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Petroleum:

A Man’s Black Goal

Don M. Velasquez

CHEM103A

Professor Lydda Masangcay

Oct. 04, 2008
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Table of Contents

I. Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
II. What is Petroleum?----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1-2
III. History of Petroleum--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2-5
IV. Composition of Petroleum-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5-6
VI. Chemistry of Petroleum----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6-7
VII. Formation of Petroleum---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7-9
a. Crude oil reservoirs----------------------------------------------------------------------------8
b. Non-conventional oil reservoirs-------------------------------------------------------------8-9
c. Abiogenic origin -------------------------------------------------------------------------------9
VIII. Classification of Petroleum---------------------------------------------------------------------------------9-10
IX. Key Ingredients for Petroluem Accumulation------------------------------------------------------------10-18
a. Petroleum Charge Resource----------------------------------------------------------------10-12
a.1. source rocks----------------------------------------------------------10-11
a.2. kerogen ---------------------------------------------------------------11-12
b. Petroleum Charge Resource (continued) ------------------------------------------------12-14
b.1. maturation---------------------------------------------------------12-13
b.2. migration ---------------------------------------------------------13-14
c. Reservoir Rock Resource ------------------------------------------------------------------14-15
c.1. reservoir rocks ---------------------------------------------------14-15
d. Seal Resource ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------16
e. Trap Resource--------------------------------------------------------------------------------16-17
f. Combining the Ingredients Resource------------------------------------------------------17-18
X. Petroleum Industry---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18-20
a. Early History ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------18
b. Development of the Modern Industry-------------------------------------------------------19
c. Late-Twentieth-Century and Early-Twenty-First-Century Developments -----------19-20
XI. Petroleum Exploration ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20-22
a. Extraction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20-21
a.1. locating the oil field-----------------------------------------------20
a.2. oil extraction and recovery (primary recovery) --------------- 20
a.3. oil extraction and recovery (secondary recovery)-------------21
a.4. oil extraction and recovery (tertiary recovery) ---------------- 21
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a.5. recovery rates-------------------------------------------------------21
b. Alternative Methods--------------------------------------------------------------------------21-22
XII. Uses of Petroleum --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22-25
a. Fuel----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24
b. Other Derivatives -----------------------------------------------------------------------------25
XIII. Environmental Effects -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25-27
a. Extraction---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26
b. Oil spills ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26
c. Global Warming -------------------------------------------------------------------------------26
d. Whales ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26 - 27
XIV. Alternatives to Petroleum-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------28-33
a. Alternatives to petroleum-based vehicle fuels-------------------------------------------28-30
b. Alternatives to using oil in industry-------------------------------------------------------30-32
c. Alternatives to burning petroleum for electricity----------------------------------------32-33
XV. Future of Petroleum Production---------------------------------------------------------------------------33-34
a. Hubbert peak theory-------------------------------------------------------------------------33-34
XVI. Petroleum by country --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34-40
a. Consumption rates---------------------------------------------------------------------------34-36
b. Production------------------------------------------------------------------------------------36-37
c. Export-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37
d. Consumption -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
e. Import-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
f. Non-producing consumers--------------------------------------------------------------------39
g. Diagrams-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------39-40
XVII. Writers covering the petroleum industry -------------------------------------------------------------40-42
a. Brian Black-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40
b. Colin J. Campbell-----------------------------------------------------------------------------40
c. Kenneth S. Deffeyes---------------------------------------------------------------------------41
d. Thomas Gold---------------------------------------------------------------------------------41-42
e. David Goodstein-------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
f. Daniel H. Yergin--------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
g. Derrick Jensen---------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
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XVIII. Famous Chemist who Discover Petroleum-----------------------------------------------------------42-45
a. Shen Kuo----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
b. Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Mas'udi------------------------------------42-43
c. Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī---------------------------------------------------43
d. Abraham Pineo Gesner-----------------------------------------------------------------------43
e. Benjamin Silliman-----------------------------------------------------------------------------43
f. James Miller Williams-------------------------------------------------------------------------44
g. Edwin Laurentine Drake----------------------------------------------------------------------44
h. James Young----------------------------------------------------------------------------------44-45
i. George Henry Bissell--------------------------------------------------------------------------45
XIX. Exploring for Oil and Gas----------------------------------------------------------------------------------46-51
a. Detection, Exploration and Evaluation Resource---------------------------------------46-51
a.1. surface detection method------------------------------------------46
a.2. remote sensing method ------------------------------------------- 46
a.3. seismic data interpretations-------------------------------------47-49
a.4. exploration drilling --------------------------------------------- 49-50
a.5. well evaluation---------------------------------------------------50-51
XX. Petroleum Production----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------51-55
a. Appraising the discovery-------------------------------------------------------------------51-52
b. Development options--------------------------------------------------------------------------52
c. Production techniques----------------------------------------------------------------------53-55
d. Getting petroleum ashore---------------------------------------------------------------------55
XXI. Safety and the Environment-------------------------------------------------------------------------------55-58
a. Safety Issues----------------------------------------------------------------------------------55-56
b. Environmental management-----------------------------------------------------------------56
c. Environmental risks-------------------------------------------------------------------------56-57
d. Dealing with environmental issues--------------------------------------------------------57-58
XXII. Oil and Gas Reserves--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------58-63
a. Estimating reserves--------------------------------------------------------------------------58-59
b. Reserves categories and reporting--------------------------------------------------------59-60
c. The Global picture-----------------------------------------------------------------------------60
d. World oil statistics---------------------------------------------------------------------------60-62
e. World gas statistics--------------------------------------------------------------------------62-63
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f. The UK context---------------------------------------------------------------------------------63
XXIII. Non-Conventional Sources of Petroleum-------------------------------------------------------------64-66
a. Oil sands--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------64-65
b. Gas hydrates---------------------------------------------------------------------------------65-66
XXIII. References---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67-69