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Presented by Thomas F. Kowalik
Thomas Kowalik © 2004
hand out materials (small group and individual coaching if requested at a later date). participants will more effectively be able to: • • • • • • Analyze the needs and interests of an audience Attract and hold an audience's attention during meetings and presentations Organize a presentation and achieve their objectives Manage stage fright Prepare and use visual aids to enhance presentations Demonstrate improved speaking confidence and effectiveness in front of a group Topics: • • • • • • Qualities of an Effective Speaker Assessing Audience Needs Planning for Effective Communication Managing Stage Fright Using Visual Aids More Effectively Presentation Do’s and Don’ts Methods: Lecture. This session is designed to give participants an introduction to several different aspects of planning. developing. and delivering presentations. Workshop Objectives: Upon completion of this session. Presenter: Thomas Kowalik Thomas Kowalik © 2004 .Enhancing Your Presentation Skills Effective presentation skills are essential to achieving success in today's work environment. this session assists those who would like to improve oral communication skills and gain selfconfidence in their abilities to conduct effective presentations. demonstration. Designed for both experienced and novice presenters.
the AtA-Glance Corporation. strategic planning. he also served as Co-Director of the Center for Commercial Competitiveness at the State University of New York at Binghamton. the New York State Airport Managers Association.Thomas F. AC Technology. leadership. the New York State Association of Volunteers. Dr. In 2003. including numerous North American universities. Penn State University. he received the prestigious Floyd B. Previously. Inc. and workshop leader. the 1991 NUCEA Adelle Robertson Leadership Award and is listed in the 1992-93 Edition of Who's Who in American Education and 1994 Edition of Men of Achievement. Bittner Service Citation from the University Continuing Education Association. The Procter and Gamble Company. Air Force. He received the 1990 Region II National University Continuing Education Association (NUCEA) Professional Continuing Educator Award. national and international recognition by winning Awards of Excellence from the Continuing Education Association of New York State. Author.S. Kowalik Thomas Kowalik is currently Director of Continuing Education and Outreach and former Director of the Winter College for Workforce Development at Binghamton University. Dr. Training for Trainers. Questioning Techniques. course design.. Kowalik has acted as consultant for a number of public and private groups. innovation. Team Problem Solving. Binghamton University's Office of External Affairs. the IBM Corporation. Course Design (using a Systems Approach to Education). Instructional Systems Design. in 1995 he received statewide. CAE-Link Corporation Flight Simulation Division. Inc. and selected topics in Binghamton University's award winning Leadership Skills Development Program. In 1999. Effective Presentations. UnIPEG. For his program development. CTB Systems. he also received the Binghamton University Council and Foundation Award. Communication Techniques. the Walton S. Inchcape Corporation. Strategic Planning. Corning. and the U. Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . of Germany. and Learning Resources Network (LERN). Fisher Leadership Award and in 2003. His experience and skills include research and applications in various aspects of adult education. past President of the University Continuing Education Association and founding member of the Alliance for Manufacturing Competitiveness. Kowalik's current activities include team and group facilitation. and creative problem solving. and conducting seminars on Creative Problem Solving. NUCEA. state and federal agencies. international lecturer.
7. 15. Adapt your presentation to the needs of the participants. 9. 4. Know your subject matter thoroughly. 6. Inform. Carefully choose your method of presentation and visual aid. 5. If you are not clear on the message or information you are sharing. don’t try to impress. Obtain as much information about the audience as possible to tailor the content to the want and needs of the participants. 11. 13. Show enthusiasm as a speaker. 16. 12. it is unrealistic to expect others to learn.Qualities of an Effective Speaker 1. Provide a sufficient amount of factual information for participants. 10. Have a clear idea of the message and its purpose. 14. Be willing to assist after the presentation. Use words that the audience understands. 3. Use your sense of humor. Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . Be interested and interesting in your topic and audience. You as the presenter or sender of the communication are totally responsible for all aspects of communication. Involve the audience. 2. 8. Bring the subject matter as down-to-earth as possible. Show sincerity.
