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it is only natural that an ever-increasing number of chapters and paragraphs inPausanias have some relation to.168. Since hundreds of new inscriptions from those parts of Greece that he described become known every year. for valuable suggestions that did much to improve this ? 1984 BY THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. in a slightly different at form.' aimed at demonstrating seems highly desirable.CHRISTIAN HABICHT Pausanias and the Evidence of Inscriptions AMONG which under THESather Lectures on Pausanias' "Description of Greece. only a small selection of examples It is at the kind suggestion of members of the Editorial of the Sather the topic in this journal before publication I keep the basic division of the lecture to discuss into the three conse For follows chosen sections of Mythology." in the fall of 1982. the third one. in particular Erich Gruen. and into account. since Pausanias has tran I had the honor the title of commentary on Pausanias scribedword-for-word numerous inscriptions. or some common ground with. can be discussed In what I have that I discuss the same reason. different passages in Pausanias and. andHistory (others could easily be thought of). for Angeles Board. his narrative can be confirmed. Furthermore. of delivering at Berkeley that an epigraphical this article. also given at the University It is a pleasure to express my gratitude to my colleagues both at Berkeley and at Los to thank the members I also wish of the Editorial their kindness and hospitality.82. of California lecture was. it is often only Pausanias' report that allows for a proper understanding of an inscription. but 1. supplemented. and has sum marized several hundred others. The Los Angeles. or illuminated by inscriptional evidence.218 on Sun. here. On the other hand. very often when he is not quoting or reporting from an inscription. Archaeology. inscriptions. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . therewill always be freshmaterial to be taken Board Lectures. paper.mainly epigrams. For this reason.
and Pausanias' language in order there. Pausanias was interested in learningwhom the inhabitants venerated: gods. from Hellenistic or Roman Imperial times. that he suggests (6) was however. or decrees granting privileges on account of a relationshipgoing back to the age of myth. It may seem less natural to assume that inscriptions from the enlightened periods of Greece. Her tomb. he says (1). 12.82. was described as the keeper of the temple of for herself: Herophile and as being active there in chanting oracles. In this way not only will repetition be avoided. nymphs.1-7). The large amount of evidence dictates concentration. heroes. as has to be expected from a book on the sites and the monuments of ancient Greece.1-11). There are chronicles the long minutes of territorial disputes inscribed between that report myths.168. but originally she was fromMarpessus in the Troad (3-4). 12. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the earliest known part of their past. that the important city tried to claim at a distance of some thirty miles. 12. 2-5). To Delphi and to various other places she came more than once on her extended journeys (5). an older Sibyl. however. therefore. Herophile. Erythrae a Sibyl was undoubtedly the Troad. among Apollo (6). different inscriptions. had also been born before the Trojan since she foretold Helen's fatal role for Asia and Europe and the fate of War. in the Troad. reflect tales of the old myths.No wonder. 1. I have therefore chosen to discuss under this heading two sections only: first. mainly because for the ancients myth was a part of history. in where Ionia.HABICHT: Pausanias and theEvidence of Inscriptions 41 quently. But many do indeed. MYTHOLOGY It is well known thatmythology plays a large and important part in Pau sanias' work. or two states where each side was on stone trying to strengthen its case by references to the oldest times. themention of the rock from which the Sibyl Herophile used to chant oracles (10. which some sixty souls still lived. whose author preferred the past to the present and the sacred to the profane. Herophile. SIBYL HEROPHILE In his description of Apollo's sanctuary at Delphi. by a city far outside at home. There was. The Erythraeans This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Ilium (2). his summary of the Greek THE settlement of Ionia (7. obviously saw it.218 on Sun. with an elegiac inscription was on it. from Pausanias' digressions on the Sibyls the paragraphs on Herophile (10. To narrate theirmyths was for him as unavoidable as it was pleasant. Wherever he went. was in the grove of Sminthian mostly ruins.1) prompts Pau sanias to speak at some length about Sibyls (10. but the point that an epigraphical commentary on Pausanias is really needed will gain additional force. Her tomb was Apollo to strengthen also claimed this claim. and second. In Pausanias' of Alexandria Herophile Sminthian built days Marpessus a forlorn place.
F. 'Ai8covwet. IErythrai 226. which Pausanias transmits: "Here am I. by Buresch and Corssen. Theodorus. however. Jacoby.82. There has long been agreement among scholars thatMarpessus' claim. This refers back to the verses quoted in paragraph 3: natzpit 65 goi acztv puo0pin /Mdapraooo. its men iwEpf. why the nymph got the surname of Idaeanwas thatwooded places were called in those days idai. Buresch.3 They show that the Erythraean there. AM 17 (1892) 16-36. as an interpolation. / and 2. now IErythrai 224. They strike out of the oracles the verse aboutMarpessus and the river Aidoneus. Herakleides Pontikos (Basel 1953) 105. The opposite view was held by K. 4." This is undoubtedly modeled after the first line of the epigram on Herophile's tomb in the Troad. La troi sieme Sibylle (Paris 1970) 6. Theodorus. with tion of Marpessus and the riverAidoneus. commentary on FGrHist 422. 8ff. cut out all references to theTroad by explain ing away the mention Ida and by deleting the last verse. 1 (1955) esp. 5. not Erythrae's. 225. Sibyl was venerated One of the inscriptions attests to statues of Niu(pri Nais and of Zipu3Xua v64uPt. 3. F. VII. of Mount gnrp6g lrlTp60ev 'I5oycevi.218 on Sun. Corssen. they have Herophile born onMount Corycus. A. point toMount Corycus and a cave in it.. that these inscriptions and Pausanias' report illuminate each other. Die Schule des Aristoteles. In the same sense: A.168. esp. in theirown territory.42 CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY Volume 3 /No.2 But it is not so much this question that is of interest here as the fact that the Erythraeans expressed their view also in inscriptions." show what the zeal for Pausanias calls Erythraean Erythraean epigram clearly Herophile: "There is no other native country of mine except Erythrae.. V. Instead. Nikiprowetzky. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .15. RE Sibyllen (1923) 2085. and a nymph. as reported by Pausanias. They openly and sharply disputed the claim of Mar pessus. demonstrated thatMarpessus' claim was better justified. the oracle-uttering Sibyl of Phoebus. A second inscrip tion5 is an elegiac poem of 16 lines that has Herophile herself speaking: "Here I am. 24. AM 38 (1913) 1-22. they say. IErythrai 225. Rzach.4 It is no surprise that what are stressed here are the and details invented at Erythrae to prove Herophile's Ionian origin: her nationality and her father's name. 162n. The only reason. Kurfess. who urge their claims to Herophile with more warmth than any other Greek people. she being a child of Theo dorus. inwhich they say thatHerophile was born. 1 /April 1984 claimed that the Sibyl who was called Herophile and who foretold the fall of Troy was in fact theirs. Wehrli. ilt nozrabg The Erythraeans.and they have a name for her father. esp. the plain-speaking Lines 2-3 of the Sibyl of Phoebus. was justified.D.S Kai OeofcopoU 'EpOpaiac. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.. says Pausanias.. In a small grotto at Erythrae of the second century A. were several inscriptions uncovered in 1891. Discussed 228. P. 226 and. Sibyllinische Weissagungen (Munich 1951) 9ff. Pausanias has a substantial paragraph on thematter (7): The Erythraeans. from a later date. a shepherd of the country. that is to say.
