands is to the highest degree offensive. With or Italy. 20th. (Signed) R. &c. regard to what is intended to be done in Germany you will hear more from others than you can expect from me. The same to Lord G. which a great point. We should have had peace long ago with the Turks had not Sebastiani declared to them that his Master would consider such a step as a declaration of war against himself. but none on which I can depend. I should apprehend further schemes of between them both. Goiver. indeed. but there are some things to which it is impossible to submit. My I dear Lord. for the present. to draw any conclusion from the conduct of Russia in the Adriatic. HAVE We is Constantinople. If any thing. 1807. it Were possible. I do what I can to prevent open quarreling. which contains vouchers for the payment of pennity. and the menace I fear be carried into effect if Sir Arthur's negociation succeeds. Vienna. I have great reason to believe that a demand will speedily E E 3 . Avill Prussian territories will be carried further or that her own non-evacuation of be more seriously resented by still Wallachia partition Bonaparte. L. but to provoke Great Britain to some act of hostility. I should say that she appears determined not only to favour France to the utmost. you must acquiesce &c. pretty sure that he is have various reports of Sir A. &c. howactually at Constantinople. Paget's success at I am. sions. ever. Oct. A. nothing particular to send to you by this opportubut only to recommend the accompanying packet to your care.

(Signed) R. 1807. in the present situation of Europe. and possibly at Belgrade and can she expect that Austria. My dear Lord. abandoned as she is by Russia. Vienna. as preventing much mischief between Adriatic and Mediterranean. ing to those seas.422 APPENDIX. the neighbours from different very the French M. my dear Lord. They are marching in corps from 800 to 1200 men. I HAVE that the passage of tories toAvards nothing very particular to say by this post. and certainly will not permit quietly the estabhshment of the French in the Seven Islands by the assistHaving abeady said all I ance of a Russian naval force. except French troops through the Austrian terri- Dalmatia is becoming very serious. A. be made here for the passage of a French army through This Court. The same to the same. Is Russia so infatuated with her new system as not to see to what this leads ? How will she like the French in Bosnia. &c. ? Russian Cabinets seems to increase every day. and then let Russia look to herself Turks. might be the means us and Russia in the Lord Collingwood is return- could to Prince Kurakin upon this subject in my last conversation (of which I gave you an account in my despatch of the 15th September). Pozzo di Borgo is returned. ****** . cannot Croatia. 28th. &c. and having no intercourse with him except that of mere civility. I must leave events to take their course if vessels any of our cruisers should convoying French troops. I regret that I cannot ! have the same intercourse to the Avith him which was it so serviceable of common cause in better days. Oct. can stir a step to prevent these evils ? In this quarter I am sorry to add that appearances are most The distance between the Austrian and the discouraging. I fall in with Russian am ever. She will find refuse it.

we required only previous to our accepttion of this Court We . but with great circumspection Believe me. St. A. from the expectation of having some- thing more decisive to communicate to you of the intentions I have this morning received a note from of this Court. My dear I Sir. I inclose copies of the notes which passed between Count Romanzow and myself. (Signed) R. to Avhich allusion . The paragraph respecting Denmark contains a curious construction of an assurance I was charged to give to this Court of the readiness of the English governto an understanding with Russia upon the question of the restoration of peace with the Court of Copenhagen. Nov.APPENDIX. 8th. ance of it the communication of the secret articles. &c. HAVE been daily deferring the return of yom* messenger for the last three weeks. and secrecy. &c. allow myself to it is Count Romanzow. I shall leave Petersburg in the course of a few days. &c. Lord Granville Leveson Gower to Mr. of which I inclose a copy. I will not make any comment upon its contents. and the re-establishment of the tranquillity of the North of Europe. which was distinctly refused. 423 all My poor friend Pozzo is ready to break his heart at this. There is no doubt that this note is the consequence of an imperative demand brought by Talleyrand from Paris. which it may perhaps be useful for you to possess. A. 1807. Petersburg. unless be to observe that the question of the mediation of Russia did not reject the mediacompletely misrepresented. is made in that which I received this morning and also a paper containing materials I have picked up here. requir- ment to come ing the inmaediate execution of the secret articles of the treaty of Tillsit. I contrive to see him sometimes. and E E 4 .

subordonnait ses justes ressentimens a la pensee consolante que la paix qu'il venait de conclure devait amener la paix generale. ne dissimula pas son ressentiment. Goicer. 1807. rejeta ses offices. my dear Sir. previt pas. . mais de la rallumer dans le Nord par un evenement Les flottes subit et nouveau. extremely sorry that circumstances have rendered our little am correspondence of so duration. L'Empereur. II avait ensuite offert sa mediation en prevenant sa Majeste Britannique que son desir L'Angleterre etait de lui procm-er une paix honorable. avait a se plaindre de la conduite de I'Angleterre a son egard. &c. &c. qui dans le cours de la guerre qu'ilvient d'achever. Petersburg. de sa Majeste Britannique. ses armees vinrent commettre sur le Dannemarc un acte dont I'histoire n'offire aucun exemple. et dans une seconde note remise au Lord Gower prevint I'Angleterre qu'il ne se proposoit pas de rester tranquille spectateur de ce qui venait d'arriver a roi son un parent et son ami. L. qu'apres cette declaration I'Angleterre lui ferait I'oiFre de se charger de faire entendre au Dannemarc qu'il etait de son interet de supporter ce qui venait de lui arriver. II s'etait constitue mediateur. L. qui du s^u de I'Angleterre etait un des garans de la tranquillite de la Baltique qui est une mer fermee.424 APPENDIX. et de rendre la Russie garante que la Grande Bretagne pouvait en toute surete posseder ce qu'elle venait de ravir. 8. I am. Count Romanzoio to Lord G. 1807. (Signed) Granville Leveson Gower. Adair of Nov. Gower's letter to Mr. II semblait qu'il entrait dans ses vues de ne pas laisser eteindre les feux de la guerre. f"'^"^*"^" ° ce 8 Aovembre. L'Empereur. il L'Empereur ne le confesse. &c. I'Empereur qui n'avoit ete prevenu de rien. St. Inclosure in Lord G.

de repandre de nouveaux germes de la guei're. que I'Empereur rompt toute communication avec I'Angleterre. pour ainsi dire. 425 ratifie la conaux secondes Copenhague propositions de qui vention viennent de lui etre faites il a encore expose a sa Majeste . et s'engage a ne jamais deroger de ce systeme. et engagemens qu'il du Nord. lieu de permettre a ses ministres. Le Prince Royal de Dannemarc n'avolt pas Imperiale. L'Einpereur. Lorsque I'Empei'eur sera precedent. tons deux decide a les remplir. ambassadeur de qu'eUe y avait. satisfaire demande a I'Angleterre de completement ses sujets sur toutes les justes reclamations de vaisseaux et de marchandises. L'Empereur declare qu'il annulle et pour toujours tout acte conclu precedemment entre la Grande Bretagne et la Russie. comme elle vient de le faire. Sa Majeste Imperiale rappelle toute la mission Lord Gower. le de glorieuse memoire. ce II monument de la sagesse de la neutralite de I'lmperatrice Catherine. ayant miirement examine les avait avec les Puissances peratrice Catherine. L'Empereur previent que Russie et I'Angleterre que marc. se pretera a conclure la paix avec sa Majeste I'Empereur des Frau^als. ce qui etendrait. proclame de nouveau les principes armee. et satisfait sur tons les j)oints qui nommement sur celui de la paix entre la France aucune partie de I'Europe ne pent pas se promettre une veritable tranquiUite. II n'y aura dorenavant entre les deux pays aucun rapport.APPENDIX. son Excellence le s'est Aussi sa Majeste charge-t-elle Soussigne de declarer a sa Majeste Britannique. sa Majeste et I'Angleterre. a toute la terre les bienfaits inappreciable de la paix. engagemens pris par I'lmfeu sa Majeste I'Empereur. n'ecoutant que sa propre sensibilite. touche de la confiance Prince Royal pla^ait en son amitie. combien il etait irrite par ce nouveau procede du que le ministere Bi'ittanique a son egard. et nommement II la convention fait en 1801 le -^ du mois de Juin. et ne veut pas conserver pres d'elle celle de sa Majeste Brittanique. sans laquelle . rien ne sera retabli entre la celle-ci n'ait satisfait le Danneau L'Empereur s'attend a ce que sa Majeste Brittanique. ay ant considere ses propres griefs contre I'Angleterre. saisies ou retenues contre la teneur expresse des traites conclus sous son propre regne.

et le Soussigne a vainement reclame la communication des arrangemens dont I'accomplissement I'esprit developpe chaque jour des objets pen conformes a des anciennes alliances. 9th. I. 1' Ambassadeur. il a peut etre conserve trop long- Le maitre. E. E. quelques observations qui les puissent mettre dans leur jour veritable demarches reci- proques des deux Puissances. Imperiale reprendra alors volontiers avec la Grande Bretagne les relations d'amitie que dans I'etat de juste mecontentement ou I'Empereur devalt temps. prie son Excellence Soussigne s'etant acquitte des ordres de I'Empereur son M. le contenu de cette note. lorsque cette Cour refuse nettement la seule explication . 1807. etre. les divulgoit avec franchise. Les articles secrets du traite de Tillsit sont d'ailleurs inconnus a la Cour de Londres.426 APPEKDIX. ambassadeur de S. de vouloir bien porter sans delai a la connoissance de S. son souverain. a I'hon- le Comte de en date de liier. Lord (Copie.) Granville Leveson Gower to Count Romanzow. la note du Soussigne en date du 2^*® Septembre. II ne tardera pas a la transmettre a sa Cour. et absolument prejudiciables aux interets dont le maintien fut jadis une partie essentielle du systeme Est-ce done a la Russie de se plaindre du secret. et I'explication en fut reiteree et accompagnee de details plus que satisfaisans a I'occasion de la premiere conference du Soussigne avec le ministere du jour. Russe. bien loin de cacher les raisons qui avoient motivees cette expedition. Nov. M. mais les inculpations qui y sont contenues centre le gouvernement Britannique imposent au neur d'accuser de la note que S. Quoique la celerite indispensable a I'execution des projets de precautions adoptes vis-a-vis le Dannemarc ne permettoit pas des communications anterieures. (Signe) Le Comte Nicolas de Romanzow. la reception M. Britannique. de faire parvenir sans delai a la connoissance du Roi. Romanzow lui a adresse Soussigne le devoir de prier S. Le Soussigne.

Admiral Gambier did send two cutters to Liebau to keep up a communication with England. Memel paroissoit au Pavilion en etre Le Soussigne saisit cette occasion. via a road way to Vienna. understand from this government that the of security. although I have little doubt if Russia did not shut her ports that it would be practicable till to ply between Liebau and Ystadt winter. so that I fear they are both gone. but he gave orders at the same time that they should not remain longer than the first east wind beyond the 10th of November. My dear Sir. L. Quant a la tranquillite de la Baltique. Mr. for I at least if Christmas." For the security of this Stettin. paper France requires five fortresses. Memel. You know that this country has 112. GowER. 1807. &c. and found by the answer from Liebau that they meant to keep company. Custrin. Graudenz. qu'auroit les projets 427 les intentions et pu rassurer celle de Londres sur ? medites a son egard Ce silence. Colberg. Nov. and to mortgage certain crown lands as a security (France had required the sale of crown lands near Berlin to be a la disposition des generaux Fran<^ais) and the other half in a given time by " obligations royales. cette extreme reserve pent servir de preuve que le Cabinet de Petersbourg jugea lui-meme que ses arrangemens secrets etoient directement contraires aux interets de la Grande Bretagne.-z^'^' APPENDIX. &c. 14th. (Signe) G. et qu'elles que fussent les pretentions de la Russie au titre de garant de la surete de cette mer. I had just tune to charge one of them with despatches. Garlike to Mr.000 of livres to pay to France. are three weeks on their letters. &c.000. Glogau. It is proposed to pay one half in five years. A. I'Angleterre n'a jamais reconnu des di'oits exclusifs. not dm-ing the whole It was impossible to inform you of it in time. son silence lors de la cloture des ports Britannique de Lubeck jusqu'a I'abandon ouvert. and that Prussia shall maintain . They have shown great unwilhngness to remain.

Then you must add about 4. 11.000.000 French soldiers. must appear. while Pnissia formerly for their maintained 250. other day to look for Lord Pembroke and take liim home. arrive here about the i9th instant. that is to say. Count Goltz has been informed from Vienna that France had desired Austria to shut her ports also.000 to pay off the contribution. will be allowed to farthest. at the I do 14th instant. friendliest. this day. rather. but enough of justify the belief that an unfriendly intelligible to step has been taken England at St. . that an embargo has been laid on all vessels but that ninety-six hours whatever in the Kussian ports way to accept I must be sure . against . for if Prussia agrees to do Avhat is evidently not within her means the favourable condition of that agreement will be to keep the French in the country. a mercantile estafette brings word from St. Petersburg.000 thalers for 40. but it comes from the king I mean to say I can The king's name justify my departure in no other Avay. : . was already so far advanced as to induce this government to believe that a definitive answer will . Petersburg.000 men. or negothe French government ciation to agree. I have written to Count Goltz against the cession of the fortresses on Eno-lish grounds. Prince William is gone to Paris to endeavour to soften while the agreement. or. or. and to induce you The Franchise frigate came off this place the to retire.000 for other demands. amounting to 11. pay France maintenance on a calculation given in for that purpose. that to say.000.000. This government wish me in the gentlest. 17.000 thalers.000 men for 17. not understand the news. that I shall not wonder if the first time I see Count Goltz something more passes on the subject I say the first time.000. as many civilities may follow as may be thought proper I sometimes think the notion of its necessity is suspended. and 2. most every managed terms possible to go away. Which way the di- lemma will turn it is impossible to foresee.000.000 of a revenue amounting in the whole to about 20. tUl the them to get away is if they will it is .000. but so much has already been said upon it. It may be as well an intimation before it grows to an order. The alternative is evident. for while 1 write. them 8.000.428 in each of APPENDIX. that is to say.000.000.

Nov. Your obedient Servant. Paget called here the 2d ult. Sir Alexander Ball to Mr. 17th. Most faithfully.APPENDIX. 1807. which I communicated to Major-General Sir Charles Green. I have the honour to be. Sir. If 429 you have occasion Griffin. 17th. and Sir A. always find means of furthering the letters to London. W. if we act with energy and Lord Pembroke arrived here in his Majesty's ship Melpomene. Nov. With great respect and esteem. Summerers arrived the 15th inst. A. Malta. the 2d of last month. Malta. you that Lieut. You will hear before this reaches commanding the troops in this garrison. My dear Sir. Alex. and delivered to me your despatch containing a project. which they wisdom. the senior officer in the Mediterranean. in his way to England. who will to send this way inclose it to Mi'. Your most faithful and obedient. I have the honour to be. M. The same to the same. Ball. and to open new channels for our commerce. having failed in his mission. Gaiilike. 1807. I have the honour to acquaint your Excellency that Mr. Sir. may effect. I HOPE soon to hear that his Majesty's ministers intend to pursue vigorous measures in the Mediterranean. to counteract the enemy's operations. and proceeded immediately to Gibraltar. -General . Sir.

