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Management Process & Organisation Behaviour - MB0038

Exam On 05.08.2012

1. Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.This definition is given by Appley 2. Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources..This definition wasgiven by Terry in 1953 3 Management is one of the factors of production together with land, labour and capital. 4. Management is a Distinct Process consisting of such functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. 5. In recent time, management functions have been regrouped into Four categories. 6. Training starts with an Organizational analysis. 7. Ceremonial and symbolic role of a manager is called Figurehead 8. Vocational and on-the-job training programs can be used to develop Technical skill. 9. The average manager spent 32 percent of his or her time performing traditional management. 10. Effective managers spend 26_ percent of their time in human resource management. 1. Buchanan and Huczynski (1997) have defined Organizations as Social arrangements. 2. Barnard (1938) defined Organizations as system of Co-operative activities. 3. OB is concerned with the study of the structure, functioning and performance of organizations, and the behavior of groups and individuals within them. This definition was given by Pugh 4. Best Deal retails team is consciously coordinated social unit, composed of a group of players that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals, and thus, it may best be described as: A. An organization B. A club C. A company D. A profit centre 5. The issues related to personality, creativity and motivation are related to Individual level of analysis. 6. Organization culture and organization structure are aspects related to the Organizational level of analysis. 7. Eight parameters for level of analysis were proposed by Wood in 1997. 8. Adam Smith stated that organizations and society would reap from the . Division of labor.

9. Taylor has proposed Scientific principles of management. 10. Fayol has proposed Administrative theory. 11. Psychology is the science that attempts to measure, explain, and at times change the behavior of humans and other animals. 12 Social psychology blends the concepts of psychology and sociology. 13. Political science studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a Political environment.

1.Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by Pavlov. 2. The operant conditioning theory is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in Overt behavior 3. Social learning has Four processes. 4 Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior 5. Extinction is eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior 6. In general, variable schedules tend to lead to Higher performance than fixed schedules. 7. The typical OB Modification program follows a Five step problem solving model 8. OB Modification has been used by a number of organizations to improve employee Productivity 9. Continental Airlines lottery system follows a Variable-ratio schedule. 10. Forbes magazine used Well pay to cut its health care costs. 11. Womens absenteeism rates tend to be Higher_ than those of men. 12. There is a Negative relationship between tenure to absence. 13. Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic is called Number Aptitude aptitude. 14. Interpersonal intelligence means People smart. 15. Ability to exert force against external objects is called as Static Strength strength.

1 Terminal values refer to desirable end-states of existence, the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime. 2. Social Recognition is Terminal value.

3. Instrumental values refer to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. 4. Workers who entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s, are called Veterans. 5 Xers began to enter the workforce from the mid-1980s. 6. Power distance measures the Social equality 7. Individualism gauges to what extent individuals in a country consider themselves as distinct entities rather than as members of cohesive groups. 8. Hofstede and Bond (1988) have identified a fifth dimension called Long-term orientation 9. There are Three components of an attitude 10. Festinger has proposed Cognitive Dissonance _ theory. 11 Self-perception theory proposes that attitudes are used to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than devices that precede and guide action. 1. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individuals personality is the molecular structure of the Genes 2. One of the most important determinants of the personality of a person is the immediate family 3. Cattell referred to these 16 factors as Primary factors. 4. The MBTI classifies human beings into Four opposite pairs 5. Locus of control was formulated within the framework of Rotter's Social learning theory of personality 6. Holland has proposed Six _ themes of people and work environments, within which all jobs can be classified 7. Enterprising_ person prefers verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power.

1. Subjective emotional responses are the result of Physiological changes within human bodies. 2. Both feedback from peripheral responses and a Cognitive appraisal of what caused those responses produce emotions. 3. Felt emotions are an individuals actual emotions. 4. Ekman (1999) has found Six emotions which are universally recognized and applicable.

5. People who suffer from . Alexithymia rarely cry and are often seen by others as bland and cold 6. The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the one proposed by Goleman 7. Personal competence comprises of Three dimensions of emotional intelligence. 8. Social competence comprises of __ Two_____ dimensions.

