Outline

Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmission techniques
Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
Instructor: Nguyen Le Hung
Email: nlhung@dut.udn.vn; nnguyenlehung@yahoo.com
Department of Electronics & Telecommunications Engineering
Danang University of Technology, University of Danang
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 1
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
1
Introduction
SDMA and OFDM
Multiuser transmission
2
Precoding
Precoding classification
An example of linear precoding
Power allocation in ZF precoding
Possible research problems
3
Scheduling (user selection)
Exhaustive selection
Greedy selection
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 2
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
SDMA and OFDM
Multiuser transmission
SDMA with OFDM
The integration of multi-antenna and OFDM techniques has
provided remarkable diversity and capacity gains in broadband
wireless communications.
In multiuser (MU) transmissions, the use of multiantenna array at
the base station (BS) enables simultaneous transmission of multiple
data streams to multiple users by exploiting spatial separations
among users.
A
B
S
/
e
N
B

A
M
S
/
U
E

(
a
)

IFFT
SU-MIMO
precoder
A
B
S
/
e
N
B

A
M
S
/
U
E
1

(
b
)

IFFT
MU-MIMO
precoder
A
M
S
/
U
E
2

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 3
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
SDMA and OFDM
Multiuser transmission
A simple example of multiuser (MU) transmission
1 , 1
h
2 , 1
h
M
h
, 1
Base Station
1
s
Modulation
Coded bits
of user 1
2
s
Modulation
Coded bits
of user 2
1 , 2
h
2 , 2
h
M
h
, 2
Antenna 1
Antenna M
De-mod
Channel
estimator
User 2
De-mod
Channel
estimator
User 1
1
y
2
y
j
1
= :
1
1

n=1

1,n
+:
2
1

n=1

1,n
+.
1
, and j
2
= :
2
1

n=1

2,n
+:
1
1

n=1

2,n
+.
2
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 4
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Precoding classification
An example of linear precoding
Power allocation in ZF precoding
Possible research problems
Precoding classification
In the so-called space division multiple access (SDMA), multiuser
diversity is the primary factor that increases significantly the system
sum-rate (throughput).
As a result, an appropriate multiuser encoding technique (at the BS)
is indispensable to attain the considerable sum-rate gain in SDMA.
It is well-known that dirty paper coding (DPC) is an optimal
multiuser encoding strategy that achieves the capacity limit of MU
broadcast (BC) channels but at the cost of extremely high
computation burden as the number of users is large.
Recent studies have introduced several suboptimal multiuser
encoding techniques with lower complexity (relative to DPC) that
can be categorized into:
nonlinear precoding such as: vector perturbation, Tomlinson
Harashima techniques
linear precoding such as: minimum mean squared error (MMSE),
zero-forcing.
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 5
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Precoding classification
An example of linear precoding
Power allocation in ZF precoding
Possible research problems
Multiuser transmission techniques
Broadband communications
LTE (4G) system
Broadband communications
(high data rate and reliability)
Diversity
Time Freq.
Signal
Space
Multi-
user
Space
Multipath channel
Modeling
CSI feedback
Analog Digital
Vector
quantization
g
Quasi-static Time-variant
BEMs AR
LBG
Grassmannian
Random
Scheduling Precoding
Exhaustive
search
Greed or iterative
search
Linear
methods
Non-linear
methods
Codebook-
based ones
MMSE BD DPC THP PU
2
RC
Random
user selection
VP
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 6
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Precoding classification
An example of linear precoding
Power allocation in ZF precoding
Possible research problems
An example of linear precoding
1 , 1
h
2 , 1
h
M
h
, 1
Base Station
Feedback link of
channel state information (CSI)
1
s
X
X
X
1 , 1
w
Modulation
Coded bits
of user 1
2 , 1
w
M
w
, 1
2
s
X
X
X
1 , 2
w
Modulation
Coded bits
of user 2
2 , 2
w
M
w
, 2
1 , 2
h
2 , 2
h
M
h
, 2
Antenna 1
Antenna M
De-mod
Channel
estimator
User 2
De-mod
Channel
estimator
User 1
1
y
2
y
¸
1
= s
1
f

r=1
r
1¸r

1¸r
+s
2
f

r=1
r
2¸r

1¸r
+z
1
¸ and ¸
2
= s
2
f

r=1
r
2¸r

2¸r
+s
1
f

r=1
r
1¸r

2¸r
+z
2
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 7
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Precoding classification
An example of linear precoding
Power allocation in ZF precoding
Possible research problems
Inter-user interference
The received signals at user-n can be determined by
j
u
= :
u
1

n=1
n
u,n

u,n
+:
u

1

n=1
n
u

,n

u,n
+.
u
, n, n

∈ {1, 2},
(1)
where :
u


1
n=1
n
u

,n

u,n
is called as inter-user interference
that would significantly degrade the performance of the system.
Precoding design is to find the weighting coefficients {n
u,n
}
2
u=1
that satisfy the following condition
1

n=1
n
u

,n

u,n
= 0 with n, n

∈ {1, 2} (2)
to eliminate the inter-user interference :

u

1
n=1
n
u

,n

u,n
.
The above technique is called as zero-forcing (ZF) precoding.
The problem of finding the weighting coefficients {n
u,n
}
2
u=1
can be
easily solved by expressing received signals in a vector form.
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 8
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Precoding classification
An example of linear precoding
Power allocation in ZF precoding
Possible research problems
Zero forcing (ZF) precoding formulation
In the presence of two users, the previous equations become
[
j
1
j
2
]
=
[

