PART B - (5 x 16Marks = 80Marks) 1.
Read the following report and answer the questions that follow it: It has always been clear, of course that a properly designed media programme uses press, posters, printed leaflets and so on in proportions suitable to the nature of the product itself. In such a programme television occupies a relatively important place if the product is sold in small quantities, at a low price to the vast mass of the people. It is regarded as a quick acting medium, peculiarly suited to prompting ‘impulse purchases’. Larger items, such as cars and refrigerators, may be more profitably advertised in the press or other media which are examined in greater detail and more at leisure than television ‘commercials’ can possibly be. Nevertheless, in most mass advertising campaigns, the media are used in combination with each other, in proportions which tend to be more and more carefully, and even scientifically, determined. It is significant, in this connection, that the poster medium and outdoor advertising generally, are now staging something of a recovery, after sustaining what at first looked like being a severe blow at the time of the introduction of commercial television into the United Kingdom in 1955. Media planning is only one of the branches of the British advertising business, where more exact methods of measurement and the close study of statistical data have made considerable headway in recent years. The marketing and research departments of the advertisers themselves, and of the agents who act as middlemen between advertisers and media owners in the case of more than 50 percent of British advertising business, are constantly expanding. These departments have for sometime included a number of University graduates. Usually with particular qualification in statistics and the movement of University trained men into advertising, the business is growing as is the study of advertising problems in the universities themselves, particularly in the departments of economics, psychology and sociology.
Read the text and complete the following sentences choosing one of the options given below each sentence 1. a) b) c) 2. a) b) c) 3. a) b) c) A properly designed media programme uses television – if the commodity is produced on a large scale. different sources of media according to the type of the product. a media which depends on the impulse. The producers advertise larger items on television ‘commercial’ to appeal to the people. in press so that the customer may see details leisurely. to make profit through poster advertisement The poster medium and outdoor advertisement were started in the United Kingdom in 1955. are again becoming popular these days. nowadays depend upon commercial television.
(i) (ii) c) 1. a study of secret material. The advertising agents act as middlemen between university students and advertisers. media owners and economists. has a close study of roads and ways in recent years. detailed study. Nevertheless neverbefore (ii) severe blow air (ii) never (iii) (iii) however a fight
a hard hit
sociology a study of ecology. (i) (ii) (iii) 5. have appointed 50 percent middlemen. a) b) c) 6. studies closely measuring methods of advertisement. 2. (i) (ii) (iii) 4. in correct relation to other things. a) b) c)
British advertising business is one of the branches of media planning. 3. have started departments of economics. (i) (ii) (iii) 6. (i) 2. The marketing and research departments of advertisers have employed a number of university graduates. the path of the leader. psychology and sociology. headway progress in difficult circumstances. a close study a thorough. a study of the history of a nation. (i) 3. the movement of one’s head. a) b) c) 5. a study of the nature and development of society.4. in proportions in parts. in proper terms.
b) Give the most suitable meanings of the following words as they are used in the text choosing from the lists given below 1. (iii) the end of reading. those who are interested in advertising and those who own the media.
Read the text and answer the following questions: What are the different media available for advertising products? When were the poster medium and outdoor advertising affected terribly? What are the reasons for the growth in advertising?
