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# Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmission techniques

Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)

Instructor: Nguyen Le Hung

Email: nlhung@dut.udn.vn; nnguyenlehung@yahoo.com

Department of Electronics & Telecommunications Engineering

Danang University of Technology, University of Danang

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 1

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

1

Introduction

SDMA and OFDM

Multiuser transmission

2

Precoding

Precoding classiﬁcation

An example of linear precoding

Power allocation in ZF precoding

Possible research problems

3

Scheduling (user selection)

Exhaustive selection

Greedy selection

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 2

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

SDMA and OFDM

Multiuser transmission

SDMA with OFDM

The integration of multi-antenna and OFDM techniques has

provided remarkable diversity and capacity gains in broadband

wireless communications.

In multiuser (MU) transmissions, the use of multiantenna array at

the base station (BS) enables simultaneous transmission of multiple

data streams to multiple users by exploiting spatial separations

among users.

A

B

S

/

e

N

B

A

M

S

/

U

E

(

a

)

IFFT

SU-MIMO

precoder

A

B

S

/

e

N

B

A

M

S

/

U

E

1

(

b

)

IFFT

MU-MIMO

precoder

A

M

S

/

U

E

2

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 3

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

SDMA and OFDM

Multiuser transmission

A simple example of multiuser (MU) transmission

1 , 1

h

2 , 1

h

M

h

, 1

Base Station

1

s

Modulation

Coded bits

of user 1

2

s

Modulation

Coded bits

of user 2

1 , 2

h

2 , 2

h

M

h

, 2

Antenna 1

Antenna M

De-mod

Channel

estimator

User 2

De-mod

Channel

estimator

User 1

1

y

2

y

j

1

= :

1

1

∑

n=1

ℎ

1,n

+:

2

1

∑

n=1

ℎ

1,n

+.

1

, and j

2

= :

2

1

∑

n=1

ℎ

2,n

+:

1

1

∑

n=1

ℎ

2,n

+.

2

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 4

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Precoding classiﬁcation

An example of linear precoding

Power allocation in ZF precoding

Possible research problems

Precoding classiﬁcation

In the so-called space division multiple access (SDMA), multiuser

diversity is the primary factor that increases signiﬁcantly the system

sum-rate (throughput).

As a result, an appropriate multiuser encoding technique (at the BS)

is indispensable to attain the considerable sum-rate gain in SDMA.

It is well-known that dirty paper coding (DPC) is an optimal

multiuser encoding strategy that achieves the capacity limit of MU

broadcast (BC) channels but at the cost of extremely high

computation burden as the number of users is large.

Recent studies have introduced several suboptimal multiuser

encoding techniques with lower complexity (relative to DPC) that

can be categorized into:

nonlinear precoding such as: vector perturbation, Tomlinson

Harashima techniques

linear precoding such as: minimum mean squared error (MMSE),

zero-forcing.

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 5

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Precoding classiﬁcation

An example of linear precoding

Power allocation in ZF precoding

Possible research problems

Multiuser transmission techniques

Broadband communications

LTE (4G) system

Broadband communications

(high data rate and reliability)

Diversity

Time Freq.

Signal

Space

Multi-

user

Space

Multipath channel

Modeling

CSI feedback

Analog Digital

Vector

quantization

g

Quasi-static Time-variant

BEMs AR

LBG

Grassmannian

Random

Scheduling Precoding

Exhaustive

search

Greed or iterative

search

Linear

methods

Non-linear

methods

Codebook-

based ones

MMSE BD DPC THP PU

2

RC

Random

user selection

VP

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 6

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Precoding classiﬁcation

An example of linear precoding

Power allocation in ZF precoding

Possible research problems

An example of linear precoding

1 , 1

h

2 , 1

h

M

h

, 1

Base Station

Feedback link of

channel state information (CSI)

