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REVIEW IN ORGANIZED CRIME

About Organized Crime When you think of organized crime, you probably picture the Italian and Sicilian Mafioso of television and the silver screen . But in recent years, the face of organized crime has changed. But in recent years, the face of organized crime has changed and the threat and more complex than ever.

Today, organized crime includes: Russian mobsters who fled to the U.S in the wake of the Soviet Unions collapse Groups from African countries like Negiria that engage in drug trafficking and financial scams Chinese tongs, Japanese Boryokudan and other Asian Crime rings and Enterprises based in Eastern European nations like Hungary and Romania.

All of these groups have a presence in the US or are targeting our citizens from afar-using the internet and other technologies of our global age. More and more, they are literally becoming partners in crime, realizing they have more to gain from cooperating than competing. Even though the government succeeded in dismantling the two most infamous organization, the Madellin and Cali Cartels, smaller groups organized along bureaucratic or compartmentalized lines continue to be a formidable presence in Cambodia. Mexican Political Culture Mexico has a history of one-party domination interwined with corruption, particularly in the underpaid law enforcement sector. Drug groups are bureaucratically organized, but in a Mexican fashion, built around familial relationships. Compared with organized crime groups who expend resources to defend territorial hegemony. Mexican organization focus on enterprise that nevertheless, often brings them into violent conflict with competing groups. Mexican Cartels Originating as heroin distributors, links with Colombian Cartels led to a new emphasis on cocaine the dismantling of the major Colombian cartels has enabled the Mexican to deal directly with Bolivian and Peruvian success for cocaine. Better organization and an extensive drug portfolio enabled Mexican to diversify, dividing operations into heroin, cocaine, marijuana, and now, methamphetamine

units. Rounding out the portfolio of Mexican criminal organizations is involvement in the smuggling of immigrants, particularly young girls and women to work in brothers, particularly those catering to migrants. Dominican Republic OC The Dominican Republic serves as a transshipment point of drugs, and Dominican criminal in the United States purchase directly from Asian and Columbian importers, sharing a common language and entrepreneurial values with the latter. Dominicans apply their well known skills as tradesmen merchants generally providing top quality uncut drug at competitive prices, and they prefer to compete without violence. Mexican Mafia Prison-based gangs have been gaining prominence as organized criminal groups, most notably, the Mexican Mafia, also known as La-M. Members released from prison remain in the gang trafficking in drugs and extorting money from weaker dealers. El Salvador OC Mara Salvatrucha which originated in El Salvador, has been a strong presence is Hispanic neighbors and has moved into more rural parts of the United States following the migration of Latino workers. With an estimated 8, 000 to 10,000 members active in more than 30 states, M-13 has thousands of additional members in El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala. MS-13 MS-13 has elaborate initiation ceremonies and tattoos, and although Los Mara is reputed to be highly organized and disciplined with a vertical command structure in El Salvador, this is currently absent in the United States Los Mara member. Traffic in methamphetamine and a range of other activities including large-scale theft,chop shops and extortion. They have developed important ties to Mexican and Columbian drug cartels. Cali Cartel Refers to a loose alliance with preeminence shared by the kinship/crime families Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela ( the Chess Player) and Jose Santacruz (Don Felipe). Guiding Philosophy. Buy Colombia rather than terrorize it. Madellin Cartel An Andean industrial and tourist city in the province of Antioquia having a culture of violence that makes its streets among the most dangerous on Earth. This city served as the headquarters for drug trafficking organization known as Los Grandes Mafioso.

Founders Pablo Escobar, the Ochoa Clan and Carlos. Pablo Escobar The most notorious member of the Madellin Cartel; born 1949 Headed a small groups of mules who transported raw coca paste and base from the South into Colombia where it was processed into cocaine. Died December 2, 1993 His death did not end the operations of his organization. Diego Fernando Don Berna Murillo, referred as the Exterminator took over his empire. Ochoa Clan The class and social backgrounds of the Ochoa Clan differs from their Medellin colleagues. Father of Ochoa Clan: Fabio Ochoa Restrepo, locally known as Don Fabio During the early 1070s, Fabio Ochoa experienced financial difficulties that forced him to sell off some horses in Venezuela. At the time, his middle son, Jorge Ochoa (Vasquez), lived in Miami, where he headed an import-export firm that imported cocaine for Jorge uncles, Fabio Restrepo Ochoa. The father was mysteriously murdered in Miami after his nephew returned to Columbia. Carlos Lehder-Rivas Indicted in 1981 by a federal grand jury for drug trafficking and income-tax evasion.in 1983, the US requested his extradition. He threatened to join forces with the Marxist Revolutionary grouo known as M-19. In a 1987 shootout , he was arrested by Columbian authorities and extradited to the US. He was convicted of shipping 3.3 tons of cocaine to Florida and Georgia in 1979 and 1980 and sentenced to life without parole. In 1991, he appeared as a government witness in the trial of General Manuel Noriega, who provided enormous help and sometimes double crossed the cartel. Mexican Political Culture Porfirio Diaz came to power in 1876 and ruled Mexico in 35 years. Out of revolution that ousted Diaz emerged as the PRI Partido Revolucionario Institucional. In Mexican political life, each political leader has his intimate circle of contacts, relatives and friends from childhood whom he protects and appointments to key position as he moves up the career hierarchy. These camarillas, or cliques of friends are in some ways, the basic unit of Mexican politics. Patron-clients relationship, political patronage and endemic corruption provide the backdrop against which Mexican organized crime is to be understood.

Amezcuas (Colina) Herrera Family Sinaloa Gulf Tijuana Juarez Sonora

Amezcuas (Colina) Cartel Although stated out as alien smuggling ring in 1988, the Amezcua-Contraras brothers shifted to methamphetamine trafficking in the early 1990s. this was headed by Jose de Jesus Amezcua-Contreras with his brother Luis. In less than 10 years,their cartel grew from a low-level cocaine trafficking group to the most prolific methamphetamine organization in North America. While working with Colombian organization in the cocaine trade, the amezcuas learned the lessons of marketing and structuring the drug trade as an international business. Herrera Family For many years, trafficking on Mexican heroin was dominated by Herrera Family, whose operations began shortly after World War II. From their first laboratory in Mexico, the Herreras shipped heroin to relatives who had moved to Chicago. By the 1980s, the Herrera family had established coacaine contacts thoughout Latin America. It was headed by the sometimes-imprisoned Jaime Don Jaime Herre-Navarez, a former Mexican state judicial police officer. The organization is estimated to have five thousand members, about two thousand of whom are related by blood or marriage and because key members are tied by blood or marriage and fictional kinship (godparenthood),the group has proven to be very difficult to infiltrate. Mexican drug organization are bets describes as enterprise syndicates. Sinaloa Cartel Sinaloa is a northwestern Pacific coast agricultural state that grew poppies for morphine during World War II. In 1993, Joaquin Guzman Loera, 50 known as El Chapo or Shorty was murder and cocaine trafficking. He was sentenced to 20 years but his Sinaloa cartel remained intact and continued to smuggle tons of cocaine each month into the US.

Gulf Cartel Juan Garcia Abrego emerged as the leader of Gulf Cartel, controlling drug trafficking throughout northeastern Mexico and along the Gulf of Mexico. His uncle is Juan N. Guerra, the legendary godfather of crime in Matamoros, Mexico. He was known as the Doll , Dollface borrowed organizing techniques from the Cali Cartel. He is reputed to have pioneered the Mexican role in cocaine trafficking in over a decade built an empire estimated to be worth $15 million. Tijuana Cartel A city of more than one million persons just across the border from San Diego.it is the home of the Arellano-Felix family, seven brother and four sisters. Noted for their level of violence, they literally shot their way into control of drug smuggling along the MexicoCalifornia border. The Tijuana Cartel is allied with the Sonora Cartel and they have be feuding with the Carillo Fentes/Juarez Cartel. Headed by Ramon and Benjamin Arellano-Felix. Juarez Cartel Ciudad Juarez, in the state of Chihuahua, is just across the Ro Grande from El Paso, Texas and has a population of 1.5 million. The city is racked with poverty and lacks a sewage treatment facility but is home to one of Mexicos richest drug cartels. The Juarez Cartel is the result of mis-1980s consolidation of various drug rings accomplished by Rafael Aguilar Guajardo, a notoriously corrupt commander of local unit of federal Judicial Police and his brother Rafael Muos Talavera. The organization was took charge by Amado Carillo-Fuentes nicknamed Lord of the Skies . Sonora Cartel The state of Sonora borders Arizona and is ideal for facilitating drug trafficking it is a sprawling region-Mexicos second largest state in size. The Sonora Cartel was founded by Miguel Angel Felix- Gallardo and now run by CaroQuintero brothers, Miguel and Genaro. Felix Gallardo was imprisones since 1989 for the 1985 torture murder of a US DEA agent while Rafael Caro-Quintero is imprisoned for his role in the murder of aforementioned DEA Agent. Dominicans The Dominican Republic, with a population of 8.8 million, occupies about teo-thirds of the Carribean Island of Hispaniola, which it shares with Haiti.

Dominican Republic is a major transit county for cocaine moving to the US and serves drug smugglers as both a command-and-control center and transshipment point. Increasing amount of designer drugs, especially ecstacy, are being moved through Dominican republic from Europe to the US and Puerto Rico. Dominican have also imported MDMA or ecstacy directly from the Netherlands. MDMAMethylene Dioxy Methamphetamine. The Mexican Mafia Reputed to be the most powerful of the prison-organized crime group. Also known as la M- pro. La emay. Like many other prison gangs, the Mexican Mafia has a blood-in-blood-out credo: murder of the drawing blood is a prerequisite for membership and those seeking to resign will be killed. Its origin are traced to the Deuel Vocational Institute in Tracy, California, where 1957, 20 young Mexican-American from the Maravilla area of East Los Angeles began the Mexican Mafia as a self protection group. They soon began to control such illicit activities as homosexual prostitution, gambling and narcotics. They called themsekves the Mexican Mafia out of admiration for La Cosa Nostra. The Mexican Mafia In 1967, Mexican Mafia reliance on wholesale violence increased and in theat year members attacked the first Mexican American outside their group. The attack on an inmate from rural northern California led to the formation of a 2nd Mexican-American Gang, la Nuestra Familia, with whom the Mexican mafia has been feuding eversince. In 1998, 12 members of the Mexican mafia were convicted in a federal court in California of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) Statute violations: directing a terror campaign from their position cells to control drug trafficking by street gangs. Mara Salvatrucha Known also as MS-13 or los Maria In Salvadoran slang, mara means posse; salvatrucha means street-tough Salvadoran, although some sources state that the name derives from a Spanish term for fire ants. El Salvador is one of the poorest country in Latin America with almost half its population living in poverty. Most Mara members range in age from 11 to 40 and are easily recognized by the tattoos on their heads, necks and ants bearing the symbol of the gangs three msin groups: MS, 13 and 18, in addition to dice, crossbones and daggers. The gang has elaborate initiation ceremonies that include beatings, colors (blue and white), and hand signs: the thumb holding the two middle fingers pressed to the palm.

Mara members have committed violent offenses at appalling levels, dismembering bodies, terrifying drive by shootings in broad daylight, and in few cases, hacking entire family to death. It is reputed to be highly organized and disciplined with a vertical command structure in El Salvador. Members of the gang traffic in methamphetamine and a range of other activities including large-scale theft, chop shops and extortion. They have developed important ties to Mexican and Colombian drug cartels. Because many are illegal immigrants to the United States. US Immigration and Customs Enforcement has been a leading agency in efforts against this gang. Organized Crime a complex set of people and functions interrelated in hierarchical structure specifically for the purpose of attaining set goals. Are American inventions that have been superimposed on a heterogeneous Europian crime landscape. It becomes a criminal activity by an enduring structure organization developed and devote primarily to the pursuit of profits through illegal means . it is sometimes, referred to as the MOB, MAFIA, syndicate or the COSTA NOSTRA, and others from different parts of the world which are known as the enemy within, the 2nd government, the 5th state or the crime confederation. Syndicate a body of persons associated for some design and undertaking which is usually a bold and difficult one. Mafia the organization most commonly associated with organized crime, a term that writers, filmmakers, historians, and others often use as a benchmark for understanding the phenomenon of organized crime.

The Criminal Group The criminal group represents the core of the organized crime unit, which is made up a persons who utilize criminality, violence, and a willingness to corrupt in order to gain power and profit. The following are characteristics of the criminal group. 1. Continuity. The group recognizes a specified purpose over a period of time and understands that the organization will continue operating beyond the lifetime of individual members. The organization also realizes that leadership will change over time and that group members work to ensure that the group continues and that their personal interests are subordinate to those of the group. 2. Structure. The criminal group is structured as a collection of hierarchically arranged interdependent offices devoted to the accomplishment of a specific function. This means that it can be either highly structured, like the La Cosa Nostra, or extremely fluid, like the Colombian drug cartels. In any case, it is distinguishable by ranks that are based on power and authority.

3. Membership. The core of the criminal group is based on a common trait such as ethnicity, race, criminal background, or common interest. Close scrutiny is given to potential members of the group to prove their loyalty to the group. In most instances membership requires a lifetime commitment. Rules of membership include secrecy, a willingness to commit any act for the group, and intent to protect. In return, members receive benefits from the group, such as protection, prestige, opportunities for economic gain, and the all-important sense of belonging to the group. 4. Criminality. Like any industry, organized crime is directed by the pursuit of profit along welldefined lines. The criminal group relies on continuing criminal activity to generate income. Some activities, such as supplying illegal goods and services, produce revenue directly, while other activities, which include murder, extortion, and bribery, are used to ensure the groups ability to make money and gain power. While some groups are engaged in a member of illicit. 5. Businesses, others restrict their efforts to one specific criminal activity, such as drug trafficking. Accordingly, many criminal groups are also engaged legitimate business that allow the skimming and laundering of money. 6. Violence. Comprising an integral part of the criminal group are violence and the threat of violence. Both are employed as a means of control and protection for members and nonmembers who are associated with protecting the interests of the organization. Members are expected to condone, or authorize violent acts. When the interests of the organization are threatened murder in commonplace. Violence can be employed either to silence potential witnesses or to punish people as a warning to others. 7. Power and profit. Members of the criminal group are united in that they work for the groups power through its association-with criminal protectors. Protector include corrupt public officials, businesses persons, judges, attorneys, financial advisors and others, who individually (or collectively) protect the interests of the criminal group through abuses of their status or by breaching their vested authority. Specialized Support the criminal group and the protectors rely heavily on skilled persons. Unlike the members of the criminal group and the protectors, these people do not share a commitment to the groups goals, but they are still considered part of organized crime. User Support Another vital component in the success of organized crime. This group of persons provides the criminal group with their audience of consumer and services: persons who purchase organized crimes illegal goods and services, such as drug users, patrons of bookmarkers and prostitution rings, and people who knowingly purchase stolen goods. Social Support persons (and organization) belonging to the social group grant power and the perception of legitimacy to organized crime in general and to specific members of the criminal group.

Traditional Organized Crime Structure: Traditional Organized Crime Structure

Boss Consigliere Underboss (counselor)

Caporegime (lieutenant)

Caporegime (lieutenant)

Caporegime (lieutenant)

Caporegime (lieutenant)

Caporegime (lieutenant)

Soldiers
(Members grouped Under lieutenants) Through extortion, assault and Murder,enforce discipline over Members, and fronts on orders from Crime boss
Corruption: Police And Public Official Corruption: Police

And Public Officials With and through nonmember Associates and fronts-particapte in. Control or influence.

LEGITIMATE INDUSTRY Food Industry Realty Restaurants Solid Waste disposal Produce Garment Manufacturing Bars and taverns Waterfront Securities Labor union Vending Machine others

ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES Gambling (numbers, dice policy, Ellicit drugs Loansbarking Labor racketeering Extortion Alcohol Others

all aspects of the family business are typically older members of the family who have proven their allegiance over a number of years during their affiliation with the family. 2. Consigliere a close associate of the boss is the consigliere or counselor, who enjoys a considerable amount of influence and status in the family. The consigliere, often a lawyer, serves the boss as atrusted advisor. 3. Underboss the next highest position in the family is the underboss, who works at the pleasure of the boss and acts in his behalf when the boss is incapacitated (e.g., sentenced to prison, becomes ill, etc.) underbosses are trusted, older members of the family whose primary role, is to relay instructions to those occupying lower positions in the family. 4. Capos Rank and file under the underboss begins with the caporegime or capos, which are considered as a sort of midlevel manager. One of the primary roles of a capo is to serve as a buffer between the lowest-level members and the upper-level members of the family. In doing so, the capo is the trusted go-between through which all communications flow from the boss to the lowest-level members. 5. Soldiers The lowest-level members of the family are the soldiers. Soldiers, also known as wise guys, made guys, or button men, report directly to the capo and will often operate at least one specific criminal enterprise. These include loansharking, gambling, drug trafficking and so on. The soldiers job is the constant search for new sources of revenue for the family. the way organized group works commonly, for the organization to work there must be: 1. An Enforcer one who make arrangement for killing and injuring (physically, economically, and psychologically) the member or non member. 2. A Corrupter one who bribes, buys, intimidates, threatens, negotiates and sweet talk into a relationship with the police, public officials or anyone else who might help the member security and maintain immunity / front arrest, prosecution and punishments. 3. A Corruptee - a public official, usually not a member of the organization family, who can wield influence on behalf of the organizations interest.

Characteristics of Organized Crimes 1. it is a conspiracy activity involving coordination of members 2. Economic gain is the primary goal. 3. Economic goal is achieved through illegal means. 4. Employs predatory tactics such as intimidation, violence and corruption. 5. Effective control over members, associates, and victims. 6. Organized crimes does not include terrorist dedicated to political change.

Generic Types of Organized Crimes 1. Political Graft manned by political criminals (political graft), who use force and violence of a means to obtain profit or gain, and or achieving political aims or ambitions. An example of this is vote buying and the employment of private armies to control a certain political area. 2. The Mercenary/Predatory Organized Crime crimes committed by groups for direct personal profit but prey upon unwilling victims. 3. In-Group Oriented Organized Crime group manned by semi organized individual whose major goals are psychological gratification such as adolescent. 4. Syndicated Crimes the organization that participates in illicit activity in society by the use of force, threat, or intimidation. The group with a formal structure, whose purpose is to provide illicit services, which are in strong public demands through the use of secrecy on the parts of the associates. There is assurance of protection necessary for its operations. Essential Composition of Organized Crime: Organized crime needs professional criminals to successfully operate in the organization. Professional crimes refer to occupations or their incumbents, which posses various traits, including useful knowledge that requires lengthy training, service orientation and code of ethics that permits occupations to attempt to obtain autonomy and independence with high prestige and renumeration. Criminological Types of Organized Crimes 1. Traditional crime syndicates Non-traditional crime syndicates 3. Semi-organized syndicates 4. Politically controlled organized crime. Evolution and Growth of Organized Crime: Organized Crime in Asia It has been said that organized crime in Asia is evolutionary, adopting to changing political conditions, warfares, and the development of technology, communications, travels and the emergence of a global economy. these organized and enterprising crime groups focus mostly in the following activities; a) Drug Trafficking b) illegal migration, c) arms trafficking, d) exploitation of women and children, and e) Wide spread public and private corruptions. Some of the Asian Organized Crime Groups Triads and Tongs in Hongkong and China Yakuza in Japan United Bamboo gang in Taiwan Warlords in Myanmar

Nam Cam gang in Vietnam, and Other ethnic entrepreneurs throughout Asia in two forms:

China Organized Criminal Groups

1) Gangs (triad) work in cooperative ventures involving smuggled good activities, large burglaries, theft and high jacking. Other activities of these groups include extortion of small business. 2.) Criminal Syndicates commonly involved in more sophisticated crimes such as prostitution, illegal immigration, slavery and other organized forms of vices. Yakuza or Borykudan is the ,most influential organized crime group in Japan. Other Organized crime groups in the Asian Countries: Taiwan Organized Crime Groups have direct connections with bamboo Union gangs, it has close relationship with the triad groups from China and Hongkong with primary crime activities into drug trafficking, prostitution, child and women smuggling aggravated by parents who sold their young daughters to criminal groups. Singapore the country which has the lowest cases or organized activities due to stringent laws and power for the implementation of laws. Philippines considered criminal groups virtually control every aspect of the commerce in women and child trafficking. Thousands of women are sent to Japan, Thailand and other countries as entertainers and most end up as prostitutes. Also a major provider for young children to pedophiles on the so called sex tours. Thailand considered the most notorious in the world in terms of sex industry, importing at least one (1) million women from China, Laos and Vietnam. Vietnam most of the organized crime groups operating in this country are based in other Asian countries. It influence Vietnamese, such that, it groom its organized criminal groups mostly affiliates of the Nam Cam Gang, these organized groups are involved in corruption of public officials and the police. It ranks among the top 26 drug producing and trafficking countries in the world. It becomes one of the major transit points of drugs from Laos, Myanmar and Taiwan from Cambodia. Basic type of Organized Criminal Structures in Europe; a) The Sicilian Mafia (Cosa Nostra) this is often regarded as the archetype or organized crime and has been the subject of controversy. The mafia, or Cosa Nostra, is a secret association with a clearly defined membership, at the same time, it is a reflection of more general social and cultural conditions in southern Italy that have also produced other mafia groups in Sicily outside Cosa Nostra but with essentially the same purpose and functions. Cosa means a family consisting of a handful to over 100 members under the leadership of a capo family claims an illicit monopoly in a certain territory. they are coordinated on the provincial level by a so-called commisionne or copula. Above the provincial level interprovinciale has been created as the supreme coordinating body.

b) The Russian Mafia and the Vory V. Zakone- this is the Sicilian counterpart, it is linked to a territorially based provision of protection services and to alliance between upper-world and underworld. Organized Crime in Latin America Two dimensions of common crime and political in Latin America: a) the positive and explanatory level it is understood that political criminal from their ordinary brother, basically in their intentions and not in their actions. It is tought that the common criminal is inspired to seek personal financial reward while the political delinquent is socially and altruistically motivated. Another description for political lawbreakers is that of a social bandit. b) The Normative Dimension the theory support that only ordinary criminals should penalized and the rebel must be accorded a privilege treatment. La Cosa Nostra (LCN) also known as the Mafia, the Mob, the outfit, is collection of Italian American organized crime families that has been operating since 1920s. it was most prominent criminal organizations in the U.S despite prosecutions and stiff competitions, the LCN remains an organization to recon because it gain control over labor unions, organized employer cartels, operated as a rationalizing force in major industries, and functions as a bridge between the upper-world and the underworld. LCN Organizational Structure (family) the Family has a boss who exercise general oversight of the family and makes executives decisions. a) the under-boss is second in command. b) Senior adviser or Consigliera act as screener c)Capo-regimes supervise crews made up of soldiers. d) Soldiers members of the organization. e) Good Fellows or wise guys _ made members of Italian decent, consist of males. The Trafficking Smuggling Business 1) the Stages smuggling usually comes into at least three phases: recruitments, transfer and entrance into the destination country. But human trafficking goes further to exploitation which may take place in a variety of markets operating in the destination country. 2) The routes selected friendly routes with soft state to traffic human beings and smuggle migrants, this routing have rules of themselves. a) Already tested - these are determined through criminal expertise, less risky countries and borders; with opportunistic countries. 3) The victim the lowest common denominator of all trafficking and smuggling victims is their vulnerability, which may depend on a set of variable deriving from the fact that person has no physical, material, social or psychological resources with which to resist the blandishments of traffickers/smugglers.

Europol Distinctions of Types of Victims 1) Exploited victims those who have worked in sex industry in their own country and are recreuited for similar work in the destination country. 2) Deceived victims consist of women recruited to work in the service or entertainment industry of the destination country. 3) kidnapped victims women who have been kidnapped and are therefore unwillingly from the outset. R,A 9208 the Anti-Trafficking in Person Act of 2003 - An act to institute policies to eliminate trafficking in person especially women and children, establishing the necessary institutional mechanism for the protection and support of trafficked persons, providing penalties for its violations, and for other purposes. RA 9262 an act defining Violence against Women and their children, Providing for protective measures for victims, prescribing penalties therefore, and for other purposes. Battered woman syndrome refers to a scientifically defined pattern of psychological and behavioral symptoms found in women living in battering relationship as a result of cumulative abuse. Battery refers to an act of inflicting physical harm upon a woman or her child resulting to the physical and psychological or emotional distress. Child refers to a person below (18) years of age or one who is over eighteen but is unable to fully take care of our protect himself/herself from abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation or discrimination because of the physical or mental disability or condition. Computer crime any crime accomplished through special knowledge of computer technology. Computer virus a computer code designed to alter or destroy data in an existing compute reprogram. The name computer virus derived from its ability to infect or replicate other computers. Dating relationship refers to a situation wherein the parties live as husband and wife without the benefit of marriage or are romantically involved over time and on a continuing basis during the course of the relationship. A casual acquaintance or ordinary socialization between two individuals in a business or social context is not a dating relationship. Debt bondage refers to the pledging of the debtor of his/her personal services or labor ot those of a person under his/ her control as security or payments for a debt, when the length and nature of services is not clearly defined or when the value of the services as reasonably assessed is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt. Forced labor or slavery refers to the extraction of work or services from any person by means of enticement, violence, intimidation or threat , use of force or coercion, including deprivation of freedom, abuse of authority or moral ascendancy, debt-bondage or deception.

Involuntary servitude refers to a condition of enforced compulsory service induced why means of any scheme, plan or pattern, intended to cause a person to believe that, if the person did not enter into or continue in such condition, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or another forms of abuse or physical restraint, or abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process. Pornography refers to any representation, through publication, exhibition, cinematography, indecent shows, information technology, or by whatever means, of a person engage in real or stimulated explicit sexual activities or any representation of the sexual parts of a person for primary sexual purposes. Prostitution refers to any acts transaction, scheme or design involving the use of a person by another, for sexual intercourse of lascivious conduct in exchange for money, profit or any other consideration. Sex tourism refers to a program organized by travel and tourism-related establishment and individuals which consist of tourism packages or activities utilizing and offering escort and sexual services as enticement for tourist. This includes sexual services practices offered during rest and recreation periods for members of the military. Sex exploitation refers to participation by person in prostitution or the production of pornographic materials as a result of being subjected to a treat, deception, coercion, abduction, force abuse of authority , debt bondage, fraud or through abuse of victims vulnerability. Stalking refers to an intentional act committed by a person who, knowingly and without lawful justification follows the woman or her child or places the woman or her child under surveillance directly of indirectly or a combination hereof. Trafficking in person refers to the recruitment, transportation, transfer or harboring, or receipts of person with o0r without the victims consent or knowledge, within or across national borders by means of threat of use, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power of position, taking advantage of the vulnerability of the person, or the giving or receiving of payment or benefits to achieve the consent of person having control over another person for purposes of exploitation which includes at a minimum, the exploitation or the prostitution f others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery, servitude or the removal or sale of organs. White collar crime it is a euphemistic phrase expressive of the nature of the act but less distasteful and less offensive than the use of the terms: terrorist, saboteurs or scam. In simple tone, it refers to the same song only in different tune. Or, it is an expressive description of the actor than the act, the style than the substance and the vivid portrayals of the doer than the nature of the acts. This distinction is crucial to enlighten the cloud of confusion between white collar crimes and common criminals. Historical Types of Transnational Crimes Slavery as Transnational Crimes Slavery the submission to a dominating influence or the state of a person who is chattel of another. Slave a person held in servitude as a chattel of another. White slavery engaging in the business for profit, or enlistment of services of any other person for the purpose of prostitution.

Piracy refers to robbery in the high seas, and or the unauthorized use of anothers production, invention or deception or conception especially in infringement of a copy right. Smuggling the act of conveying or introducing surreptitiously or to import export secretly contrary to law and especially without paying duties imposed by law. Illegal entry - crossing borders without complying with the necessary requirement for legal entry into the receiving state. Scam refers to very broad spectrum of illegal activities committed which has a wide negative effect. Whether committed by public officers or a group that are so organized that their existence is very hard to trace. These activities are well connected in a series of networks mostly to influential people. Transnational refers to the borders defining territorial boundaries of nations. T he relationships of these nations beyond their borders are treated as transnational business. Whether it is legit or illicit. War crimes crimes committed in violation of the code of war. It is directed often to the innocent civilian of protagonist nations. Genocide during war, or in pursuit of an ideology, this is committed for purposes of extinction of a certain race or group who are hostile to a ruling party of government. This is only happens when the incumbent government is under the regime of a dictator or authoritarian. Smuggling of humans the exporting and importing of human beings for purposes of exploitation. The originating nation and the receiving nation are the main victims of these illicit trades organized criminals. The direct victims are commonly children and women. The victims are commonly found to be called undocumented aliens. International cooperation through treaties spearheaded by the United Nations, participating nations signed for and in behalf of their government on the terms and conditions on a matter of issue. Wild beast without nationality the uncertainty of origin of a certain group or organization operating or existing in a territory. International crimes crimes committed by criminal groups that transcend territorial borders. Anti-colonialism refer to the body of actions by local settlers on the control of other foreign nations intruding on their independence or solemn existence. Neocolonialism refers to introduced changes on foreign policies being implemented by colonizing nation to the local population of the colonized territory. It is often for the purpose alleviating or putting into right perspective what is beneficial to the local and existing government and for the interest of the greater majority. International regime refers on the governance of the welfare of all nations as one., the intent of the UN conventions in the creation of a regime that can manage the welfare of all nations in equal footing. Plunder of Antiquities cultural materials from other countries are illegally removed and transported transnationally to fill the collections of private purchasers and museums. Smuggling of migrants refers to the illegal exploitation of migrants from other nation/countries entering foreign nations. These, migrants often end up to forced labor, prostitutions and other inhuman treatment by the receiving nation. These activities are designed for profit by the criminal groups who facilitate their travels. Transnational environment refers to the environment where citizens around the globe can relate with each other on all types of human endeavor; such as economies, social and political. All intervening activities, concepts and thought encompasses transnational environment. Isolationism as referred to international relations, the act of one country trying to become independent from other and don not want to take part on any international organizational activities. When the union of nations, take a lift forward on development, the country which does not cooperate are isolated at their own, common time, economic embargo are the results of this isolationism.

Different types of Terrorism: 1. anti-colonial terrorism known in modern bureaucratic language as asymmetric Warfare used by European colonies as a tactic, targeting colonial administrators, foreign national, and nations sympathetic to the colonial powers. Terrorist formulated their own theories of anti-colonial revolution and based much of their activity on earlier revolutionism such as the Irish Republican Army and the Russian Peoples Will. Anti-Colonial rebels used terrorism to make foreign occupations too costly for colonial powers. 2. ideological Terrorism the ideological terrorist of the left, and later the right, used rhetoric of anti-colonialism, but their targets were the economies and social symbols of western Democracies. The political climate spawned by the Vietnam war fueled violent idealized terrorism, that spread almost to all nations. 3. Religions Terrorisms introduced a cosmic dimension to violent political struggle. Mark Juergens Meyer, 2000, terror in the Mind of God. the mere existence of demonized enemy is evil, and any deviation from the orthodox path potentially represents the work of the devil. Therefore is mandated as a result of the cosmic necessity to purify creation by purging evil. The call to violence is a call to violence is a call to purify the world from non-believers and those who interpret religious traditions incorrectly. If the holy warrior fails, God fails, so the struggle. RA 9372 known as the Human Security Act of 2007 PD no. 1613 the law on Arson RA 6969 Toxic Substance and Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Control Act of 1990. RA 5207 atomic energy Regulatory and Liability Act of 1968. RA 6235 Anti Hijacking Law PD532 Anti piracy and anti-highway robbery Law of 1974. PD 1866 as amended, decree codifying the Laws on illegal and Unlawful Possession Manufacture, Dealing in, Acquisition or Disposition of firearms, ammunitions or Explosives National terrorist used to define almost all illegal acts of violence committed for political purpose by clandestine groups Transnational terrorist terrorist who operates across national borders, whose actions and political aspirations may effect individual of more than one nationality. International terrorist terrorist who are controlled by, and whose actions represents the national interest of a sovereign state. Terrorist not an inborn species nor is he man-made come from humble-bed and from the unknown genre. These innocent mortals are nourished and nurtures by ism of ideology, religion and worldliness; they acquire the animal instinct fraught with ferocity and ruthlessness. This gives birth to a unique culture of personalities elevated into the level of revolutionaries, reactionaries and radicalism. Terrorism the systemic use of terror as a means of coercion. Hijackings robbery of goods while in transit, commonly from trucks. May involve robbery of only goods. May also refer to commandeering an airplane. Kidnappings a common law, the forcible abduction and or stealing and carrying away. If a person from own country to another. Political crime in general, any crime directly against the government; e.g. treason, sedition. It includes any violent disturbances without reference to a specific crime, in modern times. It also includes public officers offense towards the public that may ripen into betrayal of public trust.

Political offenses a designation of a class of crimes usually excepted from traditional treaties, this terms demotes crimes that are incidental to and from a part of political disturbances; but it might also be understood to include offenses consisting in an attack upon the political orders of things established in the country where committed, and even to include offenses committed and even to include offenses committed to obtain any political object. Politics the science of government; the art or practice of administering public affairs. Polyopsony condition of a market characterized by the fewness of buyers. The fewness has an effect on the price of the materials or products. Polypoly a market characterized by the fewness of sellers and this has a direct effect on prices. Computer- an electronic ,machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in tis own memory, that can accept data (input) manipulate the data according to specified rules (process produce results (output) and store the results for future use. Methods of Wiretapping 1. Hard wiretapping commonly used by law enforcers.it involves the physical access to the telephone line to the operations target and installs a second set of wires that connect the target telephone and the spys listening post. This method is relatively easy to detect because of the actual wire connected leading to the listening post. 2. Soft wiretapping involves a modification of the software used to run the telephone system. This can be done at the telephone company or at the switchboard of the target corporation, hotels and condominiums, among others. While this type of eavesdropping is almost impossible to detect, it may require the direct participation of personnel from the telephone industry. 3. record wiretap simply calls for installing a voice activated tape recorder into the telephone line. This is not only too expensive but too tedious in the economy of time and space. 4. Transmit wiretap requires the use of RF transmitter bugging machine connected to the telephone line. This is the more classic type of spying and available is most countries. while it is easy to detect, it is impossible to trace the person who installed it. RA 8792 otherwise known as the Electronic Commerce act of 2000 RA 4200- anti- wire Tapping Law Cyber crime unauthorized access into or interference in a computer system/server or information and communication system; or any access in order to corrupt, alter, steal o, or destroying using a compouter and communication devices, without the knowledge and consent of the owner of the computer or information and communications system, including the introduction of computer viruses and the like, resulting in the corruption, destruction, alteration, theft or loss of electronic data messages or electronic document. E-Commerce Law (RA 8792). Long Lining illegally making international calls using the internet. Cyber Terrorism is a premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which result in violence against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents. Difference between Hackers and Cyber Terrorist: Hackers want to free access to band with Hackers want to free information Hackers want to thrill of the intrusion. Hackers want bragging rights. Cyber terrorist want to cause hysteria

Cyber terrorists want to disrupt society and cause harm.

Groups likely to Utilize cyber terrorism: Al Qaeda (international) Arned Islamic Group, also known as GIA (Algeria) Aum Shinkrikyo (Japan) Hizballah (Lebanon) Hamas (Jordan) CPP/NPA/NDF (Phillipines) Unauthorized intrusions (hacking) violations occur when an unauthorized user illegally accesses network computers where he/she is not authorized. Digital Camera digital device for recording images and video accompanied by a storage device and conversion hardware for transferring images and video. R.A 8484 access Devices Regulation Act of 1998. Access Device means any card, plate, code, account number, electronic serial number, personal identification number, or other telecommunications service, equipment, or instrumental identifier, or other means of account access that can be used to obtain money, good services or any other thing of value. Counterfeit Access Device means any access device that is counterfeit, fictitious, altered, forged or an identifiable, component of an access device or counterfeit access device. Unauthorized Access Device means any access device that is stolen, lost expired, revoked, cancelled, suspended or obtain with an defraud. Hacking or Cracking which refer to unauthorized access into or interference in computer system or information and communication system; - Any access in order to corrupt alter, steal or destroy using a computer or other similar information and communication devices, without the knowledge and consent of the owner of the computer of information and communication system, including the introduction of computer viruses resulting in the corruption and destruction of electronic data messages. Piracy or the unauthorized copying, reproduction, dissemination, distribution, importation, use, removal alteration, substitution, modification, uploading, downloading, making available to the public, or broadcasting of protected material, electronic signature or copyrighted works, through the use of telecommunications networks. globalization - he process of creating transnational markets, politics, and legal systems in order to develop a global economy. Virus is a program that disrupts or destroys existing programs and networks, causing them to perform the task for which the virus was designed. Superzapping most computer programs used in business have built-in antitheft safeguards. Superzappers use software that bypasses Computer security programs to allow unauthorized access to data. Logic Bomb a set of instructions secretly inserted into a program that is designed to execute if a particular condition is satisfied, e.g. the bomb lies dormant until a particular ate is reached or

command entered. When exploded, the logic bomb may delete data or corrupt files or have other harmful effects. Logic bombs area type of virus because they deliver their payloads after a specific triggering events occurred. Electronic data message- refers to informations generated, sent, received and stored by electronic, optical or similar means. Informations and Communications System refers to a system of generating, sending, receiving, storing or otherwise processing electronic data message or electronic documents and includes the computer system or other similar device by or in which data is recorded or stored and any procedures related to the recording or storage of electronic data message or electronic documents. Electronic Signature- refers to any distinctive marks, characteristics and/or sound in electronic form, representing the identity of a person and attached to or logically associated with the electronic data message or electronic document or any methodology or procedures employed or adopted by a person and executed by such person with the intention of authenticating or approving an electronic data message or electronic documents. Electronic Documents- refers to information or representation of information, data, figures, symbols, or other modes of written expression, described or however represented, by which a right is established or An obligation extinguished, or by which a fact may be proved and affirmed, which is received, recorded, transmitted, stored, processed, retrieved or produced electronically. Electronic Key- refers to a secret code which secures and defends sensitive informations that crosses over public channels into a form decipherable only with a matching electronic key. Intermediary- refers to a person who in the behalf of another person and with respect to a particular electronic data message or electronic documents sends, received and/ or stored or provides other services in respect of that electronic data message or electronic document. Originator- refers to person to whom, or on whose behalf, the electronic documents purports to have been created and/ or sent. The tem does not include the person acting as an intermediary with respect to that electronic device. Economic Crimes- is commonly categorized as a white collar crimes. White- Collar Crime- is a criminal act committed by person of responsibility, respectability and with high social status in the course of his/ her profession. Forms of White Collar Crimes 1. Corporate Crimes- The violation of a criminal statute either by a corporate entity or by its executives, employees or agents acting in behalf of and for the benefit of the corporations, partnership and other business entity. 2. Environmental Crimes- violation of criminal law which although typically committed by businesses or businesses officials, may also be committed by other persons or organizational entity, and which damage some protected or otherwise significant aspect of the natural environment. 3. Occupational Crimes- Any act punishable by law, which committed through opportunity created in the course of an occupation that is legal. Occupational Crimes Classification 1. Organizational Occupational Crimes- Crimes committed for the benefit of the entire organizational such instances only the organization or the employer, not individual employees. 2. State Authority Occupational Crime- Crimes by the officials in the exercise of their state-based authority. Such crime is occupation specific, and can only be committed by person in public office or by working for such person. 3. Professional Occupational Crime- Crimes by professionals in their capacity as professionals. The crimes of physician, attorneys, psychologists and the like are included.

4. Individual Occupational Crime- Crimes of individual as individuals which includes income tax evasion, theft of goods and services of employees, the filing of false expense report, and the like. Organizational Crimes also refer to: 1. White Collar Crimes- term usually signifies law violations by corporations or individuals including theft or fraud and other violations of trust committed in the course of the offenders occupations, these are classified as non- violent crimes but the effect is the economic suffering of thevictim. 2. Vocational Crimes- committed by one who does not think for himself as a criminal and whose major source of income is something other than crime. 3. Corporate Crime- committed by corporate officials for their corporations and the offense of the corporations itself. 4. Economic Crimes- illegal activity that principally involves deceit, misrepresentations, concealment, manipulation, breach of trust and illegal circumvention. 5. Organizational Crimes- illegal actions taken in accordance with operative organizational goals that seriously harm employees of the general public. 6. Upper-world Crime- law breaking acts committed by those who, due to their positions in the structure, have obtained specialized kinds of occupational slots essential for the commission of the offense. Fraud- Embracing all multifarious means which human ingenuity can devise, and which are resorted to by one individual to get advantage over another by false suggestions or by suppression of truths, and includes all surprises, trick, cunning, and any other unfair way by which another is cheated. Types of Fraud 1. Actual or Constructive Fraud a. Actual Fraud- consist in deceit, artifice, trick, design, and some direct or active operation of the mind. b. Constructive Fraud- consist of any act of commission, omission contrary to legal or equitable duty, trust, or confidence justly reposed, which is contrary to good conscience and operates to the injury of another. 2. Extrinsic Fraud- fraud which is collateral to the issues tried in the case where the judgment is rendered. 3. Fraud in Fact or in Law- is actual positive or intentional fraud. Fraud disclosed by matters of fact, as distinguished from constructive fraud or fraud in law. Fraud in law is fraud in contemplation of law, fraud implied or inferred by law, fraud made out of construction of law, as distinguished from fraud found by a jury from matters of fact. 4. Fraud in execution- misrepresentation to deceive the other party as to the nature of the document evidencing the contract. 5. Fraud in the Factum- misrepresentation as to the nature of the writing that the person signs with neither knowledge nor reasonable opportunity to obtain knowledge of its character or essential terms. 6. Fraud in Inducement- connected with underlying transaction and not with the nature of the contract or document signed. Misrepresentation as to the terms, quality or other aspects of a contractual relation, venture or other transactions that leads a person to agree to enter into the transaction with a false impression or understanding of the risk, duties or obligation being undertaken. 7. Intrinsic Fraud- that which pertains to issues involved in original action or where acts constitution fraud where, or could have been, litigated therein. 8. Legal or Positive Fraud- is made out of legal construction or inference, or the same thing as constructive fraud.

9. Mail or Wire Fraud- criminal offenses by using mail or interstate wires to create or in furtherance of a scheme or artifice to defraud, or for obtaining money or property by means of false or fraudulent pretense. 10. Tax Fraud- willful attempting to evade or defeat the payment of taxes due and owing. It falls into two (2) categories: civil and criminal. 11. Fraud on Court a scheme to interfere with judicial machinery performing task of impartial adjudication, as by preventing the opposing party from fairly presenting his case or defense. This can involve bribery of a judge or jury to fabrication of evidence by counsel and must be supported by clear, unequivocal and convincing evidence.