1._ Three__ factors shape perception of an individual. 2. The Context _ in which objects or events are seen by individuals also influence their attention. 3. Attribution theory was proposed by . Kelley__ Kelley 4. Consensus occurs, if, everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way. 5. The tendency of individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors is called Selfserving bias. 6. The Halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. 7. The process through which ones reaction is influenced by other persons he has encountered recently is called Contrast effect 8. This tendency to attribute ones own characteristics to other people is called Projection. 9. Self-fulfilling prophecy is the tendency for someones expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations. 10. A negative instance of the self-fulfilling prophecy is called Golem Effect 11. Decision-making occurs as a reaction to a Problem__. 12. While making a decision, data are typically received from Multiple _ sources. 13. The rational decision making model proposes Six steps. 14. People respond to a problem with a limited information-processing capability. As a result, people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient. This is called Bounded rationality 1. In Maslows theory, Physiological needs include hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs 2. In theory X , management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work

3. According to Herzberg, motivators are Intrinsic factors. 4. Alderfer classifies needs into Three categories into hierarchical order. 5. The need to excel and to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed is called need for Achievement. 6. The perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment used to determine organizational outcomes is called as Interactional Justice. 7. Employees should have Tangible and specific goals. 8. Rewards should be Contingent on performance. 9. MBO and Goal-Setting Theory is closely linked 10. Employee Recognition Programs has close link with Reinforcement Theory. 11. The professional employees likely to seek more Intrinsic satisfaction from their work than bluecollar employees. 12. Temporary workers may be motivated if they are provided with Permanent job opportunity.

1. Aristotal may be said to be a proponent of The Great Man Theory. 2. Stogdill is one the main scholars of trait theory approach to leadership. 3. McCall and Lombardo (1983) researched both success and failure identified Four primary traits by which leaders could succeed or'derail' 4. This theory was developed by the scholars from Ohio State University during 1940-1950 5. The modifications were made by Robert R Blake and Anne Adams Mccanse to covert the managerial grid into a leadership grid. 6. A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. 7. Likert identified four main styles of leadership, in particular around decision-making. 8. Lewin and colleagues did leadership decision experiments in 1939 and identified three different styles of leadership, in particular around decision-making. 9. Major contribution towards development of situational leadership is made by Hersey and Blanchard 10. The Path Goal Theory of Leadership was developed to describe the way that leaders encourage and support their followers in achieving the goals they have been set by making the path that they should take clear and easy.

11. In this model leadership is effective when the leaders style isappropriate to the situation, this is proposed in the contingency modeldeveloped by Fiedler. 12. Transactional leadership is related to management theories. 13. Transformational _leadership is based on relationship theories. 14. The transactional leadership style was first described by Max Weber in 1947 15. A leader asking the subordinate How may I help you? Servant Leader 16. Such leaders focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation. Structural Leader.

1. Formal groups come into existence for serving a specific Organizational purpose. 2. A _ Informal group is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. 3. All command groups are also Task groups. 4 In the Forming stage the members are entering the group 5. The Adjourning stage of group development is especially important for the many temporary groups that are rampant in todays workplaces. 6. Organizations have Authority structures that define who reports to whom, who makes decisions, and what decisions individuals or groups are empowered to make. 7. The more formal regulations that the organization imposes on all its employees, the more the behavior of work group members will be Consistent and predictable 8. Attributes that have a positive connotation in our culture tend to be Positively related to group productivity, morale, and cohesiveness 9. No Single personality characteristic is a good predictor of group behavior. 10. By watching and imitating Senior members of a group the new comers learn how to take on their roles effectively and also learn how to play them well. 11. Role Expectations is tuning oneself and behaving in a socially desirable manner is a part of fulfilling role expectations in a given situation in the context of achieving group goals and organizational goals. 12. When a group member is faced with the challenge of playing multiple roles, role Conflict may occur. 13. All groups have Norms acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by the groups members.

14 Social arrangement norms come from informal work groups and primarily regulate social interactions within the group. 15. The Reference group is characterized as one where the person is aware of the others. 16. Status is a Socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. 17. When status inequity is perceived, it creates Disequilibrium that results in corrective behavior. 18. Schein observes that groups may make decisions through Six methods. 19. In Decision by Minority rule two or three people are able to dominate the group into making a decision to which they agree. 20. Team building is a Collaborative way to gather and analyze data to improve teamwork. 21. In Cross-functional team Employees from different work areas but from same hierarchical level, come together to accomplish a task. 1. Formal power may be categorized into_Four types. 2. The opposite of coercive power is Reward power 3. Expert power is relative, not _ Absolute _. 4. Where success is less predictable, managers are more likely to use Assertiveness and sanctions to achieve their objectives 5. US people prefer use of reason in contrast to China where Coalition as a tactic is preferred 6. Empowerment is the process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power required to make decisions affecting both themselves and their work. 7. When an organization attempts to move power down the Hierarchy, it must also alter the existing pattern of position power 8. Successful coalitions have been found to contain Fluid membership. 9. More coalitions are likely be created where there is a great deal of task and resource Interdependence _. 10. Coalition formation will be influenced by the Actual tasks that workers perform. 11. Organizational politics is viewed as the art of creative Compromise among competing interests 12. Employees who are High self-monitors, possess an internal locus of control. 13. The Machiavellian personality is comfortable using politics as a means to further his/her selfinterest and does not see it as an unethical action.

1. Who defines conflict "As any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions or behaviours lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more parties." R. W Woodman 2. Conflict can occur when individuals or groups perceive they have mutually Exclusive goals or values 3. Intrapersonal conflict may be of Disagreements types. 4. Inter-actionist conflict occurs when a person must choose between two negative and equally unattractive alternatives. 5 Task conflict occurs among members of different teams or groups 6. Conflict occurs whenever Three_ exist in a social situation over Issues 7. The Avoidanceavoidance View of conflict encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static and nonresponsive to needs for change and innovation 8. . Inter-group conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. 9. Communication becomes a source of conflict due to . Noise in the communication channels. 10. The potential for conflict is greatest where group members are Younger and turnover is high _ . 11. Personal variables include individual value systems and Personality characteristics. 12. There are Five direct approaches to conflict management. 13. Compromise occurs when each party gives up something of value to the other. 14 Hierarchical Referral is a process where conflicts are reported to the senior levels to reconcile and solve. 15. There are Two general approaches to negotiation. 16. Integrative bargaining strategy is adopted to create a win-win solution. 17. Personality traits have no significant Direct effect on the bargaining process or negotiation outcomes. 1. Insomnia is Sleeplessness . 2. Positive stress is called Eustress. 3. Negative stress is called Distress . 4. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood. 5. Those with an Internal locus of control believe they control their own destiny.

6. Self-efficiacy The confidence in ones own abilities appears to decrease stress. 7. Stress shows itself in Three ways 8. Job dissatisfaction is the simplest and most obvious psychological effect of stress. 9. Non-competitive physical exercise has long been recommended as a way to deal with excessive stress levels. 10. Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through Relaxation techniques, such as, meditation. 11. Improved personnel selection and job placement leading to right Person-job-fit thereby reducing chances of non-performance and stress level. 12. The stress reaction is triggered by our Perception of Danger 13. Electronic biofeedback can help you gain Voluntary control over such things as muscle tension 14. Three elements are common to most definitions of crisis. 15. There are Four ypes of organizational crises. 1. Forces for change are of Two types. 2. Organizations are, therefore, forced to change their operational methods to meet the demands of the Stakeholders. 3. Environmental factors such as Economic, political and demographic, factors play a vital role in devising organizational policies and strategy 4. Resistance to change may be of Two types. 5. Change leads to Insecurity among the employees because of its unknown consequences. 6. Change may bring some potential Threat _to the organizational power to some people. 7. Many people, depending on their basic values and beliefs, move from anger to Acceptance.. 8. Empathetic and considerate listening can reduce employees fear and anxiety towards change. 9. This can be a costly proposition when there is more than one Dominant union in the organization, as all the contending parties would fight for power and recognition. 10. Organizational change focuses on Long-term change. 11. In Organization-environment relationship, organizations attempt to redefine their relationships with changing Social and political environment. 12. Lewin (1951) proposed a Three step sequential model of change process.

13. Action research model is another model of Planned change. 14. Planned change can range from Incremental change to , quantum change. 15. According to Bennis, Benne and Chin, Four basic strategies can be adopted to manage change: 16. According to Nicklos (2004), there can be a Fourth strategy in adapting to changes, i.e. environmental-adaptive. 17 Strong resistance argues for a coupling of power-coercive and environmental-adaptive strategies. 18. Large populations argue for a mix of all four strategies. 19. Short time frames argue for a Power-coercive_strategy. 1. A technique to study symptom patterns and prescription to the organization. False 2. Organization development (OD) is a planned approach to improve Employee and organizatuional effectiveness by conscious interventions in those processes and structures that have an immediate bearing on the human aspect of the organization. 3 OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. This planned emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. 4. Laboratory training is popularly known as T-group training. 5. Exploitive authoritative system exhibits an autocratic Top-down approach to leadership. 6. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of Self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 7. The First step in OD process involves understanding and identification of the existing and potential problems in the organization. 8. Any OD activity is incomplete without proper Change. 9. Sensitivity training is also known as T-Group 10. Grid Training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. 11. In order to gather data and make a diagnosis information is collected from various sources thorough the use of Questionnaires, observations, and interview about the problems, spelled out at the initial stage. 12. Organization must formulate the Objectives of OD program very clearly and specifically.

13. Only fully competent OD Consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents.