How does Soap Work?

Nearly all compounds fall into one of two categories: hydrophilic ('water-loving ') and hydrophobic ('water-hating'). Waterand anything that will mix with water are hydrophilic. Oil and anything that will mix with oil are hydrophobic. When w ater and oil are mixed they separate. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds just don't mix. The cleansing action of soap is determined by its polar and non-polar structures in conjunction with an application of solubility principles. The long hydrocarb on chain is non-polar and hydrophobic (repelled by water). The "salt" end of the soap molecule is ionic and hydrophilic (water soluble). When grease or oil (non-polar hydrocarbons) are mixed with a soap- water solutio n, the soap molecules work as abridge between polar water molecules and non-pola r oil molecules. Since soap molecules have both properties of non-polar and pola r molecules the soap can act as an emulsifier. An emulsifier is capable of dispe rsing one liquid into another immiscible liquid. This means that while oil (whic h attracts dirt) doesn't naturally mix with water, soap can suspend oil/dirt in such a way that it can be removed. The soap will form micelles (see below) and t rap the fats within the micelle. Since the micelle is soluble in water, it can e asily be washed away.

The soap industry in he Philippines is experciencing phenomenal growthas Filipin os becomemore affluent and health cocious. Filipino are also becoming sophistica ted and discerning when selecting the family bath soap. We are confident that wo nderful oppurtunities abound for companies providing both quality. Soapwerke Inc . , manufacturer of Oleah Blossoms, was organized to provide world class tolling service to soap companies. which has a line that includes three(3) plodders and a roll mill. The lay out represents three and a half refining stages and assure s of execellent soap quality. Features Save time carrying out entry-level research by identifying the size, growth, maj or segments, and leading players in the soap market in Philippines Use the Five Forces analysis to determine the competitive intensity and therefor e attractiveness of the soap market in Philippines Leading company profiles reveal details of key soap market players’ global operati ons and financial performance Add weight to presentations and pitches by understanding the future growth prosp ects of the Philippines soap market with five year forecasts by both value and v olume Macroeconomic indicators provide insight into general trends within the Philippi nes economy Any substance that is made from a mixture of natural oils and fats with an alkal i is considered as soap. Soap is a surface-active agent generally used for washi ng. Washing, because soap is basically ineffective without water. The use of soa p (or any natural soap-cleaning agents) has always been associated with man’s inhe rent instinct to keep his body, his clothes, and various other washable belongin gs clean. Soap making started in the 18th century by boiling a crude mixture of animal fat , lye from wood ash, and salt until it became sticky and hard. Later, manufactur ers added certain chemicals and permissible additives to improve the quality of soap; some as builders, other as whitening agents. Color (water soluble dyes) an

patchouli. 5. shapes and sizes. Some Important Chemical Ingredients (Additives) and their Uses It is important to familiarized ourselves with the common chemical ingredients u sed and their uses. kerosene and ro sin. The finished product should neither bear any objectionabl e odor nor leave objectionable odor on fabrics and dishes after washing them and rinsing thoroughly with hot water. soap products are prepared in various types. It dissolves in water and produces enough suds. It disinfects or kills germs. If you are interested in manufacturing soap products from detergent laundry soap to herbal soap. There are also a prescribed standard size for bar soaps.. flakes. gels or pastes. This guide will introduce you to the basic procedures in making various kinds of soap. with multiples in a single bar or four units in a single bar of 480 gram s. 4. Additives can also be mixed with the soap ingredients. 7. prevents separation or de terioration of ingredients in liquid products . The soft and hard oils can be mixed to make the soap produce more suds and solidify with the right har dness. Even the o rdinary laundry soap is produced now in the form of bars. 3. 2. and permissible additives. sodium carbonate. Basic Ingredient of Soap Fat or oil and alkali taken from lye are the basic ingredients of soap. cakes. dictates the cos t of soap produced. Also. the quantity of these ingredients in making soap. It has a color that is even and does not streak. you should study the technology appropriate to each type.e. citronella and rose are also usually added. i. Sodium silicate – hardening and leavening agent. Fragrances or essential oils fro lemon. a moderate amount of matter insolublein alcohol. “Made in the Philippines”. Some of these addi tives are coco diethanol amide (CDEA). e. Hard fats do not produce many suds. It is also essential that you acquaint yourself with the basic requirements to be met in soap making.g. A good soap does not leave sticky traces on the clothes or on the skin. It gives a pleasant smell. An imal fat from pigs and cows are called hard fats. 8. more app ealing to consumers Today. Qualities of a Good Soap A good soap s biodegradable when it does not contain chemicals that cannot be re verted to their natural elements. 1.. lemon grass. palm and cottonseed are called soft oils. naptha. 1. Coco Diethanol Amide (CDEA) – foam or sud booster 2. 6.d fragrance are also added to make the product. These ingredients give the desired quality and feature of th e soap. The soap should form suds or lather in a cle an moderate hard water (less than 180m ppm CaCO3) when tested. A good soap dissolves easily and remove stains from clothes. Fat serv es as the foundation of the soap and alkali produces the chemical reaction that makes the mixture hard and gives it cleansing ability. It does not damage the fibers of textiles. Neither does it contain chemicals that are har mful to the environment or cause undue destruction to the environment. the packing material of soap should be marked with the following information: o brand name of the product o quantity of individual bars contained o net mass (marked net mass is the average net mass of individual bars at time of packing) o name and address of the manufacturer o country of origin. It gives a clear and sparkling kind of cleanliness. liquids . but this type of fat solidifies and hardens easily. Fat taken from plants like coconut. For example. an ordinary soap should be made from alkali and fa ts and oils (fatty acids). In addition to the requirements prescribed in existing laws and regulations. human skin or any material being cleaned. especially toilet soap. basic size of 120 grams.

wash off immediat ely with cold water. Benzalkonium chloride – disinfectant against bacteria. Molds – Flat wooden boxes or wooden tubs to mold the soap while it cooled and hard ened. cleans withou t leaving residue 16. Tergitol – binder used for powdered detergent 8. Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) – sequestering agent that makes the ingredients float. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) – a chemical that gives cleansing power 5. Though some of the old recipes didn’t say so. when stirring lye water and when pour ing the liquid soap into moulds. because the chemical action heats the cold water to the boiling po int. A glass plate is preferred because it c ooled the liquid faster. A Grater or Grinder – A kitchen grater or a meat grinder is need to make soap flak es for laundry use or to grind soap for some of the later recipes. not in the drain. removes hard water mine rals and this increase the effectiveness of detergents. Although mixing can be do . Triethanol amine (TEA) – emulsifier uesd in facial cleanser 12. For indoor soap-making in smaller q uantities. pots that are granite or porcelain. Sodium phosphate – provides the abrasive strength. it is best to keep small children from the room while soap is being made. Dispose of soap -making wastes carefully outdoors. always add lye to COLD water. It also produces harsh fumes which are harmful if breathed deeply. Carboxyl methy cellulose (CMC) – antiredeposition agent that prevents dirt from settling back into clothes during washing 15. A Plate – Some recipes call for a plate on which to cool a few drops of the liquid from time to lime to test for doneness. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) – cleansing agent. also used to reduce hardness in water 6. Caustic soda (also called sodium hydroxide) – neutralizes or adjust the ac idity of other ingredients 13. for thickening effec t and a cheaper but effective foamer 4. Laid pieces of cloth Over the wood to keep the soap from sticking. Never put lye or fresh soap in aluminum pans. Sodium chloride or table salt – thickening agent. Basic Steps in Soap Making 1. discarded plastic bottles wor k just as well and are much cheaper. Methyl and propyl paraben – anti-microbial preservatives 11. Stand ba ck and avert the head while the lye is dissolving.3. provides viscosity to th e soap 10. A Ladle – If an iron kettle is used a long-handled wooden ladle is needed to stir the soap. The use of a draft vent is re commended. Because of these dangers. Caustic potash (also known as potassium hydroxide) – allows bar soap to ha rden 7. You can buy fancy molds in hobby shops. Use caution when adding lye to cold water. Sodium sulfate – provides proper flow or solubility to soap. If it is spilled on the skin. For indoor soap-making a wooden spoon will do. prevents dirt from settl ing back into clothes during washing 9. fungi and yeasts 14. but for home use. Wash off any lye or green (uncured) soap spilled on furnitu re or counter tops. Sufficient mixing is important in soap making. potash lye and soda lye – even dampened wood ashes – are EXTREMELY c austic and can cause burns if splashed on the skin. Once again – don’t use alum inum. They could cause blindness i f spattered in the eye.covered are the best to use becau se of the corrosive character of some of the recipes’ ingredients. never to hot water. used as foaming stabilizer. Basic Equipments Needed A container – A large iron soap kettle or a common wash boiler is great for making soap in large quantities over an open fire. Glycerine – serves as moisturizer in facial cleaner CAUTION Commercial lye.

Investments in chemical industries registered with the BoI and the Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) have so far amounted to more than US$1 billion since 1997 with the petrochemical sector claiming the bulk with investm ents of over US$935 million. This mainly involved the small-scale and rudimentary product ion involving some chemical processes. THE PHILIPPINE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY TODAY Investment Opportunities Under a liberalized economy with investments open up to 100% foreign equity. 3. A History The origins of the chemical industry in the Philippines can be traced back durin g the 19th century. 2. get mixed with the sodium elements of the alkali and this solidifies the soap. a process which removes the effects of c austic soda. harness. separate a nd become fatty acids. The soap now undergoes the cold process (the simplest technology applied in soap making). The bar soap is sliced and dried to remove moisture. the soap is packed for marketing and selling.involving the mixing of co conut oil with alkali (lye) obtained from leaching wood ashes in small iron pots -. This is called the cooling and soli difying stage. It was not until the early 20th century that more significant and advanced chemi cal activities began to take place. Since the chemical industry is considered a net importer. soap making as a trade -. or 'kamachile'. the Philippine chemical industry has been one of the most heavi ly invested. plastics. Finally. Shortly after. In recent years. This oleochemical industry presents clear opportunities for investments because of strong possibilities for export. the enhancement of natural-based produc ts is expected to lift the industry's position in the global trade. The sliced soap is left to age. The basic soap ingredients (fat or oil and alkali) undergo the process o f saponification. the Philippines has been primed for globalization. 5. detergents. the industry is able to supply various crucial down stream industries like by hand. and soles were already bei ng produced in Meycauayan. During the cold process. Here. adh esives and foundry resins. leather for slippers. there we re already 135 soap establishments in the country. By the time World War II broke out. the use of an electric stainless steel mixing tank makes work faster and gives better results. 6. the BoI's objective is to make it a net exporter with emphasis on special chemicals and natural-based products. In 1911. 4. The soap is left to cool and harden. fat and water are mixed thoroughly to prevent the formation of sediments. the first modern soap factory was b uilt. with only three processors us ing modern methods. With many dow nstream industries relying on chemicals. 7. As early as the 1950s. Although the players in the country are not as big as the producers in Malaysia and Indonesia. Bulacan. followed quickly by others. investment opportunities and . in turn. pharmaceuticals. particularly targeting oleochemicals as a growth sector. Intensive sales and advertising drives develop ed the Philippines market for soap. around 1875. the elements of the fat or oil called esters.started in the country. soaps. Fatty acids. with the leather being tanned through the us e of vegetable oil tannin extract from guamachili tree. Through import substitution.

Chemical firms have adapted to the challenge of a fragmented economy by practici ng effective logistics for reaching. the country's bilateral agreements under the ASEAN Free Trade Area-Comm on Effective Preferential Tariff (AFTA-CEPT) went underway. • Conservative position of banks towards lending due in part to high Non-Performin g Loans (NPL) ratios. technical and through Customs Bonded warehouses tha t cause the government to lose an estimated PhP 575 million a year. plastic resin producers al so petitioned for at least a 15% duty for the purpose of nurturing a strategic p etrochemical industry. A case with respect to this petition is exemplified by the petrochemical manufac turers and downstream plastic processors. there is increasing interest in the production of cocodiesel due to it s potential as a good alternative to diesel. • Increasing cost of doing business in the form of high cost of electricity and la bor. Several industries have petitioned either for a freeze or increased protection for their respective industries. The worldwide economic slowdown also greatly influenced the industry's export performance. It has been argued however that the Philippine chemical industry at this point h as not been competitive enough due to economies of scale of products. The plastic pro cessors have petitioned a lower tariff for plastic resins in an effort to compet e against cheap imported products. Plus. political. Petrochemical manufacturers have also complained that aside from the high volati lity of international process and the low demand for polymers. Globalization. Th e government answered this call to some extent through its policy of pursuing gr eater market access while nurturing local industries which need time to adjust t o become internationally competitive. In 2003. Capacity utilization of new plants dropped from 56% in 1999 to 38% in 2001. liberalization and tariff rationalization The country's chemical firms have responded to the challenges brought by globali zation to utilize new technologies and adopt environment-friendly processes. cocochemicals have been favorably accepted in export markets due to their environment-friendly properties. the country needs to improve basic industries and minimize imports. and providing products and serv ices nationwide. government policy-makers have yet to resolve thi s problem. and • Unofficial trade . and security problems in both local and international front s continue to affect the chemical industry's development.outright. Unofficial trade continues to be one of the major problems as i t directly hurts the chemical industries. Moreover. Plastic resins currently have a tariff of 15% while tariff of finished plastic products stands at 10%. On the other hand. The agreements call for the tariff reduction of 60% of each member country's tariff lines from their present rate to zero. This result to industry-wide price dis tortions. • Weak foreign exchange rate resulting in higher consumer prices. To date. The specifi c factors identified by the key players of the chemical industry are as follows: • Unfair trade practices and tariff distortions.growth potential are worth considering. • Fragmented domestic economy brought about by the archipelagic nature of the coun try. THE INDUSTRY OUTLOOK The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) set a full year GDP growt . To optimiz e growth. the market share of imported resins has increased from 43% in 1999 to 50% in 2001. Overcoming Challenges Economic. delivering.

The sharing of exp eriences and success stories from across the region has brought about growing co nsciousness on the program's features. where about 85% of the w orld's chemicals are manufactured. WHAT IS RESPONSIBLE CARE Responsible Care® (RC or RCARE) is an initiative of the global chemical industry t o work together for continuously improving the health. SPIK officially launched Responsible Care in 1996. In defining the guidelines in regulatory flexibility in the management of chemic als. a decade after it was organized in Canada. It further forecasted that growth would pick up to between 5. Communication refers to properly informing the stakeholders on what the industry does. are open to SPIK members. performance data analyses. In the academe.h target of 4. an Administrative Order recognized Responsible Care along with the ISO 1400 0 series as a government attested program. Responsible Care practitioners in the region are regularly invited to illustrate how the fundamental features of the program are implemented. the RCare outreach program has so far benefited two educational institutions where students taking up technical courses were introduced to RCare .dti. Programs on environmental education and pro motion of health and safety are held as joint projects. The Responsible Care program was introduced in the Philippines in 1996. academe.tradelinephil.2% to 5. and the achievements so far delivered. With respect to accountability. the number of RCare subscriber companies has grown to 4 1. held quarterly.0% for 2004. This recognition gave Responsible Car e the regulatory support needed to boost its membership. Starting with 19 companies that committed to the program in 1996. RESPONSIBLE CARE PHILIPPINES SPIK subscribes to the Responsible Care doctrine and commits the whole organizat ion in promoting.2% and 6. workshops and meetings. Improvement in performance is do ne by identifying and spreading good management practices and extending support between companies and other stakeholders through experience sharing and peer pre for the current export perform ance. it has been promo ting the discipline through a series of advocacy campaigns.2% for 2003. While it is dedicated to improve the industry's performance. EXPORT STATISTICS Please refer to www. monitoring. Since then. and services providers. and supporting its members in the implementation o f the program's initiatives. Responsible Care al so focuses on communication and accountability. gov ernment. challenges faced. are into the Responsible Care discipline. Responsible Care ensures that the ind ustry's requirements to develop credible processes are verified and the Responsi ble Care expectations are met by all industry players. Seminars. representing more that half of SPIK's total membership. allied associations. The Samahan sa Pilipinas ng mga Industriyang Kimika (SPIK) remains confident tha t these forecasts together with a stable demand for goods and services will prov ide a healthy scenario for the continuing survival of the Philippine chemical in dustry. The RCare advocacy led to strengthened ties between SPIK and the government's En vironmental Management Bureau (EMB). safety and environmental performance of chemical products and processes. 46 countries.

there was a low level of activity in the area of pr ocess safety. First. PRODUCT STEWARDSHIP is the code that is design to make HSE (Health. and as a guide to rate the le vel of implementation. The results determined the level of impleme ntation and served as a benchmark for measuring the progress of their implementa tion. CAER Community Awareness and Emergency Response. In July 2003. The first self-assessment exercise focused primarily on the implementation of th e six codes of management practices. refers to communication of o perations. Safety. as evidenced by incr eased activity. and (4) Availability and willingness to entertain verification visits upon request b y the SRCC. There were significant developments in process safety and the improv ements were being communicated to the eternal stakeholders. and manage ment of remaining waste and releases. water and land. Chemical traders an d service providers only implement codes that are significant to their type of o peration. The reason for this i s that not all subscriber companies are manufacturing firms. The assessment revealed that the level of implementation was still at the development stage. Moreover.. Environment) an integral part of the product life cycle. POLLUTION PREVENTION promotes reduction of waste generation and air pollutant emissions by a sound waste management and long-term goals of reducing waste gen erated by facilities and amount of releases into air. This gave deserving students the opportunity to conduct on-the-job training in a chemical firm. from the design to disp osal of chemical products. and periodic review. RCARE PHILIPPINES SITUATION AND FUTURE In late 2002. rather they are performance obj ectives that encourage commitment. The manual serves as easy reference for both the practicing Responsible Care company and SRCC. as follows: (1) commitment to RCare by signing its guiding principle and presenting this to the SPIK Board for acknowledgement. SRCC drafted the Responsible Care manual aimed to standardize the program's implementation procedure. EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND SAFETY was designed to protect and promote employees' s afety at the workplace. . prope r maintenance and operation. innovation. SRCC granted the use of the RCare logo provided that the subscribing comp any followed the criteria. (2) Establishment of a fully functioning HSE committee supported by top manageme nt. In effect. RCare Codes are not implemented simultaneously but on a priority basis with resp ect to the codes most relevant to the company's operation. PROCESS SAFETY safety of facilities based on sound engineering practices. and continuous improvement. the results of the second-assessment exercise indicated notable im provements. SRCC maintains open communication and consultation with both subscribers and interested groups. (3) A self-audit of its HSE program with a clear course of action. this forms part of the over-all encouragement drive including the regular seminars and workshops. Responsible Care's Six Codes of Management Practices The codes do not dictate how a company operates. public concerns and cooperative emergency planning DISTRIBUTION is the code designed to reduce the risk in transporting and sto ring of chemical products. Second.

the SRCC verification team will be institutionalized to keep track of improvements in the programs. the groundwork for sustainable development will have a solid foundation. There is a strong urgency to bui ld its organizational structure in terms of additional manpower and personnel tr aining.FUTURE SRCC plans to have an active partnership with the Department of Health and the D epartment of Labor and Employment to enhance activities in the area of health an d safety. For international stakeholders. Corollary to this is the strengthening of networking activities with o ther external stakeholders through open communication and joint activities. This will boost its capacity to support increasing demand for assisting both external and internal stakeholders. The SRCC believes that by enhancing the ability of the industry to handle chemic als safely and by finding new ways to engage the stakeholders in Responsible Car e. Source: Samahan sa Pilipinas ng mga Industriyang Kimika (SPIK) . Limited operational funding is a persis tent problem and SRCC relies on its resourcefulness to financially support exist ing and future activities.

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