1

s

X

X

X

1 , 1

w

Modulation

Coded bits

of user 1

2 , 1

w

M

w

, 1

2

s

X

X

X

1 , 2

w

Modulation

Coded bits

of user 2

2 , 2

w

M

w

, 2

1 , 2

h

2 , 2

h

M

h

, 2

Antenna 1

Antenna M

De-mod

Channel

estimator

User 2

De-mod

Channel

estimator

User 1

1

y

2

y

¸

1

= s

1

f

∑

r=1

r

1¸r

ℎ

1¸r

+s

2

f

∑

r=1

r

2¸r

ℎ

1¸r

+z

1

¸ and ¸

2

= s

2

f

∑

r=1

r

2¸r

ℎ

2¸r

+s

1

f

∑

r=1

r

1¸r

ℎ

2¸r

+z

2

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 7

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Precoding classiﬁcation

An example of linear precoding

Power allocation in ZF precoding

Possible research problems

Inter-user interference

The received signals at user-n can be determined by

j

u

= :

u

1

∑

n=1

n

u,n

ℎ

u,n

+:

u

′

1

∑

n=1

n

u

′

,n

ℎ

u,n

+.

u

, n, n

′

∈ {1, 2},

(1)

where :

u

′

∑

1

n=1

n

u

′

,n

ℎ

u,n

is called as inter-user interference

that would signiﬁcantly degrade the performance of the system.

Precoding design is to ﬁnd the weighting coeﬃcients {n

u,n

}

2

u=1

that satisfy the following condition

1

∑

n=1

n

u

′

,n

ℎ

u,n

= 0 with n, n

′

∈ {1, 2} (2)

to eliminate the inter-user interference :

′

u

∑

1

n=1

n

u

′

,n

ℎ

u,n

.

The above technique is called as zero-forcing (ZF) precoding.

The problem of ﬁnding the weighting coeﬃcients {n

u,n

}

2

u=1

can be

easily solved by expressing received signals in a vector form.

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 8

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Precoding classiﬁcation

An example of linear precoding

Power allocation in ZF precoding

Possible research problems

Zero forcing (ZF) precoding formulation

In the presence of two users, the previous equations become

[

j

1

j

2

]

=

[

ℎ

1,1

. . . ℎ

1,1

ℎ

2,1

. . . ℎ

2,1

]

⎡

⎢

⎣

n

1,1

n

2,1

.

.

.

.

.

.

n

1,1

n

2,1

⎤

⎥

⎦

[

:

1

:

2

]

+

[

.

1

.

2

]

.

In the presence of l users, the received signal can be expressed by:

y = HWs +z, (3)

where y =

⎡

⎢

⎣

j

1

.

.

.

j

⎤

⎥

⎦

, H =

⎡

⎢

⎣

ℎ

1,1

. . . ℎ

1,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

ℎ

,1

. . . ℎ

,

⎤

⎥

⎦

, s =

⎡

⎢

⎣

·

1

.

.

.

·

⎤

⎥

⎦

W =

⎡

⎢

⎣

n

1,1

. . . n

,1

.

.

. . . .

.

.

.

n

1,

. . . n

,

⎤

⎥

⎦

= [w

1

, . . . , w

] with

w

= [n

,1

, . . . , n

,

]

, and z = [.

1

, . . . , .

]

.

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 9

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Precoding classiﬁcation

An example of linear precoding

Power allocation in ZF precoding

Possible research problems

Zero-forcing precoding formulation (cont.)

To eliminate inter-user interference, precoding matrix W can be

determined by

W = H

J

(

HH

J

)

−1

≜ H

†

(4)

so that

y = HWs +z = s +z. (5)

With precoding, the received signal can be written by

y = Hx +z, (6)

where x = [r

1

, . . . , r

1

]

T

= Ws are the transmitted signals in a

vector form at ` antennas in the base station.

Under the power constraint of 1

max

at the BS, one has

[

1

∑

n=1

∣r

n

∣

2

]

=

[

∥ x ∥

2

]

≤ 1

max

, (7)

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 10

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Precoding classiﬁcation

An example of linear precoding

Power allocation in ZF precoding

Possible research problems

Power allocation in ZF precoding

The power constraint (7) is equivalent to

I

∑

u=1

`

u

1

u

≤ 1

max

. (8)

where `

u

=

[

(

HH

J

)

−1

]

u,u

and :

u

=

√

1

u

:

u

After ZF precoding, the received signals at l users are given by

y =

⎡

⎢

⎣

j

1

.

.

.

j

I

⎤

⎥

⎦

=

⎡

⎢

⎣

√

1

1

:

1

.

.

.

√

1

I

:

I

⎤

⎥

⎦

+

⎡

⎢

⎣

.

1

.

.

.

.

I

⎤

⎥

⎦

(9)

Hence, the resultant sum-rate of the multiuser system is

C = max

1

r

:

∑

!

r=1

X

r

1

r

≤1

max

I

∑

u=1

log

2

(1 +1

u

) (bps/Hz) (10)

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 11

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Precoding classiﬁcation

An example of linear precoding

Power allocation in ZF precoding

Possible research problems

Power allocation in ZF precoding (cont.)

The optimal power allocation [1

u

, n ∈ {1, ..., l}] in (10) can be

easily determined by the following waterﬁlling process

1

u

= (j,`

u

− 1)

+

(11)

where r

+

denotes max(r, 0), and the water level j is chosen to

satisfy

I

∑

u=1

(j −`

u

)

+

= 1

max

. (12)

Given a set of selected users Ω = {1, ..., l}, the above precoding

process attempts to eliminate the inter-user interference and

maximize the system sum-rate.

The problem of how to perform user selection (ﬁnding the set

Ω = {1, ..., l}) with a reasonable complexity for maximizing the

system sum-rate will be addressed in the next section.

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 12

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Precoding classiﬁcation

An example of linear precoding

Power allocation in ZF precoding

Possible research problems

Precoding in LTE downlink transmissions

Data bits

of user 1

Channel

encoder

Interleaver

Layer

mapper

MQAM

mapper

MQAM

mapper

Precoding

OFDMA

modulator

OFDMA

modulator

Precoding matrix

generator

Recovered data bits Channel decoder

Channel

Estimator

OFDMA

Demodulator

BER evaluator

of user 1

OFDMA

Demodulator

Channel State

Information (CSI)

MIMO

demapper

Limited feedback

link

User 1

Base Station (BS)

Data bits

of user N

Channel

encoder

Interleaver

Layer

mapper

MQAM

mapper

MQAM

mapper

W

X

Y= W*X

BER evaluator

of user N

Multipath fading

channel

User N

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 13

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Exhaustive selection

Greedy selection

Exhaustive selection

Given a precoding technique, scheduling (user selection) is to ﬁnd a

set of users among all active users to maximize the system sum-rate.

Obviously, the simple optimal method for user selection is exhaustive

search but its complexity is impractically high as the number of users

is large.

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 14

Outline

Introduction

Precoding

Scheduling (user selection)

Exhaustive selection

Greedy selection

Greedy selection

Greedy user selection algorithm

1

Initialization: Θ

0

= {1, 2, ..., ·

I

} is the set of all available users’

indices

Ω

0

= {∅} is the set of selected users initially assigned to a null set.

j = 0 stands for the number of selected users, initially set to zero.

C

0

= 0 is the system sum-rate of selected users, initially set to zero.

2

Repetition: Assuming that selecting user n in the set Θ

q

maximizes the resulting sum-rate of the system called C

max

.

j = j + 1

If C

max

< C

−1

or j .

or j .

go to Step 3 otherwise do:

=

max

Ω

= Ω

−1

∪

{} (select one more user)

Θ

= Θ

−1

∖{} (ignore user- in later consideration)

Go to Step 2.

3

Stop the user selection process and compute the ZF weighting

vectors based on the composite channel matrix of selected users.

Mobile Communications - Chapter 3: Physical-layer transmissions Section 3.6: Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 15