The prices of trees remains stable. There are also questions about whether sustainable management is practical as far as protecting areas of great bio-diversity such as the world's tropical forests are concerned. making money means cutting down as many trees as possible in the shortest time. consumers would buy only this wood and force logging companies to go "green" or else out of business. and there is no doubt that they have a devastating effect on animal and plant life on Earth. is impossible to assess despite years of scientific research. If this doesn't work.which. It is estimated that these forests contain anything from 50 to 90 per cent of all animals and plant species on Earth. varying by 4-5% annually.. c. whereas interest rates in most developing countries can create 15% or more in returns. to delay tree-felling. Complete the following statements choosing from one of the given alternatives. Sustainable management represents a gigantic experiment. The latest buzz word in the continuing debate about the environment is 'sustainable management' . is. About 50. Sustainable management of trees requires controls on the number of trees which are cut down as well as investment in replacing them. d. The sad fact is that there is no practical solution to protecting vegetation and wildlife of tropical forests in the future. In theory. In one study of a 5km square area of rain forest in Peru. The extent of the damage being inflicted on our environment. It therefore makes little sense. All species depend in some way on one another for survival. unrestricted logging is more profitable than wood from sustainably managed forests which would cost up to 5 times more to control. one experiment! A. scientists counted 1.000 animal and plant species are becoming extinct every year. but ensuring that enough are left alive to guarantee the survival of the species. For most loggers in these countries. It's a case of one planet. Most tropical forests exist in poor countries which depend on logging to make money. (6 x 1 = 6) 1. on the decrease. is being calculated by scientific research exactly. and certainly no economic sense. In the entire USA only 400 species of butterfly and 700 species of bird have been recorded. One solution could be to insist that wood comes from sustainably managed forests. Unfortunately. the principle should be the same as with elephants.that means using plants and animals for our own benefit. If you remove one species from this complex web of interrelationships.300 species of butterfly and 600 species of bird. but is it 2practical in reality? In spite of years of scientific research. for example. What makes things more complicated is the fact that unlike global warming . We know that they are responsible for many problems ranging from global warming to ozone depletion. This sounds good. could be reduced by cutting gas emissions . to cut a number of trees. no-one really knows how much damage human beings are doing to their environment. a..
. we can't move to another planet to escape. if the political will was there. b. i.Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow it. but not so many as to completely destroy the forest.e. In theory. Consumers would not be prepared to pay the extra sum just to protect the environment. we have little idea of the repercussions on the ecosystem in general.preserving biodiversity remains a difficult dilemma. can be estimated by years of scientific research. thanks to years of scientific research.
assuring none are left alive to guarantee the survival of the species. d. hard
d. a. can be resolved politically. devastating a. just like global warming. can be resolved only by cutting gas emissions. The term 'sustainable management' means using plants and animals for our own benefit. deficiency c. especially as regards its feasibility. a. b. emptiness d. reduction b. c. contingency d.. b... It is vital to protect the wildlife of tropical forests. sequence 3. because sustainable management offers a real. we know exactly what effect it will have on our ecosystem. its removal from the ecosystem will have no repercussions. means you can cut as many trees as you want without destroying the forest. c. because scientists couldn't find as many species of butterfly or bird in the Peruvian rainforests. c. grant 5. 3. make certain they are not all used up. d. difficult b. d. If a particular species becomes extinct. consequence c. extreme 6. disastrous d. take care of the survival of the species.. 6. gain d.. inheritance b. intricate
c.(6 x 1 = 6) 1. is less complicated than reducing global warming. c. is a practical and economical way of protecting them. c. acquisition c. returns a. diverse c.. repercussion a. d. dilemma a. purpose b. because there are over 700 species of bird recorded in the whole of the USA. is creating worries and doubts in people's minds.2. dangerous
b. Choose the option that best represents the meaning of the following words as they are sued in the text. hesitation b. making sure that enough are left alive to guarantee the survival of the species. tough
. we have little knowledge about its effects on our ecosystem. predicament 4. B. is exactly the same as that applied to protecting elephants. Applying the theory of sustainable management to the protection of tropical forests. 5. b. fatigue 2. is not simply a political dilemma to be resolved like global warming. it has no relationship with other species in our ecosystem. depletion a. 4. because of the wide variety and quantity of species of wildlife that inhabit them. but. Preserving bio-diversity in our ecosystem... conclusion d. a. d.. a. b. b. complex a. status c. a. practical solution.
and this is essential for plants to make the food which we eat. b. Cosmic rays of various kinds come through the air from outer space. State whether the following statements are true or false. (4 x 1 = 4) a. Human beings are not really responsible for the damage to the environment. d. but the cells of any of his internal organs may be damaged and this will not be easily discovered by the person. Early space probes showed that radiation varies in different parts of space around the Earth.1 rem). but no really effective ones have been found so far. Most of the tropical forests are located in economically backward countries. if they are inside. it varies according to where you live. the ‘Apollo 8’ crew accumulated a total dose of about 200 millirems per man. others are as high as 5 rems per hour. Wood from sustainably managed forests is cheaper than wood from forests where unrestricted logging is permitted.C. the figure of 60 rems has been agreed. but it is impossible to say just how serious the hazard will turn out to be in future. As soon as men leave the atmosphere. Doses of radiation are measured in units called ‘rems’. do prevent a lot of radiation damage. working in a space laboratory or in a base on the moon. Missions to the moon (the Apollo flights) have had to cross the Van Allen belts of high radiation and during the outward and return journeys. Scientists have reason to think that a man can put up with far more radiation than this without being damaged. though the command modules did give reasonable protection. A person may feel perfectly well. Drugs might help to decrease the damage done by radiation. based on various measurements and calculations are as low as 10 rems per year. when great spurts of gas shoot out of the sun (solar flares). At present radiation seems to be the greatest physical hazard to space travellers. Heat too makes our environment tolerable and some ultraviolet rays penetrate the atmosphere. It was hoped that there would not be any large solar flares during the times of Apollo moon walks because the walls of the Lunar Excursion Modules (LEMS) were not thick enough to protect the men inside. Some estimates of the amount of radiation in space. c. We all receive radiation here on Earth from the sun. Radiation is the greatest known danger to explorers in space. (a) Choose the response which best reflects the meaning of the text : (4 1 = 4) (i) Scientists have fixed a safety level of (1) 10 rems per year (2) 60 rems per year (3) 100 millirems per year
. no dangerous doses of radiation have been reported. Tropical forests house less than half of the plant and animal species on Earth. they are exposed to this radiation but their spacesuits or the walls of their spacecraft. It also varies in time because. Light gets through. from cosmic rays and from radioactive minerals. not only because of meteors but also because of rays from the sun and other stars. The trouble is that it is extremely difficult to be sure about radiation damage. The atmosphere again acts as our protective blanket on earth. We simply do not know yet how men are going to get on when they spend weeks and months outside the protection of the atmosphere. The ‘normal’ dose of radiation that we receive each year is about 100 millirems (0. they are accompanied by a lot of extra radiation. So far. but the Gemini orbits and the Apollo 8 missions have been quite short. but enormous quantities of radiation from the sun are screened off. and this is a very rough estimate.
Space is a dangerous place.
(b) Look at the passage and decide whether the following statements are ‘true’ or ‘false’ (8 X 1 = 8) (i) The atmosphere screens off the Earth from excessive radiation. (vii) The greatest physical hazard to space travellers i s remaining for long hours in space.(4) 5 rems per hour (ii) The spacemen were worried about solar flares when they were (1) crossing the Van Allen belts (2) setting up a moon base (3) exploring the surface of the moon (4) waiting in the command module (iii) When men spend long period in space how will they protect themselves? (1) By taking special drugs (2) By wearing special suits (3) By using a protective blanket (4) No solution has been found yet (iv) Which of the following is true? (1) Radiation does not seem to be very harmful (2) Radiation can damage internal organs (3) Drugs may not help to reduce the damage (4) We receive radiation on earth from the moon. (iii) Solar flares are not dangerous. (c) Choose the definition which best fits these words or phrases as they are used in the text : (4 X 1 = 4) (i) Cosmic rays (1) rays from outer space (2) sun beams
. space suits are absolutely necessary for the scientists. (viii) In space travel. (iv) Space is a dangerous place because it is not fully explored. (vi) The drugs that have been found to decrease radiation are ineffective. (v) The ‘Apollo 8’ missions have been quite long in duration. (ii) Everyone on earth i s exposed to exactly the same amount of radiation.
means (1) Scientists are right to think (2) Scientists have evidence to suggest (3) Scientists need to think (4) Scientists are certain (iii) Get on (1) mount (2) walk (3) survive (4) advance (iv) Turn out to be (1) change (2) harm (3) remain (4) prove
.(3) ultraviolet rays (4) rays from spacecraft (ii) ‘Scientists have reason to think’.