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AaLona Allen October 28, 2008 History 152 Second Examination Chapters 19-24 Part A. 1.

Feminism In quest of more rights, some women began movements promoting what later became known as feminism, a philosophy promoting political, social, and economic equality for women with men. The first feminist movements emerged in Scandinavia and Great Britain, with some women, later known as suffragettes, pressing for the same voting rights as men. 2. Manifest Destiny In the later 1700s American pioneers began moving across the Appalachian Mountains in search of new economic opportunities. As they expanded westward, Americans developed the potent notion of their Manifest Destiny, the conviction that their countrys institutions and culture, which they regarded as unmatched, gave them a Godgiven right to take over the land, by force if necessary. 3. Young Turks In the 1880s a modernizing group known as the Young Turks emerged in the military and the universities. Their goal was to make Turkey a modern nation with a liberal constitution. The Young Turks espoused Turkish nationalism, and hoped to spread the Turkish language into Arab provinces, and unite all Turkish peoples in western and central Asia. Under the faade of parliamentary government, they ruled as autocrats and military modernizers. During World War I the Young Turks embraced a Turkish ethnic identity, secularization, and closer ties to the Western world at the expense of Islamic connections. 4. Meiji Restoration By the 1860s the deteriorating situation in Japan led to a revolution against the Tokugawa shogunate, known as the Meiji Restoration because it was carried out in the name o the emperor, whose reign name was Meiji. The revolution that overthrew the Tokugawa resulted from a conspiracy by regional leaders and younger samurai from the southwestern part of Japan. The anti Tokugawa leaders, united mostly by their hatred of the status quo, had varied goals and perspectives. Some were Westernizes, others extreme nationalists. Among the major changes introduced by the new leaders, Japan joined the world community and agreed to honor all treaties. The imperial residence was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo during this time as well. 5. New Economic Policy (NEP) The New Economic Policy was an economic policy proposed by Vladimir

Lenin to prevent the Russian economy from collapsing. Allowing some private ventures, the NEP allowed small businesses to reopen for private profit while the state continued to control banks, foreign trade, and large industries. Lenin initially favored centralization and nationalization of all economic activity, but he was forced by peasant opposition to adopt the NEP.

AaLona Allen October 29, 2008 History 152 Second Examination Chapters 19-24 Part B. 2. Compare and discuss the development or failure to develop a national state in the Ottoman Empire, United States, Canada, and Japan. In the Modern Era, nationalism fostered unified countries, liberalism encouraged democratic parliamentary governments in various nations, and socialism sparked movements to counteract the power of industrial capitalism and the social dislocations generated by industrialization. Between 1750 and 1914 many societies in Europe and North America formed, or aspired to form, nations, and communities, of people unified by a common language and culture and organized into independent states. Many peoples had a growing sense of belonging to a nation as an imagined community that grew in the minds of people living in the same society. Nationalism provided a cement that bonded all citizens to the state But it I also fostered wars with rival nations. The ideology of nationalism converted older ethnic identities and traditions into political beliefs and solidarity. With its vision of uniting people who shared traditions and a sense of common destiny, nationalism became a popular, explosive force in modern Europe and the Americas, and then in Asia. It particularly appealed to the rising middle classes and intellectuals struggling to gain more political power. They claimed that the nation included, not only monarchs and aristocrats but also all people, regardless of social status, and that the nations people were better than those in other nations. During the