the son of Codrus. this inscription has been dated convincingly to A.2). Androclus. The inscriptions from Erythrae confirm the substance of the narrative of the periegete. Sakellariou.D.. Pau sanias. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." en Jonie (Athens 1959). originallyAeolian.HABICHT: Pausanias and theEvidence of Inscriptions 43 Theodorus is my normal father. been suggested that lines 1-12 could well be much earlier. The founders of the cities in Ionia are all mythical persons. The founder of the Greek city at Ephesus was. Androclus was depicted on Ephesian coins.12. mit Pausanias ist frappant.6Now. had been the inhabitants of Achaea. as Pausanias mentions. gift of oil in all gymnasia of Ephesus on "Androclus' day" (Trito) 'Av6p6KkouPlptpq).. It has. 162 by Karl Buresch."9 From the time of Hadrian onward. before coming toAsia Minor. provides the context without which these inscriptions could never have been properly understood. 644: A. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. in Pausanias' view.8-9. Hellenica 4 (1948) 87ff. under the sons 6. was lateradmitted to the IonianLeague. IEphesos 7. 14ff. However that may epigraphical evidence is obvious.168.2.8 The reason for this digression is dedicated is that.3 at that some time. and that they were only reinscribed in A. "more excellent than Androclus. 12 (1970) 335-353. See (supra n. since verses 13-16 allude to an expected visit of the emperor Lucius Verus who was on his way to the Parthian War. 501: restoration of his statue as a KTCicrTrl. illuminating among other things the zeal with which the people of Erythrae claimed Herophile for themselves.218 on Sun."'2 Several cities in Ioniawere founded long before the Ionians.2) 9: "Die Ubereinstimmung M. IEphesos 2044: &tIov obiKlctTzpa. Robert. Over the tomb is the figure of an armed man. 9. Corssen 8.D." The agreement with Pausanias' report is indeed striking. Pausanias 11. I do not 7. THE GREEK SETTLEMENT OF IONIA Pausanias' a summary of the most of seventh book the foundation remarkable but chapters 2-5 contain to Achaea. 10." RE Suppl. the close link between Pausanias' text and 10. and history of the twelve Ionian cities and a list things to be seen in Ionia." In late antiquity. the Ionians.D. He was buried "at the spot where the tomb is shown to this day. S. ' Inscriptions of imperial date show that he was venerated as founder and wor shipped as a hero. which is proof that he was still wor shipped as the founder of the city in the second century 12. in his turn. "Ephesos.82. in general La migration grecque count among the twelveSmyrnawhich. B. however. a governor of Asia by the name of Messa linus is hailed as the worthy founder. 7po(pep^czepov 'AvSp6KXoto.See the commentary by L. on the road that leads from the sanctuary past the Olympieum toward theMagnesian gate. Ibid.7 There are indeed indications that the dispute between Erythrae and Marpessus orig inated in the Hellenistic about Marpessus period and that both the verses in Pausanias and those stating the claim of Erythrae were composed be. and severalof them are attested both inPausanias and in inscriptions. Jacoby (supran. Karwiese. 162 and enlarged by those referring to the emperor.
confuses Athamas and Aeolus. n.44 CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY Volume 3/No. Coins of the second century A. 2." between the city and 4 There is earlier epigraphical evidence. lawfulness.218 on Sun. Robert. famous in Antiquity.C. Melas. son of King Rhadamanthys (Pausanias 7. a new fragment and the bibliography of IErythrai 207.76. and prosperity to the city. IGR 4. they refer to the relationship that connected them with Hellen. C. Royal Correspondence in theHellenistic Period (New Haven 1934) 35." 5 Since this is meant to explain why the rulers grant favors to Teos. REG 94 (1981) 355n. although the expression is less than precise. "the most conspicuous city of Erythros.C. 38 (1980) 224 150 line 6.C. It is therefore that the founder of the island appropriate own name. from the third century B. in an epigram on stone. Theodorus and Amynandrus. by Minyans from Orchomenus. Welles.7).80. Euan ships from Crete to Chios."'8 In another inscription the emperor Lucius Verus. 203 B. dating to the second century B. descendant of Athamas.6). was followed by his sons Talus.C. ZPE 19. founded. The founder of Erythrae was Erythros. his sonAeolus. 16. for It is its wine that Chios was most and Athamas..D." Salagus. "the original himself of the common appellation of theGreeks. they received their first settlers from Crete. both Erythrae and Chios were founded before the arrival of the Ionians. accepting the inviolability of the city. his grandson Athamas.D. whose leaderwas Athamas. 12. REG 94 18.." and that of his daughter. 1/April 1984 of King Codrus. Athamas also received sacrifices inErythrae. 14. 17. as quoted by L. down to imperial times the city had coins with the repre sentation of the founder and the legend "EpuOpog K'Tio(Trl. arrived.8) that "in course of time Oenopion sailed with some thes. F. IErythrai quoted supra (1981)354-55. here. ' As for Chios. there can be no doubt. son of Aeolus and grandson of Hellen. From the fifth century B. REG 94 (1981) 354n. was hailed in verses fabricated for the occasion as a "new Erythros" who would bring virtue. that they had in mind Hellen. as quoted by L. as Pausanias says (7. and Athamas' descendant Atha mus. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .8. F. In his commentary (155)Welles. sent to Teos ca. Oenopion. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. the founder of Teos. For this reason one a son of the god of wine. See L. if anywhere. Imhoof-Blumer. Like Teos.. Unlike Teos. Imhoof-Blumer. for Athamas as the founder and for the resulting relationship the tribe of theAthamanians in northwesternGreece. 10. Braund. CQ 30 (1980) 421n. sacrifices to Erythros are now attested.3. Among them was Teos. IErythrai 207. C. Staphyle.'7 and the city calls itself once. "bunch of grapes.3. and 32 (1982) 350ff. 15.'3 and about the same time a distinguished of Teos citizen was honored as the "new Athamas. means his that Dionysus.168.'6 In a new fragment of the famous list of sacrifices. Robert.82. 1570. IErythrai 106.4. L. Robert. show thatAthamas was then still regarded as the founder of the city." The artificiality is transparent 13. 162. REG 94 (1981) 354. of the myth "wine drinker. In addition. D. expected to pass through on his way to the Parthian campaign in A. following Waddington. In the letter that the rulers of Athamania. Robert. B. Pausanias reports (7.