(Signed) . I have the honour to be With Your great respect and esteem. I trust that your Lordship will find his information to correspond with what you will have yourself received from those inhabitants of the Seven Islands who are attached to the British cause. I have the honour to be. which must for the present impede project. I TAKE the liberty of recommending to your Lordship the bearer of this letter. Vienna. I have (in the absence of Lord Collingwood. our attempt to put into execution your I have this day received intelligence that his Majesty's by three large French which are supposed to have put into that port. Excellency's most faithful And very obedient. the commanderin-chief. M. Summerers was the bearer. of his Majesty's ship Active. &c. 23d. My Loed. of Captain Mowbray. of which Mr. sailed John Moore from Sicily last October with a large British force on a secret expedition. A. A. Sir. I have directed Captain Mowbray to correspond with you by every safe conveyance. R. (Copy.) ordered a very efficient squadron under the command ship Unite has been chased oiF Corfu frigates. Ball. to proceed up the Adriatic to counteract the enemy's operations. He is the gentleman from whom I received the information respecting the state and condition of the Seven Islands. Mr. &c. As I have been directed (in addition to my civil employment here) to hoist my flag and carry on the duty of port admiral. Alex.430 Sir APPENDIX. Nov.) to Lord Collingwood. and who wish to co-operate Avith your Lordsliip for the deliverance of their country from the oppression with which it is threatened by the French. 1807. which I transmitted to Sir Alexander Ball in a despatch of the 25th of September.

sache qu'il sera considere comme ennemi. &c. a pour objet de vous mettre en etat de meriter de plus en plus le bienfait de cette libre et durable constitution a laquelle vous etes appelles. et. Tinstallation du gouvernement. active et forte telle que vous n'en avez point joui encore avantages d'une existence — vous — fasse sentir les precieux civile. 431 Inclosure in the above. Retournez a vos demeures. quant a la chose publique. les plus tenebreuses retraites de toutes les parties de risle. Je me propose de soutenir avec fermete. appliquez vous a vos occupations domestiques. M. recueillir par Teffet de soins affectueux mesures paternelles et prevoyantes. Je vous invite done a m'obeir. juste. Que dans dans toute I'etendue de la Republique je Septinsiilaire. par L'etablissement d'un gouvernement provisoire. soutenu les invincibles troupes de S. et tout I'appui de la force. Ainsi au nom de mon auguste Souverain je vous exliorte a vous soumettre. Proclamation of George Moncenigo. afinqu'une administration supreme. Minister Plenipotentiary of the Emperor of Russia. voir penetrer. mais severe. Vous ses devez. laissez en absolu- ment toute pensee a ceux-la seuls qui y sont autorises C'est ainsi que vous vous preparerez a devenir les enfans lesritimes d'un etat libre . entendre. &c. qui pourroit ne pas y repondre par la conduite la plus pacifique. je saurai par des moyens dont me suis assure. Que celui. to the Inhabitants of the Republic of the Seven Islands.! ! APPENDIX. habitans des Sept Isles. les premiers fruits des que prend de vous mon auguste Souverain. I'Empereur de toutes les Russies.

as well as those of the Turks. in my power to send your Lordship any further information from this place. But whatever may be the motives of Russia. but that the interior administration of them is organised on a footing of permanent possession. in order (no doubt) to give time for the occupation of the Seven Islands by France. however. Same date. Russia should now refuse to evacuate Moldavia and Wallachia. The same to the same. Of these tardy proceedings France complains. under such circumstances. that by the you by ****** commu- it secret articles of the j^eace of Tillsit. and in the neighbourhood of the Vistula an equal number occupy Silesia. that. My Were nicated to it Lord. and calls upon Russia first to execute the treaty by which her armies. besides a Polish anny. and the assembhng an army in Dalmatia. to be wondered at. to observe that this new and monstrous connection between Russia and France begins How can already to Avear the appearance of mutual distrust. Lordship may possibly be apprised already) is. so that both parties may start fau' in the . your Lordship may depend upon the fact. which were to constitute her share of the Turkish spoils whenever France should proceed to put herself in possession of the Morea. that not only she has not evacuated these provinces. It is not. retire to their respective frontiers. were to . than that which will be would give me inexpresAll I have now to say (and of this your sible satisfaction. it be otherwise Avhen not one single article of the treaty of Tillsit has been executed by the latter Power ? The Prussian Upterritories are occupied as they were during the war. therefore.000 French troops.432 APPENDIX. that Sebastiani has transfeiTcd the negociations for the Turkish peace to Paris. wards of 40. and there is a large division of their army at Berlin. as your Lordsliip may well imagine. exhibit scenes of plunder and oppression without end. and in its neighbourAll these districts. until the definitive treaty of peace. still remain at Warsaw. I scarcely need acquaint your Lordship. it is agreed that both the Morea and Candia shall be possessed by France in the eventual partition of the Ottoman dominions. I have the satisfaction. hood.

except that the ports of Trieste and Fiume continue shut to the British flag. A.have nothing to add. 1807. race of spoliation. it has appeared to me expedient that Lord Minto. she may break at once the bonds of this unnatural confederacy. and that he was hastening to Constantinople to lay the whole before the Divan. among its many and incalculable advantages. Avill insist with more firmness upon the execution of its ostensible stipulations. and who has repassed a few days ago on his return home. I. informed the Turkish charge d'affaires at this place that he had obtained thorough information at Paris of the treachery of France towards Turkey in the late treaty of Tillsit. that France. To what I have here the honour of stating to your Lordship. and that in conperceive. which I request you to forward to him. disappointed in the execution of what is to her advantage in the secret articles of the treaty. they will probably continue so during the war. therefore.APPENDIX. &c. &c. should be informed as speedily as possible of an event likely to affect in so material a degree the British interests in India. It has just come to my knowledge. governor-general of Bengal. one of the most immediate must be. to Sir Alexander Ball. sequence of a new convention with France. should Corfu and its dependent islands be wrested from France. of which event. and perhaps totally destroyed. In the extraordinary situation of affairs produced by the avowed alliance of Russia with France. 27th. The same Sir. overland by Alexandria. I have the honour to be. if possible. lency a despatch for I take the liberty. I send this dispatch to your Excellency under a flying F F . as your Lordship will instantly would be materially counteracted. and placed under his Majesty's protection. Nov. that the Turkish minister who passed through Vienna last winter in his way to the head-quarters of Bonaparte. 433 This plan. and that by a peremptory demand to that effect. (Signed) R. Vienna. of inclosing to your Excelhis Lordship.

1807. to whom I wrote an account on that day of Lord Granville Leveson Gower's having been ordered to quit St. your Lordship will find partly detailed in the inclosed note to Leveson Gower signed by Count Romanzow. Vienna. whose a distance from the scene of transactions and influence are now approaching even the countries committed to your Lordship's administration. which you will do by a perusal of Lord Granville Leveson Gower's correspondence. Mt Lord. 26tli. It is with the utmost concern that I inform your Lordship that on the 8th instant. (requesting you to close it up when you shall have perused and taken a copy of any part of its contents which you may think useful). Lordship's information I subjoin Lord Granville For your Lord Granville Leveson's answer to it. Petersburg with the whole of the British Embassy. I have the honour to be.S. as it appeared at the time of your Lordship's departure from England. the fixed policy of Russia. the state of the question between Great Britain and Russia. you will naturally be anxious to learn through what variety of events. (Signed) R. received the Emperor of Russia's orders to quit St. Lord Granville Leveson Gower. P. I despatched a messenger to Trieste on the 24th instant with orders to hire a vessel there and endeavour to fall in Avith Lord CoUingwood. Petersburg. R. has undergone so entire and so fatal a revolution. and through what succession of calamity the natural and. in order to your understanding exactly. A.434 seal APi-ENDIX. The same to Lord Minto. so At great effects . Nov. Petersburg. &c. A. &c. The motives which are alleged by the Emperor's new advisers Britain. for thus breaking ofi' all connection with Great and making common cause with France to exclude us from the Continent of Europe. his Majesty's ambassador at the Court of St.

and will carry the war. and of these It little transpires. from the Vistula to the Ganges. with respect to a supposed want of activity on the part of England in producing a diversion in the North of Germany but his Imperial Majesty likewise . confirmed by every reign. On and who arrived at Memel in company with Lord G. Of the treaty of Tillsit your Lordship has no doubt a versal peace. nor of dissatisfaction. who had been sent from England on a the 10th or 11th of the special mission to this Court. was by the occupation of F F 2 . and Russians scarcely those fatal conferences which under pretended views of uni- name of peace from Europe. had an interview with the Emperor Alexander who had come to visit his army. but it is in the secret articles of the treaty that the it is essential part of contained. an armistice was solicited by the Russian general. in the beginning of to some grounds of complaint What may to me. I heard no syllable of complaint. L. month of June indeed. the unseemly familiarities of their prolonged intercourse. the Earl of Pembroke.APPENDIX. Eight days after these assurances. and which never varied for one perceived the slightest moment while symptom was filled by Count Razamoffsky. have banished even the copy. except through their execution. and with considerable vehemence of manner. His Imperial Majesty expressed undoubtedly much dissatisfaction at that time. 485 Count Your Lordship will observe Romanzow's note that he alludes against the British government. Gower (reappointed to the Russian embassy on the recal of the Marquis of Douglas). probably. Then followed the interview at Tillsit between the Emperor Alexander and Bonaparte. assured Lord Pembroke much less of accepting such terms of peace as the treaty of as- Tillsit has unfortunately revealed to Europe. that he had no thoughts of entering into negociation with France. without the occurrence of trifling severation wliich could add weight to the promise of a sove- any new event except the disadvantage of the battle of Friedland where the lost 8000 men. in terms equally energetic. of those grounds is totally unknown be the nature During the Avhole of the confidential intercourse which subsisted between that post the Russian ambassador at Vienna and myself.

one month was agreed uj^on as the period for our acceptance of this offer. Kussia was to make common cause with France to force us to make peace.436 APPENDIX. Another phrase of the day is called the " liberty of the seas. By the secret article. and of the circumstances attending it. that Russia shall have Wallachia and Moldavia. 1. Three of the most important stipulations. after which if we rejected it. to require an explicit commu- nication of the further engagements subsisting between the mediator and the enemy. I am equally without any documents from Lord Granville Leveson respecting the discussions which passed between . A the Court which proposed it. By the ostensible treaty. but I am confident that to this moment none have been accepted. as I have no knowledge except from the newspapers. however. the Emperor Alexander engaged to offer his mediation to bring about a peace between Great Britain and France. and indeed could scarcely have been sincere on the part of secret articles of such a tenor. I can relate nothing but the fact. It was at all events necessary before entering into negoclation under circumstances so am- biguous in their appearance. Of this expedition. to France. and sharing in the spoil. The attack on Copenhagen. followed soon after this refusal of Russia to communicate the secret articles. Russia and France are agreed. This was flatly refused by the Russian ministry to Lord G. I am ignorant whether any proposals of co-operating." which was to be the basis of any peace to be concluded between Great Britain and France under the auspices of this me- diation. mediation offered to England under the existence of was sure to be ineffectual. of these articles may be collected from circumstances already known. The third is the eventual partition of the Turkish Empire. as far as this. Corfu alone that we knew of its cession. secret article relates to what in the cant 2. together with its dependent islands. It is through the Morea that Bonaparte looks forward to Con- stantinople. and France the Morea and the island of Candia. have been made to the Court of Vienna. however. 3. Leveson. and the surrender of the Danish fleet.

little to shorten its duration. and so opposite to the old notions of policy entertained by the founders of last.APPENDIX. of attacking St. but dear and ever present to our enemy. all fear. Petersburg until the arrival (as Lord Granville informs me) of M. or any other part of her It is own dominions. from the correspondence inclosed. That such a project has long existed in the mind of Bonaparte there can be no doubt. and nothing. to Great Britain. Petersburg. In consequence of this note appears to have been delivered to our ambassador. now con- sidered as leagued for the destruction and slavery of the That an alliance so monstrous. therefore. certainly. of attacking the British possessions in India through Persia. his 437 Lordship and the Russian ministers upon this event. would be incredible in but in the state to which Europe is now the Russian Empire. to observe that Russia has no great right to comCopenhagen by us. I saw the details of it myself before I left England (and I make no doubt your Lordship has seen them) in ^the F F 3 . This gentleman is supposed to have brought with him a peremptory demand for the immediate execution of the secret articles. be collected from this correspondence that Russia had promised her assistance to Denmark on the also to Prince Royal's refusal to ratify the convention of Copenhagen. as I am obliged to do. unless better informed. must. Avill Your Lordship. a nephew of the minister. the style of the note. I think it but fair. therefore. summons Count Romanzow's who he was to quit Petersburg informs in a me in his private letter that few days. lect the col- matter of these discussions. I world. remote I trust in its execution. to whom her secret engagements with our enemy gave the indisputable right. plain of the attack on however. to resist its effects. should any other times reduced I see . and the topics of accusation and it By reproach addressed in written at Paris. it was evidently be Russia and France. from Paris. de Talleyrand. One of these effects (and which has made me think it my duty to send off this despatch to your Lordship) is the renewal of the vast project. Things appear to have remained in this situation at St. and might perhaps have justified the policy.

I wiU conclude with a few words on the present state of Europe. Europe seems approaching to its fall. and endeavoured to animate it illustrious. Having stated these matters. At the date of this letter. Pozzo di Borgo. you would have seen how earnestly M. has reached me that the plan is again in contemplation. it continue to be It — * Austria. and she is now bitterly suffering to those exertions by which alone safe. before leaving England. some of the great obstacles to an attack on India have disappeared : others are much diminished. Information. I received this intelligence before the breach between Great an event alarmingly calculated to Britain and Russia.438 possession APPENDIX. of Sir its John Hippesley. to the best of my power. your Lordship took the trouble to read the despatches from Vienna. Of this renowned monarchy * I can say nothing consolatory to your Lordship who has seen it in some of its best I followed last year. the days. but which I think may nevertheless be trusted. where her negociations have been pushed during these last two years with extraordinary activity and all she now wants to be in a condition to execute the most gigantic schemes. visionary as the project seemed even last year. is to con- The Turkish empire in . France has'been gaining ground rapidly in Persia. or could again become was my good fortune at that period to co-operate with one whose zeal and abilities no man can appreciate more justly than your Lordship. . I have found in him everything that is valuable in man. ardour and prudence in great affairs. traces you had left behind you. and to facilitate its execution. for your Lordship's consideration. Pozzo di Borgo and myself laboured to bring Austria to a just sense of her situation. If. and to con\dnce her that as she could have no hope but in resistance. general indeed in nature. so she never would have such an opportunity of resisting with effect. soHdate her connections with Russia. For. and what is regarded as impossible on one day becomes only improbable on the morrow. circumstances have so favoured Bonaparte. — accelerate the attempt. sincerity and affection in the intercourse of private hfe. which are of a more innnedi - ate import. I mean M. that even prudence seems now on the side of entei'prise with him. That opportunity she lost.



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Loudon. To J. who may at some time of their lite propose to build a cottage or co-ontry house. and 800 new Figures of Plants on Wood. 8vo. illustrated with upwards of 1844. Transfer. D.L. sewed. 1312. bringing down Improvements in the art of Field-Culture from 1831 to 1844 inclusive. LOUDON. is a sutfieient recommendation for its general excellence. 8vo.S. engraved figures.-HORTUS BRITANNICUS A Catalogue of all the Plants indigenous to or introduced into Britain. 3s. By Mrs. iftS. 7s. Public Houses. Culture. the History and Present State of Gardening in all Counand its Theory and Practice in Great Britain with the Management of the Kitchen Garden. 5th Edition.S.— Introduction— The House— The Garden— Domestic Animals. Baxter. — LOUDON. accompanied by such descriptions. A New Edition. \avebeen consulted. H.^kazine. (Jne very large vol. and January 1840: with a new General Inde. Loudon. in 1829.-AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COTTAGE. Country Inns. Loudon lias the merit of ha\-tng conveyed more information upon architecture in a popular style.xtures. 1100 Engravings on Wood.000 Engravings on Wood. . By J. containing 160 additio-nal pages of letter-press and nearly 300 new engravings. Independently of Mr. as may enable a beginner. 6d. tries. Adapted for the use of Nurserymen.L. Fi. [/« the press. F. or than has been accomplished since. 10s." Bkitish F. Laying-out Grounds. F. Author of " Gardenia^ for Contents. : pp. The 3d Edition (1832). The Supplement (1835) separately 8vo. enlarged and much improved. and H.ed containing. . F L. with -nearly 10. C.L. with a Supplement. . prepared. with Suggestions for and Supplement.L. ^'2. 8vo.L. 1 very thick vol.the Hardy Trees and Shrubs of Great Britain. 2s. sewed.S. 8vo. Houses. 8vo. By J. ±'2. 15s. LOUDON. F. and Uses in the Arts. 8vo.S. comprising all the previous Supplements. 10s. Or. 1234. " being.Rural WalksMiscellaneous Country Amusements— Country Duties. 7s. F. H. pp. &c. Loudon. " To know that this Supplement is by the author of the justly-popT. &c. 1 vol. and Management of Landed Property. &c. &c. Parochial Schools. and appropriate Offices. 6d. 13s.S.)-THE LADY'S COUNTRY COMPANION. Comprising the Theory and Practice of the Valuation. Gardeners. a general History of Agriculture in all Countries. 6d.-AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GARDENING.Iar Encycloptedias of Agriculture and Gardening. and Garden Scenery: each Design accompanied by Analytical and Critical Remarks illustrative of the Principles of Architectural Science and Taste on which it is composed. bringing down the work to the year its future progress in the British Isles Loudon.L. bound in cloth. C. with New Supplement. comprising "every desirable particular resiiecting all the Plants originated in. and illustrated with 65 Engravings on Wood. and of the Cultivation and Economy of the Animal and Vegetable productions of Agriculture: including all the latest Improvements. F. 8vo. underthe direction of J. A New Edition. and upwards of 2500 Woodcuts. Loudon. 190. His Encyclopaedia of Cottage and Village . with a NewSupplement.S.L. " The late Mr. 8vo. 6d. 31s. C. Britain between the first publication of the work.\TER Supplement (1839) separately.Z.L.v to the whole work. By J. the Flower Garden. to discover the name of every Plant which he may find in flower. C. By in the neighbourhood of London. Tite Supplement. C. the it which is useful and interesting.the : Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum" abrids. Gardens. prepared by W. separately. By J. -IIORTUS LIGNOSIS LONDINENSIS. Loudon." &c.G. How to Enjoy a Country Lite Rationally. may be had separately. LOUDON. C. Loudon. . F. and elementary details.Svo. one of tne most valuable -n-orks on rural affairs either in our own er in any other language.-AN ENCYCLOPiEDIA OF AGRICULTURE. 2000 Engravings on Wood. with more than 2000 Engravings on Wood. sewed. 8vo.S. Laying-out. C. Native and Foreign. who is a mere English reader. and General Estimates of the Expense. oOs.ue of all the Ligneous Plants cultivated which are added their usual prices in Nurseries. Improvement. in one systematic view." -SVEsTMiNSTiiR Review. Drawings by J. than -was ever attempted before. AND VILLA ARCHITECTURE and FURNITURE. Including all the Plants which are now found in. Presenting:. cloth. cloth. &c. cloth. 1 large vol. bringing down the work to 1842. LOUDON. Great Britain giving their Natural History.S. a Statistical View of its present State. &c. Sowerby. The SuppLE-MENT. FARM. separately. as adapted for general readers. Containing Designs forCottages. and works on other sciences in connection with it. a Catalo2. Edited by J.— : LOUDON (MRS.S. Loudon'iTlons practical experience. Or. and revised by George Don. &c.-AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PLANTS.Architecture is indispensable to tiie library of all non professional readers. and Foresters. New Edition (1842). The last Supplement. 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and cart-loads of dead soldiers from the hospitals thrown into great pits. F. ''"'". Prof. the Relations between Landlord and Tenant. ^'cLu' ""''' 2 thick vols. reduced from a Series t entrale. crown Woodcuts. . atlas quarto. R. LOW-ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL AGRICULTURE.THE PHYSIOLOGY OF VISION. with above 300 Wood Engravings. presenting the principles as well as the practice. Esq.R. AND THE MANAGEMENT [In the press. 6d. 3d Edition.£'2. The HORSE. 2s. F. 1 vol. Lecturer on the Eye in the University of Glasgow 8vo with MACKINTOSH (SIR JAMES).L.-£3.^. 8vo. By David Low. 8vo.*« t. Places. beautifully coloured after Nature. 5th Edition.i'' i^n^?ii^4'MK?n"'H?\^'c\¥. with 8 plates. with Alterations and Additions. . with 22 plates. 8vo.fied by Us%lear and frequently Elaborated cnmmurc. 6d.' puXc roZ n win h3nmer ''/ subject of discussion. •. Mackenzie.R. .— Or in four separate portions.E. of the Soci^tf^ Royale et The Plates from Drawings by \V. F. Prof. and above 200 Woodcuts. By David Low. j &c. Tlie in 1 SHEEP. half-bound in morocco. R. It cannot fail to prove a vade-mecum to the student whose im. F. 8vo. exhausts the subject on which it treats. atlas quarto. 8vo. .S. with 21 plates.S. Shiels. cloth.. or of a situation on comprising the Choice of a Villa or which to form one the Arrangement and Furnishing of the House and the Laying-out. executed for the Agricultural Museum of the University of Edinburgh. and the Economy of the Farm.'c]^th'''^^''"'=^' ' MACKINTOSH. M.-CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL ESSAYS Contributed the to EDINBURGH REVIEW. 36s. cloth. 8vo. cloth.S. boards. &C. STATISCountries. I6s. Esq. . By T. 8. Esq. &c.-AN INQUIRY INTO THE NATURE OE THE SIMPLE BODIES of CHEMISTRY. The HOG.-THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND.E.-A DICTIONARY.r. 10s. 8vo.hed wi«.. as to have ever since directed his attention to burials plan the Cambridge Cemetery.P°^^'''' °' I'terature.c"S?ndSbyhi^loi. the whole adapted forgrounds from on% perch to fifty acres and upwards in extent.-THE BREEDS OF THE DOMESTICATED ANIMALS Britain Described. and burial views a definite and practical shape. sponding The OX. firms the .T3. By J. the Husbandry of the Domestic Animals. 6d.S.»i. in I vol.^'"'® '''''''''"' SmStrnVM^aps. GEOGRAPHICAL. MACAULAY. and Principal Natural Objects IHustrfted with Six ^e^ " Tlie extent of information this Dictionary affords on the subiecLs refprrert tr. Residence. ."3'v^^ ''"' 'n{leI. cloth. THE LAYING-OUT. Enclosures. LOUDON. 6d. half-bound in morocco. ESTATES comprehending . 20s. in vol. &c. LOAV.^'16. Ever.A.riT?-i ^u .S.-SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH'S Contributions to " The Edin. atlas quarto.D. By W. with 60 Engravings.E. Mr.v MACAULAY -LAYS OF ANCIENT ROME. F. F. C.mrgh^Review. Mines. &c. 16s. Esq.A. .^tlXgL«e ''"' ^"^'^'^^ ^-'" ^^-i- '0 -'- ^'^P- MACLEOD. Professor of Agriculture in the University of Edinburgh Member of the Royal Academy of Agriculture of Sweden CorreMember of the Conseil Royal d'Agriculture de France.. and the Principles and Forms of Leases the Construction of Farm-buildings. B. Drains.— : LOUDON. of Oil Paintings. By vols. of CEMETERIES. LOW. C.'. jt6. atlas quarto. Nicholson." Spectator. in 1 vol. M. The result is the volume before us which. Planting. By D.-ON RHEUMATISM. Embankments. with 56 plates of animals. Comprehending the Cultivation of Plants. ^^iL^^^f^ill^lK^fArit^^S^'SLSt^r ^ M'CULLOCH. intended for the instruction of those who know little of Gardening or Rural Affairs. he was compelled to give his to Having been lately emploved grounds.ni.R. as follow Of Great . To shareholders of cemeteries and others having a practical connexion with the improvement of interments.L S. &c. i '""'> surprising. half-bound in morocco. 12s. the book is almost necessary nor will it be without interest to any one whose hobby ambles towards the mournful . 6s. in a full and popular form.E.ni. 8vo. MACKENZIE."'J^ '^ ''^ ?. &c. and on the Improvement of Churchyards. Loudon. 2 vols. like most other works of Mr.S.?*>'' ""d -uti. ought to be4u. by W. cloth.'6. Loudon was at Warsaw after the batlte subject. half-bound in morocco. of Agriculture in the University of Edinburgh.S. AND By J. of Agriculture in University of Edinburgh. 10s. the poor in trendies in the open ground without coffins. cloth. 3 Thomas Babingto. LOW-ON LANDED of . and general Management of the Garden and Grounds. By David Low.-ON MANAGEMENT Loudon. the Right Hon. half-bound in morocco. " In 1813.vcaulay. d. atlas quarto.nions. COMPANION AND -THE SUBURBAN GARDENER Suburban : VILLA . with 5 plates. PROPERTY. 1 vol. and other Works and the Economy of Woods. 16s. 4th Edit. i-n . PLANTING. of Bautzen and was so sti-onsly impressed by the contrast between the burials of the rich in the cemetry. and more particularly for the use of Ladies.R. 21s'. . Low. Macaulay. toudon. th'esrvolmnes"-LGLo"El '-°"""'^".

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for her indecision.





she obliged to submit to the

humiliating condition of allowing French troops to pass freelythrough her territory, but she is obliged to resign her inde-

pendence in the most essential article of sovereignty, namely, She the free intercourse with foreign and friendly Powers. has been compelled, under a threat of immediate war, to exclude the British flag from her ports, and I am in dally expectation of receiving a notice that

my diplomatic




an end.

Every other part of Europe presents an aspect to the full gloomy and discouraging. Germany and Italy are absoPrussia, notwithstanding the
Tlllsit, is still

lutely provinces of France.

occupied by French troops, and likely, peace of In Spain, the Prince of the so. remain to time, some for The Prince Regent of Portugal, Asturlas has been arrested.

between opposite resolutions, and once half in earnest to emigrate with the Com't to the Brazils, seems at the moment of execution to have relapsed into the natural indolence of his character and to have resigned himfluctuating
self totally to the

mercy of Bonaparte.

In the hopes of secur-

the ino- some part of his former existence, he was induced on British flag the against ports his shut to 20th of October he has been rewarded for it by seeing his capital occupied

ten days afterwards by the French, and by being told that the House of Braganza had ceased to reign




the states of once independent Europe, therefore, may be considered as the only one which has pre-

How long the generous served her dignity and her faith. to hold out, especially able monarch who reigns there may be him to abandon forcing upon if Eussia should determine
the cause,

more than I can say. Russia and Denmark Russia and France acting through together, or abandoned the island of Sealand), have we (for Denmark must prove too strong for him in the end. You will see, my Lord, by this statement, which the shortis


ness of the time to the departure of my messenger will prevent my rendering so full as I could wish, that on the Continent of

Europe nothing


beyond the reach of


man's power.


XVIII. and and that last, September in Mittau the Ducd'Angouleme treatthe there receiving and Sweden through after passing F F 4
will, therefore, be pleased to hear that Louis



ment due to his royalty and his misfortunes, he embarked At for England at Gottenbui'g on the 20th of last month.
Mittau, certainly, he could no longer be
I will


now conclude, my Lord, with sincerely hoping letter may reach you in India; and that you may
I have the honour to be, &c. &c.


contents not wholly unworthy of your attention.


R. A.

Mr. A.


Sir Alexander Ball.
Vienna, Dec. 22d, 1807.


Although I have not yet received any official intimation my mission at this Court is at an end, my last conversation with Count Stadion gives me every reason to believe that he will soon be under the necessity of sending me a

depend of course and a variety of other circumstances connected with it, whether I quit Vienna forthwith on receiving it, or whether I may think his Majesty's service will be best promoted by delaying, under some pretence or other, my departure. From present appearances I confess that it is most likely that the option of remaining at Vienna beyond a period reasonably necessary for my private arrangements, will not be left me, and that on every account I shall best consult the good of his Majesty's service by quitting Vienna with the whole of the mission, immediately on receiving the notification I allude to. Under such circumstances, and being wholly without instructions or any other guide to direct my conduct, my present detennination is to come straight to Malta with my cyphers and the
declaration to that effect in writing.
It will

upon the terms and the manner of such a


correspondence; but as I cannot consistently with duty expose them to the risk of a conveyance by an Austrian or American vessel, I feel the greatest embarrassment with regard to the means of executing this intention. If no British ship of war should be in these seas, I am afraid I must be under the necessity of destroying them all on the other hand, I have no authority to require the services of any





of his Majesty's vessels, nor do I know to whom I ouo-ht to apply to solicit as a personal favour the convenience of a con''• ^' '' ^^'^ '- Commodore bampbeU s power, indeed, I {• have every reason which a frequent and confidential correspondence with him can give me to believe that he would assist me; but then the nature of the service he is employed upon, added to my ignorance 01 the sta ion assigned to him, leaves me in uncertainty with regard to the effect of any appHcation I may make in that quarter I am equally ignorant where Lord Collinowood IS at this moment, otherwise I should take the libeity of applying directly to his Lordship for his assistance. It is under these considerations that I am induced to address this letterto your Excellency, with a view of making known my situation, and hopes that your Excellency may be able to suggest some measure by which I may bring away in safety tne cypher, and other matters committed to lay custody. I ^K &c. &c. (Signed) R. A.


7 ff






the following paper was drawn up, the French

Revolution had assumed a decided character of foreign
conquest and aggrandisement.

In the minds of many,

the hope of peace and liberty to mankind, which had

accompanied the


great changes, had long been


even the more sanguine


themselves obliged to gird up their loins against Napoleon, wielding, as he did, the prodigious energies of

the revolutionary system, and refusing to



even on the most moderate conditions.

make peace The

writer, therefore, can

accuse himself of no incon-



notwithstanding his dislike to the original

war with France, which he had proved by his votes in Parliament and by various publications, and his

good wishes

for the success of her


in 1791 to establish a free constitution, he
his feeble,

now gave

but honest help to


her aggression to

the death.