There are many questions that you may use to gain the insights you need to develop a successful presentation of this type.What is their background? 3. and request action.What actions do I expect as a result of this presentation? Complex Analysis More complex analysis may be needed when your purposes for the presentation are to persuade. and your audience. Simple Analysis 1.Who are they? 2.Audience Analysis Introduction The level of the presentation depends on your purpose.Why are they attending the presentation? 5.What do they know about the situation? 4. you may need to ask the following questions. On the less complicated side. The analysis can be a simple matter of asking a few questions or much more complete. ask for support. Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . goals and the purpose of the presentation.
Have I determined why this topic is important to the audience? 6.. Have I considered some of the various different interpretations the receiver might put on my communication? 8. Have I taken the receiver’s interests into consideration. i. Have I clarified my ideas so that I feel comfortable with them? 3.Planning for Effective Communication A Checklist 8 Questions to ask yourself before communicating orally or in writing 1. Do I know what I really want to accomplish? 2. Can I clearly state what it is that I want to communicate and be able to give specific examples of what I mean? 4. Is there a best time or a best physical setting for communicating this particular message to this particular person? Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . Have I already consulted with everyone with whom I should consult? 5. their doing what I want them to do will be clearly in their best interest? 7.e.
Main points and sub points of this section are developed to support the presentation’s objectives. and provide an overview of the schedule. agenda and procedure for the presentation.Presentation Organization. introduce the topic. Development and Design Three Major Components of a Presentation Introduction This section of the presentation is intended to gain participant attention. Explanation This section of the presentation is intended for actual transmission of information. Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . Summary This section of the presentation is intended to review the key points previously covered in the explanation and to end the presentation with a closing statement. show why this particular presentation is important and how it relates to previous or future presentations. state objectives.
Establish eye contact. More detailed and in-depth information 3. III. Don’t memorize. QUESTION: ANSWER: Do you think it is important to ask questions during your presentation? Of course. It is a final opportunity for participants to ask you questions before the close of the presentation.Presentation Organization. Support presentation objectives 2. B. II EXPLANATION (Body) A. C. Visually Supported NOTE: Use notes in your presentation to indicate what kinds of visual aids are to be used and when. Main Points 1. Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . Closing Statement End with a succinct statement. You might want to actually write a question into your presentation outline to remind you to get participants involved. INTRODUCTION A. DO NOT reteach! B. and skills of participants. Development and Design Presentation Outline Format I. SUMMARY A. Questions from Participants NOTE: This is always the last main point of the explanation. Let participants know what your agenda for the presentation is and what types of methods and activities you will be using during this presentation. Review of Main Points Restate your main points. knowledge. B. You might also inform participants how this presentation relates to others they will be receiving in the future and how the information relates to their jobs. Objectives .State the presentation’s objectives Procedure and Tie-in Try to tie this presentation with previous experience. Opening Statement: This is an attention grabber.
Opening Statement: _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ B.PRESENTATION TEMPLATE __________________________________________________________ (Title) I. 3. Objectives: 1. C. Procedure and Tie-in: ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . Introduction (2 min) A. 4. 2.
b. b. Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . 1. a.Presentation Template (cont’d) II Explanation (17 min) A. NOTE: Show visual aid 1 to develop main point A. 2. a. 2. C. c. QUESTION: ANSWER: NOTE: B. 1. 3. NOTE: Show visual aid 3 to support main point C. d. c. Show visual aid 2 to develop main point B.
5. 4. 2. 2. Closing Statement: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Thomas Kowalik © 2004 .Presentation Template (cont’d) D. 3. B. 4. Questions from Participants III Summary (1 min) A. NOTE: QUESTION: ANSWER: 1. Review of Main Points 1. 3. E.
Don’t let extreme nervousness detract from the effectiveness of your presentation. Capp’s How to Communicate Orally. Objectives 1. State the ways to control stage fright according to G. Capp’s How to Communicate Orally and Gray and Braden’s Public Speaking. Capp’s How to Communicate Orally. Gray and Braden’s Public Speaking. As presenters. Today we will talk about the causes. C. INTRODUCTION (2 min) A. signs. 3. Class Procedure and Lesson Tie-in This presentation relates to future workshops on communication techniques and it will be applicable during both your practice presentation sessions and the actual onthe-job presentations. Define stage fright according to G. and Munter’s Guide to Managerial Communication. Development and Design Sample Presentation Outline Stage Fright I. Capp’s How to Communicate Orally. 2. List the common physiological and muscular changes that occur due to stage fright as described in G. State three possible causes of stage fright according to G. you have the responsibility for communicating effectively.Presentation Organization. Opening Statement: Why do people fear speaking before others in a group? Have you ever thought how a presenter shows fear and how they can control it? Fear in front of groups is a normal human behavior and is characterized by individual reactions and various degrees of nervousness. and symptoms of nervousness and the steps you can take to control it while speaking. 4. Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . B.
