University Of Kirkuk

‫جامعة كركوك‬ ‫كلية الهندسة‬ ‫قسم هندسة النفط‬

College Of Engineering
Petroleum Department


cc/gm) F : working angle constant Angle of inclination a (applied to the level) 80° (DIN) 70° 60° 50° Working angle constant F 1.0 0.(mpas) t : travelling time of the ball .952 0.778 ) ………………(1) 2 . (sec) : density of ball (gm/cc) : density of measuring substance ( gm/cc) K : ball factor (mpas.Falling ball viscometer Measuring viscosity of fluids (Kinematic & Dynamic) The dynamic viscosity is calculated according to the following equation ( Where : Dynamic viscosity.879 0.

(mpas.01 g/cm3. for metal balls to 0. the density of the measuring substance is determined to 0.. For glass balls. means of ( The density of the sample can be determined by: • • referring to the material specifications from the manufacturer of the fluid measuring with a densitometer The density of the sample must be determined exactly when the amount ( )becomes small.001 g/cm3.) : density of measuring substance ( gm/cc) The calculation can be carried out without scientific units of measurement if the numerical values are put into the units stated above.(2) Where : Kinematic viscosity . (mm2/sec) : dynamic viscosity . For metal balls. The use of the glass ball requires the determination of the density of the sample to the 3rd decimal position in g/cm3.The density and ball constant are each stated in the test certificate. The kinematic viscosity is determined using dynamic viscosity as the following equation : …………. Consideration for buoyancy of the ball in the sample is accounted for by )in equation (1). the 2nd decimal position is sufficient. 3 .

For liquids with viscosities which vary with flow conditions. Tube viscometers 2. an instrument called a rheometer is used. or the object is stationary and the fluid moves past it. In general. The measuring principle. when connected to a Brookfield 4 . according to Hoppler. either the fluid remains stationary and an object moves through it. Models KF10 comply with the German industry standard DIN 53015. is to determine the falling time of a ball in a cylindrical glass tube filled with liquid. Instruments used to measure the viscosity of liquids can be broadly classified into seven categories: 1. Accurate knowledge of viscosity is necessary for various industrial processes. Various theories that are developed for prediction or estimation of viscosity must be verified using experimental data. The water jacket. Viscometers are used under one flow condition. The drag caused by relative motion of the fluid and a surface is a measure of the viscosity. The measurement of viscosity is of significant importance in both industry and academia. Falling ball viscometers 4. Paddle viscometers 6. Orifice viscometers 5. Rotational viscometers 3. surrounding the falling tube.A viscometer is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid. Imitative viscometers The Falling Ball Viscometer. Oscillating viscometers 7. The working angle of the falling tube in the KF10 is fixed in the DIN 53015 position of 80° relative to horizontal. The flow conditions must have a sufficiently small value of Reynolds number for there to be laminar flow.

The six (6) balls with different diameters and densities enable the KF10 to measure a wide range of viscosities. The working angle of the KF10 Viscometer is fixed at the DIN 53015 position of 80° relative to horizontal. the lower locking plug (17) and accompanying seals (gaskets and washers) (19). Using data on the ball constants. a mathematical equation is used to convert the time measurement to a viscosity value in centpoise. Specific items identified on the Falling Ball Viscometer are identified by parentheses ( ) in the following steps: 1. eliminate the formation of air bubbles 5 . The Falling Ball Viscometer must be level.circulating temperature bath provides for precise temperature control of the sample. Refer to Figure 1. which is mounted in the stand. The two running directions of the balls can be chosen by swivelling the viscometer. keep the liquid sample tightly sealed b. The level is adjusted using the two Leveling Screws (4) on the base. 3. Check level periodically during use. the density difference between the liquid sample and the ball. The upper locking plug (16) with lid (20). The sample tube (6) is surrounded by a water jacket which is fixed between the upper plate (7) and lower plate (8). and is secured by a locking mechanism. The user calculates the dynamic viscosity of the sample by determining the falling time of the ball between the upper and lower ring marks displayed on the falling tube. and the working angle constant. 4. 2. and the caps (18) are designed to perform the following functions within the sample tube: a. Adjust so that the bubble level on top of the Falling Ball Viscometer is centered within the circle.