This was a case which, in his mind, ad:

mitted of no middle course

in fact, the

that, as

which sent him



were so convinced of

the necessity of a prolonged

made As

be seen by Lord Henry Petty's budget, they

the foundation





to his

opmions in regard to the probable conworld under the
final establishment of

dition of the

such a domination,



at its head, the

author thinks

right to declare that he alone

is re-

sponsible for giving expression to


The paper

was drawn up without communication with any of his friends in England or elsewhere, and solely at
the request of the distinguished Minister to






occasion of writing


Austria, after the peace of Tillsit, soon found herself

under the necessity of breaking
with England.


her intercourse

Now, there was

at Vienna,

and had

existed for a long while, a strong feeling of impatience

under the


and calamities which the country
since 1792.

had endured by war ever

was thought


not a few,

and those by no means inconsiderable

persons, that


that they had obtained a peace,

such as


was, their best chance for keeping


cially since the cession of the Netherlands,

would be
Fear of

through a permanent alliance with France.
Russia, also,

was another motive

for favouring such

a connection.

This party, of course, on the interlittle

ruption of our diplomatic relations was very
desirous of renewing


in their former intimacy.
his country in

Count Stadion saw the true policy of
a different light.
to result from ill-advised projects

Fully aware of the mischief likely


out of the

recent treaty,

he nevertheless preferred friendship

with Russia to falling in with the French system.
Neither would he lose sight of a cordial and perfect
reconciliation with

England, although he thought

himself compelled to give


to the ascendency of


recal his

embassy from London.

was the

object of this memorial, therefore, to

counteract the impression

— more or common — under which our intercourse was about


to close,

by presenting a view of the condition in which Austria would find herself under the workings of an effective

between Russia and France; to show that

the consolidation of so fatal an union might yet be



and that there was yet room

for a confi-

dential understanding with Russia, leading hereafter,

perhaps, to better things, bottomed on their
interests in Poland.

to point

Reasoning on these
to the nature of a

topics, it

was necessary


so entirely maritime as


poleon had prepared for Europe by his pretensions to
share vnth. us our " ships, colonies, and commerce,"

which we could not give him even if we were and Avhich he could only acquire through peace, and by pacific courses as also to show that,

to render his subjugation of the Continent of

any use
all its

towards effecting his purpose, he must erect

several states, including Austria herself, into a regular

permanent confederacy, in a constant
ao;ainst Eno;land.

state of action,

In treating this delicate subject, especially that part

which points to the establishment of an Archduke in
Galicia, the

author could not venture to give advice.


to suggest matter for reflection

seemed to him

an unwarrantable act of presumption, and only to be

by the flattering manner




was asked

of him.




&c. &c.

Vienna, February 22. 1808.



to take leave of

moment, my dear Sir, when I am preparing you perhaps for many years, I cannot

suffer our intercourse to close without expressing to gratitude for the many marks of attention you


and regard with which


have been honoured during
Accept, therefore, for your-


residence at Vienna.

your country, my warmest and truest thanks. Beheve me, that next to England I love and cherish Austria that I quit you, not with regret merely, but with sorrow; and that in this fearful hour of our destinies, my most fervent prayers are offered up for your sovereign and his illustrious House, and for the prosperity and preservation of his
self as well as for


To yourself individually I have to acknowledge an unvaried succession of acts of personal kindness.
Above all, I feel obhged to you for the tone of frankness and confidence you established between us from

in our conversations





mission to this Court under the aus^Dices of Mr. Fox has produced any good, or shall leave behind it the seeds of any remedy to the present evils, I can attri-


owe to willing to hope, that in this difficult crisis for our respective governments we
in a great degree, as I


success only to this cause.

We may


separate without hostility

that our rupture goes not

beyond the suspension of diplomatic communications that in happier days these may be resumed where they break off; and that the solid interests of the two



empires, so far as they have been treated at Vienna,
are left secure

and undisturbed.

Flattered by this

used myself always to blend the sentiments of private esteem with the performance of those duties on which I had to communicate with you and even now, forgetting almost the shortness
sort of intercourse, I



mission and


little I


authorised by or-

dinary forms, I presume upon a reciprocity of feeling on your part, to lay before you, with the freedom of a friend, the reflections which oppress my mind on
the alarming posture in which I leave your affairs. It is not that I have the presumption to suppose
that I can offer

you any new

ideas, or present in



point of view the old topics on which

we have

frequently conversed.

and progress of

The dreadful history of the the French power offers but one

barren uniformity of thought or action to those who Nothing seems left to them are within its reach. now but to suffer and submit. The reason is plain

That which France has reduced the Continent, bears nothing upon the face of it which indicates, as in the termination of other wars, some fluctuation of fortune during the struggle, or some
state called Peace, to

new system

has completely subdued the old.

After seventeen years of war, France has established her dominion whole, and without compromise, over the rest of the
apprehension of

future renewal.

European Continent.

During that


she as-

sumed, successively, every shape which she found best suited to the destruction of the enemy immediately opposed to her. When a people was to be inflamed to take up arms against their government, she was the Goddess of Liberty. Where empire was to be gained and consolidated, she became a flaming sword
for the extirpation of those Avho resisted,


for en-

slaving those




this point she stops.



the last character she has to play.



can offer you, therefore, nothing new on a subject which seems to have exhausted all fertility of thought

and all faculty of combination. General ideas, indeed, and speculations formed more or less according to our several characters and tempers, we cannot banish. These belong to our habits, and to the constant state of fear in which we live and will force themselves upon the imagination, how fatigued soever it may be with calculating the chances and adding together in

laborious despair

all the that yet remain to us.




items of political safety myself, for instance,


inclined to think that this mischief



end in the principles in which it originated and that the present system of unfeeling oppression, which offers to the sufferers no resource in the sympathy of their government, may generate a spirit of
lawful resistance, as fatal to the new authorities. as the spirit of revolution proved to the old. But the cure, if it wait this remedy, will be long and

Tired out with conjecture, and dissatisfied with speculating upon these latent possibilities for our deliverance, we come round at length to the place from

whence we set out, to the old principles on which the states of Europe grew up to civilisation and independence. All on this side is equally barren. The
balance of power
is lost to the very name. Every of reviving the principle of association

among independent states for their mutual safety, seems to be destroyed by the peace of Tillsit. Hopes would yet remain for Europe, if the Austrian Empire singly could recover its strength. That, like the rest,

for the present a





left for


well as you are able, your present existence, together with some degree of freeto

now but


your relations with the neighbouring Powers.
the source of


the anxious thoughts I




This is the subject on carry with me to England. which they are employed without intermission in revolving your various dangers, and in exploring the whole circle of possible contingencies to find a remedy

for them.



such as they are,



your judgment, with no other confidence in their value than what may be due to the motives in which they originate. These dangers are so complicated, and all tend so visibly to one and the same point, namely, the utter destruction and dissolution of your empire, that it is difficult to separate them from each other, or to class them under distinct heads. I set totally aside any Those to which direct danger to you from England. you are exposed from us are purely collateral, and belong rather to the prolongation of our war with France than to any activity we might give to our hostilities should we unfortunately be involved in hostilities against you. Here, however, the probable duration of the maritime war becomes to you a point of primary importance. I will shortly call your attention, therefore, to the character and nature of that war, in order that you may have this part of the
submit to

— —


question before you in

its clearest light.

Never was the character of any war more clear and definite, than the war now carrying on between Great Britain and France. All possibility of misrepresenting,
or at least
are once
all difficulty in


its objects,


for ever cleared away.


are not at

war to change the government of France, nor to set up a balance to her power, nor to send her back to her own frontiers, nor even to obtain a frontier for any
other state.
If there be

phcated in the contest,

it is

any continental interest iman interest so little felt

by those

in whose favour it is asserted, that they are themselves in arms against us for its destruction.

The war


now brought

to a simple question of in-




dependent existence for the British nation. A war of more pure, unmixed self-defence never yet was sustained by one nation against another since the beginning of the world. It is so clearly so, that France cannot even find a name for her cause. The ruler of the French professes, as usual, his extreme desire for peace but so little does he know, or so little does he wish that we should know, what he wants from us, that he cannot even name the conditions on which he requires that we should make it. It is almost an affront to ask them of him. Talk of a basis the direst act of offensive war can scarcely raise his indignation to a higher pitch. Ask him what he means " " the by liberty of the seas instead of vouchsafing to inform us, we are referred to Lord Lauderdale's

negociation in




neither this foolish

phrase, nor any one question belonging to the neutral


code was ever mentioned, or in the remotest degree to, during the whole period of his stay at

Paris. Pressed a little closer on this point, he imputes to us the absurd intention of making other nations sign and seal some strange instrument, the

idea of which never yet entered into the head of


and then proudly asks whether we mean to proclaim eternal war ? Whether our arms are yet in possession of Petersburg, Paris, Madrid, and Vienna ? Scarcely has he thundered this in our ears than, becoming all at once reasonable, he declares that England may
keep her maritime code; that is (according to him), her maritime superiority that is, her maritime tyranny (the word is his own) and that there is nothing to prevent peace in the counter- declarations of the English and Russian governments on this point.

Amidst the obscurity and confusion of these opposite
all he will allow us to understand of his demands, all he suffers to appear of his high will is, that he is much in want of something we have got. G G 2








the something

we have got

had ever been his, or if he was in a condition to take it from us by force, or if he had an equivalent to offer for its surrender, or any inducement to hold out for our consent to allow him to participate ^^^th us, the But what is point might admit of some discussion.

that he wants


Participation in naval advantages,






of these ever were his, nor can they be his ex-

cept through peace, and even then they cannot be his except through an assiduous cultivation of the arts of




render him a

he can scarcely expect that we should surfleet by an express article, or that we

should give him up the half of Jamaica, or assign him a tributary per centage on our custom-house reNow if these be things he cannot take from ceipts.

he have nothing to offer us in return for them, ^'ill not even ask us civilly to be admitted he and to a share of their benefits, I wish to know how he is to get them from men who possess one grain of the sense or spirit of the country over which they preside ?


So much for the character of
its duration.



as influencing

With regard to other points, and particularly such as
relate to its nature, this, above all other

wars in which Great Britain has ever been engaged, possesses the Other wars, whether distinctive character of naval. or in singly, concert with allies, had sustained by her

always a mixed interest

this interest

was partly



If she



single-handed against France, as in
Avar, the territorial interest

the American


neutralised, but not




balance never beinoo

disturbed, she

sure, at a peace, to find


where she had left it. On the other hand, her wars of alliances embraced naval securities and improvements togrether with the continental balance.





system of the day,

all this

and interchange of

political interests has disappeared:

the ruler of France has determined to exclude Great Britain totally from her relations with the European

The means he

possesses to accomplish

this object are great

so are our

means of



In this terrible


beginning, you

see the undisputed superiority of the land striving

reduce the undisputed superiority of the sea. This can only be effected by the conquest of England. I think he will fail both in his means and in
his end.

The permanent exclusion of Great Britain from the Continent of Europe must suppose that great






it is

attend the reduction of mankind from civilisation to
barbarism, liad visited
nations of which


In the present division of



the separation of the interests of the land from those
of the sea is one of those wild projects engendered between the extravagance of hate and the impotence of despair, of which the inventors will soon be taught the folly and that it is not in them to subdue the elements of nature as they have subverted the prin;

ciples of public order.


will learn that



associated to

man by


that his wants are

that his wants proportion to his civilisation cannot be supplied, and, consequently, that his civilisation cannot be continued, except under the free intercourse of state with state, and that, of this

Great Britain commands all the prinIf the ruler of France shall persist in the fruitless attempt to impose the law of conquest upon a nation, her equal in fame and arms, he will
cipal channels.

learn that the sure effect of this prolonged contest

upon the continental

states will

be to turn back the
scarcely perceptible

current of their prosperity to

G o

the accusation is a mere citing them calumny. will soon find that they are occasioning the very evils against which their shortThey would deprive sighted policy would guard. and not on the vulgar principle of finding a market for her goods. which was chiefly useful to her as it constituted the true security of a balance. 454 sources. In a war of the nature I have above endeavoured . He will find how making part of the same commonwealth similitude and sympathy which it was from the prevailed more or less among the European governments.states. she ceases altogether to have an interest in their peace. must feel a diminished interest in With a diminished interest in their their prosperity. useful to England. all deriving their existence from the same feudal origin. LETTER TO and to anniliilate the industry which made it grossly he has been mistaken in of the Continent to Great value his opinion of the Britain under the form in which it is likely for a It was as belonging to the same time to settle. flow. soon as they lose the body of their laws and instialways felt real independence of their respective proportion.. as an interest in the welfare of the surroundTheir value will be wholly lost to us as ino. therefore. the dilemma to which these exclusionists are reduced If continental wars are by their own argument. England. Those who would exclude Great Britain from the Continent under the pretence that her interference is calculated to promote wars. whose great interest was a balance among the separate states. that England has family. they give us an interest in exif they do not. her of all common feeling by which to counteract Observe the temptation of an immediate advantage. tutions. under the dependance of one all-absorbing empire. as they fall In sovereignties. and the prosperity. .

and thus strike a palsy into the limbs of the confederacy by which she is She must do this at the risk of about to be assailed. for her o^vn absolute preservation.COUNT STADION. gift to her of a nav}^ You see from the nature of this struggle that there can be no hope of its end so long as France shall G G 4 . In proportion as France. that each of the parties concerned in it possesses the means of inflicting the most lasting calamities on the human species. whatever 455 this at may be its final issue. on these principles. what are the we could grant to France in her advantages naval present formidable condition which would be short of an act of suicide ? Peace. and not to be so reduced. above announced. to Europe. shall succeed in separating her from the must Great Britain. sake of peace being totally unsuited to the condition and state of existence of the adverse parties. on the principles above declared. But it is not so much in the mode of carrying on this war. separate Europe from its means rest of Europe. . as in the impossibility (almost) of putting an end to it. reducing the Continent by degrees to the barbarism of the tenth century hut she must do it. would is their security? be nothing but the voluntary. No territorial concessions made to Great Britain can balance the maritime advantages to be acquired by France. least is certain. is scarcely within the reach of peace the objects to be reciprocally abandoned by the belligerent Powers for the A war and for the purpose . in that proportion of maritime communication. uncompensated. Even if such concessions could be desirable for us. to describe. as a means of reducing Great Britain to a state of vassalage. where the protecting continental Power to guaranty On the other hand. There is no no choice but this or the certain abanhelp for it donment of our country to France. that its duration must prove calamitous — .

and because the loss of India may force England to a All the exchanges of territory maritime peace. Here. for France to breathe a little. out because Constantinople is the way to the Ganges. You the effects of this system. as yours is the only country where France can look for the means of keeping off for some years longer from her o^m subjects the pressure caused by her insa- tiable thirst of dominion. he refers to the principle of increasing the energy of those means by which the maritime peace will be the first to feel is to be obtained. you are. after having for seventeen years — — : . This is the pretext for his continued infractions of treaty. therefore. and depend upon it. has affected to make the tranquillity of the' Continent depend absolutely on the maritime peace. on blanche is a declaration Bonaparte. that while a ducat is to be found in other countries. indeed if it contained the precious Isonzo would be fixed line of demarcation between you and France. in separating England from every sort of continental interest.456 LETTER TO persist in declaring that our refusal to sign her carte our parts of eternal war. the armed people of France will not fail to exact it rather than contribute themselves to a war where they have not the shadow Your wish certainly is to remain as of an interest. then. in spite of his most sacred engagements. and for his invasion of neutral and unoffendPrussia is to be retained by French ing states. It is time. and who shall deny it ? This war is proclaimed neutrals. begins your chief danger. and r