while stating that a fourthwife was left behind inCrete. Condoleon.5.22 More important. Until recently.20From certain features of thismyth it has long been concluded that the storymust have served as stuff for dramatic plays. cultivated in the placewhere itbelonged.HABICHT: Pausanias and theEvidence of Inscriptions 45 would not expect to find Oenopion's name in inscriptions.21 According to Pausanias (7. This is obviously part of a local chronicle. who rapedOenopion's wife and was in turn blinded by him.82. RE Oinopion (1937) in addition 2272-75. has now shown that a tragedy named Oenopion was awarded first prize in 363 B. But it is found. Condoleon. AJP 56 (1935) 361 no. 24. one of them being Promethos.3. the names of settle several dis ment. 6 6 To Oivoirlovog Td(po. Rev Phil 74 (1949) 9. 21. the Hunter in and the Huntress (Berkeley 1981). found at theAgora. 1. must come from from the sanctuary of example being the chronicle The text preserved on the stone from Chios is part of received were the heroic honors of a story about Oenopion. where Oenopion and where his achievements was verymuch alive in a lateperiod. J. seems tomention it under the name of [Oi]votcibveiov.25 two sons of King Codrus were the leaders of the Ionian B.23 The implicationis thatPausanias has seenand read these inscriptions. then Pau sanias explains why the inscription we have was engraved at all. Orion: The Myth another of 20. A new fragment from the list of the victors at the Lenaea inAthens.C. several associates. 25. sons or and finally threewives. begins: "The following came with Some of Oenopion the names to Chios" agree with and those then lists three sons. Oenopion is well known in his connection with Orion. Athena Lindia in Rhodes. H.-J. inscription from Chios. TOC OivoIV07voq. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Auffuhrungen Griechenland (Berlin & New York 1977) 147. Oenopion's tombwas among the sightsmost worth seeing in Ionia.). the hunter. Hesperia 40 (1971) 302ff. however. to the patronymic.218 on Sun.3. the inscription in turn confirms what he says about Oenopion's tomb. whose deeds are the on theme of stories that still linger the spot. 22) 1-9. 159. dating to the lateHellenistic period (second or first century B. no. Meritt.24 listed by Pausanias as those of friends of Oenopion. The type is the best-known familiar. only two comedies with the title Oenopion were attested. 09av Te ntapXEtTat Kai Tivac Kai X6youvS S TdEpya. Urkunden dramatischer Mette. 23.5. whose only mention in all our evidence 7. 22. Condoleon's suggestion is certainly right: the stone If so. B. 7. is Pausanias on stone. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Condoleon (supran. and not only inChios. published in 1949by N.C.13: XiolS. Keyssner. an Now. In Colophon. the Greek text makes it in fact quite clear that these stories were inscribed on the tomb itself. of Chios the tomb. K. D. Pausanias adds that some of Oenopion's deeds were inscribed on it: "One of the sights of Chios is the grave of Oenopion. 8. Fontenrose." This is Frazer's translation. 'A0rlva 20 (1908) 267 no. A fragmentary inscrip tion of the fifth century B.C. Once more the myth founder inscribed. When in the late fourth century hundred citizenswho had lentmoney for an extension of thewalls were inscribed seven of them received.168.C.13). N.
Hegetor is only once attested. As Robert observed. Cook. In this case. XIII. Louis Robert. and this is convincing.218 on Sun. min. He spoke of "distinguishing epithets" and assumed that they were derived from the names of the grandfathers. however. with pl. 2." inscription. Tpi. 30. subdivisions of the citizenry in many Greek states and well attested inColophon. See also W.146) that among the Ionians coming to Asia Minor narrates there were (7. yea four times shall they be / Who shall inhabitPagus The editor of a fragmentary beyond the sacred Meles.30 There is. another subdivision of the city population. therefore a nephew of Promethos. 32. 2. D. BCH59 at Leyden iprlv i''poio still has this and This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 746-47). dating from the second century A. J. is a later insertion in the text to fill out a metri because the word is omitted in several cally incomplete line. Zenobius 5. however. and said to come from Smyrna. W.M.C.82. ZPE21 (1976) 145. As for the genos Hegetorides. M. son of Apollodorus.) also Dorians that in the Ionian from Epidaurus.3 manuscripts. sel. son of Neleus and grandson of Codrus.D. Publishing a decree of the chiliastys of the Epidaurians dating century B. Pausanias quotes this (7. in the 'Rijksmuseum The Greek van Oudheden' Pleket. saw that these are in fact designations of gene.4. the epi and correct The reading was aicztr. the wit ness being this timePausanias' contemporary. a genos Pro metheioi must have been connected with Promethos the son of Codrus. the Sophist Zenobius. Robert of course mentioned the connection and drew the con clusion that some of the old chiliastyes received their names from tribes that had once participated in the Greek settlement of the island.3. One of these individualsisApollonius.32 graphical evidence enables us to correct the defective 26.26He did not.29 It was J. When Alexander this hap a as of an of the result dream he had and of oracle Claros pened given by Apollo to the Smyrnaeans who had consulted the god on the matter. and thatmany of hismen were likewiseEpidaurians. 27. &vpE. L. Cook argues that &v~pe. Peek. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .2. mention that both theHegetoridai inColophon and theHegetoreioi in Ephesus must derive from Hegetor. min. Rocha-Pereira) is unaware of 28. Like Promethos. He settlement at Samos the leader was Procles from Samos. 1/April 1984 tinction. (1935) 477-78 (Op.343). CRn. Robert. 31. Prometheios (line 631). 11 (1961) 7-8.5. The last Teubner edition of 1977 (H.46 CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY Volume 3/No.27 While Herodotus reports (1. sel.168. a discrepancy between ati--of the inscription and i&vpeS in Pau sanias. Pausanias is more specific.): "Thrice blest. 62. RevPhil 62 (1936) 162-64 (Op. Inscriptions (Leiden 1958) 75 no. however. B. . Meritt recognized that this was done to distinguish them from homonyms. Robert pointed to theHegetoreioi in Ephesus. recognized immediately of the inscription also occur in the passage of that the words "sacred Meles" Pausanias described just quoted. original text of Pausanias. H. to the second from Epidaurus. occurring in line 865.17 (ParoemiographiGraeci 1..28 the Great refounded Smyrna at a new location.s. Cook who saw that the fragment is in fact as an oracle and that it once represented the same text. 1241-43).S gdKapGc KErVOI Kai TETpdKIt autt[tl l ECovTai / ol ndryov oiKtflooucIl 29.
(1937) I. 38. Uber Pausanias (Graz 1890)469-70. Herodotus 1.34 An inscription was then time found which not only proved this conclusion to be correct but also indicated when in 1928 the frag part was lost. 140-43 (bibliography in E. 35. in 425 B. First. Another dedication which is similar in both essence and date has recently 33. opposite Messenian Pylos. had dedicated. In lines 6-7 Reinach the time they had occupied crater that was mentioned as one of the pieces lost at that recognized Alyattes' time: 'AuaKTo[u )].C. the to Apollo's is discussed at some length. According to Pausanias (10. were made prisoners by the Athenians under Cleon must have the specific information from an inscription and Demosthenes on the island of Sphacteria. who.HABICHT: Pausanias and theEvidence of Inscriptions 2. the great silver bowl dedicated by King Alyattes of Lydia to the god in Delphi after he had recovered from an illness.C.36 As Pausanias written on the objects themselves. is left"38remains true. Gurlitt. nothing and how the actual more bowl. 34-46.37 Pausanias could not have seen this one. written in or soon after 346 B.15.35 two weapons from booty of the fifth century Next. scribed the painting of the battle of Marathon. a very famous piece from the archaic entrance period.C. W.7.C. After terminates he has de his account that this stoa also had a serve them better. "Delphoi. since it was thrown away several hundred years before his time. the Phocian general Philomelus also confiscated a golden shield that Croesus of Lydia. Rogers).82. Th. photograph also in Agora XIV. Alyattes' son and successor. Theodor Reinach published ment of an inscription from Delphi. 2123-24. Pausanias d Delphes (Paris 1936) 182-83. 34. RE Pylos (1959). InAristophanes Knights 845-46 (translationby B. Pausanias 10. Daux. however. The weight of the piece (or part of it) is recorded as sevenminae.1-2." RE Suppl. depicts only the stand of welded iron.. This celebrated work of art by Glaucus of Chios is described by Herodotus and others. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .4.33Pausanias. But it had once been part of the booty of 425 and may have hung together with the others in the Painted Colonnade. G. from Pylus brought. Scholars was left of that by Pausanias' long ago concluded the original gift. pl. not the figures that decorated the upper part. B. Pausanias of the Painted Colonnade in Athens with the remark number of bronze shields and that some of them were B. covered with pitch to pre are said to have been taken from the latter.210B-C. The Spartans so often. he continues. Shear. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Ephem. This is confirmed by the fact that a shield from the Lacedaemonians at Pylos" was bearing the inscription "The Athenians found during the excavations in the Agora. 49d). cern here will be various objects.8).168. Schober.Hegesandrus inAthenaeus 5. 36. my con sanctuary at Delphi. Cleon's prophecy that his deed would live in people's memory "while any shred of any shield. Arch. Meyer.218 on Sun. 356 to 346 B. ARCHAEOLOGY 47 Whereas in the corresponding section of the Sather Lectures a site.25.16. 5 (1931) 101-102. before itwas separated from them. See also F. It contains a record of sacred objects carried away and melted down by the Phocians during the main the sanctuary. 1. L. RA (1938) II. Pausanias 37.
44 Pausanias says: again by Nero to Rome. R. comme les Thespiens lui furent cependant . Hamburg to Thespiae (which Sulla would then have upheld)."42 This remains plausible enough. Lippold. The emperor Gaius Caligula had it carried to Rome. He thinks it freedom of which is attested by Pliny Nat. Jamot. 9.1. and eivota.48 been bians CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY found in the Athenian Agora. next to his statue of Erechtheus at Athens.. This to connect with this story the statue of Sulla himself erected iswhat theGreeks callworshipping god with other people's incense. and that it was restored by Claudius only to be a second time carried off it was destroyed by fire. "Imperium to accept an earlier date for the seems inclined that remained 43. much earlier and men 40. Hesperia 47 (1978) BCH 192-95: 50 (1926) 'A0Bvaiot 437 no. Jamot has drawn this conclusion: Sulla "honorait On voit que ainsi les dieux a peu de frais. Hist. At Rome 39.27. Bernhardt. had been found SEG 28. dedicated there the standing image of Dionysus.30. tioned by P. Its inscription refers to the Roman general's &pezT. The base / AiocyK6pot[v]."45 More general is Cassius Dio's by Nero. to dedicate: he took it from the Minyans at Orchomenus.158. even if the city had.Myron's Diony sus. quotes Jamot and says of the inscription that itwas still unpublished.1. Taken it perished there in a fire in A. RE Thespiae (1936) 39. 24. Pausanias reports that the Roman imperator Sulla. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Jamot. 80. 42..more reasons for honoring Sulla than just this one. Plassart. 41. as a reward."40 by the city of Thespiae. A.D. This must and again refer Volume 3/No. for no other reason than to see the celebrated Eros of Praxiteles-as long as itwas there.41) 438 from an unpublished paper.18. 4. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .3. RE Praxiteles (1954) 1797-98. "They say that the first to remove the image of Love was the Roman emperor Caius.43 To continue with anothermasterpiece of Greek sculpture and with Thespiae: people came to the city. (Diss.218 on Sun.168. BCH 15 (1891) 391n. during the FirstMithridatic War.41 In fact.82. P. reconnaissants de cette magnifi cence peu couteuse. and Eleutheria" grant freedom 1971) 118n. Pausanias has some interesting informa tion about the vicissitudes of a masterpiece of Greek sculpture. Discussing the mountain of the Muses. 1 /April 1984 there is a link connecting it with Pausanias. granted the city the This is far from certain. The last category of archaeological objects in Pausanias to be discussed in connection with inscriptions is statues. the Helicon in Boeotia which be longed to Thespiae. "the finest of all the works It was not Sulla's It is tempting of Myron.25. A. perhaps. Fiehn. Plassart the war. / d1ti6 Aeop3v 37. as Cicero and other writers say. It is a spear butt with the inscription "The Athenians from the Les to the Dioscuri. 44. 45. Thespiae was the only town in Boeotia endure a siege by the Pontic army."39 allies in 428/27 to the Athenian comes rebellious and in all likelihood victory over their from the old sanctuary of the Dioscuri in theAgora that Pausanias recordswith its statues and paintings in 1. as quoted by Plassart (supran. himself observed that during and had to loyal to the Romans was Sulla who. it was then returned by Claudius.1. dvbpayaOia. le fait remarquer Pausanias. 9.
in the temple itself. 35..54 the remaining eight thanks to Pausan ias. Hesperia 22 (1953) 148ff...50 Pausanias' ing of the bases. It does not much matter whether one or the other work has to be added to from accounts 46. from Chios (Nat. during which four old women had to butcher four cows.49 These statue-bases were long believed to have supported equestrian statues. Cleobis and Biton at Delphi (Herodotus 1.218 on Sun. nr. A Nike 36. cows which were statues of four the supported the correct sacrificed solution: the bases to the goddess year in fact the clue for the proper understand account gives after year. 47.10 ff.C.52 He could not count more than eleven. IG IV679 (Sylloge 1051). benefactor of the city.5' To conclude this section on Pausanias and statues. Pausanias of all a sanctuary Pron.82. 36. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. and the group of Laocoon 53.HABICHT: Pausanias and theEvidence of Inscriptions 49 statement thatClaudius returned theworks of art thatCaligula had taken to the cities in Greece. four large bases of statues. however. M. fromOlympia. 51. 52.46 For Athens this is confirmed by a number of bases that all say that "Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. One of them is signed by Cresilas of Cydonia in Crete.4-8.11) (ibid. 54. and it seems that it is Pausanias thought the most remarkable alone who explains what of Demeter they were.6.48 There follows a precise description of the annual festival called Chthonia. others among them the Nike of Paeonius the Hermes of Praxiteles. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .34. Frank that are mentioned both in ancient writers have been securely identified. 49. 2.37). were all dedicated to Demeter and inscribed accordingly. which cannot be later than 420 B.53 two in the elder Pliny. esp. and he continues to tell the story of thisDemeter or of Chthonia-Demeter. "Erhaltene griechische Standbilder und ihreErwahnungen in der antiken Literatur. Of a quite different kind were some monumental sculptures in a Pelopon nesian town. 151-52. donated and restored [this]. H. it seems appropriate to remind ourselves that it is nearly exclusively our periegete who has enabled scholars Brommer to identify discussed a number the question of ancient sculptures."47 No doubt there had once been a similar inscrip tion on the base of Praxiteles' Eros at Thespiae. M.C. 3-4. Now. 684. P." Gym nasium 59 (1952) 115-25. Dio 60.168.C. Griechische Feste (Leipzig 1907) 329-30. one by one. Hesperia 22 (1953) 148ff. IG IV 683.8. IG II2 5173-79 and Deltion 25 (1970) 202-203 (part of IG II2 5178). One group has been identifiedwith the help of Herodotus. before the work was again taken to Rome. of how many Greek and Not statues too long ago. Cresilas' name on IG IV 683. 48. seems to have found Jameson.31). on Mount Among a number of notable objects in the city of Hermione in the Argolid. 50. Nilsson. found at Hermione and dating from the later fifth and the earlier fourth centuries B. Cass. It has also been observed sion at the Chthonia a decree of Hermione that what he reports about the proces is in perfect harmony with the detailed indications given in from the second century B. Hist.
Theopompus. 58. It fits the importance that he attributes to this particular that he speaks about the circumstances that brought it about in sev engagement In the first two. (1982) 509ff. Faure.. a certain Xenocrates eral other passages. the deadlock was finally re solved when crates the seventh member of the board.4-10.60 plays an important role: he is the one who. while yielding in importance to Xenocrates. Xenocrates. the group of Cleobis P. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. to bring from the shrine the shield believed to be the shield of Aristomenes.6. or illumi nates each other. Despinis. 81 (1966) 378-85. BCH Suppl. 61.4. HISTORY Many important historical events are recorded in inscriptions as well as in Pausanias. returned and joined his vote to those of Epaminondas.26. the new sculptures of Damophon from the Asclepieum inMessene. C. Historische griechischeEpigramme 66. crates. E.168.6' The the tomb of three Theban The leaders who third man fell at Leuctra: Xeno but and Mnasilaus. M. I April remain more or less the same: the list55 or subtracted Pausanias more than all other writers together has made such identifications possible.g. 651. Their respective information often confirms. mentioned by Pausanias 4. 3. the condition Itmay of Greece.50 CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY from it56-the ratio will / 1984 Volume 3 /No. to accept the battle. like Epaminondas himself.3-4. and it is only from an in the vicinity of Thebes that we learn more about him: that he of Thebes and that he lost his life in the battle of Leuctra. Bacchylides. 8. Theopompus. 59. See G.g. one of the seven boeotarchs and one of the two who supported Epaminondas' resolve of the Lacedaemonians.82. Arch and Biton: Anz.218 on Sun. 8.4. Pausanias informs us that Xenocrates was in that year.57 he praises the Theban victory over Sparta at Leuctra as the most noble victory of Greeks over Greeks. andMalgis (orMalcites).52. 32.31.Hiller von Gaertringen. seems to be unknown.3.C. in his opinion. 60.13. and chapter 2 of my forth coming Sather Lectures. IGVII 2462.59 The the victor reason to his list of common Epaminondas for this is that. went there. BCH 106 57.10 ff.58 and he admits Greece. Xeno is not mentioned found from inscription was a citizen text comes in any other classical writer. ibid. 9. 56.5-6. on the initiative of Epaminondas. after the Thebans received an ominous oracle from Zeus at Lebadea. This list is discussed 9. the battle benefactors set Greece of free from Spartan tyranny.52. in chapter 4 of the Sather Lectures. 4 (1977) 13-22. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Although Pausanias in general detests wars fought by Greeks against Greeks (to the extent that he calls all the leading men of the time of the Peloponnesian War "the assassins and almost the wreckers of Greece"). the famous Messenian hero and archfoe In the passage from book 9. seem worthwhile that at Leuctra to look first at two battles in 371 and that at Actium that changed in 31 B. 4. which three others opposed. supplements. E. Vatin. was influential and 55.
9. TOV. Probably from the same text. while K.11-12 shows that he knew perfectly well).12. while visiting Mantinea. to Mantinea because travers l'Asie-Mineure testimony the city was (Paris is amply believed confirmed to be who Hadrian by inscriptions. 66. both mentioning the same Nicippe.9.66 It is dated "in the year era of 148 B. Nilsson commentary (supra and the inscription. pious. 63.4."62 The three nameswere followed by a fine epigram inhonor of the three. knows of Xenocrates only through Pausanias' testimony.ov Kopayiov. precisely because Pausanias.5vo8o (c. looked for proof that a 62.1. Maid" and A 1980) 132-46.46. particularly in a decree of a religious group.64 The reason he calls the for the time of the events recorded is anachronistic he was reluctant to call a Greek city by a name derived not that he did not know better (8. 8. and The n.48) of the Bringing the comments of Hitzig link between Pausanias (from Blimmer the Underworld). the image of in theActian War. Swoboda. where the reference may be to an internal era. Behind the theater Pausanias inscribed image. 265. 65. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . daughter of Paseas.218 on Sun.8. see Frazer's on 8. 594D. 6po0 For this association and for 'PCouacdotS ni 'AKTic vaulaXiaSq. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.ivrlpa IG V 2. RE Xenokrates (1967) 1511. or.11-12.HABICHT: Pausanias and theEvidence of Inscriptions 51 is described by Plutarch as belonging to one of the "first houses. from theMacedonian oppressors of Greece.8. the festival Kopdyta.6:.34) 227n. in theArcadian dialect. BithynianMantinea. in all of Arcadia Pausanias that was says that the on Octavian's and Antonius in the Actian War. He is missing in the RE. has long been recognized: seeGurlitt (supra n.S EttrTa TS . the date would be either 64/63 or 62/61 B.63 At that time the city's name was still Antigonea.9. quoted byH. Moral.168. however." where the reference is explained as being to the Macedonian or to the organization of the province Achaea in 146. However thatmay be.65 Nicippe. The text tells us that Nicippe was of noble birth. P. which the only is dedicated town to Arcadia. 8. See the illuminating discussion L." and that the people of Mantinea built the shrine as a memorial of their alliance with the Romans at Mantinea. where Hadrian's favorite. of Mantinea the mother-city in even succeeds in locating the Bithynia. cf. Once more Pausanias and the epigraphical evidence are in complete (and striking) harmony. Robert. but ignores the inscription (this is. t. "The on 8. granted of Pausanias favors whose 8. Antinous.8. wealthy. Wickert.7-8. in Pausanias' youth.5. in the city itself a monument still remained in his day that attested to the alliance with Octavian. daughter of Pasias. was born.C. RE Epaminondas 2682-83). occurs once more: as the recipient of a long decree found She is undoubtedly the same person as the Nicippe who dedicated Aphrodite Symmachis. 85.9. comes the information that follows: that thiswas a temple of "Aphrodite surnamedAlliance.Other possibilities certainly exist.6: k6. Twice in his book was city of Mantinea side against Cleopatra emperor Hadrian. Plutarch Pelopidas 8.2 361n. 8. town by a name 8.82. From the epigram noticed the ruins of a temple and a cult on the base of the image he read the name of the ladywho had dedicated it:Nicippe. 64. also M. the old name being officially restored only by the that was that is to say.C. although he does not say so. in all likelihood. but that. The decree was issued by a religious association that worshipped "theMaid. Nicippa. and generous." the o.
he uses the past tense (68iXo)).168.6 has 69.C. (race between) pairs of full grown horses.218 on Sun. he enumerates no fewer than 21 contests.8. Eusebius Chronicle I. 520 5-7 408 384 Olympiad 93. (racebe between) armedmen. whose 1979) 138-46. But three of themwere short-lived and had disappeared by the end of the third century B. pp. A. racebetween armedmen. winner Philetas of of Sybaris 10 Olympiad 65.. 8-9 Sybariades of Sparta winner Eurybiades [of Sparta] 67.C. contains in its surviving part exactly the same information as that given by Pausanias: Pausanias 5. who argues for Cassius Longinus as the author of the list.C.68 and all of them with the date when they were first sanias introduced.C. 616 2-4 IG II2232670 Olympiad 41. introduced gap: L.67 In fact. identified as Julius Africanus Tradition whose mention in 5. view has become canonical. put up in the early third century B.. with strong arguments. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. The Chronicle source was by J.6-11. Included in this in a textual Eusebius' 720 B. 1981) 118-19. 1/April 1984 was in fact what he was told it was. See also T. In doing this he noticed the epigram and cared to record it on the spot and to include its substance later in his account. RE Olympia (1937) 2529-30.82. There is now a good discussion of this inscription (1982) by J. by A. D. [winner]Philytas of Sybaris Olympiad 65. winner B. both later than Pausanias. Ziehen. Ebert. ArchP28 1-14. boxing for boys. disappeared 5. winner Euagoras of Elis 10 Olympiad 99.8 9 Olympiad 41. 70. Scaliger (Lewisburg in 1606.8. Constantine and Eusebius Mass.Virtually the same information is provided by two other and must have long been easily available.C. 68. Pau of the contests summarizes the development from 776 to 200 B. (racebe tween) chariots of foals. (Cambridge. Mosshammer. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . with Porphyry perhaps as mediator. 202 206 Schone. Barnes. racebetween pairs of full-grown horses. racebetween chariots of foals. dedicated because in writing this he was referring back to the time of his visit at Mantinea and to the certain monument moment he copied the inscription. 267-68 Kayser). When he says that the epigram "made clear" that Nicippe had the image of the goddess. of Eusebius and Greek Chronographic 157ff.69 More for the under discussion is the fact that an inscription important topic from Athens. At the beginning of his long and substantial description of Olympia. Demaretus of [winner] Heraea. winner Damaretus of Heraea 10 Olympiad 93.52 CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY Volume 3/No. writers. figure is the long run. It has been recently disputed. winner [Euagorasof Elis] 10-12 Olympiad 99. and from a single race to 18 contests held at the later date. boxing for boys. Philostratus Gymnasticus 12-13 (II pp.
Poralla. as both Pausanias and the inscription in note 74 as "the of the heroon show. P.D. for whom there is evidence both in Pausanias in inscriptions but little or nothing in any other classical writer. 220. 220.77 to Apollo. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 75. However. son of Ampharetus.. a Phocian. with the help of King Lysimachus. of others latest Teubner edition has overlooked the inscription in chapter 3 of the Sather Lectures. and two epigrams with important details about his exploits. He is none other thanXanthippus. o6K d(pavfi T ipcoov 76. ca.. from Daulis. . Hermogenes Among won the wild olive eight times and was of Xanthus. second century A. 61. A number 74. son of Ornytion. Pausanias came in the territory of the Phocian city Daulis to the shrine of a "tutelary hero. 1343. ifl rit r6v dpXrlyeTrv. 77. 72. the eponym of the Phocians a mythical figure. ['Op]vuTt6&v 6M7r?a.72 I now and turn to a few persons."79 these epigrams says that he defended in the and this may have given rise to the assumption that the hero worshipped vicinity of Daulis was not Xanthippus but Ornytion's son Phocus. To judge from the context alone. and the Phocians bring victims. 1913) (supra Poralla "Prosopographie 58.69) this entry B. Sybariades is not a Greek name. The ethnic does not der Lakedaimonier Euv3apctl. Edv0turov ra 76. thatmay be. are discussed It is possible that the same is mentioned fipo &pXyqy9rou. H.: Eurybiades is a good Spartan name and must be right. 6kpov. both dedicated by the Phocians one of them signed by Lycus. Schaefer.D.4. Itwas Xanthippus who drove the garrison of King Cassander out of Elateia in 301 B. 285. III4.10: has correctly seen this. ..C.) and is therefore no help. a famous warrior. FD 79. 221.75 but others say that he is Phocus. into Xupaptidqn. The in its distorted form. but the result of a mechanical corruption by some copyist. son of Sisyphus. son of Satyrus.168. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 218. will of Breslau in paragraph have contributed to the distortion of Eivpupitdrl.78One of "the old land of the sons of Ornytion. whom his fellow country men elected ten times to the generalship of theirLeague.218 on Sun.C.82. he isworshipped every day. His shrine was to in the second century A." What matters here is the identity of Xanthippus. FD RE Xanthippos III 4. 3. 219. as the following quotation shows: "beruihmterKrieger. who in three Olympiads referred 71. IG IX 1. archegetes. in the document III 4. Heros Archegetes and Inhaber eines Heroon inTronis imGebiet von Daulis mit standigem Kult"76-as if Xanthippus were not otherwise known." quoted the athletes most admired by Pausanias was "a Lycian."74 "Some say that this hero is Xanthippus.73 On his way to Delphi. have occurring (nor bis auf die Zeit Alexanders a few the one lines earlier for 408 des Grossen" 10. 10. Scholars have wondered whether Xanthippus was a mythical or a historical person. 10: rh Tacccak (1967) nr. (Diss. he could well be-like Phocus. and who freed the town a second time. and prints the name 73.C. FD 78. The corresponding section of Philostratus n."7 Pausanias' text can be emended from line 12of the inscription. No fewer than four inscriptions in his praise are still extant at Delphi: two statues of him.HABICHT: Pausanias and theEvidence of Inscriptions 53 It is easy to see that the only difference is in the name of the victor that matters of 384 B. 48-49 666.
168. 216 Schone. 81. being found His victorious only in the two other contests. he says himself Antigonus Cylon. Craterus must have been dead when his son Alexander revolted against King Antigonus. in A. L. p. Moretti. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . AJA 86(1982) 567."80 From the nickname one would guess that Hermogenes was a runner. M. in fact.D. as well Flavius Hermogenes. Eusebius Chronicle I. Lampis. In the introduction that Aristotimus Gonatas to book made 5. which contains three decrees in his honor. 250F-253E.54 CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY Volume 3/No.8 (withoutmention of Cylon's name).84 Plutarch also says that at the time of the the Macedonian a brother of the king.82 games. of Macedon. announced from that a stele was in Hermogenes' full name is given home as T. sometime Athens between 253 and 249 B.5. Since the Capitolia were instituted and celebrated first in A. and may have been dead for some Geschichte time. Moral. Jahrhundert v." where certain Thrasybulus murder He adds that it was Cylon who slew the tyrant with his own hand.3. scene with his army. the city of Xanthus.D. the stadion. 84. Mellink. but was It has just been and one in 85 beaten in the short run. long distance. presence would a second 80. dedicated by the Aetolian Con 6. Chr. 81 and 89.D.C. mention only themost prestigious festivals. among whom were Chilon. 3The in his treatise "On the Virtue is told in much greater detail by Plutarch the same protagonists are named. 83.218 on Sun. Olympionikai (Rome 1957) no. says in his Chronicle 217.13. Untersuchungen 1979] 125). (Chr. only) has Apollophanes from Tarsus crowned in the short race. 82. and that the tyrant was confident that Craterus' cut short any unrest. see also Justinus 26. it seems likely that Hermogenes was victorious there when the con tests were held for the first time.1. Pausanias summarizes. cf. and for A.D. It follows that the event must be dated to the fifties at the latest.C. 90. 85 Eusebius (who regu larly names the winner in the short race. as he cus tomarily does. the support of King tyrant of Elis with later by a but that he was slain six months group of conspirators. perhaps considerably earlier. the only other writer who mentions him. Now. except that for Chilon a is substituted. at Olympia.. im 3. Hellanicus.D.85 Pausanias mentions Cylon time: at Olympia he saw his statue. and race for armed men) in both 81 and 89. 81 and 89. the history of the region. 1/April 1984 surnamed Horse by the Greeks. 85.8' Since it seems most unlikely that a pro for more than a decade. It therefore looks as if Hermogenes won all three contests (short race. and story of Women. was near the general Craterus. that he won the short race in Olympiads 215 and Eusebius. and besides theOlympic victories are recorded others at the Isthmian. to townXanthus.82. that is to say. Arriving at the third century B. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. and Nemean as at the Capitolia in Naples. Pausanias 5. Her fessional runner would overcome all competitors mogenes will have earned all his eight Olympic victories between A. therewere three running contests held. 805-807.1. 86 and for the second time by the emperor Domitian in A. two from the Lycian Confederacy Pythian. [Munich zur politischen Habicht. on Elis.
patronymic.C.s.218 on Sun. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 129. Chronologie delphique tuates between 269 and 248 B. Cyllon (KU6Xov) which is slightly deformed in the author's manuscripts. 90. 153.90 Pausanias' accuracy is as remarkable as is his economical to compress a maximum of information into a style of reporting: he manages of words. The frequency of such links is very high for Athens. Heiligtum the fluc 1943] G 26).438. thoughmore in some than in others." AccLinc n.11. for instance2.82. It is a decree of the city of Delphi (which at that time was controlled by the Aetolians). Gallavotti. Cyllon). 89. but unsurpassed in his chapters on Olympia in books 5 and 6. The decree is dated to the archonship of Callicles.7. 88. father's name. In 6. Olympiabericht.88 that is to say name. Pausanias 6. are at least thirty other inscriptions from Olympia where the same comparison between the original and the periegete can be made. 26 [197813). FE III 3. 191 (Sylloge 423). from of the texts there apart victor-dedications. 91. the city for the two kings (IOlympia 45) is also taken into account. Pausanias describes two bases dedicated by the city of Byzantium in honor of King Demetrius Poliorcetes and his son Antigonus Gonatas. 9  1238). the enemy of the Aetolians. and for several other places. chose which to include and what to report from their contents. and very often also date of the victory and name of the sculptor who made the statue. in writing his text. As is customary. "Bollettino del comitato per This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. And all indications minimum show that he read and copied the texts himself and that. father's name. Pausanias gives the essentials of some 200 statues of Olympic victors. which meant independence of Elis from Macedonia. whereas the originals (IOlympia 304 305) were in fact in honor of Antigonus I and his son Demetrius Poliorcetes. whether Pausanias quotes word for word or summarizes the contents of an inscription. made of any individual merit of Cyllon. Callicles [Paris can be the first or date an occasional 87. granting Cyllon proxeny and the other honors that at Delphi usually acompany proxeny (K. I do not understand how scholars can still think it possible that for Olympia Pausanias la preparazione dell' edizione nazionale dei classici greci e latini. later on. Olympia. In chapters 1-18 of book 6. Actually 203: H. Notwithstanding error. Daux. second archon of that name (see G. Moreover.89 In at least thirty-two cases both the original and Pausanias' survive description and can be compared. IOlympia 142-243. His und Wettkampfstdtte (Munich 1972) 224n. and contest. 5.HABICHT: Pausanias and theEvidence of Inscriptions 55 federacy in recognition of his deed. for Delphi. does not result alone from the text of the two bases described but only if the decree of by Pausanias. an inscription still extant that honors Cylon (or. Herrmann.14. rpogiavTC?a.15. Olympiabericht. no mention is Latte. RE Suppl.86 There is. rather.9' There can be no question that he was even 86. fromwhich the authentic form of the name. The excavations at Olympia have brought to lightmore than one hundred of such texts or fragments thereof. to which a number of inscriptions found in later excavations must be added. I shall conclude by giving a few figures. moreover.-V. This.87 What has been said so far may be sufficient to warrant the conclusion that links between Pausanias and the evidence of inscriptions can probably be found in every chapter of his work. emerges.168. however. was using an epigraphic repertory prepared by others (C.
to read Rome in a fairly recent book: "Pausanias Saw the Romans as the Greeks nelle altre seldom Them bothered [Rome to record 1972] 423-24). Forte. 25 Nov 2012 07:34:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .168. Princeton 92. 1/April 1984 something of an "inscription-hunter. allude solo ad un paio di iscrizioni" (Gallavotti [supran. tions" It is odd (B. inscrip It is In tutta and equally odd to find even more recently the following statement: "lo specifico interesse epigrafico che dimostra ad Olimpia.56 CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY Volume 3/No. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Institute forAdvanced Study.218 on Sun. Atene.91]). that he must have sensed how very trustworthywas the epigraphical evidence in com parison with some of the literary and most of the oral information available to him. gli e del tutto estraneo regione da lui visitate e descritte."92The reason for this is.82. no doubt. se non erro.
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