1,1
. . . ℎ
1,1

2,1
. . . ℎ
2,1
]



n
1,1
n
2,1
.
.
.
.
.
.
n
1,1
n
2,1



[
:
1
:
2
]
+
[
.
1
.
2
]
.
In the presence of l users, the received signal can be expressed by:
y = HWs +z, (3)
where y =



j
1
.
.
.
j




, H =




1,1
. . . ℎ
1,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

,1
. . . ℎ
,



, s =



·
1
.
.
.
·




W =



n
1,1
. . . n
,1
.
.
. . . .
.
.
.
n
1,
. . . n
,



= [w
1
, . . . , w

] with
w

= [n
,1
, . . . , n
,
]

, and z = [.
1
, . . . , .

]

.
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 9
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Precoding classification
An example of linear precoding
Power allocation in ZF precoding
Possible research problems
Zero-forcing precoding formulation (cont.)
To eliminate inter-user interference, precoding matrix W can be
determined by
W = H
J
(
HH
J
)
−1
≜ H

(4)
so that
y = HWs +z = s +z. (5)
With precoding, the received signal can be written by
y = Hx +z, (6)
where x = [r
1
, . . . , r
1
]
T
= Ws are the transmitted signals in a
vector form at ` antennas in the base station.
Under the power constraint of 1
max
at the BS, one has

[
1

n=1
∣r
n

2
]
=
[
∥ x ∥
2
]
≤ 1
max
, (7)
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 10
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Precoding classification
An example of linear precoding
Power allocation in ZF precoding
Possible research problems
Power allocation in ZF precoding
The power constraint (7) is equivalent to
I

u=1
`
u
1
u
≤ 1
max
. (8)
where `
u
=
[
(
HH
J
)
−1
]
u,u
and :
u
=

1
u
:
u
After ZF precoding, the received signals at l users are given by
y =



j
1
.
.
.
j
I



=




1
1
:
1
.
.
.

1
I
:
I



+



.
1
.
.
.
.
I



(9)
Hence, the resultant sum-rate of the multiuser system is
C = max
1
r
:

!
r=1
X
r
1
r
≤1
max
I

u=1
log
2
(1 +1
u
) (bps/Hz) (10)
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 11
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Precoding classification
An example of linear precoding
Power allocation in ZF precoding
Possible research problems
Power allocation in ZF precoding (cont.)
The optimal power allocation [1
u
, n ∈ {1, ..., l}] in (10) can be
easily determined by the following waterfilling process
1
u
= (j,`
u
− 1)
+
(11)
where r
+
denotes max(r, 0), and the water level j is chosen to
satisfy
I

u=1
(j −`
u
)
+
= 1
max
. (12)
Given a set of selected users Ω = {1, ..., l}, the above precoding
process attempts to eliminate the inter-user interference and
maximize the system sum-rate.
The problem of how to perform user selection (finding the set
Ω = {1, ..., l}) with a reasonable complexity for maximizing the
system sum-rate will be addressed in the next section.
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 12
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Precoding classification
An example of linear precoding
Power allocation in ZF precoding
Possible research problems
Precoding in LTE downlink transmissions
Data bits
of user 1
Channel
encoder
Interleaver
Layer
mapper
MQAM
mapper
MQAM
mapper
Precoding
OFDMA
modulator
OFDMA
modulator
Precoding matrix
generator
Recovered data bits Channel decoder
Channel
Estimator
OFDMA
Demodulator
BER evaluator
of user 1
OFDMA
Demodulator
Channel State
Information (CSI)
MIMO
demapper
Limited feedback
link
User 1
Base Station (BS)
Data bits
of user N
Channel
encoder
Interleaver
Layer
mapper
MQAM
mapper
MQAM
mapper
W
X
Y= W*X
BER evaluator
of user N
Multipath fading
channel
User N
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 13
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Exhaustive selection
Greedy selection
Exhaustive selection
Given a precoding technique, scheduling (user selection) is to find a
set of users among all active users to maximize the system sum-rate.
Obviously, the simple optimal method for user selection is exhaustive
search but its complexity is impractically high as the number of users
is large.
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 14
Outline
Introduction
Precoding
Scheduling (user selection)
Exhaustive selection
Greedy selection
Greedy selection
Greedy user selection algorithm
1
Initialization: Θ
0
= {1, 2, ..., ·
I
} is the set of all available users’
indices
Ω
0
= {∅} is the set of selected users initially assigned to a null set.
j = 0 stands for the number of selected users, initially set to zero.
C
0
= 0 is the system sum-rate of selected users, initially set to zero.
2
Repetition: Assuming that selecting user n in the set Θ
q
maximizes the resulting sum-rate of the system called C
max
.
j = j + 1
If C
max
< C
−1
or j .

or j .

go to Step 3 otherwise do:

=
max
Ω

= Ω
−1

{} (select one more user)
Θ

= Θ
−1
∖{} (ignore user- in later consideration)
Go to Step 2.
3
Stop the user selection process and compute the ZF weighting
vectors based on the composite channel matrix of selected users.
Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 15

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful