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The State of Superconducting Technology

Presented at US Naval Graduate School Monterey, California 3 March 2005

Dr. Swarn Kalsi American Superconductor Corporation Westborough, MA 01581

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Enabling Technologies Applications
Magnets Power Cables FCL and Transformers Rotating Machines


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Enabling Technologies
Status of Wire: Superconductors
Discovered in 1911 Perfect conductors of electricity Require cryogenic cooling Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) metallic wires used in MRI near 4 K New, ceramic HTS material discovered in 1986 HTS requires less cooling
operation at >77K at low field 30-40K in motor applications < 1/10 the energy required for 4K refrigeration

HTS enhances commercial economics

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Enabling Technologies
Wire Architectures
Generation I Generation II

Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O 0.010



Multi-Filamentary Composite (AMSC commercial, in production)

Coated Conductor Composite (AMSC second generation, under development)

Second Generation Goal: Form-Fit-Function replacement at same performance, with 2-5x lower cost
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Enabling Technologies
1G HTS Wire Fabrication Process
Powder Production Sealing in Billet Deformation Deformation

Part 1: Precursor Fabrication


Deformation Multi-Die Deformation

Part 2: Microstructure Engineering


Heat Treatment

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Enabling Technologies
Status of Wire: Generation I

Key Application Requirements


Performance ~ 15,000 A/cm2 (insert) Strain Tolerance > 0.2% (design for 0.015%) Field

Bi2223 Gen I


1.25-3.5 T c 2.5-6 T abt


Fatigue Tolerant Temperature ~35K Other Factors - 100% tested Laminated Bi2223

Stainless Steel Solder HTS insert tape

Filaments Silver


available as a 100% tested material 4.85 x 0.305 mm

Fatigue validated by NRL and NHMFL

Gen I wire meets todays needs

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Enabling Technologies
Coated Conductor Fabrication Process

Substrate Production

Buffer Deposition

YBCO Precursor Coating

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YBCO Formation

Enabling Technologies
Status of Wire: Future Developments
Generation II Wires can be manufactured by low cost processes Form Fit Function replacement for Generation I wire
Superconductor Coating Buffer Layer Alloy Substrate

Coated Conductor Gen II

Gen II wire will further reduce system cost

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Enabling Technologies
Leading in HTS Wire Manufacture
Worlds first commercial HTS wire plant
now in operation

First sales of HTS wire from new plant

in January 2003 Currently facilitated for 1,400,000 m per year with 20,000,000 m ultimate annual capacity Designed to meet high volume demand at minimum cost Volume upgradeable with small capital investment
Devens HTS Wire Plant

Orders for over 700,000 meters received since January 2003

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Enabling Technologies 1 G Wire Composite Critical Current Surface


77 K

70 K
64 K
50 K

Normalized Current Capacity Ic(T, B)/Ic(77K, 0T)

35 K

20 K


50 64 70 77

0 0 0 .5 1 1 .5 2 2 .5

M ag netic F ield ( Tesla)

The critical current improves as the temperature decreases

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Enabling Technologies
Cooling the New Superconductors

COTS Refrigerators
Relative Cost of Cooling

HTS Motors and Generators


Temperature, Kelvin Scale




HTS enables reliable and cost effective cooling

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Enabling Technologies
High Capacity Single Stage GM Cooler
Cold Head

Winding operating temperature ~ 20-40K provides optimal cost/performance balance. Gifford McMahon cryocooler output at 30 K has improved by nearly a factor of 4 over the past 5 years. MTBF of similar GM coolers exceeds 9 years

Gas Line Couplings

Tension Bolt Bellows Seal

Vacuum Flange


Heat Exchanger Block

Cold Head

Gas Lines To Cold Head 762mm

610mm Water Lines Electrical Line

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HTS Transformers

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Waukesha/SuperPower Objectives

Phase II is now complete

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Other Programs
Other transformer programs are;
- CAS/TBEA (China) - BHEL (India) - Condumex (Mexico)

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HTS Magnets

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HTS Magnet Progress Overview

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HTS Minesweeping Magnet

18-in Bore x 36-in Long
Largest HTS magnet in size Light weight and highest magnetic moment were main drivers Coil generates a peak field of ~ 1 tesla in the bore while operating at ~ 35 K Conduction cooled with a cryocooler Field can be varied at 1 Hz continuously

This prototype magnet was delivered to Navy in 2002

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Magnetic Separation Magnet

Warm bore magnet
BSCCO-2223 magnet designed for continuous operation HTS magnet generates ~ 3 tesla field in warm bore while operating at ~ 35 K Conduction cooled with a cryocooler Magnet can be used for cleaning ballast water before discharging in to the sea

Factory tested magnet was delivered to Du Pont in March 2004

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Other HTS Magnet Programs

Central Japan Railway - Maglev (Japan) Brookhaven - Accelerator (USA) FZK - Research (Germany) Nuclear Science Centre - Ion Source (India) National Institute for Fusion Science - Fusion (Japan) Pantechnik - Ion source (France) Tai-Yang Research - NASA (USA) Wang NMR - NMR insert (USA) Cryomagnetics - Defense (USA) HTS-110 - Defense (New Zealand) CESI - Research (Italy) CERN - Current Leads (Switzerland)

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HTS Electric Power Cables

500 m Cable Test Site in Yokosuka, Japan

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HTS Power Cables

Power Carrying Capabilities 3x to 9x Greater than Copper Cables HTS Wire Enables a Core Geometry that Provides
Low Conductor Resistance Low Inductance

Environmental Compatibility
Underground Placement No Electromagnetic Field Thermally Independent of Environment Nitrogen Cooling Fluid (Inert) No Oil
AC High Capacity VLI Cables XLPE Cables AC CURRENT 1000A 2000A 3000A 4000A 5000A

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HTS Power Cables

LIPA Project Data
Long Island Power Authority East Garden City Substation Electrical Operating Characteristics
Operating Voltage/Current 138kV/2400A ~ 600MVA Design Fault Current 69,000A @ 15 line cycles (250ms)

Physical Characteristics
Length 610m HTS Conductor Length 128km Cold Dielectric Design

Hardware Deliverables
Three 610m long Phase Conductors Six 161kV Outdoor Terminations & Accessories One 161kV Splice One Refrigeration System + Pulse Tube System

Commissioning - 2005
Worlds First Installation of a Transmission Voltage HTS Cable in the World
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Other HTS Power Cable Programs

IGC/SEI - Albany AMSC/Nexans - Long Island Ultera - Columbus KERI/LG Cable - S. Korea Condumex - Mexico City CAS/Chang Tong - China InnoPower - China KEPRI/SEI - S. Korea KERI/LG Cable #2 - S. Korea Tratos - Italy Nexans 2G Cable - Spain

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HTS Fault Current Limiters (FCL)

Limit fault current during a short-circuit

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HTS Fault Current Limiters


138 kV

Fault current limiting at:

Bus-tie IPP interconnection Transformer Feeder Closing open loop

30 MVA 15 kV


Bus-tie FCL

In-rush current controller for self-start induction and synchronous motors

HTS FCLs have many potential applications

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HTS Fault Current Limiters

An HTS FCL Concept for 15 kV
1250 A steady-state current 2G wire with high normal resistivity YBCO
Shunt Series

FCL Assembly






AMSC/Siemens joint development program

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Other FCL Programs

IGC/Nexans AMSC/Siemens CAS/Beijing Superconductor (China) Yonsei University (Korea) KEPRI (Korea) Bar Ilan/Ricor (Israel)

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HTS Rotating Machinery Progress Towards Commercialization

GE Generator 100 MVA, 3600 rpm Siemens Generator 4 MW, 3000 rpm AMSC Ship Motor 36.5 MW, 120 rpm AMSC Synchronous Condenser 8 MVA, 1800 rpm GE Generator 1.8 MVA, 3600 rpm AMSC Ship Motor 5 MW, 230 rpm AMSC Motor 3.5 MW, 1800 rpm Siemens Motor 0.45 MW, 1500 rpm Rockwell/Reliance Motor 0.7 MW, 1800 rpm