Contrary to this. Causes of Stage Fright Show visual aid 2 to develop main point B. NOTE: Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . Worry about physical appearance NOTE: Stress the fact that usually the speaker considers himself/herself the object of close scrutiny. Blood pressure increases c. Worry about ability to communicate 2.Presentation Organization. Physiological changes a. 1. Development and Design Stage Fright (continued) II EXPLANATION (17 min) A. Perspiration increases d. Heartbeat accelerates b. It is a normal human reaction when security is threatened. NOTE: Show visual aid 1 to develop main point A. ranging from slight timidity to a severe dread of addressing an audience. Mouth becomes dry C. Common Changes Due to Stage Fright Show transparency 3 to support main point C. Worry about ability to remember what to say 3. NOTE: B. Definition of Stage Fright What is stage fright? QUESTION: ANSWER: It is the condition of fear. the audience (usually) is sympathetic and wants him/her to do well. 1.
think nonjudgmentally. Knees shake b. NOTE: Controlling Stage Fright Show visual aid 5 to support main point D. Some of you may experience none of these.e. Make sure your physical appearance is acceptable. connect with the audience. Try mental relaxation techniques. and try to transform negative energy and adrenaline into positive energy. use a positive self-picture (visualize). 6. Development and Design Stage Fright (continued) 2. 3. 4. relax your voice (vocal warm-up humming). Thomas Kowalik © 2004 .Presentation Organization. progressive relaxation. Muscular changes a. SUMMARY (1 min) A. Experience E. be assured your confidence and performance will improve as you are critiqued and praised by both your peers and your instructors. Practice and make sure you are familiar and comfortable with the material. Definition of stage fright Causes of stage fright Common changes due to stage fright Controlling stage fright Closing Statement: There are as many different reactions to speaking before audiences as there are people. exercise. 3. B.e. breathing exercises 5. During this workshop.. i. and others will experience all of them. Invite feedback from a practice audience before you present an actual presentation. How can you control your nervousness/stage fright? QUESTION: ANSWER: Any of the following reasons are correct: 1. Questions from Participants III. 4. Posture becomes rigid c. think positively. Review of Main Points 1. You fidget uncontrollably D. i. Try physical relaxation techniques.. 2. 2. repeat positive words (affirmations).
85% of all information the listener has stored in the brain has been received visually Visual aids hold attention Time saving (a picture is worth a thousand words) Focal point for audience attention Dramatic effect Simplification (KISS) Professional visuals add credence to your presentation. Selecting visual aids • • • • • • • Session content Size of your audience Desired group dynamics Room size Equipment available Cost and reuse of aid Comfort in using Standard for making visual aids • • • • • Be creative Utilize color. graphics. free hand sketches 4-6 lines and 25 characters per page Can be read easily Computer generated Thomas Kowalik © 2004 .Using Visual Aids More Effectively Why use visual aids? • • • • • • • • Visual information is more easily understood and retained. cartoons.
movements. Check! Plan gestures Play with the pointer. or ceiling when talking or during a pause Give in to the "pain of the pause" Hold back your energy by locking into any one posture or position Assume everybody can hear you. walls. other objects Lose your "cool" Get too involved in a one-on-one DO!! • • • • • • • • • • • • • Maintain your eye contact with various members of your audience Demonstrate an awareness of your audience Relax.Presentation Don’ts and Do’s During the Presentation DON'T!! • • • • • • • • Look at the floor. and posture Move around Raise and lower your voice Use nonverbal gestures Use humor Convey authority and energy Stand to the side of the screen when using visuals Use a pointer when appropriate Know when to stop Thomas Kowalik © 2004 . yet maintain control Smile Watch your position. pens.