1800s nationalism fostered the emergence of nation-states. After the American Revolution, in which the thirteen colonies successfully overthrew British control, the former colonists turned to building their new nation. The United Sates became and ongoing experiment as Americans learned control, individualism and social obligation, popular representation and special interests, and national uniqueness and world leadership. In erecting a distinctive new system of representative government, Americans faced the daunting task o establishing principles to unite the diverse states and erecting a legal system. Ultimately they forged a new form of democracy and constructed economic framework to preserve independence and encourage free enterprise capitalism. Colonial governments imposed heavy taxes and hard labor on the colonial peoples, who often lived in poverty while their Western counterparts lived in luxury, a state of affairs that was defeated by the Western idea that the colonial peoples could not yet govern themselves. Western capitalism disrupted traditional rural life in many colonies, placing formerly self-sufficient farmers at the mercy of landowners and the world economy, which led to misery, political unrest, and activism during the Great Depression. Nationalism appealed to many frustrated colonial subjects, though many multiethnic colonies struggled o develop a sense of nationhood, and Marxism appealed to many, as an alternative to exploitative capitalism. American leaders were divided over many issues, including the power of a national government and the relative autonomy of the separate states. The Constitution and Bill of Rights, approved in 1787, established a relatively powerful central government, elected by voters in each state, with in a system, known as federalism, that ensured the sovereignty and recognized the lawmaking powers of each member state. Americans ever since independence have had to constantly redefine the balance between the rights of the state and the individual, and of the majority and the minority. Inspired by a liberal hatred of despotic government in Europe, the founders made tyranny difficult through the separation of powers into executive and legislative branches and an independent judiciary, with each institution having defined roles. The indirect election for the presidency through the Electoral College, in which each state chose electors to cast their votes, also reduced popular sovereignty and produced results that did not always reflect the choice of the majority of citizens. Many founders insisted that economic independence was necessary to safeguard political independence and thus favored selfreliance and protectionism. This strategy, they hoped, would be the first step toward fostering an Industrial Revolution like Britains. Americans developed the potent notion of their Manifest Destiny, the

conviction that their countrys institutions and culture, which they regarded as unmatched, gave them a God-given right to take over the land, by force in necessary. Manifest Destiny offered a religious sanction for U.S. nationalism and the thrust outward, and American leaders promoted this view. In 1823 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams set a goal of transforming the US into a nation, coextensive with the North American continent, destined by God and nature to be the most populous and powerful people ever combined under one social compact. In 1867 leaders from Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in the Maritimes negotiated a Canadian Confederation. Under this agreement Canada became a dominion, a country having autonomy but owing allegiance to the British crown. By 1905 Canada included all present provinces except Newfoundland. The Canadian economy and ethnic structure was transformed between the 1860s and 1914. Immigrants from eastern and southern Europe as well as newcomers from China and Japan enriched the ethnic mosaic. Increasingly critical of British imperialism in the world, by 1911 Canadians took control of their own foreign affairs and diplomacy. Over the next several decades Canada fostered increased industrialization and established warmer relations with the US while maintaining the British monarch symbolic head of state. The worlds government changed greatly during the Modern Era, fostering new types of empires and states. A more integrated international order, dominated by a few Western nations and, eventually also by Japan, was built on the foundation of the varied Western and Asian empires that had been the main power centers during the Early Modern Era. Powerful societies had formed empires since ancient times, but over the centuries successive empires grew larger and more complex. In the mid 1700s over two-thirds of the worlds people live in one of several large, multiethnic empires whose economies were based largely on peasant agriculture. In addition to empires but smaller, there were also strong states such as Tokugawa Japan. All empires and states depended on a command of military power. Many of the empires of the mid 1700s had crumbled by the early twentieth century. The Spanish, Portuguese, and British lost most of their territories in the Americas, and the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires were dismantled after World War I. In their place, modern empires had emerged. Between 1870 and 1914, Britain and France enjoyed established overseas empires on a grander scale than ever before in history. On a smaller scale, Germany, Japan, and the United States also forged territorial empires. Like empires throughout history, modern imperial sates, whatever their democratic forms at home, punished dissent in their colonies. Some observers recognized failure of democratic countries to encourage democracy in their own colonies.

Whether pars of empires or not, all over the world societies struggled to become nations, enjoying self-government and a common identity, But Western peoples formed the most powerful nations. Many European nations were formidable forces because of their strong government structures and democratic practices that fostered debate; they also enjoyed economic dynamism possessed advanced weapons, and engaged in fierce rivalries with each other. Americans believed in the tenets of Manifest Destiny. By contrast, few people in the colonies shared any sense of common identity, let alone a national mission; colonial governments were unpopular and usually viewed by the colonized as illegitimate. The ethnic diversity of most colonies inhibited nationalist feeling and thus the formation of nationalist movements. Still, despite the barriers, nationalism spread, often encouraged b travel, exile, or education. Yan Fu perceived how European, became powerful by command military aggression, welldefined national states, growing commerce, and a culture approving of political and religious debate. By 1900 Japan was a role model of nationalism and modernization for many Asians. People in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, had long enjoyed some national feeling based on shared religion, a common language, beaurocratic government, and the perception of one or more common enemies. Hawaiis last monarch, Queen Liliuokalani, pleaded with the United States not to colonize the islands, since her peoples form of government is as dear to them as yours is precious to you. U.S. leaders ignored her pleas and annexed Hawaii. To protect their position, colonizers labored hard to crush these traditions and to counter anti-colonial nationalism through the use of divide-and-rule strategies. Some societies needed major rebellions and revolutions to transform old discredited orders and create new nations. The American and French Revolutions of the later 1700s began an Age of Revolution and inspired people elsewhere to take up arms against unjust or outdated governments. The rebellion by the southern states of the United States against the federal government, which resulted in some 600,000 deaths during the American Civil War, did not succeed. Nonetheless, the struggle reshaped American society by allowing President Abraham Lincoln to abolish slavery and forge a stronger national government. The aftermath of WWI brought new revolutionary upheavals and ideologies. Old states collapsed and Eastern Europe, fascism spread in Germany and Japan in the economic shambles cause the Great Depression. A middle category of countries -- Canada, Japan, and other European nations has a weaker economic base and less military power than those of the richest nations but they still enjoyed economic and political autonomy.

History 152 Second Examination Chapters 19-24 Part B. 3. Explain colonialism in Africa, India, Latin America, and China. Africa In the late nineteenth century, the European imperial powers engaged in a major territorial scramble and occupied most of the continent, creating many colonial nation states, and leaving only two independent nations: Liberia and Ethiopia. Colonial rule by Europeans would continue until after the conclusion of World War II, when all colonial states gradually obtained formal independence. Colonialism had a destabilizing effect on a number of ethnic groups that is still being felt in African politics. Before European influence, national borders were not much of a concern, with Africans generally following the practice of other areas of the world, where a group's territory was congruent with its military or trade influence. The European insistence of drawing borders around territories to isolate them from those of other colonial powers often had the effect of separating otherwise contiguous political groups, or forcing traditional enemies to live side by side with no buffer between them. For example, although the Congo River appears to be a natural geographic boundary, there were groups that otherwise shared a language, culture or other similarity living on both sides. The division of the land between Belgium and France along the river isolated these groups from each other. European interest in African resources accelerated in the late 1800s, when Britain, France, and Germany, Spain, Belgium, and Italy all acquired African colonies, often by intimidating African leaders through warfare or the threat of force. Western companies sought government help to compete with African traders and to pressure states to admit Western merchants. Advances in tropical medicine, especially the use of quinine for malaria, freed Europeans from high tropical mortality rates. The invention of more powerful weapons gave Europeans a huge military advantage over African forces, which were armed only with rifles or spears. When possible, Europeans achieved conquest peacefully by using deceptive treaties, offering bribes, diving up states, and convincing African leaders that resistance was futile.

When faced with resistance, however, Europeans used ruthless force. King Leopold of Belgium took the lead in colonization. Soon other European powers joined the scramble to obtain colonies. In 1884-1885 the colonizing nations held a conference in Berlin to set the ground rules for colonization. For a claim to be recognized, the colonizers had to first give notice to the other Western powers of its intent and then occupy the territory with a military presence. European governments asked African chiefs to sign treaties of friendship in Western languages, but the treaties actually gave the land to European countries. If chiefs refused to sign, they were threatened with war. Europeans achieved domination for several reasons. The colonial scramble came at a time of famine when rains failed, and also when epidemics of smallpox and cholera were killing millions. The military disparity in weapons and tactics also played a role. The British had the Gatling gun, which could fire 3000 rounds per minute, and the Maxim gun, a totally automatic machine gun invented in 884, while rifles were the most effective weapons available to Africans. Finally, after centuries or rivalries and slave wars, Africans could not unite for common defense, and Europeans took advantage of the political instability and rivalries between societies, pitting state against state and ethnic group against ethnic group.

Latin America During the 1500s the Spanish and Portuguese conquered and colonized large areas of what we now call Latin America. Despite the early

Spanish and Portuguese successes in developing their colonies, Latin America eventually fell behind North America in economic development. The contrast between an increasingly stagnant Latin American economy and a vibrant North American economy became dramatic by the 1800s. At the outset, Latin America had many advantages British North America lacked: rich gold and silver mines, abundant fertile land, and a much larger population. By the 1700s Latin Americans, unlike North Americans, had built a half dozen large cities and many fine universities, and the region produced great wealth, although it was inequitably distributed. The failure of Latin America and Caribbean societies to match the economic vigor of North America resulted in part from the rise of single-product, slave-based plantations, which, like mining or ranching, fostered specialized economic production for a world market. The Spanish-Portuguese empire was divided into four administrative units based in Mexico, Columbia, Peru, and Argentina, each supervised by Spanish governors. Corruption ran deep in the colonial system, but the planters, ranchers, mine owners, bureaucrats, and church officials who benefited from Spanish rule or profited from exploiting the economic resources opposed any change. Latin American social conditions did not promote unity or equality. The Spanish ruled their colonies differently than did the British in North America, allowing little self-government maintaining economic monocultures that relied on the export of a single agricultural or mineral resource, and imposing one dominant religion: Roman Catholicism. In contrast to British America,

Latin America, dominated by a rigid Catholic Church wary of dissent, enjoyed little intellectual diversity. Given the political and social inequalities, various revolts punctuated Spanish Colonial rule. The largest revolt in Spanish America was a mass uprising led by Tupac Amaru II. The better-armed Spanish defeated the rebel bands executed Tupac and his family. Portuguese Brazil also experienced dissension. By the late 1700s, Brazil was the wealthiest part of the Portuguese colonial realm.

China and Japan

Before the Industrial Revolution in the mid-to-late nineteenth century, demand for oriental goods remained the driving force behind European imperialism, and (with the important exception of British East India Company rule in India) the European stake in Asia remained confined largely to trading stations and strategic outposts necessary to protect trade. Industrialization, however, dramatically increased European demand for Asian raw materials; and the severe Long Depression of the 1870s provoked a scramble for new markets for European industrial products and financial services in Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and especially in Asia. This scramble coincided with a new era in global colonial expansion known as "the New Imperialism," which saw a shift in focus from trade and indirect rule to formal colonial control of vast overseas territories ruled as political extensions of their mother countries. Between the 1870s and the beginning of the First World War in 1914, the United Kingdom, France, and the Netherlands the established colonial powers in Asia added to their empires vast expanses of territory in the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent, and South East Asia. In the same period, Japan, following the Meiji Restoration; Germany, following the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871; Tsarist Russia; and the United States, following the Spanish-American War in 1898 quickly emerged as new imperial powers in East Asia and in the Pacific. In Asia, the First World War and Second World War were played out as struggles among several key imperial powersconflicts involving the European powers along with Russia and the rising American and Japanese powers. None of the colonial powers, however, possessed the resources to withstand the strains of both world wars and maintain their direct rule in Asia. Although nationalist movements throughout the colonial world led to the political independence of nearly all of the Asia's remaining colonies, decolonization was intercepted by the Cold War; and South East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Asia remained embedded in a world economic, financial, and military system in which the great powers compete to extend their influence. The ability of Qing China to project power into Central Asia came about because of two changes, one social and one technological. The social change was that under the Qing dynasty, from 1642, China came under the control of the Manchus who organizedd their military forces around cavalry which was more suited for power projection than traditional Chinese infantry. The technological change was advances in the cannon and artillery.

India

The 1857 revolt prompted the British to replace the British East India Company government with direct colonial rule. The 1858 Government of India

Act transferred sovereignty to the British monarch. In 1876 Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India, head of government known as the British Raj. The British Raj bore many similarities to the Mughal system it had replaced. British officials mistrusted Indians but, like the Mughals before them, also viewed the traditional princes, both Hindu and Muslim, as sources of support whose positions had to be preserved. The princes were allowed to keep their privileges and palaces in exchange for promoting acceptance of British policies. The British also deliberately pitted the Hindu majority against the Muslim minority by favoring one or the other group in law, language, and custom. Local revenue supported a huge army of 200,000 men, mostly Indian volunteers, who were needed to keep the peace in India and fight British battles abroad. In their efforts to rule, the British also introduced policies at variance with Mughal practice, among them discrimination against Indians. The British typically believed that Western colonialism improved Asia and and African societies. Much like colonized Africans, Indians were excluded from European-only clubs and parks as well as high positions in the bureaucracy, and enjoyed no real power or influence. The Raj continued the Westernization policy of the British East India Company, promoting British and often Christian values through an expanded English-medium education system. English became the common language for educated Indians. Only a privileged minority, mostly drawn from higher casteHindus, could afford to send their children, mostly boys, to the English schools. By 1911 only 11 percent of men and 1 percent of women were literate in any language. Many historians believe that British policies, which were designed to drain India of its wealth to benefit Britain, harmed the Indian economy. British land policies commercialized agriculture while tax and tariff policies diminished the existing manufacturing. British land policies greatly affected the rural economy and peasant life. The land tax system first introduced by the British East India Company in parts of India exploited the peasantry. By turning once self-sufficient peasants into tenants, the British planted the roots of one of contemporary Indias greatest dilemmas, inequitable land distribution. As peasants lost their land rights and came to depend on the whims of landlords, they often fell hopelessly into debt. Required now, like Africa, to pay taxes in cash, peasants had to grow cash crops such as cotton, jute, pepper, or opium rather than food. As a result, famine became more common, killing millions as food supplies and distribution became more uncertain. British policies also affected Indian social patterns, including the caste system. A new marriage act in 1872 provoked controversy by providing for both civil marriage and marriage across caste lines. As Indian nationalists began to unite in their opposition to the British, the Hindu majority formed the Indian National Congress in 1885, but Muslims, who formed the All-India League in 1906, opposed it by some aristocrats who feared losing their privileges and.

HIS 152 Second Examination Chapters 19-24 Part B. 1. Describe and distinguish between the first and second industrial revolutions and explain how they lead to imperialism. The Industrial Revolution was a major force reshaping the economic, political, and social patterns of Europe and later of North America and Japan. People became capable of the rapid, constant, and seemingly limitless increase of goods and services. The transition began in Britain and then spread across the English Channel to western Europe, then across the Atlantic to North America, eventually helping transform the limited European power of 1750 into Western domination over much of the world by 1914. Great Britain benefited more than other countries from these changes, becoming the world's leading trading nation by the 1700s. Profits from the British-controlled Caribbean islands and from several colonies in North America, which produced huge amounts of sugar and tobacco, and from British trading posts in India were particularly crucial in funding the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution introduced an era in which machines produced the goods used by people and increasingly performed more human tasks, reshaping peoples' lives. Instead of making things by hand with the aid of simple tools, workers now used increasingly complicated machines and chemical processes. These machines were moved by energy derived from steam and other inanimate sources rather than human or animal sources. People were also increasingly able to tap the resources of the earth's crust and turn them into commodities. As a result, the Industrial Revolution created great material richness. The Industrial Revolution triggered continual technological innovations and a corresponding increase in economic activity. Inventions in one industry stimulated inventions in another. The steam pump invented by the Englishman Thomas Newcomen in 1712, possibly based on an earlier Chinese model and used mostly for pumping water out of mines, was innovative but inefficient. Seeking a more efficient power sources, James Watt produced the first successful rotary steam engine in 1774. Steam engines provided power not only

for the textile mills but also for the iron furnaces, flourmills, and mines. When used in railroads and steamships, steam power conquered time and space, bringing the world much closer together. The new cotton machines and steam engines required increases supplies of iron, steel, and coal. Mining and metalworking improved in response, creating a need for improved transportation facilities to move the coal and ore. Between 1815 and 1830 anti-industrialization activists in Britain known as Luddites, invaded factories with guns, hatchets, and pikes, destroyed machines in a mass protest against the effects of mechanization. The British government sent in 12,000 troops to stop the destruction and made the wrecking of machines a crime punishable by death. By the mid-1800s Britain produced two-thirds of the world's coal, half the iron, and half the cotton cloth and other manufactured goods. The British invested some of their huge profits in Western Europe, spreading the Industrial Revolution across the English Channel between the 1830s and 1870s. Capitalizing on its reserve of these resources, prosperous trading cities, and a strategic location between France, Holland, and Germany, Belgium industrialized in the early 1800s. By 1850 the Belgians had tripled their coal production and increased the number of team engines for 354 to 2300. Belgium also capitalized on the transportations revolution, building an ambitious railroad system to transport coal, iron, and manufactured goods and connecting it to neighboring countries. By the 1830s France had also begun constructing a national railroad network. In contrast to Britain and Belgium, Gran had to import coal, and, since it had fewer rich merchants than Britain, the government helped fund industrialization activity. In the German states, political fragmentation before 1870 discouraged industrialization, except in several coal-rich regions. By 1914, industrialization was widespread around Europe and had also taken afoot in North America and Japan, and large numbers of people lived in cities and worked in factories. Economic philosophers emerged to praise British style capitalism. The Most influential was the Scottish professor Adam Smith. In his book The Wealth of Nations, Smith helped formulate modern economics theory, known as neoclassical economics. He advocated laissez faire, the restriction of government interference in he marketplace, such as laws regulating business and profits. He championed free trade but also found areas where government regulation might be useful and even essential. Beginning about 1870, what some historians call the Second Industrial Revolution, characterize by technological change, mass production, and specialization, got under way, continuing to 1914. The increasing application of science to industry spurred expansion and improvement in the electrical, chemical, optical and automotive industries and brought new inventions such as electricity grids, radio,

the internal combustion engine, gasoline, and the flush toilet The United States and Germany led in implementing these changes, and by 1900 Germany was Europe's main producer of electrical goods and chemicals. By the early 1900s factory production was often done on the assembly line. The Second Industrial Revolution promoted a shift to a form of capitalism in which grant monopolies, led by tycoons with unprecedented wealth, replaced the more competitive economy of industrial capitalism. The concentration of capital in what became known as "big business" gave a few businessmen and banker, vast economic power and control over many industries. The monopolies emerged because the huge capital investment needed for new factories eliminated many of the small businesses. New industries producing such useful innovations as aluminum and electrical power required heavy capital investment to start. A long depression in the late 1800s undermined competition, encouraging businesses to merge or cooperate and to moderate slumps, which hurt their profits, by fixing prices. The result was economic change that reshaped government policies and generated a drive to colonize more of the world to ensure access to resources and markets. Theorists linked the problem of shrinking continental markets driving European capital overseas, and imperialism to an inequitable distribution of wealth in industrial Europe. They contended that the wages of workers did not represent enough purchasing power to absorb the vast amount of capital accumulated during the Second Industrial Revolution. An accumulation theory suggested that capitalism suffered from underconsumption due to the rise of monopoly capitalism and the resultant concentration of wealth in fewer hands, which apparently gave rise to a misdistribution of purchasing power. Logically, this argument is sound, given the huge impoverished industrial working class - then often far too poor to consume the goods produced by an industrialized economy. The Industrial Revolution reshaped patterns of life in the industrializing countries, affecting both men and women and all social and economic classes. By the 1900s, many changes had occurred: a greater division of labor, growing social problems, most people living in cities, and the replacement of human workers with machines. The cities of western Europe and North America in the 1800s were overcrowded and unhealthy, with high rates of alcoholism, prostitution, and crime/ In the early industrial years city people crowded into festering slums, worked long hours for low wages, and learned new lifestyles. Factories, mines, and cities reshaped European life. Factory workers included highly skilled people who worked fourteen-and sometimes eighteen-hour days in a system of rigid discipline and punishments, including flogging, with no insurance provided in case of accidents, ill health, or old age. Many children worked seven days a

week in mines or factories. Gradually many people, especially in the cities, began to think of themselves as members in a social economic class that had interests of its own in opposition to other classes. The working classes, such as the coal miners and factory workers, were the largest group. The middle classes included business-people, professionals, and prosperous farmers. A salaried labor force, today known as "white collar" workers, emerged to handle sales and paperwork. The rise of the middle class posed a challenge to the legal and social status of the beleaguered aristocrats, who struggled to maintain their dominance over the governments and churches in many countries. Crime increased as the gap between the haves and the have-nots became more apparent.