whereas Ball No. 2 through 4. Mounted on the lower plate are tubes (10) to which the circulating temperature bath tubing is attached. 2 and 3) 5. 6 . 6. The thermometer fastening screw (11) and sealing washer (13) with inserted thermometer is screwed into the screw neck (12) in the upper plate. The thermometer fastening screw should be tightened securely to prevent fluid leakage. 1 will not pass through the ball gage. 7. 2 will pass through. Ball No. The ball gage may also be used to help identify Ball No.c. 1 and Ball No. The primary function of the ball gage is to distinguish the two glass balls (Ball No. avoid a build up of pressure (see Fig. 2) from each other.

7.Figure 1: Falling Ball Viscometer KF10 1. 3. 10. Stand Viscometer Bubble level Leveling screw Adjustment screw for angle (KF20 only)(not available in our experiment) Sample tube Upper plate Lower plate Water jacket Tubes for connection to water bath Fastening screw for thermometer 7 . 5. 11. 6. 9. 8. 2. 4.

15. 13. 22. Screw neck Sealing washer Bearing for viscometer rotation Nuts Upper locking plug Lower locking plug Cap Seal Lid Falling tube screw fitting Stop to hold viscometer in position Figure 2: Sample tube screw fitting (top) 8 . 20. 14.12. 19. 17. 16. 18. 21.

Figure 3: Sample tube screw fitting (bottom) The balls are chosen in such a way that the minimum falling time is not less than what is shown in the table and the maximum falling time is not greater than 300 s. but for practical reasons.60 15. The DIN 53015 indicates that a falling time greater than 300 s is allowed.00 Minimum falling time [s] 60 30 30 30 30 30 Lower measuring range limit [mPas] 0.60 15.00 11.81 15. a shorter test time makes more sense. Ball No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Diameter [mm] 15.20 14. 9 .5 2.5 20 200 1000 5500 Upper measuring range limit [mPas] 10 130 700 7800 45000 70000 The specifications for the ball constant and the ball density are taken from the test certificate which came with the equipment.

Measure the density of fluid . . 4.The exchange of balls or equipment components between different viscometers is not permitted. • 10 . Otherwise. 2. Seal the opening of the viscometer .Use eqts. 8. 1 & 2 to find viscosities . the ball constants lose their validity. Uses a 40 ml of fluid to be measured (viscosity measurement) 3. 9. Repeat step 8 two of three times . Fill the falling tube with selected fluid . When the falling time for the ball is less than the minimum time. 1. • The liquid is filled up to approximately 25 mm beneath the top of the sample tube without air bubbles. 10. Select the preverable angle of infiliction . . and cap. Use a stop watch to measure the time of falling ball . 6. Measure the density of the ball . Use a glass filter to remove any impurities when introducing a liquid into the tube. turbulence may occur. Put the ball into the falling tube. seal. To fill the sample tube: The sample tube is locked on the lower plate with the lower locking plug. 7. 5.

before being inserted into the tube with the forceps. The upper locking plug must not be filled more than half way with the sample in order to minimize pressure build-up due to the air bubbles. are removed with a suitable rod. A dark paper. lt is recommended that you record the passage of the lower ball point using the ring marks as follows. the upper cap is screwed on. With dark liquids. The time which the balls take to run between the top and bottom ring marks in the sample tube is determined with a stop watch (resolution 0. The ball must not be touched after polishing. The lid of the upper locking plug is attached and the temperature control (desired test temperature) must be achieved. air bubbles cannot get into the sample tube. by rotating the ball. the upper cap is loosened (unscrewed) again to let off possible pressure. The sample must be free of air bubbles between the two locking plugs. In so doing.The ball is polished with the leather cloth and fibres are removed with the small cleaning brush. Possible air bubbles in the sample. The ball will travel to the bottom of the tube.01 s). • Before beginning the measurement. Due to the design of the upper locking plug. Position your eyes at the same height as the ring marks so that these appear as a line. After proper temperature control is achieved. you can better observe the ball in the sample tube by looking from behind the instrument. placed behind the viscometer with its edge at the same height as the ring mark. the sample must enter the inside of the upper locking plug through the opening. or trapped below the ball. 11 . • • Insert the upper locking plug with seal into the sample tube. shows the ball periphery more distinctly.

Even 0. air bubbles or the fact that it has not been brought to the right STOP STOPWATCH WHEN BOTTOM OF BALL CROSSES OVER RING MARK temperature (insufficient temperature control). The first forward and return passage of the ball can be used to achieve a thorough mixing (temperature equalization) of the sample before running the viscosity test.Possible variations in the measuring times are may be to impurities in the sample. 12 .1°C change in temperature is clearly measurable.

it increases. Rotational or Capillary Viscometers should be used for better determination of flow behavior. should be used for detailed examination of non-Newtonian materials. For pseudoplasticity. Thixotropy/Rheopexy Thixotropy (rheopexy) is indicated if the travelling times for a ball decreases (increases) when repeated measurements are made on the same volume of sample. the travel time of the ball multiplied by the sine of the working angle for the KF20 will not remain constant. Details about the relative values for pseudoplasticity and dilatancy are related to the diameter of the ball and the working angle. Structural Viscosity (Pseudoplasticity and Dilantancy) Using the KF20 Falling Ball Viscometer at different angles may serve to determine pseudo. the calculated value decreases. More appropriate equipment. If the sample is non-Newtonian.plastic or dilatant behavior for non-Newtonian liquids. for dilatancy. 13 . like rotational viscometes/rheometers. This infers non-Newtonian flow behavior..Non-Newtonian behavior can be determined when different measurement times are recorded with repeated tests.

Oil Viscosity: Technically. Viscosity is also affected by pressure. (This page is taken from many web pages from the internet) 14 . Fluids resist the relative motion of immersed objects through them as well as to the motion of layers with differing velocities within them. Furthermore. Viscosity varies inversely with temperature. the viscosity of the oil is a measure of the resistance to flow between the individual layers. the viscosity of an oil is a measure of the oils resistance to shear. Viscosity is more commonly known as resistance to flow. A high viscosity implies a high resistance to flow while a low viscosity indicates a low resistance to flow. Viscosity also acts internally on the fluid between slower and faster moving adjacent layers. Stokes' law is the basis of the falling sphere viscometer. If a lubricating oil is considered as a series of fluid layers superimposed on each other.Viscosity describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow and may be thought of as a measure of fluid friction. higher pressure causes the viscosity to increase. this resistance acts against the motion of any solid object through the fluid and also against motion of the fluid itself past stationary obstacles. and subsequently the load-carrying capacity of the oil also increases. in which the fluid is stationary in a vertical glass tube.

(This page is written by myself) When the ball is falling in the liquid there is resistance forces which acts on the ball upward this resistance forces are the viscosity but the force of the ball downward is greater than the resistance forces therefore the ball fall downward if the viscosity force is greater than the downward force of the ball then the ball will not fall downward .if we use the steel ball for gas it will fall so fast that we can’t measure the time of falling. We use crystal ball when we measure the viscosity for gas and a steel ball when we measure the viscosity for liquid cause the crystal ball is lighter than the steel ball (the density of the gas is less than the density of the liquid) . the laboratory measurement is not accurate value but may contain some error due to inaccuracies in time measurement therefore it’s necessary to be careful in measuring the time of falling the ball. The viscosity change with changing the temperature as shown in plot below 15 .

htm http://www. the free encyclopedia 16 . The purpose of the outer cylinder is for heating (change the temperature to change the viscosity) From Wikipedia. the speed at which a sphere falls through a viscous fluid is measured by recording the sphere position as a function of time. In this experiment. References series of steel ball bearings of different diameter is normally used in the experiment to improve the accuracy of the calculation.

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