40 views

Uploaded by Boreda Rahul

INFINITE SERIES

- Fundamentals of Mathematical Theory of Emotional Robots
- Quadratic Expressions
- Triangle Congruency Worksheet, geometry revision from GCSE Maths Tutor
- Cat-e Mental Ability Test Paper b
- E-Book 'Worksheets Volume #1 - Algebra' revision from GCSE Maths Tutor
- Sequence and Series Class 11 Maths NCERT Solutions
- Simple and Compound Interest
- Class 10 Mental Ability Competitive Exams Book Good Questions
- High School Mathematics Grade 10-12
- Cat-d Mental Ability Test Paper b
- Mental Ability
- Circles Worksheet, geometry revision from GCSE Maths Tutor
- Introductory Mathematics-Part A
- IIT Class XI Maths Circle
- 7058551 CAT Advanced Material VA RC Reasoning
- Simple and Compound Interest
- KVPY SB+2/SX Stream
- BCA New Syllabus
- NTSE
- Second Course in Calculus

You are on page 1of 9

INFINITE SERIES

A.1.1 Introduction

As discussed in the Chapter 9 on Sequences and Series, a sequence a 1, a2 , ..., an , ... having infinite number of terms is called infinite sequence and its indicated sum, i.e., a1 + a 2 + a3 + ... + an + ... is called an infinte series associated with infinite sequence. This series can also be expressed in abbreviated form using the sigma notation, i.e., a1 + a 2 + a 3 + . . . + an + . . . =

In this Chapter, we shall study about some special types of series which may be required in different problem situations.

In Chapter 8, we discussed the Binomial Theorem in which the index was a positive integer. In this Section, we state a more general form of the theorem in which the index is not necessarily a whole number. It gives us a particular type of infinite series, called Binomial Series. We illustrate few applications, by examples. We know the formula (1 + x) n = n C 0 + n C1 x + . . . +

n

o n

integer or a fraction, then the combinations n Cr do not make any sense. We now state (without proof), the Binomial Theorem, giving an infinite series in which the index is negative or a fraction and not a whole number. Theorem The formula m ( m 1) 1.2 m ( m 1)( m 2 ) 1 .2.3

s T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t

a

k =1 k

d e h

Cn xn

(1 + x )m = 1 + mx +

x2 +

x3 + ...

INFINITE SERIES

413

Remark 1. Note carefully the condition | x | < 1, i.e., 1< x < 1 is necessary when m is negative integer or a fraction. For example, if we take x = 2 and m = 2, we obtain

(1 2 )2 = 1 + ( 2 )(2 ) +

or 1= 1 + 4 + 12 + . . . This is not possible

(2 )(3 )

1.2

( 2 )2 + ...

2. Note that there are infinite number of terms in the expansion of (1+ x) m, when m is a negative integer or a fraction Consider

1.2.3...r We give below certain particular cases of Binomial Theorem, when we assume

o n

1

s T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t

( a + b)

m

b b m = a 1 + = a 1 + a a

d e h

2 b m ( m 1) b m a 1 + m + + ... = a 1.2 a

= a m + ma m1b +

m ( m 1) 1.2

a m 2 b 2 + ...

414

MATHEMA TICS

Solution We have x 1 2

1 2

1 1 3 2 x = 1 + 2 + 2 2 x + ... 1 2 1 .2 2 = 1+

x 3 x2 + + ... 4 32

resulting sequence a , ar, ar2, ..., arn1 is taken as the standard form of G.P., where a is first term and r, the common ratio of G.P. Earlier, we have discussed the formula to find the sum of finite series a + ar + ar2 + ... + arn 1 which is given by Sn = a 1 rn 1 r

In this section, we state the formula to find the sum of infinite geometric series a + ar + ar2 + ... + arn 1 + ... and illustrate the same by examples. Let us consider the G.P. 1, 2 4 , ,... 3 9

Here a = 1, r =

o n

s T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t

( ).

2 . We have 3

n

d e h

2 1 n 3 = 3 1 2 Sn = 2 1 3 3

... (1)

INFINITE SERIES

415

n 2 3

n

1 0.6667

5 0.1316872428

10 0.01734152992

n

20 0.00030072866

2 We observe that as n becomes larger and larger, becomes closer and closer to 3

2 zero. Mathematically, we say that as n becomes sufficiently large, becomes 3

n

2 sufficiently small. In other words, as n , 0 . Consequently, we find that 3 the sum of infinitely many terms is given by S = 3. Thus, for infinite geometric progression a, ar, ar2, ..., if numerical value of common ratio r is less than 1, then a 1 r n 1 r

Sn =

S= a 1 r

o n

(i)

For example

s T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t

n

d e h

a ar n 1 r 1 r

1+

1 1 1 1 + 2 + 3 + ... = =2 1 2 2 2 1 2

(ii) 1

1 1 1 + 2 3 + ... = 2 2 2

1 1 2 = = 1 3 1 1 1+ 2 2

416

MATHEMA TICS

Example 2 Find the sum to infinity of the G.P. ; 5 5 5 , , ,.... 4 16 64 Solution Here a = 5 1 and r = . Also | r | <1 . 4 4

Leonhard Euler (1707 1783), the great Swiss mathematician introduced the number e in his calculus text in 1748. The number e is useful in calculus as in the study of the circle. Consider the following infinite series of numbers

1 1 1 1 + + + + ... ... (1) 1! 2! 3! 4! The sum of the series given in (1) is denoted by the number e Let us estimate the value of the number e. Since every term of the series (1) is positive, it is clear that its sum is also positive. Consider the two sums 1+

1 1 1 1 + + + ... + + ... 3! 4! 5! n! ... (2)

and

o n

Observe that

s T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t

1 1 1 1 + 3 + 4 + .... + n 1 + ... 2 2 2 2 2 ... (3) 1 1 1 1 1 1 = and 2 = , which gives < 2 2 4 3! 2 3! 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 = and 3 = , which gives < 3 2 8 4! 2 4! 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 = and 4 = , which gives < 4 . 2 16 5! 2 5! 120

d e h

INFINITE SERIES

417

Therefore, by analogy, we can say that 1 1 < n 1 , when n > 2 ! 2 n We observe that each term in (2) is less than the corresponding term in (3), Therefore 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ... + < 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + n 1 + ... 2 2 2 n ! 2 3! 4! 5! 1 1 1 + + on both sides of (4), we get, 1! 2! ... (4)

Adding

Left hand side of (5) represents the series (1). Therefore e < 3 and also e > 2 and hence 2 < e < 3. Remark The exponential series involving variable x can be expressed as

o n

Example 3 Find the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of e2x+3 as a series in powers of x. Solution In the exponential series e = 1+

x

s T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + + + ... + + ... n! 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 1 1 1 1 1 1 < 1 + + + 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + n 1 + ... 1! 2! 2 2 2 2 ... (5) 1 1 1 1 1 = 1 + 1 + + 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + n 1 + ... 2 2 2 2 2

1 =1 + 2 = 3

d e h

= 1+

1 2

ex = 1 +

x x2 x3 xn + + +... + + ... 1! 2! 3! n!

x x2 x 3 + + + ... 1! 2! 3!

418

MATHEMA TICS

2 x +3

( 2x + 3) + ( 2x + 3) = 1+

1! 2!

+ ...

( 2 x + 3)

n!

= 2e3 . Thus 2e3 is the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of e2x+3. Alternatively e2 x+3 = e3 . e2x 2 x (2 x) 2 (2 x) 3 e3 1 + + + + ... = 1! 2! 3!

2 x+3

o n

s T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t

n

1 n n 2 n 3 + C1 3n 1 ( 2 x ) +n C 2 3 n 2 ( 2 x ) + ... + ( 2 x) . n!

d e h

n =2

n ( n 1) 3n 2 C 2 3 n 2 2 2 2 = n! n! n =2

= 2

3 n 2 [using n ! = n (n 1) (n 2)!] n =2 ( n 2 )!

3 32 33 = 2 1 + + + + ... 1! 2! 3!

2 3 2 e . = 2 e3 is 2!

Example 4 Find the value of e2 , rounded off to one decimal place. Solution Using the formula of exponential series involving x, we have

ex = 1 + x x2 x3 xn + + + ... + +... 1! 2! 3! n!

INFINITE SERIES

419

= 1+ 2 + 2 +

On the other hand, we have

Thus, e2 lies between 7.355 and 7.4. Therefore, the value of e2, rounded off to one decimal place, is 7.4.

Another very important series is logarithmic series which is also in the form of infinite series. We state the following result without proof and illustrate its application with an example. Theorem If | x | < 1, then

o n

x2 x3 + ... 2 3 The series on the right hand side of the above is called the logarithmic series . log e ( 1 + x) = x

e

Note The expansion of log (1+ x) is valid for x = 1. Substituting x = 1 in the $ expansion of log (1+x), we get

e

s T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t

2 2 2 23 2 4 2 5 2 22 2 3 e2 < 1 + + + + + 1 + + 2 + 3 + ... 6 6 6 1! 2! 3! 4! 5!

2 4 1 1 4 1 2 1 + + + ... = 7 + = 7 + = 7.4 . = 7+ 1 15 3 3 15 1 5 3

d e h

1 1 1 loge 2 = 1 + + ... 2 3 4

420

MATHEMA TICS

log e 1 + px + qx 2 = ( + ) x

2 + 2 2 3 + 3 3 x + x ... 2 3

Here, we have used the facts + = p and = q . We know this from the given roots of the quadratic equation. We have also assumed that both | x | < 1 and | x | < 1.

o n

s T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t

( = log ( 1 + px + qx )

2 e 2 = log e 1 + ( + ) x + x

= log e ( 1 + x ) + log (1 + x )

d e h

- Fundamentals of Mathematical Theory of Emotional RobotsUploaded byAnonymous qCk2ycn
- Quadratic ExpressionsUploaded byRoszelan Majid
- Triangle Congruency Worksheet, geometry revision from GCSE Maths TutorUploaded bygcsemathstutor
- Cat-e Mental Ability Test Paper bUploaded bysapabapjava2012
- E-Book 'Worksheets Volume #1 - Algebra' revision from GCSE Maths TutorUploaded bygcsemathstutor
- Sequence and Series Class 11 Maths NCERT SolutionsUploaded byAshik Meerankutty
- Simple and Compound InterestUploaded bySum Chump
- Class 10 Mental Ability Competitive Exams Book Good QuestionsUploaded byrajeshsaran21
- High School Mathematics Grade 10-12Uploaded byTodd
- Cat-d Mental Ability Test Paper bUploaded bysapabapjava2012
- Mental AbilityUploaded byBala Savvy
- Circles Worksheet, geometry revision from GCSE Maths TutorUploaded bygcsemathstutor
- Introductory Mathematics-Part AUploaded byVlad Chalapco
- IIT Class XI Maths CircleUploaded byArut Selvan
- 7058551 CAT Advanced Material VA RC ReasoningUploaded byVeera Venkata Sairam Chakravartula
- Simple and Compound InterestUploaded byAbhishek Dutta
- KVPY SB+2/SX StreamUploaded byResonance Dlpd
- BCA New SyllabusUploaded bysiddhartha ray
- NTSEUploaded byAnup Jogdand
- Second Course in CalculusUploaded byboopboopmagoop
- Honors CalculusUploaded bycantor2000
- Annual Cash Flow AnalysisUploaded bySalih A. Razag Jr.
- OBJECTIVE MATHEMATICS for IIT-JEE {Mains/Advance}Uploaded byWIN POINT Educations
- Sequences-and-series.pdfUploaded byАльберт Бермудес
- Daniel W. Stroock (auth.)-A Concise Introduction to Analysis-Springer International Publishing (2015).pdfUploaded bymmarriag
- Problem Set 2Uploaded byAaron Phu
- Elan Your Power on a PlateUploaded byalejandro
- HimanshuUploaded byShabd Shashank
- Geometric ProgressionUploaded byvickie_sunnie

- Ltesa Ais Catalogue-VcbUploaded bySharafat Ali
- Amf Panel Spec[1].Uploaded byBoreda Rahul
- New Microsoft Office Word DocumentUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- STAR DELTA connection Diagram and Working principle.docxUploaded byPrasant Kumar
- Panel Busbar Sizing calculations_thomas and RataUploaded bykapil
- L&T MCCB Product catalougeUploaded bykrishna kishore
- IS 694Uploaded byflngoff6419
- Power Capacitors and Reactive Power Management Products CatalogueUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- Ehv Circuit BreakersUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- Details+of+State+Pension+SchemesUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- Technical Guide xEnergyUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- Different Types of Earthing Devices _ Electrical Engineering CenterUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- controlofmachines-054-phpapp01Uploaded byBoreda Rahul
- Design and Development of Autotransformer Motor Starter for Induced Draft Fan (IDF) of Batangas Sugar Central IncUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Relationship Between Current and Voltage in Various System Components _ Electrical Engineering CenterUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- lab54Uploaded byBoreda Rahul
- Exp-72ats.pdfUploaded byOdipiyo Paul
- Questions and Answers About _Motors_ for Electrician's Examinations _ Electrical Engineering CenterUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- Cal 00 e 0004 Rev 1 Electrical Cable SizingUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- Cables Installation Methods _ Electrical Engineering CenterUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- electricaldevices-131106081719-phpapp01Uploaded byBoreda Rahul
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering Sample Resume Www.jwjobs.netUploaded byBoreda Rahul
- Protection & Coordination_Motor ProtectionUploaded byAdelCh
- Chapter H - LV Switch Gear Functions and SelectionUploaded bympetrescu80
- Basics of Motor Control Centers (MCCs)Uploaded byVladislav Milosavljev
- Applicable PDFUploaded bynaval210
- Internal Electrification Work for Cray Technical SpecificationUploaded byDharmendra Shah

- (Dark Triad Man) Ivan Throne - The Nine Laws-Castalia House (2016).pdfUploaded byDornilda Jovino De Almeida Aimbaré De Tucunduvá
- Cinema Sim. Ensayos y ReflexionesUploaded bySarah Stulz
- Galileo Theory IndivisiblesUploaded by622aol
- Hartry H. Field-Science Without Numbers_ a Defense of Nominalism-Oxford University Press (2016)Uploaded byBráulio Rodrigues
- Sacred Geometry-Islamic Art, Lindner, 1-30-14.pdfUploaded byAdelina Telalović
- Thomas Paine - Existance of GodUploaded bysebylopez
- History of Mathematics in IndiaUploaded bypmindramsc
- Deux Exemples d'Utilisation Des Mathématiques en Musique Dans Le Premier Quatorzième Siècle LatinUploaded byCarolina Durán
- levinas 2Uploaded byJen Ny
- 2016febComplex-Analysis-Problems.pdfUploaded bysbfjbsjkbf
- Jack Worsfold-Physics Based Approaches to Systems Management v1.1Uploaded byfreeksqueek
- Harvard 145bUploaded byham.karim
- Who or What is EloahUploaded byشريف السركي
- Calculus Cheat SheetsUploaded byanon-524795
- A Discourse on the Worship of PriapusUploaded byS82BV
- Aristotle on Number Theory - Peter AtkinsonUploaded bypeteatkinson@gmail.com
- A Life Beyond Limits - Free VersionUploaded byPaul Michael Bales
- Encyclopedia of Actuarial Science.pdfUploaded byThiago Silveira
- PlatoUploaded byArnila Jamine Geronimo
- Tabel Bunga Ekonomi TeknikUploaded byTda
- Efros i (1917) the Problem of Space in Jewish Mediaeval PhilosophyUploaded bycze
- Escher EssayUploaded byMadison Calloway
- Some interesting problems in physics and mathematicsUploaded byAmbrose Yim
- Dirac Delta FunctionUploaded bykrishna
- 293ne3gUploaded byHarish Kumar M
- Einstein's matter worldUploaded byluitnoi
- PkljkUploaded byDusan Ljubicic
- Blanco, Ignacio Matte - The Unconscious as Infinite Sets. an Essay in Bi-logic. Karnac Books (1980)Uploaded bypetrescuoanacristina
- Natural and Formal InfinitiesUploaded bygusty76
- Number System (Matriculation)Uploaded bySue Yin