Advantages: 2-4x reduced size/weight, 2x better efficiency, 2-4x higher reactive power, high overload, low noise
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Other HTS Rotating Machine Programs

5MW Navy Motor - AMSC 36.5MW Navy motor - AMSC 4MVA generator - Siemens 100 MVA generator - GE 5 MVA airborne generator - Lockheed-Martin 2G motor - Rockwell/Reliance 8MVAR Condenser - AMSC 0.1MW marine motor - TUMST (Japan) 1000hp motor - KERI

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HTS Electric Machines Design Features

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Electric Machine Design

HTS Machine Topology
Back Iron

Multi phase synchronous air core


EM Shield Brushless Exciter Cryogenic Cooling Loop

Stator coils Stator Support Tube Output Shaft

HTS in DC rotor field only Rotor is vacuum insulated Refrigeration in the stationary reference

Cooler Module
Current Leads Vacuum chamber Multi-Layered Insulation

Copper Litz armature (>room temp) Low reactance due to large air-gap Removal of iron teeth plus ~zero rotor
I2R yields high efficiency


Support Structure Rotor coils

High rotor and stator current density

yields high power density

Lack of iron teeth removes a major

source of vibration yielding low structure borne noise

PM & Conventional

Air Core HTS

Uses any drive suitable for a

synchronous machine

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Benefits of HTS Machines

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Benefits of HTS Machines

Characteristics of an HTS Generator
For a 50 MW, 3600 RPM, 60 Hz Generator with power factor capability of 0.8 lag to 0.8 lead
HTS Ref. 2% F&W 6% Iron Core 24%

Stator Cooler 3%

Stator Copper 65%

High efficiency even at low loads with a very small refrigeration power

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Benefits of HTS Machines

Rotor retrofit
Replace rotors in existing conventional machines to achieve the following benefits:
0.4-0.5% efficiency gain $2 M saving for life of a 100 MW unit Higher power rating ~ 10-20% Operation at lower power factor a good leading VARS supplier

Rotor replacement market is reachable now

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HTS Machine Experience Industrial Motors

5000 hp, 1800-RPM Motor

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Industrial Motors
AMSC 5000hp, 1800-RPM Motor List of Parameters
The motor is 97.7% efficiency 1/3 reduction in volume compared to the industry standard 40% reduction in losses compared to the industry standard
List of parameters Motor output List of parameters Motor output 5000 hp (nominal, tested to 7,000 HP transient, and 5900 HP maximum steady state) 1800 rpm 4 6.6 kV 97.7 % 0.99 23.2 inches 8.8 Henry 156 Amps 0.10 Ohm 333 Amps -17.069 deg 0.32 pu 0.32 pu 0.27 pu 0.173 pu 0.173 pu 0.031 sec

Speed Pole number Line voltage Full load efficiency Operating power factor - leading Straight length of machine HTS field inductance HTS field current Stator resistance Stator current Load angle at full load D-axis synchronous reactance Q-axis synchronous reactance D-axis transient reactance D-axis subtransient reactance Q-axis subtransient reactance Stator short circuit time constant

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Industrial Motors
KERI 100 HP Motor System

Compressor Motor Driving System Cooling System

Photograph showing the 100hp HTS motor in the test bed. The cooling system with the G-M cryocooler is located in the right side.

Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute

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HTS Machine Experience Ship Propulsion Motors

5 MW, 230-RPM Motor

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Ship Propulsion Motors

HTS Motor Advantages
Inherently quieter Higher net efficiency Lower operating cost Smaller volume Lighter
36 MW Conventional *
* Scale derived from GEC ALSTOM FSAD 19 MW @150 RPM propulsion motor


Weight Comparison: HTS versus Conventional

1600 1400
3 Main ten ance Volu m e (M )

Volume Comparison: HTS versus Conventional

e nvelop otor E onal M ti n e v C on Actu al


Weight (Metric Tons)



200 CRYSTAL 100

al c tu

n ve on

op vel En r o ot lM na ti o

1200 1000 800 600 400 200

HTS Advantage

HTS Advantage


0 0 20
Source: MSCL

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100





Pow e r (MW )

Source: MSCL

Power (MW)

HTS motor volume advantages are impressive over a broad range of ratings
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Ship Propulsion Motors

Refrigeration System
Cold heads (4) Gas lines to compressors (4)

Helium Make-up

Compressors (4) 25KW

1280 mm

Cooler Module

Helium Transfer Coupling Rotor

1150 mm

Transfer line port to motor

865 mm



25MW Motor, 120 RPM


% of Full Motor Speed

Off Optimum Cooler Operation 100 75 50 25 0 4 3 2 Number of Active Coolers 1

Rotor Vacuum Vessel

25 MW Motor Cooling System ~ 1 kkg (ONR Program)

Reliability with degraded mode capability is achieved through redundant components and design for maintenance
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Ship Propulsion Motors

5 MW Motor Rotor Testing
The rotor and associated hardware was tested at AMSC including: Excitation up to full current Refrigeration operating temperature in full and degraded modes Field winding up to full design current Rotor balanced in cold state at ALSTOM
Successful rotor field winding testing validated HTS field winding and its cooling system prior to shipping to ALSTOM
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Ship Propulsion Motors

Stator Manufacture
Stator assembly was designed, fabricated and tested by ALSTOM

Coil Manufacture

Completed Stator

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Ship Propulsion Motors

Motor assembly and test at ALSTOM Electrical Machines, Rugby UK Assembly completed January 2003

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Ship Propulsion Motors

Factory Testing 5 MW Motor Test Results
No-Load IEEE 115
- Motor Parameters - Efficiency

Full torque at speed Limited Structureborne Noise Data Operation on a Drive ONR Accepted motor shipped to CAPS on 22 July 2003

5 MW HTS Motor

2.5 MW Load Motor

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Ship Propulsion Motors

CAPS Testing - 5 MW Motor Testing at CAPS, Florida
Motor is coupled with a pair of 2.5 MW squirrel cage induction motor dynamometers Induction Motor

Induction Motor 5 MW HTS Motor

More Power in Small Size

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Ship Propulsion Motors

CAPS Testing - Load Testing
100 90 80 Temperature (Celsius) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Time (hours) Start of full load heat run
End of full load heat run

Initial heat run conducted on September 19, 2004 Motor delivered 5 MW at 230 RPM Stator attained steady-state temperature
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Ship Propulsion Motors

5 MW Navy Motor - Future Plans
After completing load and ship mission profile simulation tests at CAPS, it will be moved to NSWCCD Philadelphia for further testing The successful operation of the largest HTS propulsion motor will provide the Navy with handson experience

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Ship Propulsion Motors

Now Building 36.5 MW Based on 5 MW Experience
Being designed and built under an Office of Naval Research (ONR) contract to power the next generation of Navy warships AMSC SuperMachines will deliver the 36.5 MW, 120 RPM motor, integrated with a commercial Variable Frequency Drive For the same torque, the HTS motor weighs 75 tonnes, as compared to 280 tonnes1 for an advanced induction motors and 400 tonnes2 for a QE2 synchronous motor The 36.5 MW motor design based on 5MW technology. Detailed Design Review conducted on October 06, 2004 Motor delivery to ONR planned for the spring of 2006
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1 Scaled from ALSTOM IPS Induction Motor 2

Ship Propulsion Motors

36.5 MW Motor Components

HTS Coils Rotor End Ring

36.5 MW motor is in construction phase with scheduled delivery at 75 ton

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HTS Machine Experience Utility Applications

Hoeganaes, TN

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Utility Applications
SuperVAR Prototype Project Description
Similar to a conventional synchronous machine but with better performance
Developed an 8 MVA prototype SuperVAR machine for testing on TVA grid TVA is partially supporting the prototype development TVA has ordered 5 production units subject to successful testing of the prototype - rated 10 MVA at 13.8kV
Rating Voltage Ambient Temp Losses 8 MVAR 13.8 kV line to line -30o to +40oC 1.5% rating at 8MVA Including 30kW 480V auxiliary power

AMSC is offering 10 MVA production units for delivery in 2005

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Utility Applications
Major SuperVARTM Condenser Systems

Startup Motor 480V Service Exciter Stator and HTS Rotor

Refrigeration Systems

25 feet

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Utility Applications
Machine Performance on Grid
Machine has been installed on TVA grid in Hoeganaes, TN Was synchronized with the grid on 10 October 2004 - Verified VARS capability from 8 MVARS to + 8 MVARS Machine has been experiencing transients due to the arc furnace operations It is supplying various levels of MVARS to the system depending on the type of arc furnace burn cycle

6.00E+06 Vars 5.00E+06

Output (VArs)





0.00E+00 2:31:12 PM

2:38:24 PM

2:45:36 PM

2:52:48 PM

3:00:00 PM

3:07:12 PM

3:14:24 PM

3:21:36 PM

3:28:48 PM

3:36:00 PM

3:43:12 PM

Time of Day (cst)

VARS supplied during a typical melt cycle

SuperVARTM machine is supporting the arc furnace by supplying various levels of MVARS

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Motor Starting Problem

Corrected by SuperVARTM
Output in MVAR Bus Voltage in kV Bus Voltage in kV

SuperVAR Response to Motor Starting Events

Motor #1 Motor #2 Motor #3 Motor #4

Bus Voltage Without SuperVARTM Condenser

Time (Seconds)

Bus Voltage With SuperVARTM Condenser

Time (Seconds)

SuperVARTM MVAR Output

Time (Seconds)
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Voltage Collapse Problem

3 SuperVARTM Machine Solution

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Issues Relating to Installation and Operation of Superconducting Rotating Machines

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Component Maintenance and Handling Issues

No special equipment is required to maintain or handle the rotor

Stator is the same as for a Conventional machines

Cryogenic cooling system maintenance procedures are well established in MRI and high vacuum industries 58 58

Installation Considerations
Most electrical and mechanical interfaces are similar to conventional synchronous machines Installation is similar to conventional machines for the following components:
- Prime mover - Stator and stator cooling - Exciter
Stator Cooler Cryocooler Compressors

Prime Mover Generator Exciter Rotor Cooling Module

The only difference is in the installation of the rotor cooling system

- Cooler module and its compressors - Coolant transfer coupling

Cooling modules can be located remotely from the machine

Installation of HTS machines is similar to conventional machines
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Mechanical Operation
Similar to conventional machines
Stator cooling is the same as conventional machines Bearings are conventional roller or sleeve type Cryocoolers employ cold heads and helium compressors Cryocooler maintenance and service procedures are well established in the industry Each compressor has a charcoal filter that is replaced at 2-year interval Cooler can be shutdown for short period of time without having to stop the machine Compressors are water cooled and require 5 liter/min water flow with inlet pressure of 2 bar at 5-25oC.
- Air-cooled compressors can also be specified

Maintenance procedures are similar to those for conventional machines

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Control and Communication

Similar to conventional machines
Typical monitored states are: Brushless Exciter Field Winding

- Control field current in response to AVR or a command from the operator - Coil voltages and currents - Coil temperature - Current lead temperature Cryocooler temperature Compressor helium pressure and flow rates Compressor temperature Compressor cooling water temperature and flow rate

Cryocoolers and Compressors

Cryogenic cooling system monitoring procedures are well established

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Future Technology Development

Wire volume production of HTS wire is resulting in improved cost/performance. 300,000 square foot HTS plant in Devens MA Next generation wire Refrigeration pulse tube developments offer: Improved efficiency approaching Stirling
cycle efficiencies Lower noise - opposed pistons of Stirling style GM compressors Higher Reliability no cold moving parts
Superconductor Coating Buffer Layer Alloy Substrate

Coated Conductor - potential next generation wire technology

Coils winding development simplified construction for next generation

machine High tip speed capability

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